Open Access Original Research Article

Comparison of the Effect of Olanzapine, Haloperidol and Quetiapine on the Resolution of Individual Delirium Symptoms in ICU Patients: A Double-blind, Clinical Trial Study

Mohammad Eslami, Seyed Mohammad Jamalian, Mahdi Nikoohemmat, Alireza Kamali, Behnam Mahmoodiyeh

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i6B35432

Introduction: Considering that haloperidol is a first-generation antipsychotic drug known as the primary treatment for delirium, it causes extrapyramidal side effects, and olanzapine and quetiapine are second-generation antipsychotic drugs without extrapyramidal side effects. In this study, we compared the effects of olanzapine and quetiapine with haloperidol on the resolution of individual delirium symptoms.

Materials and Methods: In a double-blind clinical trial study, 90 patients admitted to the ICU in three groups received haloperidol at a dose of 2.5 mg/day, while in the second group, patients received olanzapine at an amount of 2.5- 10.5mg/day. In the third group, they received quetiapine at a dose of 12.5 to 75 mg daily. Then, patients' sedation levels were measured according to RASS criteria, and their disease severity was evaluated according to APACHE II criteria.

Results: During 15 work shifts in the first, second, third, seventh, and tenth days, sedation scores in all three groups decreased significantly (p-v <0.05), and all three drugs were effective in subsiding patients' agitation in 10 days. In the evening and night of the first day, the sedation score in the quetiapine group was higher than the other two groups; however, after the treatment period and in the work shifts of the seventh and tenth days, the patients in the quetiapine group had the lowest sedation score on the RASS scale. Also, after starting drug treatment in the three groups, the mean severity of the disease was significantly different in the three groups (p-v <0.05), so that on the third and seventh day, the olanzapine group had the lowest and the haloperidol group had the highest disease severity. But on the tenth day, the severity of the disease was lowest in the patients in the quetiapine group.

Conclusion: As a result of this study, it was found that quetiapine, olanzapine, and haloperidol had the most significant effect in improving the sedation level of patients with delirium according to RASS criteria, respectively, and the use of atypical antipsychotic drugs had more favorable outcomes than typical ones in controlling patients' delirium.

Open Access Original Research Article

Spectrophotometric Assessment of Benzene 1,3,5-Triol in Pure Forms and in Bulk Sample by Diazotiization Coupling Reaction

Mohauman Mohammed Majeed Al-Rufaie, Aymen Abdul Rasool Jawad, Lamia Abdultef Risan Al-Iessa

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 10-18
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i6B35433

The method was published for determining microgram quantities of benzene 1,3,5-triol (phloroglucinol) in aqueous solution and some bulk samples using an easy, quick, and effective spectrophotometric method. The method uses a diazotization as well as coupling process in basic medium to produce a bright yellow water-soluble dye from Phloroglucinol and diazotized 4-Methoxy aniline That is stable and also has a maximum absorption wavelength of 420 nm. With a molar absorptivity of 1.5989x 104l mol-1 cm-1 as well as index of Sand ell sensitivity 0.001 2, Beer's law is followed across a concentration range of (2-40) of phloroglucinol.The ideal conditions for all color development are detailed, and even the suggested procedures for determining phloroglucinol in aqueous medium as well as some bulk sample  have been successfully employed.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Predictive Influence of Interest in Online Learning of Pharmacy Students’ Achievement in General Biology

Anyaegbunam Ngozi Joannes, Ibe Ebere, Basil C. E. Oguguo, Catherine U. Ene, Agnes O. Okeke, Chidinma B. A. Ugwu, Ngozi A. Ngwu, Chijioke C. Anekpo, Geofrey Ukalla, William O. Onu

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 19-30
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i6B35434

Objectives: This study determined the prediction of students` interest in online learning on their academic achievement in general biology among the first-year undergraduate pharmacy students in Nigeria.

Design: A correlational research design was adopted for the study.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted in Nigeria between 2020/2021 academic session.

Methodology: The study participants comprised of 370 undergraduate students drawn from faculty of pharmacy using multistage sampling procedure. Interest in online rating scale (IORS) and general biology achievement test (GBAT) were research instruments used for the study. The internal consistency reliability indices of the instruments were established using Cronbach alpha and Kudder-Richardson formula 20 (K-R20) to be 0.79 and 0.71 respectively.

Results: The findings of the study showed that students` interest in online learning significantly predicted their academic achievement in general biology. It was also found that the influence of gender on the amount of prediction of interest in online learning on students` academic achievement in general biology was not significant. The study showed that the regression model for predicting students` academic achievement in general biology from their interest in online learning is: BAA = 17.145 + 0.235(SLA) -0.505(SSA) + 0.305(SCA) -1.0143 (ARA) -0.012(ORA).

Conclusion: Interactive online learning platforms and forums where students can have access to question and answers on previous examinations as well as interact with instructors in solving examination problems should be made available. Students should make relentless efforts to engage in online related activities that will stimulate their interest and that teachers and parents should make online learning tools available to students so as to engage them in online learning often.

Open Access Original Research Article

Comparison of Surface Roughness of Two Commercially Available Glass Ionomer Cements after Brushing Simulation with Herbal and Fluoridated Toothpaste - An In vitro Study

S. Obuli Ganesh Kishore, S. Jayalakshmi, S. Balaji Ganesh

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 31-39
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i6B35435

Introduction:  Glass ionomer cement is a restorative material used in dentistry as a filling material and luting cement. Nowadays many consumers have started using natural toothpaste in order to avoid synthetic and artificial products. The aim of this study is to compare the surface roughness of two commercially available glass ionomer cements after subjecting them to brushing simulation with herbal and fluoridated toothpaste.

Materials and Methods: Glass ionomer cements of two different brands (D- tech and gold label) were moulded into small discs of custom sizes. Their surface roughness before subjecting them to brushing simulation was recorded using Mitutoyo SJ 310 stylus profilometer. Then the glass ionomer cement pellets were mounted on die stones. 4 samples of D-tech and 4 samples of gold label were taken. The mounted samples were placed in a tooth brush simulator (ZM3.8 SD Mechatronik). The samples were subjected to 30000 cycles of brushing with standard and herbal toothpastes. After brushing simulation the GIC samples were again checked for their surface roughness using the stylus profilometer.

Results: The values were recorded and analysed in the SPSS software. The obtained results from the one way ANOVA test were depicted in the form of tables and graphs. Surface roughness of D-Tech Colgate group GIC samples was increased after brushing simulation. The p-value is 0.469 < 0.05, hence statistically not significant.

Conclusion: From the results obtained we can conclude that gold label brand glass ionomer cement showed less surface roughness when compared to D tech brand glass ionomer cement after brushing simulation with herbal and fluoridated toothpaste.

Open Access Original Research Article

Study of Factors Involved in Perforative Peritonitis and Its Significance to Mortality and Morbidity

Pulkit Bhalla, C. Z. Pardeshi, A. Y. Kshirsagar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 40-51
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i6B35436

Background: Peritonitis caused by gastrointestinal perforation is one of the most prevalent surgical emergencies worldwide. Early detection and treatment of Perforation Peritonitis may significantly minimize morbidity and death. The result is improved by surgical treatment and good perioperative care. The purpose of this clinical trial is to assess the outcome of perforation peritonitis. Hence the present study was conducted at a tertiary healthcare institute to study factors involved in perforative peritonitis and its significance to mortality and morbidity.

Materials and Methods: It was a Prospective Observational Study, conducted over a period of 18 months at the department of General Surgery, KIMSDU, Karad, among the patients presenting in emergency room of Krishna Institute of Medical Sciences and Research Centre, Karad, between any age group, with symptoms of acute pain in abdomen with gas under diaphragm seen on either chest radiograph or x-ray erect abdomen.

Results: In the present study we assessed the Operative procedures among the study subjects. We observed that open appendectomy was performed among 23.08% study subjects, open perforation closure was performed among 26.92% study subjects, resection and anastomosis was performed among 8.46% study subjects, resection anastomosis and Stomy was performed among 6.92% study subjects, simple closure was performed among 34.62% study subjects.

Conclusions: All the MPI parameters: extension of peritonitis, presence of organ failure, time of presentation, type of exudates, presence of malignancy, age, found to be associated with severity of peritonitis.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Thermocycling on Colour Stability of Alkasite Restorative Material (Cention N) - An In Vitro Study

R. N. Arun Kishore, S. Balaji Ganesh, S. Jayalakshmi

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 52-57
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i6B35437

Introduction: Cention N is an alkasite based dental restorative material, it is far less expensive unlike composite materials, it has fluoride releasing property and the strength of cention N is comparable to that of dental amalgam restorations. Colour stability is one of the major and important characteristics in dentistry, dental restoration and esthetics. The aim of the study is to evaluate the colour stability of alkasite restorative material (Cention N) before and after thermocycling.

Materials and Methods: Eight disc shaped samples of alkasite restorative material Cention N with 2 mm of thickness were prepared using a customised mould. After the disc sample preparation, they were numbered for identification and color stability was measured by using Vita easy shade advance spectrophotometer. L, a and b values were obtained before the thermocycling procedure. 1000 cycles of thermocycling was done which is equal to 6 months. The thermocycler used was TC 4 SD Mechatronik. The colour stability value after thermocycling was again determined using the vita easy shade spectrophotometer. Control group samples were not subjected to thermocycling. The colour stability values prior and after thermocycling were obtained and tabulated.

Results: Thermocycled cention N samples had low delta E values when compared to that of non thermocycled samples. Statistical analysis was done using spss software and independent t test was done. P value was found to be 0.616, showing that it is statistically insignificant.

Conclusion: From this research we can conclude that thermocycling procedure has an effect on the colour stability of the cention N material. Thermocycled cention N samples had better color stability when compared to non thermocycled cention N samples.