Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of In vitro Antioxidant Potential of the Polyphenols and the Sulphated Polysaccharides fractions of Ulva lactuca and Turbinaria ornata

N. T. Ravindran, A. Mohamed Sadiq

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 14-25
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i9B35502

Aims: To assess the in vitro antioxidant potential of the polyphenols and the sulphated polysaccharides fractions from green marine alga Ulva lactuca and brown marine alga Turbinaria ornata.

Study Design: In the present work, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH), lipid peroxidation, hydroxyl radical and hydrogen peroxide scavenging activities were used for the evaluation of the antioxidant potential of the polyphenols and the sulphated polysaccharides fractions from Ulva lactuca and Turbinaria ornata.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Biochemistry, Adhiparasakthi College of Arts and Science (Autonomous), G.B. Nagar, Kalavai – 632 506, Tamil Nadu, India.

Methodology: The polyphenols and the sulphated polysaccharides fractions were extracted from green marine alga Ulva lactuca and brown marine alga Turbinaria ornata, and were assayed for in vitro antioxidant potential using the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH), lipid peroxidation, hydroxyl raidcal and hydrogen peroxide scavenging activities.

Results: Both the polyphenols and the sulphated polysaccharides fractions were extracted from green marine alga Ulva lactuca and brown marine alga Turbinaria ornata, showed good in vitro antioxidant potential with the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH), lipid peroxidation, hydroxyl radical and hydrogen peroxide scavenging activities. The percentage of inhibition ranged from 90.37 – 100.0 % inhibition for polyphenols fraction and 68.73 – 95.23 % for sulphated polysaccharides. The IC50 values ranged from 0.185 mg/ml to 0.430 mg/ml.

Conclusion: Both the polyphenols and the sulphated polysaccharides fractions from Ulva lactuca and Turbinaria ornata are shown to be capable of scavenging a wide range of synthetic and naturally occurring free radicals, and they could be utilized as good natural source of antioxidants. These data may contribute to a rational basis for the use of antioxidant-rich marine algal fractions in the therapy of diseases related to oxidative stress.

Open Access Original Research Article

Formulation and Evaluation of Herbal Baby Shampoo

N. Rajesh Kumar, T. Dineshkumar, K. Hariharan, A. V. Navaneetha Krishnan, C. Pavitharani, S. Subash, P. Manikandan, M. Surendra Kumar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 26-33
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i9B35503

Shampoos are most probably used as cosmetics. In general, hair care products are used for cleaning scalp and also used for beautifying agents. It contains suitable additives preservatives and active ingredients. The purpose of using shampoo is to remove dirt that is build up on the hair without stripping out much of this bum. The herbal shampoo popularized due to formulated from herbal sources which is safer with milder effect. In this study, herbal shampoo was formulated containing suitable ingredient such as Lawsonia inermis (L) Henna), Azadirachta indica A. Juss. (Neem), Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L (Hibiscus), Ficus benghalensis L.   (Banyan), Phyllanthus emblica L. (Amla), Sapindus mukorossi Gaertn. (Ritha), Senegalia rugata (Lam.) Britton & Rose.  (Shikakai) and Aloe vera (L.) Burm.f. (Aloe vera) different proportions to formulate and evaluate its physicochemical properties. Marketed crude products of the above-mentioned herbal drugs were used in the formulation of herbal shampoo. Ritha and Shikakai when shaken with water create rich foam impact. Amla fruit and Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L. flowers are used to promote hair growth, anti-dandruff agent, strengthen hairs, and prevent hair fall. Dried roots of  Ficus benghalensis (Banyan) produce Lustrous effects on hairs. H. rosa-sinensis flower and Aloe vera (L) used as a conditioning agent and also moisturizing agent. The formulated herbal shampoo was evaluated for its physical and chemical stability.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of High Power Laser Therapy on Patients with Chronic Discogenic Sciatica: A Randomized Clinical Trial

Shaima M. Abdelmageed, Dina Othman Shokri Morsi Galal, Noha Elserty

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 34-44
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i9B35504

Back Ground: Sciatica is a frequent clinical illness that may be intensely painful, disabling, and life-altering.

Objectives: The goal of this research was to see how high-power laser therapy affects the intensity of pain, angle of straight leg raise, six-minute walk test and electrophysiological studies in patients with chronic discogenic sciatica.

Methods: A lumbar disc herniation at L5-S1 caused chronic unilateral sciatica in thirty-six male patients were included in this study. The patients have been divided into 2 identical groups [the control group (G1) and the study group (G2)] randomly. Participants in the control group (G1) got a designed physiotherapy program that included ultrasound, stretching exercise, back muscles strengthening exercise and sciatic nerve flossing technique. While patients in the study group (G2) got the same designed physiotherapy program as G1 plus high power laser therapy (HPLT). The outcome measures were latency and amplitude of Hoffmann reflex (H-reflex) for evaluating S1 nerve root function, visual analog scale (VAS) for evaluating pain level, angle of straight leg raise (SLR) and six-minute walk test (6MWT) for assessing functional impairment. Both groups were assessed before and after 4 weeks of therapy.

Results: The findings demonstrated that both groups showed a significant reduction in pain level and latency of H-reflex following therapy. The angle of SLR, 6-minute walking distance (6MWD), and the amplitude of the H-reflex all improved significantly in both groups. After therapy, the study group's VAS and H reflex latency were significantly decreased than the control group's (p < 0.01). In addition, the study group's 6MWD, angle of SLR, and H reflex amplitudes were significantly increased than the control group's (p < 0.01) following therapy. 

Conclusion:  High power laser therapy (HPLT) is a successful treatment for patients suffering from chronic discogenic sciatica.

Open Access Original Research Article

Synthesis, Characterization and Pharmacological Evaluation of Chalcones and Its Derivatives for Antileishmanial Activity

Geeta Lodhi, Amit Nayak

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 45-57
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i9B35505

Medicinal chemistry is almost always geared toward drug discovery and development. The focus on development of new synthetic drug compounds has resulted in the incorporation of many other disciplines, such as biochemistry, combinatorial chemistry, chemical biology, phytochemistry, pharmacology, enzymology, pharmacognosy, statistics, physical chemistry and molecular biology into medicinal chemistry. In this view medicinal chemists are also trying to speed up drug discovery process for finding the lead molecule [1]. The compounds with chalcone as backbone have been reported to possess varied biological and pharmacological activities, including antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, cytotoxic, antitumor, antimalarial, antitubercular, antiviral, anti-HIV, antiulcerative, antileishmanial activities. Leishmaniasis is a vector-borne disease caused by protozoan parasites of the genus Leishmania. It is transmitted through the bite of female phlebotomine sandflies and can range from mild self-healing cutaneous lesions to lethal visceral leishmaniasis. Lic A (1), efficiently inhibited the proliferation of Leishmania donovani and Leishmania major promastigotes and amastigotes in vitro by inhibiting fumarate reductase (Chen et al. 1993), a selective target present in the parasite mitochondria. The Lic C (113) inhibited the growth of the L. major parasite to the same extent as Lic A (1) (Nielson et al. 1995).

Open Access Original Research Article

Estimation of Salivary pH, Salivary Amylase in Patients with Oral cancer, Pre and Postoperatively -A Comparative Study

Sherin Salim Shah, Joyce P. Sequeira

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 58-63
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i9B35509

Introduction: Saliva has been studied for so long and it almost stands hand in hand with other diagnostic tests which could possibly replace blood in disease diagnosis and monitoring. Salivary pH and salivary amylase levels are an excellent predictor of the oral environment and salivary gland health, hence, estimating these characteristics is a reasonable method of assessing a patient’s risk of disease onset, severity, and prognosis.

Aims: The aim of the study was to compare salivary pH, salivary amylase, pre and postoperatively in oral cancer patients.

Study Design:  The study is a comparative study.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted in the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Yenepoya Dental College, Mangalore between October 2020 and October 2021.

Methodology: We included 24 patients (20 men, 4 women; age range 40-70 years) who were histopathologically confirmed oral cancer patients. For every patient saliva was collected preoperatively on the day of surgery and postoperatively 5 days after the surgery. Salivary pH was measured using pH meter and salivary amylase was measured using color spectrophotometry.

Results:  A significant increase in salivary pH was observed post operatively (7.07) as compared to the preoperative values (6.63). A significant decrease in salivary amylase value was observed post operatively (147.13) as compared to preoperative values(147.88) both salivary pH and salivary amylase values were statistically significant.

Conclusion: There was an increase in salivary pH postoperatively and decrease in salivary amylase levels in postoperatively. However, an increase in sample size with further research should be carried out to further authenticate the study.

Open Access Original Research Article

A Radiographic Study on Prevalence and Distribution of Accessory Ossicles and Sesamoids of the Foot in Indian population

Praveen Sharma, Govindarajan Rajendran, G. Naveen Kumar, S. A. Vettrivizhi, M. Meyyappan, P. Muthiah, N. Paarthipan, C. R. Seena

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i9B35637

Background: The prevalence of accessory ossicles and sesamoid bones are variable in distribution. The accessory ossicles and sesamoids are usually asymptomatic, normal variants, and misdiagnosed or overlooked.

Objective: The primary objective is to estimate the prevalence and distribution of accessory ossicles and sesamoid of the foot by radiographic study in the Indian population.

Materials and Methods: A retrospective study of 1034 radiographs of the foot (anteroposterior and oblique view) performed—the prevalence of accessory ossicles and sesamoids—descriptive statistics used for data analysis.

Results: One thousand thirty-four radiographs did, in which 68% of male and 32% of female patients. In our study, the prevalence of sesamoid bone hallux sesamoid, another sesamoid, and accessory ossicles are 100%, 9.2%, and 25.9%, respectively. The hallux sesamoid visualized in all individuals, (a) medial bipartite, (b) lateral bipartite, and (c) absent medial hallux are (3.38%), (0.58%), (1.16%) respectively. Our study group has three accessory ossicles location: forefoot, midfoot, and hindfoot. The prevalence of accessory ossicles found to be forefoot, midfoot, and hindfoot are (2.03%), (20.5%), (3.3%) respectively.

Conclusion: Diagnosis of accessory ossicles and common sesamoids of the foot helps avoid the common pitfall in clinical practice. Accessory ossicles often misdiagnosed as fractures; further imaging is required to confirm the clinical suspicion and decision-making for different management.