Open Access Original Research Article

Preliminary Investigation on the Prevalence and Antibiotics Susceptibility Pattern of Bacteria Associated with the Spoilage of Avocado Pear (Persea americana) Sold within Abakaliki, Ebonyi State, Nigeria

C. O. Okeh, P. C. Igwe, C. V. Uzoh, O. S. Chukwu, O. J. Owolabi, B. Ugwu, K. E. Aroh, I. Yusuf

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i7A35438

The prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility pattern of bacteria associated with spoilage of avocado pear(Persea americana) were studied.A total of sixteen (16) avocado pear samples were collected from various markets in Abakaliki and these samples were bacteriologically examined.The five (5) bacterial isolates were characterized and identified on the basis of morphological, Gram staining and biochemical tests. The total aerobic plate count was 3.5 x 105 CFU/g. Out of sixteen samples of avocado pear examined, thirty two bacteria were identified which included Staphylococcus aureus 4 (12.5%), Escherichia coli 10(31.2%), Salmonella species 7(21.8%), Shigella species 5(15.6%) and Klebsiella species 6(18.7%). Escherichia coli 10(31.2%) showed the highest percentage prevalence while Staphylococcus aureus 4 (12.5%) showed the least percentage prevalence. Bacteria isolated from the avocado pear samples were highly resistant to more than 55% of the antibiotics tested in this study. E. coli, Salmonella, Shigella and Klebsiella species isolated were also found to be 100% resistant to ceftazidime and oxacillin. The Salmonella and E. coli were found to be highly resistant to over 50% of the tested antibiotics. However, some of the Salmonella and E. coli isolates were also found to be susceptible to gentanicin, ciprofloxacine and ofloxacin. Shigella, Klebsiella and S. aureus were also found to be susceptible to some of the tested antibiotics including ofloxacin, ciprofloxacin and gentamicin. However, the high rates of resistance found in this study showed that some fruits were heavily contaminated with pathogens that may cause infections in humans when ingested.

Open Access Original Research Article

Formulation of Silver Nanoparticles using Gymnema sylvestre Leaf Extract and In-vitro Anti-diabetic Activity

Ajinkya B. Chavan, Swapnil Goyal, Ansar M. Patel

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 39-49
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i7A35450

Aim: Formulation of Silver Nanoparticles Using Gymnema sylvestre Leaf Extract and In-Vitro Anti-diabetic Activity.

Place and Duration of the Study: The present work has been carried out between April-2021 to July-2021 and at Mandasur University Mandsaur, Madhya Pradesh-458001.

Methodology: A versatile technique was implemented for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles using aqueous and alcoholic extract of leaves of Gymnema sylvestre. The Ag-NP was subjected to UV, FTIR, XRD, and particle size analysis. The silver nanoparticles Gymnema sylvestre evaluated its anti-diabetic activity by inhibiting the enzymes α-amylase.

Results: The reduction of silver nitrate to silver nanoparticles was confirmed by UV-Vis spectrophotometer showing a typical resonance (SPR) at about 400 nm which is specific for Ag-NPs. In FT-IR analysis the strong band peak at 3355 cm-1 in the extract is vibration bands, which may be due to the overlapping of amine N-H stretching bands. SEM and EDX images reveal that the particles are spherical and the relatively uniform shape of the silver nanoparticles was confirmed in the range of 70-100 nm in extract, whereas DLS showed good zeta potential and less particle size.

Conclusions: The silver nanoparticles that were biologically synthesized from Gymnema sylvestre were economical, non-toxic, and environmentally benign. Due to the reducing and capping nature of the bioactive Phyto-compounds, present in the aqueous extracts. This extract is found to be suitable for the green synthesis of silver nanoparticles. Synthesized silver nanoparticles exhibit the highest level of anti-diabetic activity by inhibiting carbohydrate metabolizing enzymes such as α-amylase. Therefore, synthesized nanoparticles can be a good therapeutic agent for controlling diabetes by inhibiting enzymes that hydrolyze carbohydrates.

Open Access Original Research Article

Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Children- A Case Study from a Tertiary Care Centre in Maharashtra, India

V. Y. Kshirsagar, Nagza Kakkar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 50-57
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i7A35451

Background: A multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) is associated with coronavirus disease 2019. Understanding the epidemiology and clinical course of multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) and its association with Covid-19 is important, given the clinical and public health implications of the syndrome.

Materials and Methods: This was a prospective observational study carried out in the Department of Paediatrics, Krishna Institute Of Medical Sciences, Karad, Maharashtra, India, over a period of 12 months. Thirty three children, between the ages of 1 month-14 years were studied.

Results: Out of the 67 patients admitted to our paediatrics ward during this period with suspected MISC, 33 patients were confirmed to have MIS-C on laboratory investigations. Involvement of a minimum of two systems was noted. The main clinical manifestations were gastrointestinal (abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting and diarrhoea) and dermatological (rash). Fever was present in all 33 cases. The laboratory investigations were indicative of a pro inflammatory state seen in MIS-C. Positive findings on echocardiography were found in majority of cases.

Conclusion: Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children associated with SARS-CoV-2 has become serious public health problem in the paediatric population, with haemodynamic instability and cardiac dysfunction being the main signs, and rapid resolution with anti-inflammatory therapy.

Open Access Original Research Article

Colposcopic Evaluation of Cervical Lesions with Swede Score and its Correlation with Histopathology

Chirag R. Sharma, N. S. Kshirsagar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 58-64
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i7A35452

Background & Objectives: Cervical cancer is the second most frequent cancer in India, with an estimated yearly diagnosis of 1, 23,907 women and 77,348 fatalities. The prevalence of cervical cancer remains high in poorer nations owing to budget constraints and a lack of access to healthcare. By evaluating cervical lesions colposcopically, this study sought to determine the validity of the Swede score.

Methods: The cross-sectional analytical study lasted two years, from July 2019 to July 2021, at Krishna Institute of Medical Sciences, Karad. 162 women who met the selection criteria underwent colposcopy after informed consent. The suspicious site was biopsied and submitted for histopathology. The Swede score was subsequently validated using histopathology.

Results: With a Swede score of 5 as the cut-off, 108 (97.30 %) of 111 patients with a score of <5 had a normal or low-grade lesion, while just 3 (2.70 %) had high grade lesion. 51 patients with a score greater than 5, 15 (12.20%) had a low-grade lesion and 36 (92.30%) had high-grade lesion.

Using the Swede score of 8 as a cut-off, 123 (87.90%) of 140 patients had a normal or low-grade lesion, whereas 17 (12.1%) had a high-grade lesion. There were high grade lesions in all 22 patients with score of >8.

Interpretation & Conclusions: The test group at Swede score cut-off 5 exhibited a sensitivity of 92.31 % and a specificity of 87.80 % to the gold standard of histopathology. Comparing the test group's Swede score at cut-off 8 to histopathology yielded a sensitivity of 56.41% and specificity of 100%.

Open Access Original Research Article

Synthesis, Characterization and Biological Evaluation N-[5-(1H-indol-3-yl)-1,3,4-thiadiazol-2-yl]methanimine Derivatives

Shruti Hirekurubar, Sanjeevkumar Giri

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 65-70
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i7A36302

A new class of potentially biologically active new 1,3,4-thiadiazol derivatives have been prepared and reported in excellent yields. Its antioxidant properties were examined. It exhibited good activity, which had the highest in vitro anti oxidant properties against DPPH scavenging activity. All these derivatives were characterized by melting point, Fourier-transformation infrared spectroscopy, Nuclear Magnetic Resonan (HNMR and 13C NMR).

Open Access Review Article

Transdermal Drug Delivery System: A Novel Alternative for Drug Delivery

Bharat Lal, Manoj Gadewar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 10-24
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i7A35448

Orally administered pharmaceuticals now account for 74% of all prescriptions, however studies have shown that oral medications are often less  effective due to first pass metabolism and not stable drug blood level etc. Transdermal drug delivery system (TDDS) was developed to enhance such qualities. Every 2.2 years, the FDA grants approval for a new transdermal medication delivery system, fueling a multibillion dollar industry. An extensive evaluation of the technology, business, and products has been warranted since the FDA initially authorized the first transdermal medicine patch around 40 years ago. Transdermal medication delivery systems on demand are made possible by patches, a special kind of patch. The transdermal medication delivery system's adhesive plays a key role in the product's safety, effectiveness, and quality. Compared to more traditional delivery modalities, such as oral or invasive injection, topical therapy provides several benefits. Limiting hepatic first-pass metabolism, improving therapeutic efficacy, and maintaining a constant plasma level are all benefits of transdermal drug administration. Types of transdermal patches, production techniques, mechanism of action, kinetics, clinical concerns, and their physicochemical methods of assessment are all covered in this article.

Open Access Review Article

Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury: A Review

Ankit Mittal, Siddharth Jain, Ratnakar Ambade, Suhas Landge

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 25-38
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i7A35449

Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) injury is now the most debatable ligamentous injury. It has been widely researched over the last 25 years all over the world. Over the last few decades, ACL repair surgery has advanced significantly. Anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR) is a well-accepted and well-established surgical treatment for ACL injuries that are becoming more popular worldwide. The timing of restoration and rehabilitation is critical for a successful outcome. Because each type of transplant has distinct benefits and drawbacks, it is critical to carefully pick the graft for each patient. Ultimately, the surgical procedure should adhere to the fundamental principles of ACL biomechanics and anatomy to ensure proper graft location and a positive clinical result. The present review of literature provides the comprehensive search (various databases such as PubMed, PubMed central, google, google scholar, Scopus, science-direct, etc.) ranging from its history, mechanism, clinical examination, and reconstruction of ACL to its latest development.