Open Access Short Research Article

Prescriptions Audit for Antibiotics among Outpatients in the Department of Periodontics

Amit Chaudhary, Dharmesh Sharma, Sakshi Supehia

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 11-18
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i10B35519

Aims: The aim of this study was to audit prescriptions for antibiotics for cost optimization in outpatients undergoing periodontal treatment.

Study Design: A prospective cross-sectional study.

Place and Duration of Study: This study was done at a dental college in Himachal Pradesh from August 2020 to July 2021.

Methodology: 849 patients agreed to share their data, 614 of whom received antibiotics. The demographic information, the name of the given antibiotic, dosage form, dose, strength, frequency, and the reason for prescribing were gathered. Antibiotic monotherapy and multitherapy prescriptions were evaluated. Antibiotics prescribed by the NLEM 2015 were calculated. For cost minimization evaluation, the price of prescribed antibiotics in branded and generic names was calculated in INR. The results were calculated using descriptive statistics and presented in frequency and percentage.

Results: This finding shows irrationality and out-of-pocket expenses in antibiotic prescribing. The most common diagnosis was periodontitis. Only 74.5% of all antibiotics prescribed were from the NLEM 2015. The most often recommended antibiotic was a fixed-dose combination of Amoxicillin + Clavulanic acid (61.2%) and accounts for 87.80% of the total cost of 146669.82 INR. Only 9.7 % of antibiotics were prescribed with a generic name.

Conclusion: Generic names and prescribing from essential drug lists play a critical role in the treatment and prevention of a wide variety of diseases on a worldwide scale by providing cost-effective healthcare coverage.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessing the Knowledge, Anxiety and Fear of Patients Visiting Dental Hospital during COVID-19 Pandemic in Bhubaneswar City, Odisha. A Questionnaire Cross-sectional Survey

Subhalaxmi Baral, Dhirendra K. Singh, Smriti P. Kumar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 27-35
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i10B35521

Introduction: Ease of transmission of COVID-19 makes people scared of getting infected with COVID-19 hence making them reluctant to visit dental health care providers, which delays dental care during COVID-19.

Aim & Objectives of the Study: To analyze the knowledge, anxiety and fear of subjects visiting dental hospital during COVID-19 pandemic in Bhubaneswar city, Odisha State, India, using a questionnaire form.

Materials and Methods: A total of 111 subjects visiting the outpatient of Kalinga Institute of Dental Sciences (KIDS), Bhubaneswar who were indicated for any dental treatment were selected for the study. Fear and anxiety of the subjects was assessed before and after the required dental treatment using a questionnaire consisting. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS 23 software.

Results: The result shows that majority of the subjects lack proper knowledge and were anxious to receive the treatment. Upon proper consultation and treatment, fear and anxiety reduced to a significant level.

Conclusion: Assessing pre-treatment anxiety using a questionnaire helps in modification in the treatment approach as well as the in the ambience of the dental clinic or hospital during COVID-19.

Open Access Original Research Article

Planning of Measures and Labor Rationing of Specialists in the Sector of Veterinary Services for Commercial Goose Breeding

Mihail N. Vasiliev, Evgeniya O. Bakanova, Anastasia I. Vasilieva, Ivan N. Nikitin, Sergey M. Domolazov, Elena N. Trofimova, Alexandr I. Akmullin, Andrey S. Makarov

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 36-42
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i10B35522

In goose breeding, the most current issue is to prevent the development of such infectious diseases as viral enteritis of geese, highly pathogenic avian influenza, salmonellosis, pasteurellosis, mycoplasmosis, Newcastle disease, colibacillosis. At the same time, specific prevention of some of them is not carried out due to the lack of unified treatments in veterinary care. The technological schemes of veterinary treatments of goose-breeding farms have big difference from each other. The study of working hours for veterinary processes of specialists in goose breeding is necessary as part of the development of recommendations for improving veterinary services for goose farms and planning the schedule of veterinary specialists. There is no modern unified effective system for the prevention of infectious diseases in geese in Russia. The aim of this work was to study the schemes of veterinary and preventive treatments, the development of a technological scheme of veterinary treatments for industrial goose-breeding farms and the time norms for the veterinary measures that ensure the prevention of infectious and mass non-infectious diseases of poultry. The study of the schemes of veterinary treatments in geese and the working time spent of veterinary specialists was carried out in the conditions of goose-breeding farms by using time- and photo-time- studies of the veterinary specialists’ work. Veterinary measures carried out in industrial goose-breeding farms depend on the technological equipment of poultry farms, geographical location, epizootic situation in the region, and the availability of biological products. Technological schemes of veterinary treatments for geese should be improved, taking into account the spread of diseases and the effectiveness of biological products. The presence of a set of measures for general and specific prevention of poultry diseases in the technological scheme of veterinary treatments, developed by us for industrial goose-breeding farms, allows to reduce the risk of spreading infectious and other diseases. During the study 14 time norms were developed for veterinary preventive measures performed by veterinary specialists in the conditions of industrial goose-breeding farms, which are recommended for using while staffing and studying the efficiency of using the labor resources of veterinary specialists.

Open Access Original Research Article

Reconstruction of Interdental Papilla in Esthetic Zone using Hyaluronic Acid Gel: A Clinical Prospective Study

Shalini Kapoor, Amit Bhardwaj

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 43-58
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i10B35525

Introduction: Interdental papilla deficiency or black triangles are considered to be one of the most challenging dilemmas in esthetic dentistry. Various invasive techniques with less success have been introduced for interdental papilla regeneration. So, to overcome the limitations a non-invasive technique with greater predictability and patient comfort has been introduced using Hyaluronic acid gel (HA). In the present study, the efficacy of 2% Hyaluronic acid gel on interdental papilla enhancement was evaluated clinically along with photographic analysis (Image J Software) and its effect on gingival fibroblast cell culture lines was observed.

Aim: To evaluate the changes in buccal triangle dimensions i.e. buccal triangle area (BTA), buccal triangle width (BTW), buccal triangle height (BTH) at baseline and 6 months using commercially available 2% HA gel and to check the effect of HA on proliferative abilities of gingival fibroblast cell culture lines.

Materials and Methods: 60 sites in 15 patients were selected and were randomly divided into test and control group. The Test Group received commercially available 2% HA gel and the control group received saline as a placebo.  All the clinical measurements, photographs were taken at 3 weeks, 3 months and 6 months and comparisons among test and control groups were done both for clinical measurements and Image J analysis of photographs for interdental papilla enhancement. MTT assay and XTTT assay was done to check the effect of 2% HA gel on proliferative abilities of gingival fibroblast in cell culture lines.

Results: HA treated sites showed gradual and constant improvement in interdental papilla enhancement while the control sites did not show any improvement. Complete interdental papilla reconstruction was seen in 63.3% of test sites at 6 months and 365 of test sites showed partial interdental papilla reconstruction.  HA gel has a positive effect on the proliferative and migratory abilities of gingival fibroblast.

Conclusion: HA is a noninvasive voluminizing alternative treatment modality for interdental papilla deficiency. It is biocompatible as it does not cause an adverse reaction. HA gel has a strong effect on the migratory and proliferative abilities of gingival fibroblasts.

Open Access Original Research Article

Synthesis, Characterisation and Antimicrobial Evaluations of Acetyloxyphenyl-1,2,3-triazole Linked Hexahydro Acridinediones

P. Shanmugasundaram, R. Sujatha, M. Vijey Aanandhi, V. Manivannan, M. Sivaraju

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i10B35559

10-(2-hydroxyphenyl)-hexahydro acridinediones were treated with chloroacetyl choloride to give 10-(2-chloroacetyloxyphenyl) hexahydro acridinediones, which were treated with NaN3 in acetone followed by reaction with DMAD yielded 10-[2-(1-triazolo-4,5-dicarboxymethyl)acetyloxyphenyl]-3,4,6,7,9,10-hexahydro-1,8-(2H,5H)-  acridinediones.

Open Access Review Article

Gene Selection in Disease: Review

M. Rashmi, Manish Varshney

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 19-26
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i10B35520

In utilizing AI algorithms to investigate expression patterns, genetic factors are a significant problem for objective aggregates. Numerous genetic characteristics exist, but just a few have substantial relationships with a specific aggregate. For example, a two-way malignant growth/non-disease investigation involves the identification of fifty of these genetic variables. Three distinct techniques are as follows. A system based on affiliation rules and half-fluffy dynamic trees has been developed for disease detection using data mining technologies. The primary approach proposes an effective half-and-half strategy for reducing the number of exceptions. Anomaly detection is an interesting topic of research in data mining. Due to the usage of bunching strategies, anomalies that do not fit into any of the groups are discovered. Nonetheless, a few ambiguous features may be included in the group. To completely purge the dataset of superfluous data, it is required to identify and purge data that has converged with the groups. This approach depends on two distinct types of data mining algorithms to discover anomalies in a dataset: multilayer neural networks (MLN) and thickness-based K-implies. Affiliation rules are established, and the effect % of everything derived from the standard upon which the fluffy guidelines are based is calculated in the manner illustrated below.