Open Access Case Study

Case Report on Bipolar Affecting Disorder with Hypertension

Ishwari H. Deotale, Ruchira Ankar, Seema Singh, Arti Raut, Sheetal Sakharkar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 7-10
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i2B35375

Introduction: Bipolar disorder (BD) is one of the foremost frequent chronic disorders in populations where depression is usually present; however, in chronic cases, it can raise the danger of death. Bipolar major Affective Disorder (BPAD) may be a common and recurrent psychiatric disorder that affects people everywhere on the planet. Tt's characterized by episodes of mania, hypomania, hyperactivity, and depression.

Findings of Clinical: A 45-year-old woman from Chandrapur is admitted to the (AVBRH) Archarya Vinoba Bhave Rural Hospital Sawangi Meghe (Wardha), in a mental health ward(Psychiatric ward) with a known case of Bipolar major Affective Disorder. Her relatives brought her to AVBRH, where she is admitted with the chief complaint of low mood, muttering to herself, violent and abusive behavior. A case of bipolar major affective disorder is been identified. Both manic and hypomanic episodes are feasible. Bouncy, jumpy, or wired unusually. Increased activity, excitement, or energy. Feelings of satisfaction and self-assurance that are exaggerated (euphoria). Thyroid function testing and urine analyses were done with a A/B testing A simple randomized controlled experiment was done. A variety of procedures is used, including (CBC) complete blood count, (MRI)Magnetic Resonance Imaging, (CT) scan Computed Tomography, Mental Status Examination, and (ECT)Electroconvulsive Therapy with  Psychotherapy.

Therapeutic Intervention: Olanzapine, sodium valproate, capacitance, and cloze, chlorpromazine are examples of pharmacological therapy given. 

Conclusion: After treatment, the patient's manic episodes stop and her symptoms began to fade.

Open Access Case Study

Case Report on Thrombocytopenia

Bhuvaneshwari B. Pothale, Samruddhi Gujar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 11-15
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i2B35376

Introduction: Thrombocytopenia is an autoimmune condition in which there is an abnormal low level of platelets. This is also called as Thrombopenia. The word Thrombocytopenia is derived from English word “Thrombocyte” which means “Platelet” and Greek word “Penia” which means “Poverty’.

Clinical Findings: Persistent reddish lesion, generalized weakness.

Diagnostic Evaluation : Blood test – Hb-11.2 %,RBC -6.06 million /cu mm , Total WBC Count – 10400 /cu mm , Platelet -0.25 lacs /cu mm , Monocyte – 0.6, Granulocyte – 44 % Lymphocyte -48 % , RDW -15.2 % , HCT-35.8%,Prothrombin Time -1.02 (12.8), APTT (Patient Count ) 30.7 % , RBS -104 mg/dl.

Peripheral Smear: RBCs-Predominantly normocytic mildly hypochromic with few microcytic RBCs seen. Platelets –Reduced on smear. APC -37000 cells / mm cu as per cell counter no haemoparasit seen. Antinuclear Antibodies (ANA) by  Enzyme - linked Immunoassay Lactate Dehydrogenase. Method -0.69 LDH – 205 Ultrasonography – Grade 1 fatty liver.

Therapeutic Intervention: 5 unit platelet concentrate transfusion, Inj. Methyl Prednisolone 500 mg × (2 Days), Tab. Prednisolone 30 mg  Tab. Autrin  , Tab. Metformin 1 gm  , Tab. Glipizide 5 mg.

Outcome: After treatment, patient show improvement. His platelet count was improved and sugar level were normal and his platelet count increased from 0.45 lacs /cu mm to 0.25 lacs / cu mm after platelet transfusion.

Conclusion: My patient was admitted in High Dependency Unit. Archya Vinobha Bhave Rural Hospital with a case of Thrombocytopenia and he had complaint of persistent reddish lesion, generalized weakness. After getting appropriate treatment, his condition was improved.

Open Access Minireview Article

Reactive Sulphur Species and Exposome: A Perspective on Potential Role in Alleviating UV-Induced Stress

Noreen Husain, Ruhayah Abdul Raub, Nurafiqah Binti Nur 'Adzan Fadzil Akbar, Hisyam Abdul Hamid

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 44-53
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i2B35379

Exposome is a field of study that identifies and recognises the impact of environmental exposures on a person's health and development, starting from the prenatal period onward. Oxidative stress is commonly associated as one of the underlying mechanisms of ultraviolet radiation (UV)-induced damage in the skin, due to the overproduction of a reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the body. Evidently, overexposure to UV radiation will cause a disturbance in the ability to balance the ROS levels in the body, leading to damaging effects such as protein modifications, lipid peroxidation, and DNA mutations, which will progress into cell death. Reactive sulphur species (RSS) are molecules that have the capability to oxidise or reduce biomolecules under physiological conditions. In this review, the mechanism of UV-induced cellular damage will be discussed and later lead to the conclusion on how RSS plays an important role in combating oxidative stress induced by UV exposure.

Open Access Original Research Article

Obesity-pregnancy and Associated Risk Factors- A Cross Sectional Study in Hyderabad, Sindh, Pakistan

Ambreen Qureshi, Saira Dars, Bibi Sarah, Hazoora Shaikh, Yasmeen Joyo, Saira Praveen, Arslan Ahmer

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i2B35374

Background: The incidence of obesity between pregnant females in Pakistan is increasing, and has been a greater burden on the obstetric care, the objective of this study is to analyze the effect of obesity on pregnancy and newborn fetus.

Methodology: This is the cross-sectional comparative study, of 200 pregnant females, bearing single fetus, Females were characterized into three groups depending on their body mass index (BMI): class 1 (BMI 30–34 kg/m2); Class II (BMI 35-39.9 kg/m2) and; Class III (BMI ˃40 kg/m2). Maternal and fetal outcomes were assessed using Chi-square and student’s t- test.

Results: Total study population was 200 out of which 65% females were in class I obese (BMI 30–34), while 24.5% in class II obese (BMI 35–39.9kg/m2), while 5% of them in obesity class III, , The obesity shows significant association with pregnancy induced hypertension, gestational diabetes, and Urinary tract infections, in all three groups p = 0.0001, The relationship for perineal tears was found non-significant, p .0.51, among all three obese classes, Obesity and episiotomy has   significant relation  P. 0.002. The method of delivery has strongly significant correlation with obesity, the p value is 0.005.

Conclusion: Pregnant females who are obese have an enhanced hazard of poor gestation results. Specifically, obese pregnant females are having more chances to develop diabetes during pregnancy, hypertension induced by pregnancy, and urinary tract infections. Appropriate strategic plans should be made to decrease the occurrence of obesity in pregnant women for better pregnancy outcome.

Open Access Review Article

Review on Digital Orthodontics

Dhanashri Dhananjay Shelke, Vikrant Vishwas Jadhav, Ayushi Jaiswal, Vaishnavi Gandhi

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 16-26
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i2B35377

Digital technology had a significant impact on our life since the introduction and sophistication of modern days. Medical diagnosis, teaching tools, treatment modalities and surgical techniques were   improved significantly with the help of digital technology in the last two decades. Our review study is based on the orthodontic treatment, which is useful to study precisely the study to achieve proper analysis, and perfect diagnosis. It is now commonplace to perform virtual treatment planning as well as translates the plans into treatment execution with digitally   driven appliance manufacture and   its placement using various CAD/CAM techniques from printed models, indirect bonding trays and custom-made brackets. furthermore, it became more possible to remote monitor treatment and control it.

The field of orthodontics in its new era is venturing ahead to more up-to-date technological point of view. Digital technology has a significant effect on our lives ever since the modernization of mobile phones. The advances in technology have remodelled the diagnosis and treatment plan in the field of medicine. Digital workflows are currently increasing in the orthodontic practice and has touched every aspect of orthodontics - with transformations in the documentation, study casts, analysis of a dental malocclusion, smile designing, treatment planning and for fabrication of orthodontic appliances.

Three-dimensional imaging of the dentition, skeletal components and the face allows for treatment planning in three dimension and use of computer aided design (CAD) and computer aided manufacturing (CAM) for customization of orthodontic appliances. Software integration of digital models, 3D facial imaging, and cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) make it possible to simulate the treatment plan and to attain good communication with the patients. Recent advancement in digital videography has allowed the clinicians to capture patient's speech, oral and pharyngeal function, and smile at the same time [1].

Effective and optimal tooth movement required for the patient can also be monitored with the digitalization. Moreover, this digital platform has created the advantage of accessing the patient's information from any location with the help of cloud-based computing storage systems. These advancements have improved the efficiency, accuracy, consistency, and predictability of the treatment outcomes and have also led to progress in educational component and communication. The digitalization is bringing about a revolutionary change in the field of diagnosis and treatment planning, posing a challenge to clinical efficiency and knowledge.

Open Access Review Article

A Glimpse of Therapeutic Potential of Seed Kernel of Medicinal Plants with Special Reference to Bhavprakash Nighantu: A Clinical Perspective

Priyanka Wate, Rita Mandle, Sneha Vidhate

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 27-43
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i2B35378

Medicinal plants show significant importance to mankind. Each and every part of plant exhibit different therapeutic activity. In Ayurveda, like medicinal fruits, seeds are also considered as potent drugs. Seeds not only beget plants but they are of healing properties too. Most seeds are used as whole powder in various diseases but their kernel or oil also possess therapeutic potential. This article has highlighted review of potential therapeutic agents from beej majja of Phal Varga of Bhavaprakasha Nighantu. This study will lead to widening of therapeutic spectrum in treatment of various ailments with the use of powdered seed kernel (Beej Majja) or seed oil (Beej Taila).