Open Access Short Communication

Observational Study Comparing the Safety and Efficacy of Igel Supraglottic Airway Device Insertion in Anesthetised Patients by Anesthesia Faculty versus Residents

Bhavini Shah, Dipanjali Mahanta, Krusha Shah, Jayalaxmi Mohan

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i7B35466

Aims: Successful airway management is the first priority in a variety of emergency care and hospital scenarios. This study was an attempt to compare and find out how quickly a first-time resident can learn to insert an I-gel and secure the airway versus their trained counterparts, thereby proving the effectiveness of this I-gel innovation in airway patency maintenance.

Study Design: Observational cross-sectional study.

Place & Duration of Study: Department of Anesthesiology, Dr. D.Y. Patil Medical College, Hospital and Research Centre, Dr. D.Y. Patil Vidyapeeth, Pune, Maharashtra 411018 India, from August 2021 to December 2021.

Methodology: Two groups of 80 patients belonging to ASA grade I and II, aged between 18 to 65 years, including either gender, posted for elective surgery under GA requiring I-gel Supraglottic Airway device (SAD) insertion, with informed consent. The patients underwent I-gel SAD insertion by Anaesthesia Faculty & Anaesthesia Residents respectively. Baseline vital hemodynamic parameters, the time taken for insertion, number of attempts made and the serial heart rate, arterial pressure, SpO2 and respiratory rate noted at the time of insertion and at one, three- and five-minutes following insertion were noted.

Results: Faculty group outperformed the residents with regards to number of attempts taken and time taken for each attempt, however the numbers in both groups are still comparable with no stark differences.

Conclusions: There’s a very short & easy learning curve for successful i-gel® insertion by novice practitioners as well as paramedical workers, which can be utilized during a variety of emergency care and pre-hospital scenarios with adequate training to ensure adequate airway protection.

Open Access Minireview Article

A Review on Anthracycline Induced Cardiotoxicity- A Mechanism-based Approach

Sachin M. Hiradeve, Vaibhav P. Uplanchiwar, Namrata Mane, Gayatri Katole, Sanjana N. Gaikwad, Mayuri N. Deshmukh, Swati G. Gaikwad, Priya V. Nikam, Abhinav Bais, Vijendra Fulzele, Trupti S. Bobade, Mohd. Hashim Mansoori

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 19-25
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i7B35468

Doxorubicin has become one of the most effective chemotherapeutic agents, but its use was complicated by the development of heart failure. Proposed mechanisms for its antitumor effects included intercalation into DNA that caused the prevention of micro molecule synthesis, DNA cross-linkage and binding, DNA damage due to topoisomerase 2b suppression, reactive oxygen species production, and induction of apoptosis. Several drugs such as ACE inhibitors or the angiotensin receptor blockers, beta-blockers and the CHF therapy are used for the treatment processes. The present brief review of the literature, focuses on literature based on the mechanism of anthracycline-induced cardiotoxicity.

Open Access Original Research Article

Antibacterial Screening and Analysis of Streptomyces coelicolor Secondary Metabolites

Aqeel Ismael Gheni, Ayad H. Hasan

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 26-39
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i7B35469

Aims: The widespread usage of commercially accessible antibacterial agents has resulted in the emergence of multidrug-resistant bacterial pathogens worldwide. Streptomycetes produce a variety of antibacterial secondary metabolites and the study, as a result, will look into the antibacterial potential of Streptomyces coelicolor against some pathogenic bacteria.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was based at the department of Medical Microbiology, Science and Health research center, Faculty of science and health, Koya University. between April, 2019 and December, 2020.

Methodology: The Streptomyces coelicolor strains in this study were verified phenotypically via tryptone soya agar in addition to their genotype using three different sets of primers. Afterwards, Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC) was utilised to purify actinorhodin from the crude extract of S. coelicolor secondary metabolites. The antibacterial activities of the actinorhodin and the crude extract have further been tested against standard strains of Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923), Streptococcus pyogenes (ATCC 19165), Escherichia coli (ATCC 25218), and Salmonella typhi (ATCC 14028). Disc diffusion and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) techniques were both used to serve this purpose.

Results: A significant activity of the organic solvent extract was observed against Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes using the disc diffusion method with diameter zone inhibition of (9-20 mm) and (11-23 mm), respectively. Actinorhodin, on the other hand, showed a reasonable wider effect against them with diameter zone inhibition of (10-24 mm) against S. aureus and (10-27 mm) against S. pyogenes. Comparatively, the MIC test showed akin results by inhibiting S. aureus and S. pyogenes at a MIC value of 16 µg/ml using crude extract. Whereas actinorhodin expressed greater inhibitory activities against S. aureus, S. pyogenes and S. typhi with MICs of (8, 16 and 32 µg/ml), respectively.

Conclusion: The capability of suggested actinorhodin from the L646 strain to inhibit Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes growth with a MIC value of 8 g/ml was a remarkable finding obtained by studying Streptomyces coelicolor secondary metabolites.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation and Quantification of Resistant Gene in Antibiotic Resistant ESBL Producing E. coli in UTI Samples with Diabetes Mellitus: A Molecular Study

Anis Ahmad Chaudhary

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 48-60
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i7B35471

In diabetic patients, urinary tract infections (UTIs) are more common and severe often caused by antibiotic resistance and carry worse consequences, due to high blood sugar level and frequent urination. High blood sugar provides favorable environment for the growth of pathogens and some other impairment in immune system, poor metabolic control and incomplete emptying bladder to enhance the risk of UTIs in the diabetic patients. Most of the UTIs are caused by multidrug resistant, Extended Spectrum β lactamase (ESBL) producing bacteria mostly, Escherichiacoli (E. coli). The prevalence of UTIs caused by ESBL producing Multidrug Resistant (MDR) bacteria is a major global public health concern. The aim of this study was to identify the pattern of multidrug resistance and quantification of resistance genes amongst the E. coli isolates which were obtained from UTI patients with diabetes. ESBL producing stains were found 36% by using amoxicillin/clavulanic acid as a β lactamase inhibitor. Out of these stains, following antibiotics resistance rates were achieved with ampicillin, amoxicillin, amikacin, cefotaxime, ceftazidime, chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, gentamicin, nitrofurantoin, norfloxacin, tetracycline and amoxicillin/clavulanic acid as 100%, and 0%, respectively. The ESBL encoding genes were characterized for CTX-M, TEM and SHV genes. CTX-M gene was found to have resistance in the E. coli isolates, some others genes as TEM and SHV respectively. These characterized genes were analyzed through PCR which is a rapid, sensitive and easy to interpret detection method. Among these isolates, CTX-M was significantly higher 85.4% in the ESBL positive strains (p < 0.05). TEM and SHV were found 12.8% and 6.5%, respectively. Early and proper diagnosis is necessary for the management of UTIs in diabetic patients in order to have an adequate treatment.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Frequency and Importance of Hematological Parameters in Reactive and Clonal Thrombocytosis

Nazia Azam Yousfani, Kousar Parveen, Tabinda Taqi, Sikandar-e-Azam Yousfani, Shazia Bano, Irum Zahoor Memon

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 61-67
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i7B36046

Objectives:  To evaluate the frequency of reactive and clonal thrombocytosis based on age, sex, clinical findings, and severity of thrombocytosis. We also highlight the determination of hematological parameters for the diagnosis of these disorders required the management of thrombocytosis to reduce the morbidity and mortality rate.

Methods: This descriptive experimental study was conducted in the Diagnostic and Research laboratory, Peoples University of Medical and Health Sciences, Nawabshah and department of Pathology, from July 2017 to June 2018. Total 325 patients including 260 patients with reactive thrombocytosis and 65 patients with clonal thrombocytosis, their age ranged between 12 and 45 years and 35 to 68 years were selected. The male to female ratio were 1.5:1 and 2.5:1 while clinical history and clinical examination were noted. The blood samples were taken from all these patients for the analysis of hematological parameters by a hematological analyzer (Nihon Corden) and an iron profile performed for assessment of iron status to confirm the diagnosis of iron deficiency anemia. The examinations of peripheral blood smears and bone marrow smears in the case of clonal thrombocytosis seen in chronic myeloid leukemia essential for the diagnosis.

Results: The mean ages and male to female ratio among 325 patients with reactive and clonal thrombocytosis were 28.5 + 16.5, 51.5 +16.5 and 1.5:1, 2.5:1 ratio were found in this study. The mild to moderate thrombocytosis were found in reactive thrombocytosis while moderate to severe thrombocytosis was detected in patients with chronic myeloid leukemia.

Conclusions: The frequency of thrombocytosis was higher in clonal thrombocytosis than the reactive type.

Open Access Review Article

A Review on Selected South Indian Regime of Tamil Nadu for the Seasonal Management of Communicable Diseases

M. Birundadevi, T. Sivapriya, T. Sindhuja, S. Mathukumar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 7-18
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i7B35467

Communicable diseases are infectious diseases that are caused by microorganisms such as bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa etc. Seasonal change in the infectious disease incidence is a common phenomenon in temperate and tropical climates such as India. The present covid-19 pandemic has become a spotlight on the importance of boosting our immune system and focuses on key gaps in understanding the function of our immune system. While there is an emergence of new strains of viruses and its consequences in today’s world, it urges us to spectate on lifestyle modification through natural measures that focuses on boosting our immunity apart from vaccines. This gap area has developed an interest to review the traditional Siddha texts that explains the disciplines of life for various seasons that specifically directs the daily routines to be followed from the dawn to dusk of the day according to seasons. This Siddha system of medicine is an ancient system of Tamil nadu in India which emphasize on Nithya Ozhukkam (Seasonal disciplines) in order to lead healthy and disease-free life. The latter rainy season (Koothirkalam) can favour the spread of many infectious diseases. Only few research work has been published on literature analysis of ancient texts exploring the science behind its facts. While there is a tremendous interest and research in the health-promoting and protective concepts of traditional systems off late, this review article has unraveled the scientific facts of few selected traditional food regime and the concepts of mukkutra theory (Trihumoural theory) which can be beneficial to boost our immunity against communicable diseases as recommended in ancient Siddha texts.

Open Access Review Article

Mediterranean Diet and Metformin Effects on Gestational Diabetes: A Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials

Amirah Mahdi Alatawi

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 40-47
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i7B35470

Gestational diabetes (GD) is a common and deadly disorder with deleterious effects on both the mother and fetus. The current review assessed the role of the Mediterranean diet and metformin in the prevention of GD. The PubMed, Medline, and Google Scholar databases were searched for relevant articles, and the keywords metformin, Mediterranean diet, and gestational diabetes prevention were used with the proteans AND and OR. Out of the 252 articles retrieved, 48 full texts were assessed, and only nine articles fulfilled the inclusion and exclusion criteria. A data extraction sheet was used to collect the author's name, year of publication, country, methods of the study, risk reduction, odds ratio, relative risk, 95% CI, and P values. Three (33.3%) articles assessed the effectiveness of metformin on GD, and another six (66.7%) investigated the effects of the MedDiet on GD. The studies on metformin showed no reduction in GD (odds ratio, 1.07, 0.79–1.44, P value for overall effect=0.65, I2 for heterogeneity=3%, P value=0.36. Chi-square=2.07, and the mean difference=2), while studies on the MedDiet showed a reduction in gestational diabetes risk ((odds ratio, 0.49, -0.32–0.73, P value for heterogeneity =0.0004, heterogeneity, I =278%, P value for overall effect=0.0005, Chi-square=22.40 and mean difference=5. The Mediterranean diet was effective in the prevention of GD; however, metformin showed no significant risk reduction as an interventional measure.

Open Access Review Article

A Review Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of Plant-Based Metallic Gold Nanoparticles

Shama Parveen, Garima Sharma, Arun K. Khajuria, Anuj Kandwal

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 68-88
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i7B36262

Nanotechnology has become a trending area in the field of science and technology. It has made great advances with the development of functional, engineered nanoparticles. The better advancements made towards the synthesis of nanoparticles using plant materials have become a major focus of researchers because of their advantages including high stability and loading capacity. Recently, zinc oxide nanoparticles have drawn the attention of several researchers owing to their several biological applications including anticancer and antimicrobial activities. Different techniques have been employed for the production of gold nanoparticles due to their elaborated applications in different interdisciplinary fields. The synthetic procedure of plant-based nanoparticles has attracted a keen interest of various researchers as the synthesis is comparatively fast, safe and light and can be followed under basic room conditions without the requirement of any advanced synthesis requirements. Every part of the plants can be used for the synthesis of nanoparticles. Gold nanoparticles play a pivotal role as the most active, environment friendly and biocompatible towards a greener approach. In this review paper, we report highlighted about the various plants extract, which have been used for the synthesis of gold nanoparticles and their biological evaluation based on previous year’s research and scientific papers and journal and articles.