Open Access Original Research Article

Advanced Cardiovascular Life Support Performance: Study on the Effectiveness of Training among Nurses in a Tertiary Care Hospital, Karachi

Ramesh Kumar, . Raja, . Badil, . Gulsher, Junaid Ali, Arjan Kumar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i8B35478

Nurses are the integral part of health care delivery system and play a vital role in critical areas. Nurses are required to respond quickly and effectively in the situation of cardiac arrest and the success of cardiopulmonary resuscitation depends upon their competence. Nurses’ knowledge, preparedness and skills in regard to cardiopulmonary resuscitation have to be at advanced level. Hence, this study was conducted to determine the effectiveness of advanced cardiovascular life support training among nurses at a tertiary care hospital, Karachi, Pakistan.

Study Design: Quasi-experimental (pre and post) study was employed.

Place and Duration of Study: Study was accomplished at Dr. Ruth K.M Pfau Civil Hospital, Karachi for the period of ten months from December 2018 to September 2019.

Methodology: Sample size was calculated through PASS version 11.0 with proportion formula, calculated sample size was 180 nurses. Nurses’ responses regarding advanced cardiovascular life support were assessed by validated and structured questionnaire. The collected data was analyzed by using SPSS version 21. The mean score of pre-test and post-test of advanced cardiovascular life support training were computed by using paired t-test. p-value ≤0.05 were considered as level of significance.

Results: The pre mean of advanced cardiac life support score was 19.28±5.29. While, after training mean score of advanced cardiac life support score was 22.38±4.0. It is also statistically significant (p<0.001).

Conclusion: Successful resuscitation in patients with cardiac emergencies necessitates early credit of condition, prompt activation of responders, timely and effective basic life support and timed defibrillation when needed. Formal basic life support and advanced cardiovascular life support trainings are essential for nurses to enhance their skills that lead to improve victim survival after cardiopulmonary resuscitation.

Open Access Original Research Article

Formulation and Characterisation of RGD-FBG Based Nanoscaffolds as Novel Anti-Cancer Drug Delivery System

Deepa Patel, Drashti Pathak

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 9-17
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i8B35479

Aims/Objective: To formulate and evaluate RGD sequenced fibrin/fibrinogen based nanoscaffolds (acid-labile linker) for the treatment of brain tumor targeting to achieve an acid-triggered drug release under a mild acidic condition in tumor.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Pharmaceutics, Parul Institute of Pharmacy and Research, Parul University, Vadodara, between 2017 to 2021.

Methodology: Nanoscaffolds was prepared with Drug–linker–Fbg conjugate solution, using modified water-in-oil (W/O) emulsification/solvent extraction method. The conjugate solution was constantly injected in soya lecithin (100 ml) using a syringe (1 ml/min) and stirred using Magnetic stirrer for 30 minutes to form stable a W/O emulsion. The present investigation was aimed to evaluate with Particle size, Zeta potential measurement, Percent drug entrapment, Transmission electron microscopy.

Results:  As per Evaluation parameters were performed such as Particle size measured as 151.8±2.02 nm to 157.4 ± 3.81 nm. Zeta Potential was found that -37.1±6.32, Percent Drug Entrapment was 91.4±0.37 which indicates that the drug release of lyophilised FBG based nanoscaffolds was indicatively higher as compared to FBG based nanoscaffolds (alone).

Conclusion: As per the study design the formulated nanoscaffolds were found to impart the drug release based on their particle size and percent drug entrapment and hence fights against cancer cells in brain by their EDC-NHS chemistry. Drug of choice Everolimus along with Fbg based nanoscaffolds offers better biocompatibility by exposing dual responsiveness at acidic environment in tumors. The results of in-vitro drug release reveals the better uptake of drug at targeted site of action.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Phytochemicals and Histochemicals of Cyperus rotandus and Its Thrombolytic Activity

N. Prabhu, R. Kiruthiga, R. Kowsalya, S. Jeevitha, M. Vijay Pradhap Singh, A. Archana, T. Gajendran

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 18-30
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i8B35480

Plants are one of the most abundant sources of potentially useful chemical compounds and medicinal properties. As a result, over the last few decades, the market for plant research has been steadily increasing all over the world. The future pharmacological behaviours of Cyperus rotundus Linn. are assessed using a literature review as a basis. Extracts from various sections of the plant (aerial component, tuber, rhizomes, etc.) produce significant amounts of medicinal active compounds, as well as the chemical structures of phytochemical constituents. The aim of this analysis was to look into the thrombolytic action of Cyperus rotandus methanolic extracts. The fraction's thrombolytic effect was studied in clot lysis experiment. In a thrombolytic activity test, the extract caused 60 % lysis of the blood clot, compared to 70.10 % and 4.70 % lysis for the positive control (streptokinase) and negative control (saline water), respectively. As a result, the extract possessed significant thrombolytic activity. To determine which compounds are responsible for the current pharmacological activities, detailed pharmacological and phytochemical studies are needed. The phytochemical research revealed the presence of phytochemical constituents in various solvent fractions. The presence of these phytochemicals was found to be responsible for the plants' in-vitro thrombolytic action.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Relation of Serum Uric Acid & Micro Albuminuria in the Patients of Diabetes Mellitus Type-2 for Early Detection of Diabetic Nephropathy

Madiha Shah, Asif Aziz, Sarwat Ashraf, Shirjeel Husain, Razia Bano, Syeda Nargis Fatima, Salman Shams

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 31-37
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i8B35481

Background: Diabetic Nephropathy is one of the serious and life perilous complications of diabetes mellitus. Prolong duration of diabetes, no proper care and management, poor glycemic control in diabetic nephropathy can lead to End Stage Renal Disease (ESRD).

Objective: To assess the relation of serum uric acid & micro albuminuria in the patients of diabetes mellitus for early detection of diabetic nephropathy.

Methodology: This cross-sectional study was conducted in the Department of Medicine, LUMHS Jamshoro, with a total of 80 diabetic patients as case study subjects and 80 non-diabetic healthy participants as controls. Random glucose was measured using the gluco oxidase technique, and serum uric acid was measured using the uricase enzyme method in a calorimeter. Immunoterbidimetory kit technique was used to calculate microalbuminuria.

Results: The mean value of random blood sugar (RBS) in the control group was 135 ± 10.11  mg/dl, but RBS in the case study group was 224 ± 13.52 mg/dl, indicating that RBS in the case study group was extremely significant (P < 0.001). The mean serum uric acid level in the control group was 4.7 ± 0.6 mg/dl, while it was 6.6 ± 1.4 mg/dl in the case study group, which is highly significant (P <0.001) with correlation (r= 0.34). Albumin in urine in the control group was 10 .2 ± 1.78 mg/gm, while it was 54± 10.34mg/gm in the case study group, which is a significant (P< 0.05) increase in the case study group with correlation (r= 0.28).  In diabetics, serum uric acid and microalbuminuria show a positive connection.

Conclusion: This study concluded that there is strong positive relation of serum uric acid and micro albuminuria in diabetic patients for the early detection of diabetic nephropathy. 

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Anti Inflammatory and Anti Oxidant Activities of Osbeckia crinite

Pallab Kalita, Simanta Medhi, Sudarshana Borah, G. K. Bhargav, Faruk Alam

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 38-46
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i8B35482

Background: Inflammation is a major condition associated with various diseases. Osbeckia crinita (Family- Melastomataceae) plants found in Meghalaya has the traditional beliefs to treat in the various disorders including various inflammatory disorders.

Objective: Evaluate the antioxidant and anti inflammatory activities of the leaves of Osbeckia crinita.

Methods: DPPH Radical Scavenging Activity and Carrageenan induced paw edema in mice.

Results: In the plant extract, various phytoconstituents are present including flavonoids, glycosides, alkaloids etc. Methanolic extract of Osbeckia crinita prominently showed free radical scavenging activities. The extract exhibited statistically significant inhibition of paw volume in a dose-dependent manner.

Conclusion: The study highlights the efficacy of Osbeckia crinita which is an ancient tradition, used in North eastern part of India. This ancient concept should be carefully evaluated in the light of modern medical science and can be utilized partially if found suitable.

Open Access Original Research Article

Apical Sealing Ability of Experimental Apatite Calcium Phosphate based Coated Gutta-percha Points

Afaf Al-Haddad, Muralithran Kutty, Zeti Adura Che Ab Aziz

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 47-53
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i8B35483

Aims: This study aimed to assess the apical sealing ability of experimental apatite-coated gutta-percha points compared to various coated gutta-percha root filling materials.

Study Design: Experimental in-vitro study.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Restorative Dentistry, University of Malaya, June 2014 and November 2014.

Methodology: Ninety-six extracted permanent maxillary central incisors were standardized and prepared by ProTaper universal rotary files. The specimens were allocated into six groups (n=15) and filled using matching single cone technique as follows; EndoREZ points with EndoREZ sealer, Bioceramic coated points (BCGP), Active GP (ActiV GP), Conventional gutta-percha (GP), apatite coated GP (HAGP) all in combination with Endosequence BC sealer. The sixth group was filled using cold lateral compaction of Conventional GP and Endosequence BC sealer. The specimens were subjected to a dye leakage test. The remaining six teeth were divided equally to be used as a negative and positive control. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by the post hoc Dunnett T3 test was performed for data analysis, and the significance value was set at P =.05.

Results: ActiV GP had the least leakage followed by BCGP, HAGP, cold lateral compaction, conventional GP, and EndoRez.

Conclusion: HAGP as root canal filling showed favourable sealing ability comparable to ActiV GP, BCGP, and conventional GP and it was superior to EndoREZ.

Open Access Original Research Article

Prevalence of Hepatitis B among Voluntary Blood Donors in the Industrial Zone of Western Maharashtra

Sushama Gurwale, Merin Jose, Neha Agarwal, Yaminy Pradeep Ingale, Charusheela R. Gore, Col. Harsh Kumar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 54-61
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i8B35508

Around a million deaths are caused by Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection worldwide. Almost more than 257 million people live with chronic Hepatitis B infection all around the world ending up with hepatocellular carcinoma. This has become a major concern of public health nowadays. The present study was aimed to assess the prevalence of Hepatitis B infection among voluntary healthy blood donors in the industrial zone of Western Maharashtra. A total of 5000 donors fulfilled the inclusion criteria of the study and was accepted for blood donation during the study period of May 2019 to October 2020. The blood samples were tested for Hepatitis B surface Antigen as well as other Transfusion Transmitted Infections. Out of 5000 donors, the prevalence of HBsAg positive donors in our study was 0.62%. The HBsAg positivity rate was higher among the males (0.7%) as well as among the age group of 56 to 60 yrs (1.5%). It was concluded from the present study that the prevalence of Hepatitis B is showing a decreasing trend among voluntary blood donors when compared to similar studies. Education and awareness about blood borne infections, mass immunizations, encouragement of voluntary blood donations and vigorous screening of donors help to achieve reduction in the load of Hepatitis B and prevention of transfusion transmitted infection.