Open Access Original Research Article

Stratification for Risk Factors and Its Correlation to Outcome in Children with Malnutrition of Age 6 Months to 5 Years

Ameer Ali Jamali, Azizullah Langah, Naseer Ahmed Memon, Pirah Fatima, Attiya Ayaz, Farzana Mallah, Safdar Ali Jamali

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-18
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i13B35576

Background: Wide range of illness is covered under malnutrition including under nutrition, specific nutrient deficiencies and over nutrition. There is heavy cost burden on Pakistani economy due to high prevalent condition. Children are affected in several ways and exposed to infectious diseases, psychosocial mal-development and cognitive deficiencies.

Objectives: Objectives of this study are to determine the risk factors of malnutrition in children of age 6 months to 5 years and to determine the correlation between risk factors of malnutrition and outcome in children of age 6 months to 5 years.

Methodology: A prospective observational study was conducted at Paediatric Medicine Department, PUMHS (Nawabshah). 138 patients were recruited using the non-probability consecutive sampling technique. Informed consent was taken from study participants before enrolment into the study. Children admitted to peadiatric medicine ward were explored for malnutrition risk factors. A pre-designed proforma was used for data collection. Data was analyzed using SPSS version 21.

Results: Out of 138 children, 78 (56.5) were males and 60 (43.5) were females. Average age of patients was 27.49 ± 13.32. Using criteria of MUAC, 97 (70.28%) were severely malnourished and 41 (29.71%) were moderately malnourished. By criteria of weight-to-height z-score, 116 (84.05%) were severe malnourished and 22 (15.94%) were moderately malnourished. Among child factors, the highest prevalent risk factor was bottle and mixed feeding practice (122, 88.40%). Child related factors were significantly associated with patients’ outcome. Among parental risk factors, the highest prevalent risk factor was unemployment (96, 69.57%) fathers of patients were unemployed. Among environmental factors, the most prevalent risk factor was use of inappropriate water source (102, 73.91%). 31 (22.46%) children expired at the end of the study. Environmental factors were also found to be associated with patients’ outcome.

Conclusion: Lack of breast feeding, unemployment and inappropriate source of water were most prevalent factors. Furthermore, illiteracy and incomplete vaccination status were also prevalent. Therefore, interventions are needed in order to overcome these problems. Parental education should be done and high authorities should make efforts to provide clean and safe water in rural area as well.

Open Access Original Research Article

Patients’ Satisfaction with Healthcare Services at Private and Public Hospitals in Aseer Region

Tariq Saad Ozam, Asma Abdullah S. Garnan, Naif M. Alqahtani

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 36-66
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i13B35580

Assessments of patients’ satisfaction with provided health care is important, not only as a measure of the quality of care patients receive, but also in identifying potential areas for improving the content of care provided by physicians .Research proved that improving patient satisfaction with physician increases the likelihood that a patient will return to a given health care provider.

Aim of Study: To assess patients’ satisfaction with healthcare services at private and governmental hospitals in Aseer Region, 2020.

Methodology: Following a cross sectional design, two hospitals were included, a governmental hospital and a private hospital. A total of 400 patients were interviewed according to a consecutive sampling technique

Conclusions: In both public and private hospitals, quality of  provided health services is significantly less than that expected across all components of patients’ satisfaction. In public hospitals, higher quality of received health services is perceived by older patients. In private hospitals, higher quality of received health services is v older and male patients and those who have health insurance. Both received and expected quality of health services are significantly higher in private than public hospitals.

Open Access Original Research Article

Guaifenesin Use in a Government Hospital in Al-Kharj

Nehad J. Ahmed, Dina I. Fouda, Ahmed I. Foudah

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 67-70
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i13B35581

Aim: The present study aimed to describe the pattern of using guaifenesin in a government hospital in Al-Kharj.

Methodology: This is a retrospective cross-sectional study that was conducted in a government hospital in Al-Kharj. Prescription data was collected from outpatient electronic records.

Results: During the study period, 519 patients received guaifenesin syrup from the outpatient pharmacy of the government hospital. Most of the patients who used guaifenesin syrup were males (66.09%) and more than half of them were in the age group between 20-39 years old (55.10%). All of the prescriptions were written by residents (100%) and most of guaifenesin prescriptions were prescribed by emergency department (96.15%).

Conclusion: The present study showed that guaifenesin was frequently used in Al-kharj. Additional studies are needed to describe the frequency and pattern of using guaifenesin in different settings and also to describe the pattern of using other cough/cold medications.

Open Access Original Research Article

Length of Hospital Stay and Oseltamivir in Mild or Moderate Degree COVID-19 Patients in North Sumatra, Indonesia

Intan Lestari, Valentina Yurina, Diana Lyrawati

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 71-76
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i13B35582

Background: Coronavirus disease 2019 is caused by a new strain of corona virus that affect the human respiratory tract.

Aims: The aim of the study is to retrogressively review the use of antivirals on COVID-19 patients on their length of hospital stay (LoS) with mild and moderate degree of symptoms.

Study design:  This cross-sectional study used medical records of confirmed COVID-19 patients, hospitalized, and achieved recovery during May-November 2020.

Place and Duration of Study: Data were collected retrospectively at a General Hospital, Deli Serdang, North Sumatera, Indonesia.

Methodology: Convenient sampling technique was used to select 185 patient’s results who met the inclusion and exclusion criteria.

Results: The result showed that Oseltamivir was the only antiviral agent prescribed for COVID-19 patients. Oseltamivir was given to 80% of the patients and no antiviral agents for the rest 20%. The median LoS of COVID-19 patients with Oseltamivir was 11 days (ranged 2-34 days), whereas of those without antiviral agent was 12 days (ranged 4-29 days) at p = 0.049.  Also, there were significant differences observed in group of mild and moderate degree with number of symptoms, i.e. less symptoms associated with less length of hospital stay (adjusted p=0.0003). In COVID-19 patients group with mild degree and one symptom, again, Oseltamivir treatment had shorter LoS (median 5, ranged 3-9 days) than those not on Oseltamivir treatment (median 12, ranged 6-20 days) at  p = 0.0725. In moderate degree of COVID-19 patients with one symptom who were treated with Oseltamivir, LOS shortened (median 5 days) when compared to those without oseltamivir (median 12 days) (p= 0.0342).

Conclusion: In this study, the administration of oseltamivir was observed to shorten the length of stay of COVID-19 patients in the hospital.

Open Access Original Research Article

Molecular Identification of Multi Drug-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae Isolated from Neonates with Sepsis in Egypt

Farouk Hassan, Alaa Shawky, Ali A. Abdelrahman Ahmed, Abeer M. Hagras, Noha Alaa Eldin Fahim, Hayam Abdelkader

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 77-89
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i13B35583

Neonatal sepsis is one of the most prevalent infections today, claiming the lives of almost one million newborns in developing countries. Our objective is to determine the bacteria that cause sepsis in newborns in Egyptian hospitals, as well as to discover their resistance profiles, allowing for the selection of appropriate drug combinations against multidrug resistant (MDR) bacteria.  Nine hundred and eighty-nine blood samples were collected from neonates in Al Demerdash and Ain Shams University Specialized Hospital from March 2019 to March 20121 according to the standard protocols. Bacterial identification and antimicrobial susceptibility test AST were performed using VITEK® 2 system.  The results revealed that 51.4 % of patients had positive blood cultures, with 60.3 % females and 39.7 %. Males. Sepsis with late onset was detected in 95% of positive cases, while sepsis with early onset was observed in only 5% of the total positive cases. According to the study, 98.3 % of Klebsiella Pneumoniae isolates were resistant to Ampicillin, 91% to Ampicillin/sulbactam, and 90% to Ceftazidime and Cefotaxime. Quantitative Real-time RT-PCR analysis of the blaCTX-M-15 gene expression found that (69%) of MDR K. pneumoniae isolates expressed the gene at a significantly higher level than susceptible isolates, with a mean fold change of 10.0349 versus 1.8646.  In conclusion, Klebsiella pneumoniae is the leading cause of neonatal sepsis in the majority of Egyptian hospitals' NICUs. Application of infection prevention and control strategies, in conjunction with appropriate antimicrobial stewardship programs, may be beneficial in overcoming this challenge.

Open Access Review Article

Understand COVID-19 through Heavy Metals Pollution

Mosab Nouraldein Mohammed Hamad, Abdullah Al-Qahtni

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 19-35
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i13B35578

The quick spread of COVID-19 crisis and fast emergence of new variants of it , dissimilar clinical forms from silent to exaggerated ones , misunderstanding of etiologies , mode of transmission, variable effectiveness and side effects of vaccines and absence of comprehensive and efficient treatment protocols , heavy spread in certain continents and on less in others a lot of questions arise from the variables mentioned above need answer. In this review I introduced my hypothesis about origin of COVID-19 , its later variants and the main mode of transmission of the virus, the role of mutagenic heavy metals in emergence and the rising of the pandemic and explained the relationship between COVID-19 and malaria. Scattered information used to compose it. Experimental studies are required to test it.