Open Access Case Study

Direct Sinus Augmentation Procedure for Rehabilitation of Severely Atrophic Posterior Maxilla with Sticky Bone – A Case Report

Swapnil Shankargouda, Divya Joshi, Sounyala Rayannavar, Mallikarjun H. Doddamani

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 30-37
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i18A35778

Aim: Rehabilitation of atrophic maxilla using sticky bone and simultaneous implant placement.

Presentation of Cases: Sinus augmentation along with simultaneous implant placement prevents the additional surgery. This often benefits both the patient and the dentist. This case report highlights the sinus augmentation procedure for rehabilitation of a severely atrophic posterior maxilla using Sticky bone, a combination of Xenograft and Platelet rich fibrin with simultaneous dental implant placement.

Discussion:  Pneumatization of posterior maxilla often complicates dental implant surgery. Various sinus lift surgical procedures have been developed over the years, to increase residual alveolar ridge height. Implant placement is made easier by enhancing the posterior maxilla by various sinus augmentation procedure

Conclusion: Direct sinus augmentation procedure using sticky bone for rehabilitation of severely atrophic posterior maxilla with simultaneous implant placement provides a reliable and predictable outcome.

Open Access Minireview Article

Capabilities of the T-Scan 10 Novus System in the Diagnosis of Occlusion

Tanya Bozhkova

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 7-19
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i18A35774

The physiological restoration of occlusal relationships is important for the normal functioning of the masticatory system. Currently, qualitative and quantitative occlusal indicators are used in clinical practice for occlusion registration. In the past, articulation paper, foil, silk marks, waxes, etc. were the only tools available to access and balance the bite force. However, these methods do not detect simultaneous contact, nor do they quantify time and force. With the introduction of T-Scan, this changes. The evolution of T-Scan from the 1st generation to the 8th generation (1987-2016) has revolutionized the concept of occlusal analysis. The latest version of the T-Scan Novus system, is software version 10.0 that was released in 2018. The T-Scan Novus system is made up of hardware (handpiece, sensor) and Microsoft Windows-based software. 

Тhe registered occlusion is transformed by a computer into a dynamic film (dynamic occlusion video). Recorded occlusal contacts are then illustrated as 2- and 3-dimensional graphics. The improved features of the software provide detailed digital information about the occlusal relationships, which enhances the quality of their analysis.

T-Scan Novus helps to avoid errors in the subjective judgment of the dentist and to control changes in occlusal contacts.

Open Access Original Research Article

Oral mucosal Cryoglobulin [ICD-10-CM Diagnostic Code D89.9 Cryoglobulin], Oral Mucosal Herd Immunity and the Immune Herd Plots among Periodontal Disease Patients

Ibrahim M. S. Shnawa, Baha H. H. AL-Amedie, Zainab H. AL-Fatlawi

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i18A35773

Forty five patients were diagnosed by specialist dentist of the team as periodontal disease patients. Basically they were found to be chronic periodontitis and chronic gingivitis. The study male and female patient groups [25 males and 20 females] were subjected to the detection of oral mucosal cryoglobulin and tempts to use cryoglobulin as a marker for oral mucosal herd immunity among these patients. Oral mucosal cyoprotein solutions were separated and characterized as oral mucosal cryoglobulin [ICD-10-CM Diagnostic code, D89.9 Cryglobulin]. Mucosal cryocrit percentages were ranged from one to seven percent. Oral mucosal cryoglobulin concentrations were ranged between 0.13 up to 2 mg/dl. In chronic periodontitis patients and 0.15 up to1.96 mg/ chronic gingivitis patients. The individuals Mucosal herd immunity constitutes three basic immune fractions; low, moderate and high cryoglobulin responders. The immune herd plot types were matched as Gaussian distribution plot types. The findings of oral mucosal cryoglobulin among these patients in clinically indicative concentrations for the potential role may be played in the pathogenesis of chronic gingivitis and chronic periodontitis as it may cause precipitates in the local blood vessels of gum and periodotium.

Open Access Original Research Article

Clinical Spectrum of Alcoholic Liver Disease in Subjects Attending Outpatient Department at a Tertiary Care Hospital

Komathi Subramaniam, Penugonda Praval Reddy, Pulluri Saikiran, P. Nageshwara Rao, A. V. Kishore Babu, A. Srinivasa Rao

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 20-29
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i18A35777

Background: Alcoholic liver disease is one of the primary medical complication of chronic ethanol abuse. It encloses a wide spectrum of diseases comprising of fatty liver, alcoholic hepatitis, alcoholic cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma.

Methodology: A prospective, observational study was done at AIG hospitals in the department of hepatology for a period of 6 months. A total of 200 patient’s diagnosed clinically and biochemically with various spectrum of ALD were recruited for the study.Non-invasive prognostic scores were calculated at the time of admission and correlated with severity of disease.

Results: Among 200 study participants, 34.8% belongs to age group of 36-45 years. All were male patients with age group ranged from 25 to 73 years. We observed the high levels of alkaline phosphatese, aspartate aminotransferase/alanine aminotransferase ratio, mean corpuscular volume, total bilirubin and international normalized ratio in Severe Alcoholic hepatitis patients. Non-invasive prognostic markers like child-turcotte-pugh score,model for end stage liver disease-sodium and maddrey’s discriminant factor were assessed for all patients.Prevalence of different stages of ethanol mediated liver disease were-12% of alcoholic fatty liver,17.5% of alcoholic hepatitis,6% of acute on chronic liver failure,32.5% of chronic liver disease,24% of decompensated chronic liver disease,6% of past decompensated chronic liver disease with current living donor liver transplant and 2% cases of hepatocellular carcinoma.

Conclusion: Hazardous ethanol abuse is more typical in adult males especially among productive age group. The subjects were cautioned on their personal basis regarding fallout of alcoholic liver disease, and guided for latency of alcohol not immediately but definitely.

Open Access Original Research Article

Comparative Analysis of Nutritional and Antioxidant Characteristics of Different Pakistani and Exotic Almonds

Muhammad Rizwan, Masood Sadiq Butt, Allah Rakha, Fatma Hussain

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 38-50
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i18A35783

Health boosting potential of almonds is attributed to its antioxidant potential and rich nutritional profile containing a blend of multifarious nutrients and phytochemicals. These traits considerably vary amongst different genotypes and varieties. Hence, current research was planned to explore the basic nutritional composition and antioxidant potential of four different almond genotypes i.e. Patasa & Talwar (Pakistani) and Abdul Wahidi & Katha (Afghani). Amongst, Talwar and Abdul Wahidi showed better nutritional profile followed by Patasa and Katha. Proximate analysis revealed higher quantities of oil in Talwar and Abdul Wahidi i.e. 51.12±0.97 and 50.64±0.86%, respectively. Katha contained higher ash contents. Likewise, Abdul Wahidi and Talwar were also high in fiber content as 13.11±0.39 and 12.45±0.37, correspondingly. Substantial amount of protein was quantified in Abdul Wahidi. Talwar almonds were proved as a good source of potassium and magnesium, 14.02±1.12 mg/g and 3.10±0.24 mg/g, respectively. Likewise, Abdul Wahidi contained higher amount of phosphorous, 9.17±1.10 mg/g. However, Patasa were high in calcium. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) based quantification showed that vitamin-E (α-tocopherol) was highest in Patasa trailed by Abdul Wahidi and Talwar. However, Katha almonds were low in vitamin-E. In vitro analysis exhibited Talwar and Abdul Wahidi with the highest flavonoids contents. Whereas, Patasa and Abdul Wahidi almonds had promising amounts of total phenolics. Antioxidant assays (DPPH and ABTS) explicated better radical scavenging activity by Talwar and Abdul Wahidi almonds whilst Katha almonds showed better performance for FRAP assay.

Open Access Original Research Article

Comparative Evaluation of Antimicrobial Effects of Herbal Extracts Incorporated in Dentifrices among Adults: An In-vitro Study and a Double Blinded Randomized Control Trial

Dheeraj D. Kalra, Varisha Anjum, Tausif Alam, Mojahid Ul Islam, Saundarya Ankat, Kusha Malhotra

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 63-77
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i18A35787

Introduction: A positive correlation has been observed between Streptococcus mutans, Candida albicans and periodontal diseases. Several substances including synthetic chemicals and natural agents have shown promising antimicrobial activity against the S. mutans- C. albicans complex. Extracts of Aloe Vera, Triphala, Tulsi, Pomegranate, and Acacia catechu have established therapeutic effects in medicine. The aim of the study was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity and the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) of five herbal extracts in-vitro and to compare the antibacterial effects of 5 dentifrices containing the herbal extracts and a commercially available dentifrice on the plaque sample counts of S. mutans and C. albicans in-vivo

Methodology: Extracts were obtained using a standardized method. Minimum inhibitory concentration was calculated for the test microorganisms using modified agar-well diffusion and macro broth dilution technique and the inhibition zone diameters were calculated. Dentifrices containing the extracts were formulated and the in vivo antimicrobial activity was evaluated by studying the CFU count from plaque samples of 420 participants. 

Results: Highest antimicrobial activity against S Mutans and C albicans was shown by Acacia catechu and Tulsi respectively and least was by pomegranate. Mean reduction in microbial counts (CFU/ml) by inoculating nutrient broth from baseline to 60 days was highest in Acacia catechu and Triphala for S Mutans and C albicans respectively. All herbal extracts performed better than the commercially available toothpaste.

Conclusion: Dentifrices with herbal extracts of Aloe Vera, Triphala, Tulsi, Pomegranate, and Acacia catechu could serve as an alternative to commercially available dentifrices for treating oral diseases whose causative organisms are S. mutans and C. albicans.

Open Access Review Article

Omega-3 Fatty Acid and its Protective Effect against Cancer and Cancer-related Complication

Chandan Samanta, Souvik Tewari, Debnanda Chakraborty, Shraddha Vaishnav

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 51-62
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i18A35785

Cancer is a broad term for a group of diseases that begin when abnormal cells grow out of control in practically any organ or tissue of the body. A variety of nutrients are included in the diet of people with cancer but omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids are one of the most effective nutrients. Numerous clinical and epidemiological studies have shown that polyunsaturated omega-3 fatty acids play an important role in maintaining the health of people with cancer. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid, by their own antioxidant, antitumour, anticarcinogenic, and neuroprotective properties, help cancer patients to reduce their various physical complications. Fish oil contains omega-3 fatty acids mainly docosahexaenoic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid have antioxidant properties that help to increase antioxidant enzymes and remove the reactive oxygen species from cancer patient’s body and also reduce the oxidative stress. Now, omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid is considered as pharmaconutrient. As a pharmaconutrient, omega-3 fatty acid reduces the inflammatory response of cancer patients. The cyclooxygenase-2 expression is suppressed by the omega-3 fatty acid and reduce the growth of tumour cell. Mental wellness is a significant lifestyle aspect that the cancer patient cannot maintain. As a result, they are suffering from major depression. Omega-3 fatty acids exhibit neuroprotective activity against various brain diseases. This review summarizes that the omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids have an antioxidant and anticarcinogenic function that can inhibit the cancer cell growth and maintain the health status and lifestyle behaviour of the cancer patients.