Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Initial Antibiotic Therapy in Patients with Blunt Abdominal Trauma

Disha R. Joshi, V. V. Kanase, Akash Katkar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i17A35746

Background: Practising the use of antibiotics in emergency surgeries drastically reduces the incidence of post-operative systemic and surgical site infections. There are very few articles about the details of use of antibiotics in abdominal trauma. We studied the effect of preliminary drugs therapy against bacteria in patients with abdominal trauma.

Methods: From Ma    y 2020 to May 2021, we looked back and surveyed the medical files of patients with abdominal trauma in our institution, Krishna institute of medical sciences deemed to be university, Karad. Blunt and piercing abdominal injuries were included in our study

Results: Data of the 432 patients were accumulated. Antibiotic was initiated in 96.4% of penetrating injury and 79.7% with blunt injury. Initial antibiotics therapy was provided to 78.2% of patients with solid organ injury and 97.5% with hollow viscus injury. On an average of 6 days, antibiotics were given in solid organ injuries, 6.2 days in hollow viscus. Infection within 2 weeks of admission occurred in 50 cases. Infection linked severity of injury, surgery performed and blood transfused. Time for which the antibiotic was given did not affect the rate of infection.

Conclusion: It was inferred that the antibiotics were used in massive numbers (84.2%) and for prolonged time (6.2 days) in these patients in Karad.

Open Access Original Research Article

Phytochemical Profiling and Pharmacognostic Evaluation of Oldenlandia corymbosa and Ocimum sanctum Leaves Hydroalcoholic Extracts: Comparative Study

Shaktijit Das, Pranabesh Ghosh, Chandreyi Ghosh, Moumita Saha, Alok K. Hazra, Sirshendu Chatterje

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 8-25
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i17A35747

Herbs are an important source of bioactive substances. These are widely used to treat several disorders for better function in the human body, minimum toxic effects, and widespread availability. A total of two medicinal herbs from West Bengal, India, such as Oldenlandia corymbosa (Diamond flower) and Ocimum sanctum (Holy basil), are being considered for inclusion in the current study. Hydroalcoholic extracts (70% ethanolic) of the two plants' leaves were analyzed to detect and quantify important phytochemical substances and investigate in vitro antioxidant and pharmacological effects. Spectrophotometric and HPLC-DAD techniques were used for the quantitative estimation of different phytochemicals. In addition, in vitro antimicrobial properties were studied using the Kirby-Bauer paper disc diffusion method. Several assays have been performed on the medicinal plant Oldenlandia corymbosa (OC). The results have been compared to those obtained from a traditional medical plant, Ocimum sanctum (OS) for the first time to our knowledge. Results showed that OS contains a higher quantity of polyphenols, flavonoids, and has higher antioxidant potential with respect to OC. Similar trends were observed for polysaccharides contents. In contrast, OC contains a higher quantity of tannins, alkaloids, and protein and higher in vitro antibacterial and anti-diabetic properties. HPLC-DAD-based profiling of eight important phenolic constituents viz. Gallic acid, catechin hydrate, chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, syringic acid, p-coumaric acid, sinapic acid, coumarin, quercetin, and kaempferol, were performed. The current study concluded that Oldenlandia corymbosa has many bioactive phenolics in considerable amounts compared to the highly established medicinal herb OS leaves extracts. The current study demonstrates the pharmacological significance of Oldenlandia corymbosa that may generate enthusiasm among researchers and those working in the pharmaceutical industry.

Open Access Original Research Article

Comparing Spot Urine Protein: Creatinine Ratio 24-Hour Urinary Protein Estimation in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients

Shafaq Nazia, Farazul Haque Shaikh, Nasrullah Ameer, Anwar Hussain Abbasi, Atiya Razzaq, Maryam Ahsan, Anum Atique

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 26-32
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i17A35760

Background & Objective: A simple blood test (urea and creatinine) and a urine test may indicate renal function deterioration and presence of microalbuminuria, which is also the first clinical signs of renal dysfunction in patients with diabetes mellitus. This cost effective test easy to perform even in the absence of advance facilities in a hospital. That is why we planned to conducted this study to assess the comparison between of spot urine protein:creatinine ratio with 24-hour urinary protein in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

Materials and Methods: This prospective hospital based clinical study was conducted in the Department of General Medicine, Liaquat University of Medical & Health Sciences, Jamshoro, over a period of six months from 10th May 2018 to 9th November 2019 through a consecutive sampling technique. All the patients having age more than 18 years of both gender, and type 2 diabetes mellitus were enrolled in this study. Three cc blood was taken to determine the serum creatinine levels and twenty-four hour 2ml urine sample was also collected to determine the urinary protein levels. The proteinuria ≥300mg/dl in 24-hour urine sample was considered as significant proteinuria. Kappa statistics was used to find agreement between spot urine protein and 24 hours urinary protein.

Results: A total 95 patients were evaluated and their mean age was 41.91±14.29 years, with male predominance (n = 66, 69.4%). Average 24 hour urinary protein was 1216.99±949.51mg and spot-urine evaluation of protein was 1919.12±2129.25mg. The agreement between spot urinary protein creatinine ratio and 24 hour urinary protein was found in 82.1% of cases through Kappa statistics and the calculated agreement between the two procedures was 0.975 which provides sufficient agreement to use spot urine protein:creatinine ratio in routine diagnosis of proteinuria.

Conclusion: The study have shown that the protein:creatinine ratio for a random urine sample might be used to rule out the presence of significant proteinuria as defined by a quantitative measure of the 24-hour urine protein excretion.

Open Access Original Research Article

Trans-fistula Anorectoplasty (TFARP) in the Management of Anorectal Malformation (ARM) with Recto Vestibular Fistula (RVF) in Females: A Retrospective Study

Mumtaz Ahmed Qureshi, . Sumaira, Iqra Rafique Khokhar, Iqra Aslam, Sobia Larik, Muhammad Nadeem Chohan

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 33-37
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i17A35763

Aim: To determine the outcome of trans-fistula anorectoplasty (TFARP) in female children having anorectal malformation with recto-vestibular fistula.

Study Design: A retrospective study.

Place and Duration: Department of pediatric surgery during the period of February 2018 to February 2020.

Methodology: A total of 87 female children who have imperforate anus with recto-vestibular fistula from the age of 3 months to 6 years were included in this study. Initially, we have started this technique with the covering sigmoid colostomy, then TFARP after 12 weeks interval & once new anus healed and hegar dilatation achieved then sigmoid colostomy closed after 24 weeks of the first procedure. When we were experienced then we start TFARP as a single-stage procedure. Post-operative data regarding early complications of local wound infections, prolapse of the rectal mucosa, and late complications for anal stenosis, rectal prolapse, and scarring in the perineal body were collected up to 2-3 months respectively.

Results: A total of 87 patients were included in this study. The average operative time was 40 minutes. The total days of hospital stay were 3 to 5 days. Regarding early complications, skin excoriation was present in 21 (24%) followed by vaginal tear in 17 (19%) cases. Mucosal prolapse was a late complication observed in 17 (20%) cases. Continence was good (Score 0) in 33 (38%) cases, while it was fair (score 1) in 36 (41%) cases.

Conclusion: Primary repair of recto-vestibular fistula by Trans-fistula anorectoplasty in children is a feasible procedure that has a good cosmetic appearance and anal continence. Single-stage reconstruction is possible in children with satisfactory results. It produces less morbidity and is a more efficient procedure.

Open Access Original Research Article

Knowledge of Parents Regarding Polio Vaccination in Unvaccinated Children Less than 5 Years of Age: A Cross-sectional Study

Sobia Larik, Saifullah Jamro, Abdul Rehman Shaikh, Iqra Rafique Khokhar, Raheel Ahmed Shaikh, Muhammad Nadeem Chohan

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 47-51
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i17A35765

Aim: The purpose of this study was to determine the knowledge of parents regarding polio vaccination in unvaccinated children less than 5 years of age.

Study Design: Cross-sectional study.

Place and Duration: Department of Pediatrics, Shaheed Mohtarma Benazir Bhutto Medical University, Larkana Pakistan from February 2018 till August 2018

Methodology:  All parents of unvaccinated children of either gender with ages from 2 months to less than 5 years of age visiting the hospital outpatient department for any reason were included in the study. Information about the OPV immunization status, demographics, education of the family earner, occupation and income, accessibility of vaccination center in terms of distance, the behavior of immunization staff, parents' views regarding vaccines were recorded. Questions were asked about the vaccination schedule.

Results: Mean age of the child and respondent’s age was 2.96 ±0.89 years and 31.40 ±3.96 years respectively. Male preponderance was found to be higher 146 (63.50%). Adequate knowledge about polio was found in 58 (25.20%) parents.

Conclusion: The Knowledge of parents regarding polio vaccination was found unsatisfactory in unvaccinated children less than 5 years of age.

Open Access Review Article

The Impact of Bariatric Surgery on the Pharmacokinetic Behaviors of Orally Administered Drugs

Ahmed Ahmed, Ali S. Heyam, Gamal O. Elhassan, Hifny Abdelhameed, Sari T. S. Alhoufie, Saad S. Alqahtani, Khalid O. Alfarouk

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 38-46
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i17A35764

Bariatric surgery is considered an appropriate method in cases of obesity, such as severe or comorbidities obesity. However, the number of patients requiring bariatric surgery is growing  constantly and rapidly. Opposing that, the anatomical modifications of the gastrointestinal tract often lead to a significant alteration in the pharmacokinetics of orally administered drugs in terms of absorption of drugs and the bioavailability of oral medications required after the surgery. The current study investigates the correlation between reduced body mass following bariatric surgery and the bioavailability of orally administered drugs. Therefore, it is required to warrant through clinical studies that help establish guidelines related to common oral drugs prescribed and monitor the medications that exhibit a small therapeutic window that should be assessed, excluding the clinical endpoint. Furthermore, the use of pharmacokinetic modeling based on a mechanical method to simulate the multivariate nature observed while changes occur during the exposure of drugs will help to serve as an essential tool to understand further the trends in oral exposure of drugs in postoperative cases develop practical clinical guidance.