Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Antidiabetic Potential of Ethanolic Extracts of Cissus quadrangularis and Cinnamomum tamala - An in vitro Study

R. Priyadharshni, S. Kavitha, R. Gayathri, V. Vishnupriya, J. Selvaraj

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i5B35409

Background: Diabetes is a rapidly growing metabolic disorder of the present generation. Uncontrolled diabetes leads to various complications which in turn affects the vascular system, neuropathy,and more. Medicinal plants are always a good source of drug equivalent  currently present. Antidiabetic drugs lead to a large amount of side effects. A comparative study was made between Cissus quadrangularis and Cinnamomum tamala for its antidiabetic potential.

Aim: To evaluate the antioxidant and antidiabetic potential of ethanolic extract of Cissus quadrangularis and Cinnamomum tamala and to compare its efficacy.

Materials and Methods: Ethanolic extracts of Cissus quadrangularis and Cinnamomum tamala were tested for its phytoconstituents, antioxidant and antidiabetic potential.The data were analyzed statistically by one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Duncan’s multiple range test and it was used to see the statistical significance among the groups. The results with the p<0.05 level were considered to be statistically significant.

Results: Phytochemical screening  showed a strong  presence of flavonoids and terpenoids in both the plant extract. Results showed that plant extract had antidiabetic and antioxidant activity.  Among them Cissus quadrangularis exhibited significantly more antidiabetic and antioxidant activity.

Conclusion: The ethanolic extract of Cissus and Cinnamomum tamala exhibits potent antidiabetic and antioxidant properties. With further invivo and invitro studies the plant extract can be formulated into a potent antidiabetic drug.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Carica Seed Extract on Inhibitory Kappa B Kinase Beta and mTOR mRNA Expression in Lung Cancer Cells (A549 Cells)

Ridha Azimudin, S. Preetha, J. Selvaraj, Sridevi G, Jeevitha M

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 10-17
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i5B35410

Background: Lung cancer is considered as one of the most common causes for cancer-related death globally. Carica papaya is one of the most well-known traditional medicines to treat diseases, and is also known to treat cancer and help in cancer prevention. The study investigates the effect of Carica seed extract on inhibitory kappa B kinase beta and mTOR mRNA expression in lung cancer cells (A549 cells).

Methods: Cell viability test was assessed using MTT assay. mRNA expression of inhibitory kappa B kinase beta and mTOR mRNA was analyzed by real-time PCR. The results was analysed statistically by ANOVA and Duncan multiple range test with graphpad prism version 5 software. p<0.05 was considered significant.

Results: It was observed that there wasmaximum inhibition (50%) at 400-500µg/ml of Carica seed extract. It was also found that the fold change over control of mTOR mRNA expression was significant at 500µg/ml of Carica seed extract and the fold change over control of IKKB mRNA expression was significant (p<0.05) at 400µg/ml in cancer cells treated with Carica seed extract.

Conclusion: Thus concluding that Carica seed extract has been found to have significant anticancer property on A549 lung cancer cell lines, and can be used as a natural product in combating lung cancer.

Open Access Original Research Article

Radiological Shortening of the Ramus: A Reliable Guide for Diagnosis of Unilateral Mandibular Condylar Fracture

Tasneem Zoeb Haidry, Kashif Ali Channar, Aftab Ahmed Kumbhar, Tarique Hussain Shaikh, Ram Pershad, Bahvesh Maheshwari, Sip Narejo

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 18-26
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i5B35411

Aim: The aim of this study was to assess and compare the radiological shortening of the ramal height on an Orthopantomogram (OPG) x-ray and Lateral Cephalogram for the diagnosis of a unilateral condylar fracture.

Study Design: Comparative Study.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Oral & Maxillofacial Surgery (OMFS), Liaquat University of Medical and Health Sciences, Jamshoro, Hyderabad over a period of 6 months.

Methodology: The study included 100 patients coming to the OMFS department, 50 of them with unilateralcondylar fracture made up the patient group, and the other 50 for the extraction of lower wisdom tooth comprised the control group. Both groups were having the standardized OPGs alone with lateral cephalograms with them, age ranging from 18 and above of either gender. The following linear mandibular measurements were obtained in mm such as body length, ramal height and ramal shortening using both of the radiographs, respectively. Mean values of left and right sides of the OPG and the lateral cephalogram were calculated for both the parameters that is ramus height and body length. Comparison of the said parameters was also done, subsequently.The collected data  was analyzed with the software SPSS 21.0 and Microsoft Excel.

Results: A total of 100 patients had been assessed and compared on the basis of the radiological shortening of the ramal height on the OPG x-ray and Lateral Cephalogram. The obtained data showed that there was a decrease in the ramal height on OPG as well as Lateral Cephalogram of the fractured patients compared to the non-fractured side, but there was a decrease in the ramal  height of patients in the control group as well without having any fracture.

Conclusion: The shortening of ramal height measured on an OPG and Lateral Cephalogram cannot be relied upon to diagnose a unilateral condylar fracture.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Strawberry Extract on Tooth Discoloration and Morphology- An in vitro Study

R. Neha, V. Vishnu Priya, Abirami Arthanari, R. Gayathri, S. Kavitha, P. K. Reshma

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 27-36
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i5B35412

Background: Teeth whitening or dental bleaching is a procedure that is most often asked by patients because it is a very effective way to improve the appearance and aesthetics of a smile when compared with other invasive restorative treatments. Strawberry being a natural ingredient helps in the teeth whitening process.

Aim: The aim of the study is to find the effect of strawberry extract on tooth discoloration and morphology

Materials and Methods: Non- carious tooth samples were used for the experiment. Mandibular premolars were used as the samples, in which one tooth was immersed in strawberry extract and the other was in distilling water and kept for three days. The height and size of the tooth were measured to determine morphological changes before and after experiments. The results were compared between the dimensions of both the teeth for 72 hours and plotted into a bar graph.

Results: The results indicated that there were no significant morphological changes between the tooth immersed in strawberry extract and distilled water.

Conclusion: Fruits and leaves of strawberry plants are used to whiten teeth. Chewing strawberries every day can help to nourish the mouth, such as whitening of teeth and making breath more fresher. All these processes take place only if teeth are exposed to strawberry for a long period. Our study established the teeth whitening and anti-decay properties of strawberry extract in the teeth. Further research is required to observe the effect of strawberry extract on teeth in detail.

Open Access Original Research Article

Impact of Glyphosate on the Changes in the mRNA Expression of Neurotransmitters in Experimental Rats

Fharreeha Fathima Anees, V. Vishnu Priya, J. Selvaraj, R. Gayathri, S. Kavitha

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 37-45
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i5B35417

Introduction: Glyphosate, an N-(phosphonomethyl) glycine is the active ingredient in the pervasive herbicide, Monsanto Roundup. It is widely used herbicide worldwide to eliminate unwanted plants both on agricultural and non agricultural landscapes. Glyphosate is used in different formulations and applied in diverse forms including isopropylamine salt, potassium salt, ammonium salt, diammonium salt and dimethyl ammonium salt. Glyphosate can display endocrine –disrupting activity, promote carcinogenicity in mouse skin and affect human erythrocyte. In humans the effects of glyphosate on metabolic health research has not been done to a larger extent.

Aim: To analyse the impact of glyphosate on the changes in the mRNA expression of neurotransmitters in experimental rats.

Materials and Methods: Male albino rats were classified into three groups. Group I:  Normal rats; Group II: glyphosate induced rats with 50 mg/ kg of glyphosate for 16 weeks; Group III:. The glyphosate induced rats with 100 mg/ kg of glyphosate for 16 weeks;Group IV:. The glyphosate induced rats with 250 mg/ kg of glyphosate for 16 weeks. After 16 weeks of glyphosate exposure , the control and induced animals were anesthetized and brain tissue were dissected to analyse the gene expression of  serotonin and GABA alpha .The data were statistically analysed and tabulated.

Results: mRNA expressions of  neurotransmitters such as serotonin receptor and gamma-aminobutyric acid alpha (GABA a)  were significantly (p<0.05) down regulated in glyphosate-exposed rats in a dose-dependent manner (50, 100 and 250 mg/kg b.wt) suggesting that glyphosate exposure causes detrimental changes in the brain tissues in rats.

Conclusion: Our present study for the first time proves that glyphosate  leads to diabetic neuropathy modulating expression of the neurotransmitters such as serotonin and GABA apha.

Open Access Original Research Article

Duration of Postoperative Analgesia with Intravenous Nalbuphine versus Intravenous Butorphanol in Patients Undergoing Short Surgical Procedures under TIVA

Sanjot Ninave, Sudhir Ninave, P. Shiras, Neeta Chaudhari, Aruna Chandak, Vijay Chandak

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 46-53
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i5B34677

Aims and Objectives: To compare the duration of post operative analgesia of nalbuphine 0.3 mg/kg IV and butorphanol 0.04 mg/kg IV in patients posted for short surgical procedures under TIVA. Also to observe the sedation score as well as the side effects like nausea, emesis, pruritis, hypotension, respiratory depression.

Materials and Methods: By closed envelope technique, sixty female patients of ASA Class I and II aged 20-60 years, who were posted for short gynaecological surgeries under TIVA were randomly allocated into two groups: Group N (nalbuphine) and Group B (butorphanol). Just prior to surgery, Group N patients got IV Nalbuphine 0.3 mg/kg, while Group B patients received IV Butorphanol 0.04 mg/kg. Patients were asked to rate their pain intensity on a VAS scale in the course of the postoperative period, and the duration of postoperative analgesia was compared between the two groups. The Modified Ramsay sedation scale was exercised to assess sedation at the time of pain complaint, and patients were additionally monitored for 24 hours post the surgery for any adverse or side effects.

Results: In group N, 63.33% of patients had duration of pain relief ranging 31-50 minutes, with mean duration of analgesia being 46.333 ± 2.061. In group B, 60% of patients had duration of pain relief ranging from 11-30 minutes, with mean duration being 19.167± 1.68 minutes. In group N, 63.33% of patients had score for sedation as 3 and rest (36.67%) had a  score for sedation as 2.       In group B, 80% of patients had a score for  sedation as  2 and rest (20%) had a score for sedation as 1.

Conclusion: When compared to IV Butorphanol, intravenous Nalbuphine delivers a more effective post-operative analgesia with better sedation. IV Nalbuphine is recommended for post operative analgesia in patients undergoing short surgical procedures.  Both the drugs did not cause any side effects.

Open Access Original Research Article

Exploring the Relationship between Bowel Microbiota and Impaired Glucose Tolerance

Attia Ahmed Attia, Alaa Elmetwalli, Jayda G. Eldiasty

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 54-59
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i5B36054

Background and Aim: Because of the large number of genes found in the gut microbiome, it has recently been determined that numerous human microorganisms have significant implications for human health.

Aim: The significance of gut bacteria in the development of T2DM was investigated in this study.

Materials and Methods: Microbial species were extracted from fecal materials; they were identified and quantified using genomic spectrophotometric equipment, and certain biochemical parameters for Diabetes were quantified.

Result: We observed a concentration of firmicutes, Bacteroides, and proteobacteria, with the Escherichia coli population predominating. Biochemical parameters reveal a several-fold raised value for some biomarkers in T2DM. In a paired sample test results gave significant differences for all tested pairs.

Conclusion: Microbiomes can affect the gut environment and trigger alterations that embolden the development of T2DM, according to study findings.