Open Access Case Report

Implant-Supported Hybrid Prosthesis using All on Six Concept for Atrophic Ridges with Severe Gag Reflex: A Case Report

Anamika Ahlawat, Manu Rathee, S. Divakar, Sandeep Singh, Sujata Chahal, Poonam Wakure

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 8-14
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i16A35775

Aims: Edentulism is correlated to poor self-esteem and depression in both young and old individuals due to social rejection. For edentulous patients who are not interested in removable prosthesis, implant-supported fixed prosthesis might be an appropriate treatment modality. The aim of this case report is to rehabilitate the completely edentulous patient with severe gag reflex by maxillary implant supported hybrid prosthesis and mandibular conventional complete denture.

Presentation of case: A 58 years old female patient had reported to the outpatient wing of department of prosthodontics with chief complaint of missing teeth in maxillary and mandibular arches. Patient had a history of severe gagging and discomfort with old denture. The treatment progresses as six implant placed and hybrid prosthesis was fabricated in maxillary arch and conventional complete denture was fabricated in mandibular arch and delivered to the patient.

Discussion: Implant-supported complete arch rehabilitation can be accomplished with either a fixed or removable prosthesis. For a satisfactory outcome, proper patient selection, accurate surgical procedure, and meticulous prosthetic planning are required. Cement-retained implant restorations are becoming more popular because they are simple, aesthetic, and cost-effective. However, such restorations are hard to retrieve, and any residual cement in the soft tissue around the implant might cause peri-implant illness.

Conclusion: A screw retained fixed prosthesis was planned for this patient in maxillary arch and conventional complete denture in mandibular arch which gave a successful outcome and avoid gag reflex.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of the Level of Awareness among Parents about Avertive Measures and its Relationship with Dental Health Status of 6–12 Years Old Children in Hazaribag, Jharkhand, India

Swati Singh, Nudrat Neyaz, Alok Vrat Singh, Aditi Singh Tanwar, Krishna Beni

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i16A35728

Background: A child's oral health is critical to his or her general health as well as well-being, and it is one of the foundations for a disease-free life. Because a parent or caregiver plays such a significant part in a child's life, their understanding together with attitude toward oral health will have a significant influence on the child's oral healthiness.

Aim: The goal of this research is to assess oral health expertise among parents of children within the age group of 6–12 years in Hazaribag and its link to their children's dental health.

Materials and procedures: The research comprised 200 parents of children aged 6–12 years old who had no systemic illness or pathology. The parents were given a detailed questionnaire with apparent validity that included questions on their perspectives about their children's dental health awareness, caries avertion, and the significance of food. SPSS 23 was used to do statistical analysis on the data.

Results: The findings indicated that children of parents with a poor understanding of oral health had higher decaying, missing, as well as filled teeth (DMFT/dmft) scores than children of parents with a good understanding of oral health.

Conclusion: It is critical for parents to be educated about oral health in order to maintain their children's oral health.

Open Access Original Research Article

Academic Resilience of Healthcare Professional Students in Pakistan: Need of the Hour

Madeeha Malik, Umme Salma, Azhar Hussain, Shazana Rana

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 23-32
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i16A35730

Introduction: Due to the challenging and competitive academic environment throughout the world, the mental health of students enrolled in healthcare professions is largely affected resulting in burnout and poor quality of life. Lack of academic counseling and poor teaching strategies further aggravates this situation leading to development of poor resilience among healthcare students. The inability to cope with academic stress can provoke serious consequences which needs to be addressed.

Objective: The present study was designed to assess academic resilience and its associated factors among healthcare professional students in Pakistan.

Methodology: A descriptive cross-sectional study design was used. A pre-validated questionnaire i.e. Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC) was self-administered to a sample of 382 healthcare professional students selected using convenience sampling technique for measuring resilience. After data collection, data was cleaned, coded and entered in SPSS.

Results: The results of the current study highlighted that mean scores of resilience of different healthcare professional students were: Medicine students (70.22, ±13.73), followed by the pharmacy students (66.61, ±15.48) and then nursing students (65.86, ±15.76).

Conclusion: The present study concluded moderate academic resilience among students of different healthcare profession. Medicine students were found most resilient, followed by pharmacy and nursing students. Educators and educational institutions must assess and build resilience among healthcare students by identifying the factors to ensure success in this competitive healthcare environment.

Open Access Original Research Article

Role of Protein C, Protein S and Antithrombin III Levels in High-risk Pregnant Women in Karachi's Gadap Region for Obstetric Complications

Muhammad Rizwan, Syeda Shabana Nasir, Irshad Ahmed Ansari, Uzma Afreen, Nasima Iqbal, Syed Fazal-e-Karim Faisal

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 33-41
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i16A35731

Objectives: Thrombophilia has been connected to both pregnancy difficulties and recurrent miscarriage. The purpose of this project is to establish a baseline of protein C, protein S, and AT III levels in pregnant females with various pregnancy-related problems, assess the prevalence of acquired deficiency in these parameters, and compare the results to a control group.

Method: In conjunction with Muhammadi Blood Bank, Baqai Medical University conducted a cross-sectional study. There were 150 pregnant and non-pregnant women in the study. The immunoturbidity approach was used to assess the free protein S level, and the bichrome method was utilised to determine ATIII activity, while the clot-based methodology was used to determine PT, APTT, and protein C activity. All parameters were examined using the CA-650 automated coagulation analyzer.

Results: The mean age range of the participant was 18-45 years. Most of participants were Sindhi. The participants ranged in age from 18 to 45 years old. Sindhis made up the majority of the attendees. When all three were compared, there was a significant difference in Protein C and Protein S levels (p-value=0.001), while AT III levels were insignificant. Protein S levels were found to be lower in all four pregnancy problems (PIH, IUD, Miscarriages, and Multiple Pregnancies), however only Protein C levels were lower in IUD.

Conclusion: Our findings showed that protein S levels were low in both healthy pregnant women and those in the high-risk group, with no significant association with distinct problem groups. Reduced protein C levels, on the other hand, were found to have a statistically significant link to IUD instances. Antithrombin III (ATIII) levels were found to be normal in all of the groups studied.

Open Access Original Research Article

Frequency of Different Histological Types of Breast Tumors Reported at DHQ Hospital Abbottabad Pakistan

Attiya Ayaz, Taj Muhammad, Kishwar Ammir, Rukia Farzana, Gulshan Ali Memon, Farzana Mallah, Arslan Ahmer

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 42-49
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i16A35732

Introduction: The carcinoma of Breast is the most common form of cancer and thus the major source of carcinoma mortality globally.

Objective: The goal of this study was to determine the most prevalent etiology of a fresh breast tumor as well as the occurrence of different types in subjects who presented with breast tumors at DHQ Hospital Abbottabad KPK Pakistan.

Methodology: The research was carried out at the DHQ Hospital Abbottabad. The research was performed from 20 February 2018 to 20 February 2020. It is a cross-sectional study and consisted of 200 female patients.

Results: The age of the patients ranged from between 30 years to 65 years, 47.6800 mean and 9.22187 SD, BMI minimum20.20 and maximum33.40 mean 24.7615 and 2.97309 SD. Regarding the symptom analysis breast pain was common feature in benign and malignant disorders. For diagnostic purpose here the FNAC and Biopsy incisional, trucut and excisions were carried out. FNAC was done in 66.5% incisional 5.5%, trucut 10.5% and excisions 17.5% cases. Regarding the different ratios of benign and malignant lesions there were 64.0% benign and 36% were malignant lesions.

Conclusion: Early identification and prompt treatment as per type to define the managing concerns for subjects with a fresh breast lump may improve in terms of morbidity and mortality.

Open Access Original Research Article

Surgical Apgar Score: Utility in Predicting Postoperative Outcome in Cases of Exploratory Laparotomy

Nimesh Srivastava, M. B. Bagawan

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 50-64
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i16A35733

Aims and Objective: The aim of this study is to correlate SURGICAL APGAR score in predicting post-operative mortality and morbidity.

Materials and Method: This was a prospective study. All patients fulfilling the inclusion criteria in Krishna institute of medical sciences karad were included in the study which was conducted from December 2019 to July 2021. All patients undergoing exploratory laparotomy were scored according to surgical Apgar scoring system and their score was correlated with post-operative outcome.

Result: In our study, the mean surgical Apgar score among study subjects was 4.68 ±1.67. Majority of the study subjects had surgical APGAR score between 5 to 6 (51.43%), followed by 3 to 4 (28.57%). The p<0.0001 is highly significant in our study. Statistically significant results were seen in the score groups, with score groups of 0-2 showing 7.14%, 3-4 with 2.85%, 5-6 with 1.42%, 7-10 with 0% mortality.

Conclusion: From the study it was concluded that SURGICAL APGAR score is an excellent predictor of post operative outcomes in regard to complications and mortality.

Open Access Original Research Article

Elucidation and Prediction of Molecular Mechanisms and Associated Pathways of the Prostaglandin-endoperoxide Synthase-2 as a Common Key Gene for Diabetes and Cachexia: Bioinformatics Strategies

Amir Saeed

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 15-22
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i16A35776

Cachexia and diabetes both feature severe weight loss as a phenotype, and both diseases share several gene and protein abnormalities. This study investigates the PTGS2 gene as a common key gene for diabetes and cachexia. A variety of biological databases and enrichment approaches were used to explore this gene. Probable genes and substances that could be used to address disease symptoms were identified using STICH, a protein-protein, and protein-drug interactions. It was also established that PTGS2 is strongly linked to the pharmacology of the ibuprofen route of action. These findings and annotations will aid in further research into the therapeutic option of targeting the PTGS2 gene in the treatment of both disorders.