Open Access Systematic Review Article

Dipeptidyl Peptidase - 4 Inhibitors - An Overview of the Combination of These Molecules and Hypoglicemic Oral Drugs

Cristina Iancu, Oana Cioancă, Madalina Mocanu, Flavia Burlec, Andreea Corciovă, Nina Filip, Monica Hăncianu, Cornelia Mircea

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 8-14
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i20A35820

The purpose of the current review is to bring up to date some studies and data about the effects of hypoglycemic oral drugs in combination with DPP-4 inhibitors. As the medicine and pharmaceutical industry are revolutionary in type 2 diabetes protocols, scientists made a close research on patients that have combined metformin plus sulfonyurea and metformin plus DPP-4 inhibitors. Statistics showed that sulfonylurea compared to DPP-4 inhibitors, in combination with metformin, increased the risk of severe hypoglycemia, fatal and nonfatal cardiovascular diseases, and mortality. Another important discovery showed that the insulin associated with metformin increased the risk of all-caused mortality, compared with the DPP-4 inhibitors plus metformin.

Open Access Systematic Review Article

The Role of Alpha-1-acid Glycoprotein 2 Protein and the Underlying Orosomucoid 2 Gene in Different Diseases

Khulood Alotaibi, Alaa Mufawwaz, Mona Alharbi, Jehan Alrahimi, Fatemah Basingab, Safiah Alhazmi

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 15-29
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i20A35821

Alpha-1-Acid glycoprotein 2 (AGP2) or orosomucoid 2 (ORM2) is a major plasma protein. AGP2 is a member of the immunocalin family, a lipocalin subfamily expressed mainly in hepatocytes and also in astrocytes and endothelial cells. The detailed physiological role of this protein has not yet been known, but some physiological activates have been related to this protein, including drug binding and immunomodulating effects. As it belongs to the positive acute phase proteins (APP), AGP2 increases during acute phase reactions and under certain pathological conditions such as unspecific inflammatory stimulation. AGP2 play a critical role in many diseases throughout its critical biological pathways. This literature review evaluates and discusses the contribution of AGP2 in different diseases, including several types of cancer, Rheumatoid Arthritis and Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19).

Open Access Short Research Article

A Study on Prescribing Patterns and Assessing the Functional Outcomes in Cerebral Stroke Patients

Pradeep Battula, Nandini Pandey, N. Yamini Sarojini, C. Bhargav Reddy, K. Anil Kumar, R. E. Ugandar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 35-42
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i20A35824

Cardiovascular diseases and Cerebro-vascular diseases account for majority of the burden of NCDs. Stroke is one the major component of these, posing public health challenges. 1 in 6 people suffer with stroke in their life time. The impact of stroke can be short or long term, depending on which part of the brain is affected and how quick it is treated. This hospital based case                       study was undertaken with aim to study the prescribing pattern and the functional outcomes in cerebral stroke. Study was carried out in the Santhiram Medical hospital, Nandyal, Andhra Pradesh, India.

Methodology: Patients visiting the neurology clinic were asked to answer the questionnaire covering functional outcomes by using functional assesment scales to determine the clinical status of the patient; Most of the patient’s data were collected from case sheets. A total of 150 patients were included in the observational study. Data from case sheets were analysed to assess the prescribing pattern and the questionnaires like mRS, SSQOLS, MMSE scales were used to interview the stroke patients to assess the functional outcomes.

Results: Our study presents that there is a minimal Modified Rankin Scale (MRS) score progress in patients. MRS, SSQOL, MMSE scales, which showed improvement in the quality of life and cognition in stroke patients after treatment.

Conclusion: In conclusion, that significant functional gains in rehabilitation process of                         stroke can be attained by combination therapy, lifestyle changes, and better management of risk factors said to possess the major effect on recovery of stroke with improved quality of life and symptoms.

Open Access Original Research Article

Essential Oil Composition and Antibacterial Activity of Juniperus oxycedrus ssp. macrocarpa (S. et Sm.) BalI. Growing in Oum El Bouaghi (Semi- arid area), Algeria

Nora Basa, Hind Djebaili, Meryem Mokrani, Mohamed Mourad Senoussi, Souad Boulehbal, Amar Zellagui

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i20A35818

Leaf essential oils of Juniperus oxycedrus (Cupressaceae) wild grown in the region of Oum El Bouaghi (semi- arid area) in Algeria have been analysed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Fifty seven compounds were identified in the leave oils. The leaf oils were mainly composed of 5-Tetradecen-1-ol, acetate, (Z)-(12.9%) ç-Muurolene (9.1%), α-Cadinol (5.1%) (ñ)-Cadinene (3.9 %) and some other compounds which were only present in minor amounts.

Aims: This study aimed to extracted, identification of essential oils of Leaves of J. oxycedrus L. ssp. macrocarpa (S. et Sm.) BalI. growing in Oum El Bouaghi (semi- arid area), Algeria and evaluation of their antibacterial capacity.

Results: The GC/MS analysis of the Leaves of J. oxycedrus L. (yielded 0, 36 %) permitted the identification of fifty seven components. The composition and percentage of the compounds are listed by their order of retention times. The main constituents of the essential oil were composed of 5-Tetradecen-1-ol, acetate, (Z) - (12.9%) ç-Murolene (9.1%), α-Cadinol (5.1%) (ñ)-Cadinene (3.9 %) and some other compounds were only present in minor amounts. The antimicrobial activity of the essential oils were evaluated by the disc diffusion method and tested against Gram-negative Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus bacteria. Results showed that Staphylococcus aureus was the highly resistant to the essential oil.

Conclusion: The results of analysis of the components Leaves of Juniperus oxycedrus ssp. macrocarpa (S. et Sm.) BalI. growing in Oum El Bouaghi (semi- arid area), Algeria, permitted the identification of fifty seven components. The essential oil showed that the essential oil of juniperus oxycedrus has the potential to act as an antibacterial agent.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Pattern of Occlusal Contact in Lateral Mandibular Jaw Position

Mubeen Arshad, Muhammad Mustafa, Saima Hanif, Aimon Salam, Irum Naz, Fahad Aslam

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 30-34
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i20A35823

Objective: To determine the pattern of occlusal contacts in lateral jaw position of the mandibles in different of molar classification.   

Study Design: Observational study.

Setting: Study carried out at Department of Prosthodontics; Institute of Dentistry, LUMHS, Jamshoro, Pakistan from June 2020 to December 2020.

Materials and Methods: Subjects having normal Angle’s class 1 occlusal alignment, both male and females aged between 20-30 years old and subjects having full dentition with the exception for third molars were included the study. While Subjects with severe attrition problems, Subjects were placed in a dental chair with the Frankfurt level parallel to the floor. The interocclusal contacts were recorded with 12μ thick shim stock in four lateral positions on both sides; 0.5, 1, 2, and 3 mm measured with Vernier caliper from the maximum intercuspation point. The shim stock was placed on the occlusal surface on the right side, and the subject was asked to close his/her mandible in the maximum intercuspation position. While a constant pulling force was maintained on the shim stock, the subject was then asked to perform a habitual gliding movement to the right. When the subject’s mandible was moved 0.5 mm right from the intercuspal position, the presence or absence of an occlusal contact were examined and recorded.

Results: From 81 patients, the minimum age was found 20 years and maximum age was 30 years with mean and standard deviation of the age was 25.40 ± 2.84 years. Males were 44/81 (54.3%) while females were 33/81 (45.7%).  The different lateral positions on right side of tooth of patients at 0.5 mm were 225, 1 mm were 176, 2 mm were 161 and 3 mm were 140. The different lateral positions on left side of tooth of patients at 0.5mm were 197, 1 mm were 171, 2mm were 146 and 3 mm were 123.

Conclusion: In the current study, significant association was found between tooth number and first molar tooth lateral position on right side but there was no significant association for other positions and between tooth numbers and different lateral position on left side.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effects of ACE Inhibitor (Lisinopril) with Folic Acid Supplementation in the Management of Hypertension Associated with Hyperuricemia

Asif Aziz, Sarwat Ashraf, Ali Akber Nangraj, Ali Raza Memon, Madiha Shah, Razia Bano, Salman Shams

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 43-48
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i20A35825

Background: Hypertension is one of the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in all over the world as in developed and under developing countries. Hypertension mostly associated with other clinical chronic disorders like diabetes mellitus, hyperuricemia, dyslipidemia etc. The ACE inhibitors are a kind of antihypertensive drug that is widely using all over the world. ACE inhibitors lowers blood pressure, but also lower uric acid levels as well.

Aims & Objectives: To evaluate the efficacy of ACE inhibitors alone and along with the folic acid on systolic & diastolic blood pressure & on serum uric acid level.

Methodology: This case-control research was carried out at the Medicine Department with the help of the Department of Biochemistry at LUMHS Jamshoro and the PAQSJ Medical Institute in Gambat. A total of 200 mild to moderate hypertension individuals with hyperuricemia were chosen. They were divided into two groups: the control group was taken 10 mg of lisinopril, while the case study group received 10 mg of lisinopril with 0.8 mg of folic acid for 10 to 12 weeks.

Results: The mean value of systolic B.P in control group after treatment was126 ± 4.9 (P<0.05) while in case study group after treatment was 118 ± 6.12 mmHg (P<0.05). Diastolic B.P in control group after treatment was 90 ± 4.76 mmHg while in case study group was 82.3 ± 3.66 mmHg (P<0.05). The serum uric acid level after treatment in control group was 6.7 ± 4.78 mg/dl while in case study group, it was 5.5 ± 5.11 mg/dl (P<0.001). Serum Folic acid levels after the treatment in control group was 12.31 ± 2.89 while in case study group it was 27.09 ± 3.47 nmol/L (P<0.001). 

Conclusion: Folic acid enhances the effectiveness of an ACE inhibitor (lisinopril) and has a substantial influence in the lowering of serum uric acid as therapeutic agent  in the cases of  mild to moderate hypertension associated with hyperuricemia.