Open Access Case Study

Anaesthetic Management of Suspect COVID-19 Patient during a COVID-19 Pandemic Presenting for Emergency Limb Saving Surgery

Anand Subramaniam, B. Balamurugan

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 44-48
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i10A35517

Covid-19 pandemic is an unprecedented crisis and has changed dynamics of health care by severely straining the resources for patients coming for both elective and emergency surgeries. Ultrasound guided nerve block has been a life saver in most covid-19 positive patients coming for emergency surgical procedures as they reduce the risk of general anaesthesia in a patient with already compromised lung physiology and also minimizes risk of aerosol contamination of the operation theatre and health care personnel. We describe the anaesthetic management of a 67year old male patient with uncontrolled diabetes mellitus and sepsis for diabetic foot wound fasciotomy and wound debridement. The patient was operated under ultrasound guided popliteal sciatic and Saphenous nerve block of the right lower limb with all precautions taken to prevent covid spread as the patient had a high index of suspicion for covid-19. The patient was reported positive for RT-PCR in the postoperative period.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Inhibitory Potency of Major Teucrium polium Active Ingredients for the Main Protease (Mpro) of COVID-19

Ghassab M. Al-Mazaideh

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i10A35512

The GC/MS and docking method were used to investigate the active coronaviral protein, the Main Protease (Mpro). This coronaviral protein was tested using Autodock with phytocompounds isolated from methanol extract made from T. polium leaves. According to the GC/MS results, the leaves extract shows 8 major natural Phytochemical compounds (Hydroxytetradecanoic acid (-5.40 kcal/mol, 110.65 μM), 3-Dodecenedioic acid (-5.38 kcal/mol, 380.36 μM), D-Glucuronic (-5.20 kcal/mol, 153.64 μM), 3-Hydroxysebacic acid (-5.12 kcal/mol, 175.66 μM), Dodecen-3-ol (-4.92 kcal/mol, 247.68 μM)). As HIV-inhibitors, these phytoconstituents demonstrated good pharmaco-kinetics (ADMET) and drug-like characteristics (Remdesivir (-4.59 kcal/mol, 431.87 μM), Chloroquine (-4.68 kcal/mol, 373.83 μM), and Hydroxychloroquine (-4.22 kcal/mol, 812.81 μM)). Because they cannot cross BBB (the blood-brain barrier), the examined molecules are believed to have a strong safety profile, great absorption through the gastrointestinal system, and low central side effects. The pharmacological potentials of these lead drugs have been identified and categorized based on their LBE (lowest binding energy) and Ki (inhibition constant). The affinity of examined compounds for Main Protease (Mpro), coronaviral protein, were investigated in order to determine their use inside the active pocket of the receptor, 3CLpro. The major compounds showed greater affinity to 3CLpro than the supporting control drugs. Furthermore, the binding of all lead compounds with all the amino acids of 3CLpro are evaluated, 3-Hydroxytetradecanoic acid is the highest LBE value and lowest Ki value when compared to the approved medication as well as all other compounds under examination. These compounds could be proven as potential corona viral inhibitors. Such computational findings require additional in vitro and in vivo research.

Open Access Original Research Article

Protective Effects of Aloe vera Gel Ethanolic Extract Against Streptozotocin-induced Hepato-pancreatic Toxicity in Female Albino Rats

Asma Ahmed, Hasan Akbar Khan, Rana Muhammad Ahtasham Ul Haq, Anam Naz, Sana Javaid Awan, Muhammad Shuaib, Rehana Badar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 13-24
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i10A35513

Aims: Organ toxicity results from the accumulation of toxic substances in the organs which ultimately culminates in failure of the organ. Allopathic medications are not very effective in organ protection. Hence, it is imperative that a natural and safer organoprotective agent should be found.

Study Design: To assess the organoprotective effect of Aloe vera gel against STZ for renal, hepato and pancreatic toxicity in albino Wistar rats.

Place and Duration of Study: Whole work had been completed at the Microbiology and Molecular biology labs of IMBB, The University of Lahore during 2019- 2020.

Methodology: Organoprotective ability of different doses of ethanolic extracts of Aloe vera (A. vera) gel was evaluated against intraperitoneal induction of 55mg/kg Streptozotocin (STZ)-induced pancreatic, renal and hepatic toxicity in female albino Wistar rats by keeping metformin (100mg/kg) as a positive protective control.

Results: Results revealed that 200 mg/kg ethanolic extracts of A. vera gel showed significant organoprotection as ALT (57.5±7.45I U/L), AST (39.8±3.45I U/L), ALP (438±103I U/L), urea (74.1±8.71mg/dl), creatinine (0.688±0.146 mg/dl), amylase (1247±75 U/L) and lipase (16.6±2.02 U/L) were significantly less than organotoxic control [ALT (103±7.23I U/L), AST (237±12.7I U/L), ALP (2092±195 U/L), Urea (153±18.6mg/dl), Creatinine (1.54±0.262 mg/dl), amylase (675±83 U/L) and lipase (12.2±1.04 U/L)], and these results were near or equal to organoprotective control [ALT (71.6±8.98I U/L), AST (121±28.1 U/L), ALP (916±103 U/L), urea (115±11.4mg/dl), creatinine (1.14±0.226 mg/dl), amylase (667±80 U/L) and lipase (16.6±2.02 U/L)]. The histopathological analysis also highlighted more organoprotection at this concentration as compared to other doses of extract.

Conclusion: A. vera gel extract is an able organoprotective agent. This extract can be studied further for its active ingredients as a source of hepatoprotective and nephroprotective agents.

Open Access Original Research Article

A Survey on Awareness among Dentists Treating HIV Affected Patients

R. Neha, Dinesh Premavathy

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 25-32
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i10A35514

Aim: The aim of the present study is to create awareness among Dentists treating HIV patients.

Introduction: Healthcare workers including physicians, dentists, nurses and laboratory workers are considered to be among the groups at the risk of blood-borne pathogen transmission. Dental treatment procedures frequently involve exposure to blood and saliva that may be contaminated with HIV. Dental care of HIV-positive individuals plays a vital role in improving their nutritional intake, medication tolerance and effectives, treatment success rate, and quality of life. The main motive of the present study was to assess the knowledge, attitude and practice towards HIV patients among dentists.

Materials and Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study survey was conducted among 101 dentists practicing in and around the area. It was done as an online survey. The data was collected using pre-tested self administrated 11 item questionnaire and was statistically analyzed using SPSS software version-23.

Results: The results show that the majority of the subjects in the study population were males (55%) and remaining were females (44%).There were no significant differences between males and females in the knowledge and attitude scores.

Conclusion: The results of the survey demonstrated a satisfactory level of knowledge and attitude of dentists about HIV/AIDS infections but some general population suggesting that higher knowledge level of dentists plays a very important role in forming the attitude and practices regarding patients with HIV/AIDS.

Open Access Original Research Article

Morphometric Analysis of Orbital Cavity in South Indian Population

C. K. Kritheka, Dinesh Premavathy

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 36-43
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i10A35516

Introduction: Each orbital cavity is actually meant as a socket for the eyeball. The human orbit is a complicated anatomic area, which performs predominant position in the craniofacial complex.

Aim: The aim of the study is to provide the normal reference orbital parameters for the south Indian population.

Materials and Methods: The present study has adopted 30 south Indian dry skulls. An orbital cavity was measured using vernier callipers. With the help of vernier calliper and ruler, the measurements such as length, breadth of the orbital cavity and biorbital breadth, interorbital breadth of the orbital cavity were measured. The paired t-test is the statistical method used in this study.

Results: The mean orbital breadth of the right orbit is 34.6±1.777 and left orbit was 34.701±1.711

The mean orbital height of the right orbit is 33.417±1.494 and the left orbit is 33.38±1.560. The mean biorbital breadth of the orbital cavity is 94.16 ± 2.533 and means interorbital breadth of the orbital cavity is 20.615±1.172. Paired t test demonstrated no significant statistical difference between the right and left orbit.

Conclusion: The orbital cavity additionally used for determination of sex and ethnic courses of a cadaver and its phase of the cranium that posses manipulate over sexual dimorphic traits.

Open Access Review Article

Designing Pillow as a Cure for Cervicogenic Headache: A Review

T. Poovishnu Devi

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 33-35
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i10A35515

Background: Presently there is probably no device such as pillows designed or available in the market for relief in case of cervicogenic headache.

Objective: The objective is to come up with a pillow which could be used by the persons having cervicogenic headache in case of orthopedic manual therapy.

Method: A pillow for cervicogenic headache with adjustable neck dimensions is characterized by left side ball, right side ball and mechanism for adjusting distance between these balls as per size of the neck of patient, entire assembly of the balls and the mechanism is embedded in socket. Result: The result is the pillow has memory foam with plush covering outside.

Conclusion: The invention provides a pillow with two balls for the treatment of cervicogenic head ache.