Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluating the Effectiveness of Various Vitamin D Formulations after Treatment

Bhushan Patil, Suyash Ambatkar, Kuldeep Chhatbar, Salahuddin Ahmed, Shrut Vasavada

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i4B35397

Background: Vitamin D hasa vital starring role in bone metabolism which also promotes the absorption of calcium in the intestine. Thus, adequate level of vitamin D is of critical importance. Methods:A prospective, randomized, comparative, parallel-group study evaluated the effectiveness, safety and tolerability of three Vitamin D3 products in patients with vitamin D3 deficiency or insufficiency. These products included soft gelatin capsule, granules, and chewable tablet. Thedosing regimen was once a week for eight weeks. Change in levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D and calcium were analyzed.results : The change in 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels from baseline to week 8, and the results of paired t-test indicated statistically significant rise in 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels in each group. The mean percentage improvement in 25-hydroxyvitamin D was in the order: chewable tablet>capsule>granules. The chewable tablet showed an additional important benefit of highest rise in calcium levels, and the rise was in the order: chewable tablet>capsule>granules. Furthermore, no adverse event was noted in any group. Conclusion: The effectiveness of the chewable tablet in improving both 25-hydroxyvitamin D and calcium levels along with the cost-effectiveness, ease of use, and palatability makes it an attractive choice over other oral formulations in treatment of patients with 25-hydroxyvitamin D insufficiency or deficiency.

Open Access Original Research Article

Comparative Analysis of Short-Course Vs Long Course Antibiotic Therapy among Patients with Complicated Intra-Abdominal Infections

Amir Iqbal Memon, Samina Naz, Aisha Masroor Bhatti, Mashall Siddiqui, Riaz Ahmed Memon, Mansoor Ali

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 7-11
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i4B35398

Background: Complicated intra-abdominal infections have become a major health challenge that merits safe and efficacious therapy. Antibiotic therapy is the treatment of choice, however the duration of antibiotic use is debatable.

Objective: To compare the safety and efficacy of the short course and long course antibiotic therapy towards the treatment and the progressive outcome of patients presented with complicated intra-abdominal infections.

Methodology: This comparative study was carried out on 94 subjects (chosen via non-probability, consecutive sampling), who presented with complicated intra-abdominal infections, had signs and symptoms of infection along with ultrasound abdomen examination consistent with infective foci and routine blood test showing raised total leukocyte count, at the Department of Surgery - Liaquat University Hospital, Hyderabad. Subjects were divided into two groups (47 in each) through a random assignments. Group-A was kept on a short course (5-7-days) while Group-B was kept on a long course (7-10 days) antibiotic therapy. Data were documented using a structured questionnaire, including inquiries related to sociodemographic details, disease specifics, and observed for the outcome variables (mainly postoperative early resolution of infection and long hospital stay).

Results: In Group A, resolution of infection was achieved in 59.57%, 29.79% and 10.64% patients on day 5, 6 and 7, espectively. In Group B, esoluation of infection was only reported as 42.55%, 36.17% and 21.28% on day 5, 6 and 7, respectively. The median duration of taking antibiotic was almost half in short course group than the long. Surgical site infections were commonly observed in Group B patients. There was no mortality observed in both groups. There is no significance difference observed in primary outcome of clinical cure among the groups.

Conclusion: It can be concluded that the short course antibiotic therapy has good efficacy to treat CIAI when the primary foci of infection are surgically extracted with adequate source control.

Open Access Original Research Article

Biochemical and Histological Evaluation of Penoxsulam Herbicide on an Animal Model

Vidushi Chaurasia, M. L. Aggarwal, Manoj Chandra Garg

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 12-23
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i4B35399

Aims: Many herbicides react to the body system and might effect the activity of hormones in the human body. The present work aims to determine the potential impact of 90 days of repeated exposure to Penoxsulam herbicide by oral gavage on the Liver, Kidney, Thyroid endocrine profile and biochemical stress in the wistar rat model.

Study Design: The primary study was performed to Wistar rats grouped into 6 groups. Four groups were picked for low dose, middle dose, high dose, and high recovery dose, respectively. They were administered the Penoxsulam at dose levels of 100, 300, 500 mg/kg body weight. Similarly, 2 recovery groups were classified as control and recovery control groups, and doses were administered to them only through the corn oil (vehicle) via the oral route with the help of a suitable cannula for 90 days.

Place and Duration of Study: Toxicology department, Shriram Institute for Industrial Research, Delhi (INDIA), July 2020 and June 2021.

Methodology: In this study, healthy 60 male and 60 female Wistar rats aged 6-8 weeks, weighing

130-190 gm, were used. Before commencing the study, permission from IAEC (Institutional animal ethics committee) was taken for this experiment (CPCSEA).

Results: This study evaluates significant changes in the body weight of rats; moreover, Penoxsulam elevated the significance level of SGOT, SGPT, BUN, Urea, and Creatinine. No alterations were seen in Hematology parameters and Ophthalmology examination. Also, physiological changes were examined after exposure to penoxsulam in rats.

Conclusion: Therefore, Penoxsulam showed harmful toxic effects on the Kidney and Liver. However, no alteration has been seen in the thyroid profile (T3 triiodothyronine, T4 thyroxine, TSH thyroid-stimulating hormone) of Wistar rats during the experimentation period.

Open Access Original Research Article

Hemodialysis Catheter-Related Infections: Incidence in Temporary Catheters locked with Vancomycin and Heparin vs. Heparin-only

Ahmad Shamim Khan, Muhammad Kashif Khan, Mohammed Zubair, Shakeel Khan, Usman Khalid, Khawar Sultan

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 24-31
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i4B35400

Background: The increasing incidence of end stage renal disease (ESRD) patients initiating hemodialysis (HD) through a temporary HD catheter has caused the rise in catheter related infections and associated morbidity and mortality. An antibiotic lock solution (ALS) for the prevention of catheter-related bacteraemia is a promising strategy. The present randomized control study has evaluated the efficacy and safety of vancomycin as an ALS in 54 patients who required temporary double lumen catheters for HD.

Methods: The patients were randomized to receive either (A) an ALS (vancomycin 5 mg/ml + heparin 5000 IU/ml) – group A; or (B) unfractionated heparin (5000 IU/ml) alone as a catheter lock control – group B. The study duration was of three months and was conducted at the Department of Nephrology, PIMS, Islamabad.

Results: The primary endpoint of the study was catheter related blood stream infection (CRBSI). The vancomycin group (A) had one episode of infection (CRBSI rate = 1.23/1000 days) compared with six episodes in the heparin-locked control group (B) (CRBSI rate = 8.55/1000 days). Mean catheter survival was significantly (p<0.05) more in group A (30.48 ± 5.7days) compared to group B (26 ± 6.5 days). No thrombotic episodes or side effects were recorded.

Conclusion: Vancomycin appeared to be a safe and effective ALS, preventing CRBSI and increasing survival of catheter in HD patients.

Open Access Original Research Article

A Comparison of Haematological Parameters of Obese Individual and Non-Obese at Omisanjana Area of Ado Ekiti, Ekiti State, Nigeria

Emmanuel Ifeanyi Obeagu, Huba K. Rashid, Chukwuma J. Okafor, Precious Omotunde, Zinai Gandu

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 32-36
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i4B35401

Background: The global prevalence of obesity has been on the increase over the years constituting a major public health crisis.

Aim: The study was done to evaluate the haematological parameters of obese and non obese individuals at Omisanjana area of Ado Ekiti, Ekiti State. Nigeria.

Materials and Methods: The study is a hospital based cross-sectional study among obese individual and non-obese individuals. This study was carried out at Omisanjana area of Ado Ekiti, Ekiti State. Fifty (50) obese individuals and fifty (50) apparently non-obese individuals were recruited as controls and enrolled in this study.

Results: The results showed significant difference of MXD (p=0.017), haemoglobin (p=0.000), MCV (p=0.006), MCH (p=0.006), MCHC (p=0.008) and no significant difference in PCV (p=0.064), WBC (p=0.896), LYM (p=0.069), GRAN (p=0.488), RBC (p=0.820), HCT (p=0.061), PLT (p=0.819),

when compared between obese individuals and non-obese individuals respectively.

Conclusion: Subjects with obesity had lower mean haematological parameters such as haemoglobin mean cell volume, mean cell haemoglobin, mean cell haemoglobin concentration, neutrophils values compared to non-obese subjects. While a great majority of the parameters were of normal range for the subjects some were decreased e.g. total WBC count, Platelet and PCV.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Concentrated and Dilute Hydrochloric Acid on Tooth Morphology: A Forensic Study

. Britina, V. Vishnu Priya, Abirami Arthanari, R. Gayathri, S. Kavitha, P. K. Reshma

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 37-46
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i4B35402

Introduction: Teeth are the most durable structure present in our human body because of the presence of enamel which persist and resist destruction more than any other bony structure. Hard nature with high amount of resistance of tissues present in the tooth prevents any destruction which increases the lifespan of the tooth.

Aim: The main aim of this study is to observe the changes in tooth morphology when immersed in  dilute and concentrated hydrochloric acid.

Materials and Methods: Non-caries teeth extracted due to periodontal reasons were used from the department of oral and maxillofacial surgery. The tooth added to alternate dilute and concentrated hydrochloric acid was observed till 6th day and the changes were noted along with the photographs as observations.

Results: The tooth left in concentrated HCl showed rapid dissolution and was completely dissolved within 24 hours. Tooth left in dilute HCl dissolved gradually and showed less dissolution when compared to concentrated HCl.

Conclusion: Most durable teeth also undergo erosion and dissolution when placed in dilute HCl and concentrated HCl. Teeth act as a major clue in the field of forensic odontology.