Open Access Case Report

Delta Fixation for High-Grade Spondylolisthesis: Technique, Indications and an Adult Case Report

Sarthak Gupta, Sohael M. Khan, Venkatesh Dasari, Shashank Jain, Pradeep K. Singh, Suvarn Gupta

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 182-186
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i64B35372

Introduction: Spondylisthesis is a condition with 4% prevalence, with high-grade spondylolisthesis (HGS) being 1/5th of total. Majority of HGS cases are reported in children, and uncommonly in adults. High-grade spondylolisthesis is resistant to conservative management and requires surgical fixation. There are multiple options in surgery such as anterior fusion, anterior-posterior fusion, posterolateral bone-only fusion, posterior lumbar interbody fusion, transvertebral pedicle screw fixation, and posterior trans sacral interbody fusion. The main challenge in these surgeries is to achieve adequate decompression, stabilization, and fusion. During these procedures, specially in the reduction of long-standing listhesis, the reduction maneuvers used may lead to neural damage. No reduction needed if sagittal balance balance is present.

Methods: We report a case of a 62 yr old female, presenting with chronic low backache for 18 yrs with radiation to bilateral lower limb.  Patient had bilaterally positive SLR and hypoesthesia on the left L5 dermatome, with no motor deficit. Xray and MRI showed grade III spondylolisthesis at L4 over L5 with elongated pars interarticularis. The case was treated by Transdiscal fixation and posterior decompression.

Conclusion: On follow-up, for 6 months the patient is asymptomatic with no pain on SLR though paresthesia persisted. The Delta fixation with transdiscal pedicle screws is a good option for adult long-standing high-grade spondylolisthesis with good sagittal balance.

Open Access Case Report

Acute Non-Haemorrhagic Contusion: A Case Report

Jaya Nagrale, Priya Rewatkar, Aniket Pathade, Nitin Wange

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 473-478
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i64B35918

Introduction: The most common type of brain injury is traumatic brain injury (TBI). severe of all traumatic wounds, typically keeping physical, cognitive, behavioral, and emotional deficits. TBI is estimated to cost $60 billion a year including medical care in the United States expenses and lost productivity costs making it one of the cost healthcare expenses. Thurman et al., 1999; Langloisetal.,2006; Selassieetal.,2008; Langlois and others. Langlois .and others, 2006). To begin, we’ll go at the theory, which states that a latent or explicit coagulopathy causes Bleeding from microvessels that were fractured during the primary injury may continue or be delayed.

Main Symptoms and the Important Clinical Findings: A male patient was admitted to Acharya Vinoba Bhave rural hospital on dated 17-07-2021 with the chief complaint of sudden paralysis in right upper limb and lower limb since 11/7/2021 exact time not know H/O RTA  9 years back with head trauma. After a physical examination and investigation, the doctor diagnoses a case of acute non-hemorrhagic contusion since at the 3 years back for which he was hospitalized for 20 days after the investigation was observed he took treatment for that and his outcome was good. acute non-hemorrhagic contusion depending on the severity of injury Headache confusion dizziness loss of nausea. Vomiting seizures, difficulty with coordination and moment lightheadedness, tinnitus, and spinning sensation.

Main Diagnostic Therapeutic Intervention and Outcome: After a physical examination and investigation doctor diagnoses a case of acute non-hemorrhagic contusion Tablet Levepsy 500mg BD, Tablet Dolo 650 mg TDS, Tab pantoprazole 40 mg BD, Tab Atorva40 mg given to a patient. The patient response to all medication and his outcome was good. trying to reserve any signs and symptoms that have appeared Doctor advised follow-up after 1 month a Sonography, blood investigation, and other examination to know the further disease progression. trying to reserve any signs and symptoms that have appeared Doctor advised follow up after 1 month a Sonography, blood investigation, and other examination to know the further disease progression.

Conclusion: Trying to reserve any sign and symptoms that have appeared Doctor advised follow up after 1 month a Sonography, blood investigation, and other examination to know the further disease progression.

Open Access Case Report

Transitional Cell Carcinoma with Distal Urethra: A Case Report

Achal Umesh Shendre, Shakib H. Sheikh, Roshan Umate, A. R. Bhagat Patil

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 502-506
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i64B35922

Introduction: Transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) of the ureter, also called urothelial cell carcinoma (UCC) of the ureter, are uncommon compared to similar tumors elsewhere along the urinary tract but are nonetheless the most common primary tumor of the ureter. Transitional cells can stretch and change form. The lining of the renal pelvis, ureters, bladder, and urethra is made up of them. In the body, there are many different types of cells, each with its function. Transitional cells can stretch and change form. They are the cells lining line the inside of the renal. When urine is stored in or flowing through these organs, the lining required cells that can stretch to extend. TCC of the kidney begins in the renal pelvis. TCC may begin in the ureters, bladder, or urethra.

Patient Information: A 75 years old male was admitted to Acharya Vinoba Bhave Rural hospital sawangi meghe Wardha with chief complaints of low urine output vomiting, loss of appetite, swelling of the abdomen crampy abdominal pain that comes and goes.

Therapeutic Intervention and Outcomes: The emerging technique of CT urography allows detection of urinary tract tumors and calculi, assessment of perirenal tissues, and staging of lesions; it may offer the opportunity for one-stop evaluation in the initial assessment of hematuria and follow-up of TCC. Similar MR imaging protocols can be used in patients who are not candidates for CT urography, although detection of urinary tract calcifications may be suboptimal.

Open Access Systematic Review Article

Unveiling the Dermatological Manifestations of COVID-19 Infections

Sankalp Khanke, Sanket Bakshi, Sandip Mohale

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 495-501
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i64B35921

Background:  There have been over 86 million global confirmed cases to date, and the disease is known to have a 2.2% case fatality rate, having claimed over 1.87 million lives. They were initially regarded as a purely respiratory disease with symptoms of viral pneumonia such as fever, fatigue, dry cough, and lymphopenia. The widespread coronavirus disease is aimed at the Arial route of the tramsmission. Furthermore, the constant mutations in the virulence factors of the virus lead to the effectiveness of the treatment regimens. Covid-19  disease is mainly known to be a pulmonary infection, giving rise to pulmonary fibrosis, focuses and leads to severe pneumonia and ulyimately gives a fatal result iof not treated promptly. The pulmonary but extrapulmonary manifestations of this disease are also seen—cardiovascular, renal, nervous and dermatological, and immune system. The exact pathogensis and the etiology of the extra pulmonary manifestation of covid to the cutaneous prognosis are not yet well known. The virulence factors, the antigens of the virus that exacerbate the dermatological symptoms. The virus causes dermatological symptoms in urticarial rashes, eczematous infections, and mucocutaneous depositions. The exact mechanisms of the disease’s progress to the dermatological variant are not known; however, this review will concentrate on the cutaneous manifestations of Covid-19 disease and the variant nature of the infection. The widespread coronavirus disease is aimed at the Arial route of transmission. Furthermore, the constant mutations in the virulence factors of the virus lead to the in effect ness of the treatment regimens. Covid-19 disease is mainly known to be a pulmonary infection, giving rise to pulmonary fibrosis, focuses and leads to severe pneumonia and ultimately gives a fatal result iof not treated promptly. The pulmonary but extrapulmonary manifestations of this disease are also seen—cardiovascular, renal, nervous dermatological and immune system. The exact pathogenesis and the etiology of the extrapulmonary manifestation of covid to the cutanenous prognosis is not yet well known. The virulence factors, the antigens of the virus that exacerbate the dermatological symptoms. The virus causes dermatological symptoms in urticarial rashes, eczematous infections, and mucocutaneous depositions.

Open Access Systematic Review Article

BMI Index and ABO Blood Grouping Influence on Pain Perception: A Systematic Review

A. Tanvi, R. Deepak, D. Amit

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 648-654
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i64B36113

Establishment on The stream exact review considered investigation dispersed inside the 10 years going before June 2020, dealing with the subject of obesity and pain and abo blood groups. Inside the setting of the perplexing natural and social interrelationships among these marvels, we hoped to perceive openings in the composition and to include key concentrations for future transdisciplinary research. The overall thought norms were that the included examinations could directly add to our understanding of these perplexing research.

We glanced through PubMed/Medline/Cochrane/science direct/Embase informational indexes returning 10 years, using the fundamental chase terms "weight" and "pain,abo blood grouping," and for a discretionary request we used the pursuit terms "pain" and "abo blood,obesity."

Results Included assessments (n= 90) are in a general sense human; regardless, some animal considers were joined to further develop appreciation of related fundamental natural wonders or possibly where human data were missing or inside and out limited.

Open Access Case Study

A Case Report on Diagnostic Evaluation and Management of Chikungunya

Alfiya Sheikh, Pallavi Dhole, Aniket Pathade, P. S. Pande

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 479-483
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i64B35919

Introduction: Chikungunya virus is spread by Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus mosquitos, which are found throughout the Asian, European, African, and American continents. Infection with the Chikungunya virus is spread via mosquitoes. (CHIKV). Fever and arthralgia are the most common symptoms. The same mosquitos that cause Chikungunya also spread Dengue and Zika viruses, and there have been occurrences of coinfections. To tackle the infection, there is currently no vaccine or specific therapy available. The goal of treatment is to reduce the severity of the disease's symptoms.

Patient Information: A 33-year-old male was admitted to AVBR hospital with a chief complaint of fever, & severe joint pain for 3 days, headache, muscle pain, nausea & vomiting.

Main Symptoms:  He has the chief complaint of fever, & severe joint pain for 3 days, headache, muscle pain, Nausea & vomiting after careful history collection, physical examination, Complete blood count, RBS, CT scan, MRI Etc. my patient diagnoses as chikungunya.

Medical Management: Patient was provided with the medication as prescribed by the doctor. Among the major drugs are antipyretics, analgesics such as Tab. Paracetamol, Tab. acetaminophen, Tab. Emset.

Nursing Perspectives: After diagnosis, the patient’s vital signs are monitored hourly as medications are administered as per doctor’s prescription, maintaining the IV fluid 4 hourly with a concise record of an intake and output chart.

Conclusion: Patient’s health condition improved following early diagnosis and timely treatment of infection.

Open Access Study Protocol

Study of Clinical Profile and Association of Migraine with Dyslipidemia

Anamika Giri, Sourya Acharya, Sunil Kumar, Anand Bakre

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i64B35321

Background: Headache is common neurological problem experienced by ninety percent of the subjects globally. Prevalence of primary headache, mostly due to migraine, is ten to fifteen percent among the subjects worldwide and is the most disabling amongst the primary headache syndromes. This study intends to find out the clinical profile of migraine and investigate its association with dyslipidemia Also it will assess the effect of dyslipidemia on migraine’s severity, frequency and intensity.

Methods: This Observational Cross sectional study will be conducted at AVBRH, Wardha. Routine clinical and biochemical tests, lipid profile, and neuroimaging of the patients will be carried out. Lipid profile parameters will be compared with migraine severity.

Expected Results: A positive correlation is expected between the frequency, severity, and intensity in attacks of migraine.

Conclusion: Aderanged lipid profile have profound effect on migraine attacks. The severity of intensity is aggravated in cases of deranged lipid profile.

Open Access Study Protocol

Comparative Evaluation of the Stress Distribution and Transverse Displacement of the Circummaxillary Sutural System by Four Different Designs of Rapid Maxillary Expansion Appliances Using 3D Finite Element model: A Study Protocol

Pratiksha Lakhe, Smit Jhaveri, Ashish Nasre

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 8-12
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i64B35322

Background: In adolescent patient’s Rapid maxillary skeletal expansion (RME) is used with predictable clinical results for correcting transverse maxillary skeletal contraction. During RME, heavy force is directed towards the maxillary skeletal base. These forces also have effect on the palatal bone, adjacent skeletal structures and dentition. Tooth supported RME apply significant pressure on the teeth leading to varying amount of buccal inclination of premolars and molars and dental expansion. Implant assisted expanders take skeletal anchorage thus minimizing or negating the effect of heavy pressure on the teeth and supporting structures. Finite Element Analysis is a form of computer simulation. It is a non-invasive, precise method for obtaining quantitative and comprehensive knowledge about the physiological responses that occur in tissues. It outperforms other experimental methods because it creates a three-dimensional model that allows for simulation and analysis of orthodontic force systems in all three dimensions.

Objective: The present study intends to make an assessment of four different RME designs (Banded HYRAX, Banded MARPE, MSE expander, Orthoeasy PAL expander) in terms of distribution of stress in the circummaxillary Sutural system and resulting displacement of the bones in the craniofacial complex upon activation of the respective appliance.

Methodology: CBCT scan data of an adolescent patient will be taken from archives of a reputed scan centre. 3D skull model will be generated using CBCT data and .stl/ DICOM format will be converted into Finite Element model. The different types of RME appliances will be designed over the FE model. The expanders will be activated and the stresses generated at the sites of interest would be studied.

Results: The study is expected to permit a clinician to select the design of RME appliances, which will produce suitable stress and displacement that will help to increase transverse width of maxilla to correct the underlying skeletal discrepancy.

Conclusion: This study will help to arrive at a conclusion about which designs of RME will best suit clinical application of mechanics for orthopaedic expansion in a particular case.

Open Access Study Protocol

Comparative Efficacy of Knotless (Polyglyconate) Over Conventional (Poliglecaprone 25) Suture as a Wound Closure Material in Mandibular Impacted third Molar Surgery (MI3M)

Pooja Agrawal, Anendd Jadhav

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 92-99
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i64B35327

Background: The third molar surgery is the most commonly practised minor oral surgery in dental clinic. Post-operatively the patient suffers from pain, swelling and trismus due to tissue injury during surgical procedure. After extraction of third molar, conventional sutures are used for primary closure of the wound. During the procedure the clinician get difficulties intra-orally related to knot placement, limitation of instrument accessibility and knot slippage. Barbed sutures are the knotless suture which help in adhering the tissue while suturing.

Objectives: The primary focus of the study is to evaluate the efficacy of knotless suture as a wound closure agent in terms of post-operative pain, swelling, trismus, degree of wound healing and quality of life over the conventional one.

Methodology: Two groups (study & control) with 20 individuals as subjects are considered for the study model. Systemically healthy individual with presence of at least one mesioangular or horizontal or vertically oriented mandibular impacted third molar(MI3M) with similar difficulty index, depth of, and relationship with ramus will be included in the study sample. Wound closure would be achieved by using 3-0 knotless suture using continuous sub-cuticular suturing technique for the study group and 3-0 conventional suture using simple interrupted suturing technique for control group respectively. Post-operatively measurement of pain, swelling, trismus, degree of wound healing and quality of life will be done.

Expected Results: Knotless suture for closure of wound after MI3M surgery will be effective in reducing post-operative pain, edema and trismus and also helpful in better wound healing and improve quality of life.

Conclusion: Use of knotless barbed suture after surgical removal of lower impacted third molar to simplify intra-oral suturing technique and to reduce post-operative pain, swelling, trimus and knot related complications would be a familiar and effective way which could be executed by a dental practitioner himself.

Open Access Study Protocol

Assessing the Efficacy of Low-Dose Topical Atropine (0.01%) for Controlling the Progress of Myopia among School Children

Praveena Kher, Avi Sharma

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 123-130
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i64B35336

Background: It is one of the most common abnormalities of human eyes and its incidence has dramatically risen in incidence in the last few decades. Myopia may lead to irreversible vision loss. A number of studies reflect on the effectiveness of low concentration atropine in controlling myopia. Atropine is used topically as a cycloplegic for the accommodation reflex and as a mydriatic for pupillary dilatation. Since myopia is leading cause of diminution of vision in early childhood, use of atropine (0.01%) in early stages can provide regression in myopic changes in eye. This study aimed to assess the change in spherical equivalent, changes in axial and keratometry values and retinal degenerative changes in cases of myopia treated with low dose atropine.

Methodology: The enrolled cases of myopia will undergo thorough ophthalmological examination and will be randomized into intervention and control groups. All cases in intervention group will be treated with low dose atropine (0.01%) eye drops at night and will be followed up every 6 months for examination. The control group will be provided refractive spectacles and also followed up every 6 months. The data from both groups will be compared and analysed.

Expected Results: Significant reduction in the progression of Myopia among school going children is expected with administration of 0.01% atropine eye drops.

Conclusion: Use of atropine (0.01%) in early stages can provide regression in myopic changes in eye.

Open Access Study Protocol

Assessment of Patient’s Satisfaction about the Availability of Medicines at Hospital and Cost Affordability: A Study Protocol

Priyanka S. Pariyal, Ahmindra Jain, Vandana Gudhe

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 154-160
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i64B35340

Background: Consumer satisfaction towards pharmacy services is an essential instrument for measuring the quality of pharmacy services offered to patients and the distribution of pharmacy care in hospitals. The obstacles to better health care services are inadequate access to quality drugs, high drug rates, poor education and lack of access to qualified health professional. Patients who are happy with the pharmaceutical provider are more likely to take medications properly and are less likely to replace health care providers. High quality of pharmaceutical service is required in order to sustain a consistent relationship with patient needs. This study aims to assess the patient’s satisfaction about the pharmacy services, availability of drugs/medicines and its cost affordability at AVBR Hospital Wardha.

Methodology: This will be a descriptive cross-sectional research conducted at AVBRH, Wardha. Patients will be randomly selected and structured questionnaire will be administered with patients and pharmacists. The collected data will be analysed with suitable statistical tests.

Results: Result will reflect the patient satisfaction level with pharmacy services provided at hospital pharmacy and retail pharmacy of AVBRH.

Conclusion: Conclusions will be drawn on careful analysis of results.

Open Access Study Protocol

Comparison of Conventional and Microwave Bone Decalcification Methods by Using 10% Nitric Acid: A Research Protocol

Sahitya Vodithala, Yugeshwari R. Tiwade, Sunita Vagha

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 168-174
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i64B35370

Background: In bony specimens, elimination of calcium is obtained by a method known as “Decalcification”. It is completed through the means of chemical agents such as acids, chelators etc that combine with ions of calcium. Decalcifying agent is used in regular conventional method where the hard tissue is placed at a room temperature (20-25°C) with modifications of the solution at orderly intervals until the final cutoff point is obtained. Usage of microwave oven for the process of decalcification is a new and fast method in contrast to the routine conventional method of decalcification. In this study, an attempt has been made to regulate and compare the conventional procedure of decalcification with decalcification done by microwave oven of hard tissue specimens by using nitric acid of 10% concentration with regards to decalcification speed, conservation of tissue architecture as well as productiveness of staining.

Objectives: The study will made a comparison of Conventional and Microwave Bone Decalcification Methods by using 10% Nitric Acid.

Methodology: This prospective analytical study, will include decalcification of 30 hard tissue specimens by microwave method and conventional method. The results will be compared in terms of decalcification speed, conservation of tissue architecture and staining productiveness. Necessary tests will be applied to analyze the data.

Expected Results: Significant advantages of microwave method are expected over conventional method of decalcification.

Conclusion: The conclusion will be drawn based on careful analysis of the results.

Open Access Study Protocol

Assessment of Anatomical and Histological Changes in Splenomegaly Due to Liver Cirrhosis by Use of Sharpunkha: An Experimental Study

Rajni K. Gurmule, Priti Desai

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 205-211
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i64B35415

Splenomegaly is the disease commonly affecting normal anatomy and histology of spleen. It remains undetectable and worsens as the time passes and person suffers from stressful life. It leads as a consequence of many diseases. One of them important disease is Liver cirrhosis. In Ayurveda also relation of liver and spleen is depicted emphatically. Yakrita and Pleeha are described as Moolsthana of Raktvaha Strotasa and site of Raktadhara Kala and which are the important aspects of Ayurvedic Rachana Sharir. The facts regarding liver cirrhosis and splenomegaly are very much serious which has provoked us to think about to detail study of splenomegaly due to liver cirrhosis. There is no absolute treatment of splenomegaly till date. In Bhavprakasha, there is reference regarding Sharpunkha (Tephrosia Purpurea)that it is “Pleehashatru” showing that it might acts on the spleen and cures splenic disorders. But there is evidence base gap regarding efficacy of Sharpunkha on Splenomegaly. Kshara or Churna of Sharpunkha Panchanga are described as its useful preparations. There is no work done till date showing action of Sharpunkha Panchanga Kshara or Churna on Splenomegaly and there is deficit of study showing alteration in anatomy and histology of spleen affecting due to splenomegaly by using Sharpunkha. So it is needed to study effect of both Kshara and Churna separately and compare them so that we can use Panchanga Kshara or Panchanga Churna with more specificity. It can be a new modality in the field of Ayurvedic science to study effect of Sharpunkha Panchanga Kshara and Panchanga Churna on Splenomegaly showing changes in anatomy and histology of spleen affecting due to splenomegaly. Also with the help of that “Pleehghan Prabahva” and classical assert as “Pleehashatru” of Sharpunkha can be proven.

Open Access Study Protocol

Correlation of IDH1-(R132H) and ATRX Expression with the Histopathological Grades of Glial Tumours: A Study Protocol

Pooja Jha, Samarth Shukla, Sunita Vagha, Ravindra P. Kadu

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 212-218
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i64B35420

Background: Brain tumors contribute significantly to morbidity as they can lead to neurological deficits, mental alterations and have a poor survival rate. The utmost frequent varieties of primary brain tumors are gliomas. Modern data on permeated gliomas showcased persistent modification within the involved genes in the chromatin remodeling routes such as α-thalassemia/mental-retardation syndrome-X-linked gene (ATRX) and IDH1. Till date, the authenticity of ATRX in predicting isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH1) mutations in gliomas, is unclear. This study attempts to assess the correlation between IDH1 mutation and ATRX expression and histopathological grading in glial tumors.

Methods: This will be a retrospective analytical study conducted in Pathology Department, of JNMC, Wardha in coordination with the Department of Neurosurgery, AVBRH. This study will include histochemical analysis of 45-50 resected specimens of confirmed cases of Glial tumours. The correlation between IDH1 mutation and ATRX expression with the histopathological grades in glial tumors will be analysed in comparison with the present-day molecular advances.

Results: Significant correlation between IDH1 mutation and ATRX expression with the histopathological grades is expected.

Conclusion: Conclusion will be drawn on careful analysis of data.

Open Access Study Protocol

Evaluation and Assessment of the Expression of DNA Damage Response – Related Molecules in Oral Submucous Fibrosis (OSF) and Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma (OSCC) with OSF

Bhupesh Bagulkar, Alka Hande, Minal Chaudhary, Madhuri Gawande, Tarun Verma, Manoj Patil, Hem Chandra Jha

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 219-225
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i64B35421

Background: Oral submucous fibrosis (OSF) is the most common chronic, progressive and irreversible potentially malignant disorder with high probability of malignant transformation (MT). From a clinical as well as the histological point of view, establishing and understanding the molecular nature of malignant transformation mechanism in OSF is almost important. The majority of genetic alteration caused by exogenous and endogenous mutagens is restored by the cell’s ability by DNA Damage Response (DDR). DDR mechanism dysfunction is one of the leading causes of MT. In OSF, this investigation remains scare.

Objectives: To determine the DDR molecules expression (γΗ2ΑΧ, 53BP1, pChk2 and p53) in subjects with habit of arecanut and tobacco without OSF, OSF and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) with OSF and compare and quantify the expression among them.

Methodology: Material and Methods: 90 subjects with 30 individuals in one of the three groups would be included in the given study. Group A: Subjects with habit of arecanut and tobacco without OSF. Group B: Patients with OSF. Group C: Patients having OSCC with OSF. DDR molecule (γΗ2ΑΧ, 53BP1, pChk2 and p53) expression will bequantified by RT-PCR. The expression levels will be analyzed using SPSS software version 17 using one-way ANOVA, followed by post hoc comparisons using Tukey’s HSD and Categorial data will be analysed using the chi-squared test.

Expected Results: The OSF lesion prone for development of OSCC, DDR markers (γΗ2ΑΧ, 53BP1, pChk2 and p53) will accumulate before the development of p53 mutation resulting in OSCC

Conclusion: Thus, the present study assess and quantify DDR-related molecules (γΗ2ΑΧ, 53BP1, pChk2 and p53)in OSF patients suggesting the potential benefit in the prevention of OSCC due to early therapeutic exploitation of DDR.

Open Access Study Protocol

Study of Fissure Soles: Prevalence and Their Association with Various Dermatoses

Sunil Petkar, Pratima Waghmare, Ketaki Sankhe, Pravin Maheshawari

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 226-230
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i64B35422

Heel fissures are splits or cracks in the epidermis, which can manifest as a consequence of anhidrosis and may or may not present with hyperkeratosis. Epidermal fissures are superficial and not considered to be a wound at this early stage. However, with increased pressure these splits become deeper, involving the dermis so that they begin to bleed and result in pain on weight-bearing activities. These fissures are regarded as partial-thickness skin wounds and are at increased risk of developing infection.

In Theory anyone can get a cracked heel or fissure soles but certain conditions predisposing to fissure soles are  Congenital causes - Juvenile Plantar Dermatosis

Acquired causes - Eczema, Atopic Dermatitis, Tinea pedis,Psoriasis especially Palmoplantar psoriasis, Palmoplantar Keratodermas, Leprosy, Systemic causes-Diabetes mellitus, Hypothyroidism, Scleroderma, Rheumatoid arthritis.

Open Access Study Protocol

Nerve Conduction Study in Healthy Elderly Subjects in Central India

Avinash B. Taksande, Alka Rawekar, Sunil Kumar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 240-245
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i64B35424

Background: Electrodiagnostic study is performed in a neurophysiology lab diagnosed peripheral neuropathy. Effect of ageing on nerve and muscle inform of muscle contractility decreased, change in the metabolism of muscle and neuromuscular junction transmission and reduced nerve conduction velocity. As the ageing population increases, information regarding the course of normal ageing, its impact on the nervous system, ways to maintain wellness, and disease that impact the elderly and their management is necessary. Therefore, this proposed study aims to elucidate the effect of physiological factors (height, Body Mass Index and gender) on nerve conduction study and find out the normative data for healthy elderly subjects in central India.


1) To establish normative data of nerve conduction study in Ulnar, median Tibial, and Peroneal nerves in normal healthy elderly subjects.

2) To find out the effect of height, body mass index and gender on nerve conduction in healthy elderly subjects.

Methodology:   This will be a Cross-sectional study with participants aged > 60 years of both healthy subjects will be included in the study. The procedure will be performed after written consent from all the subjects. A normative data consist of parameters as distal motor Latency, peak to peak Amplitude and conduction velocity in motor nerve; peak to peak amplitude and nerve conduction velocity for sensory nerves. F wave minimum latency of motor nerve

Nerve conduction study will be performed on Neuron Spectrum 5 (Neurosoft) machine.   

Results: Normative data will compare with globally published literature.

Conclusion: The study is expected to draw observation in relation to variables cited with the objectives, which will be compared to draw inference over normative data of nerve conduction studies in healthy elderly subjects from the Wardha district.

Open Access Study Protocol

A Study Protocol to Assess the Correlation of Endometrial Morphology with Concerned Hormone Levels in Patients of Abnormal Uterine Bleeding

Tanvi Bhardwaj, Kishor Hiwale, Sunita Vagha

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 246-252
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i64B35425

Background: Abnormal-uterine-bleeding (AUB) is caused due to numerous systemic or functional etiologies. Patients may come with metrorrhagia, menorrhagia, intermenstrual bleeding and polymenorrhea. The underlying pathology can be ascertained by histological variations of endometrium considering the age, the phase of menstrual cycle and the use of any exogenous hormones. This study aims to assess the correlation between endometrial changes and concerned hormone levels.

Methodology: This will be a Prospective study conducted for two years in Histopathology Department of Pathology, JNMC, Wardha. Total 65 female patients with complaint of irregular uterine bleeding will be included in this study. The histomorphology patterns of endometrial lesions will be studied and classified according to WHO classification. The collected data will be analysed using appropriate statistical methods.

Results: A Significant correlation is expected between endometrial changes and concerned hormone levels.

Conclusion: Conclusion will be drawn from the results obtained from the study.

Open Access Study Protocol

A Study of Bcl-2 Immuno-expression in Invasive Ductal Carcinoma of Breast and it’s Correlation with Molecular Sub-types

Poornima Pandey, Arvind Bhake, Sunita Vagha

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 253-259
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i64B35426

Background: The incidence of Breast cancers has overtaken the cervical cancers amongst Indian females. Invasive Ductal carcinoma is reported to be the most common form of breast cancer. Bcl-2 has been studied extensively as a common factor in the pathogenesis of solid tumours including  breast cancer. Bcl-2 is an anti-apoptotic protein normally expressed in mammary tissue and is up-regulated by oestrogen in breast cancer through direct consequence of transcriptional induction. The present study attempts to look into Bcl-2 immunoexpression as  a key parameter for predicting the treatment outcomes and recurrence of Invasive Ductal Carcinoma. 

Methodology : This will be an observational study conducted in Department of Pathology, JNMC, Wardha. The study will include clinicopathological detailing of  50 mastectomy specimens of Invasive ductal carcinoma, detailed sectioning of tumour tissues, histopathological BR-grading and molecular subtyping using Bcl-2 immunohistochemistry.

Expected Results: A significant correlation is expected between Bcl-2 expression and treatment outcomes and recurrence of Invasive Ductal Carcinoma. 

Conclusion: The conclusion will be drawn based on careful analysis of the results.

Open Access Study Protocol

Comparative Evaluation & Correlation of Severity of Temporo-Mandibular Joint Disorders and Airway Difficulty in Class I and Class II Vertical Growth Pattern Cases

Rizwan Gilani, Sunita Shrivastav, Rozina Vishnani, Pallavi Daigavane, Priyanka Niranjane, Anand N. Wankhede

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 260-265
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i64B35431

Introduction: There are contradictory opinions regarding the role of occlusal factors in the initiation of TMDs. These patients rarely visit or are referred to Orthodontists or dentists which also accounts for these TMDs being undiagnosed. There is conflicting evidence where most often TMDs are linked to occlusal prematurities. Undiagnosed. There is conflicting evidence where most often TMDs are linked to occlusal prematurities. There  is a need to assess TMJ dysfunction before beginning of orthodontic treatment so that necessary precautions can be taken while ongoing orthodontic treatment. Also, between the stages of orthodontic treatment. TMJ evaluation will be helpful in monitoring any signs of TMJ dysfunction and TMD disorders so it can be identified and therapeutic measures can be taken. Many studies have been conducted to measure the pharyngeal airway difficulty; however, comparison with Class II individuals and the correlation between the variables involved in Class II malocclusion with airway measurements and TMD clinically has not been conducted, which encouraged the present study.

Materials & Methods: Total 50 patients in the age group of 18-30 years visiting the outpatient Department of Orthodontics will be selected after screening and divided into two groups as follows: Group A (Control Group) - 25 class I malocclusion patients. Group B (Experimental group) - 25 class II Division -1 malocclusion in patients having vertical growth pattern. For clinical evaluation of TMD The routine diagnostic pre-treatment records will be taken for each selected patient. For clinical evaluation of airway difficulty SUSMITA Airway Prediction Analysis will be used. The cases will then be subjected to MRI scan for 3Dimensional evaluation of TMJ and Airway. The results obtained will then be subjected to statistical analysis for evaluation, comparison & co-relation.

Expected Outcome: There exists a positive co-relation between severity of TMDs and airway difficulty in class II vertical growth pattern cases.

Open Access Study Protocol

Correlation of MTHFR Gene Polymorphism with Male Infertility

Akash More, Ujwal Gajbe, Bhagyashree Bhandekar, Deepti Shrivastava

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 272-279
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i64B35440

Background: Folate is present in Vitamin B, which is not present in the body, and one has to consume it from outside. Its functions are to help in the production of RBCs, helps in the production of genes, DNA, RNA, and protein, helps in the metabolism of homocysteine, and is also the main component which is required for the process of methylation. For the metabolism of the folate group, the MTHFR gene is responsible. When there is a problem occurs in the MTHFR gene such as SNP, then it can create a problem with many allied metabolisms and other biological reactions or processes in the body of human body and deficiency of folate in the body may lead to affect various processes such as it can increase the homocysteine level in the body and can cause hyperhomocysteinemia, which has been linked with many diseases along with causing male infertility.


  1. To identify nucleotide polymorphism in cases and control group.
  2. To correlate polymorphism status with male infertility.
  3. To correlate MTHFR polymorphism with abnormal semen parameters.
  4. To correlate BMI with male infertility.

Methodology: For this study, we will use various collective methods to conduct the study which includes the recording of treatment history and the indications of infertile patients visiting WARDHA TEST TUBE CENTRE and counselling them. After that semen collection and analysis will be done along with blood collection, DNA extraction, DNA quantification with nanodrop and agarose gel, PCR, and RFLP. We have also made use of PubMed for getting related articles.

Results and Conclusion: We have done many searches on PubMed and NCBI sites ( with keyword MTHFR gene, polymorphism in MTHFR gene, methylation, folate methylation, methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase, methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase, and primer for MTHFR gene and retrieved many articles related to primers for MTHFR gene and will design our primer for forward and reverse annealing with the help of Amplify software (Engels, 1993). With the help of our study, we will analyze the MTHFR genomic sequence along with analysis of RFLP, in which we will design an amplicon of 513bps in which we will find restriction site for Hinf I and will check that if polymorphism is there then it will cut the DNA amplicon into two and will confirm it with electrophoresis. 

Open Access Study Protocol

A Cross-Sectional Study on Procurement of Drugs and Consumables in a Tertiary Care Hospital

Akanksha. D. Pohekar, Ahmindra Jain, Vandana Gudhe

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 280-286
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i64B35441

Background: In health care Pharmaceutical medication plays a vital role, since physicians often recommend medicine if one is ill. In the operation of every hospital, the supply of medicines is essential. In order for the supply of drugs to be consistent, their manufacturing processes and the difficulties they face are important requirements  that should be considered during drug procurement. If  correct procurement procedures are followed most of the unnecessary problems such as excess or lack of drugs are reduced. In medical administration, acquisition process play a important role.   This links closely with choice of medicine, evaluation of medicine requirement, collection and delivery. This study intends to determine the procurement procedure of pharmaceuticals drugs and kits at AVBRH and assess the challenges in the procurement process.

Methodology: This descriptive research study will be conducted at AVBRH, Wardha. An open ended questionnaire will used for data collection. The main informants would be the Medical Superintendent, the pharmacy officer in charge, the sales managers, the pharmacist, the pharmacy sales manager and the shop manager. Obtained data will be analyzed with statistical appropriate tests.

Results: The drug procurement procedure at AVBRH in comparison with ideal procedure of drug procurement, gaps in procedure will be identified and highlighted mitigate shortage of drugs in AVBRH.

Conclusion: Acute shortage of drugs in hospitals result in patient’s dissatisfaction. Improved standard of  procurement procedures can bring about a change in patient satisfaction and patient turnover.

Open Access Study Protocol

Comparative Study of Effectiveness of Yognidra and Antioxidants on Semen Quality in Sub Fertile Male Patients Undergoing IVF Treatment at Wardha Region, India

Pranjali Parikshit Muley, Ujwal L. Gajbe, Parikshit Ashok Muley

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 293-298
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i64B35443

Background: There are various reasons of infertility in male which can be managed with pharmacotherapy and psychological methods .Physiological and Psychological factors such as low self esteem, stigma, depression anxiety etc which leads to stress contribute to infertility related causes. Yoga (Asanas, Pranayama and Meditation) shows effects on improving psychological factors but no studies are conducted on yognidra related with male infertility. A comparison between yognidra and antioxidant will be efficient in improving quality of semen and can increase ART success rate and Pregnancy incidence by treating psychological and physiological factor.

Aim and Objectives: To study the effectiveness of yognidra and antioxidant on semen quality in subfertile male patients undergoing IVF cycles.

To sensitize all subfertile males about the study.

To assess the effect of yoganidra in subfertile males.

To assess the effect of antioxidant in subfertile males.

To compare and analyze the semen quality after giving both types of interventions

Methodology: 60 infertile patients visiting Infertility clinic Wardha test tube baby centre ,AVBRH, Sawangi Meghe, Wardha will participate in the study. Consent form will be signed by patient. The patients will be divided in to 2 groups of Group number 1 with (30 subjects) antioxidants and Group number 2 will be given (30 subjects) Yognidra. Comprehensive history of patient will be taken in the prescribed format and external genitalia will be clinically examined at Surgery OPD. Study the semen quality and divide according to WHO criteria .Assessment and comparison of semen quality of both the groups before and after intervention .Data of two groups will be analysed and compared.

Expected Results: The study shows a comparison between yognidra and antioxidant will be efficient in improving quality of semen and can increase ART success rate and Pregnancy incidence by treating psychological and physiological factor.

Conclusion: The current research study will help to understand and explore the utility of yognidra at Infertility clinics and assist practitioner to engage subfertile couples undergoing IVF treatment in the practice of these technique. This study will enhance the quality of support programmes and psychological research. Incorporating psychological intervention provided by yognidra will act as a complementary therapy during infertility treatment.

Open Access Study Protocol

A Study of Nasal Septal Deviation, External Nasal Deformities, and their Correlation with the Severity of Sino-Nasal Symptoms Using Sino Nasal Symptoms Score Questionnaire

Senu Sunnychan, P. T. Deshmukh

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 316-322
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i64B35720

Background/Rationale: The human nose is structurally complex and this complexity results in nasal shape and shape variations. Midline deformities such as hump nose, saddle nose, tip deformities and lateral nasal deformities such as crooked nose, deviated nose, alar depression are common forms of deformity affecting the external nose. Internal nasal valve (INV) is a key anatomical landmark of nasal cavity. Any obstructions in this region have tremendous effects on inspiratory and expiratory currents. This study aims to assess the nasal septal deviation and external nasal deformities and correlate the severity of sino nasal symptoms.

Methods: This Prospective observational study will include total 50 patients with nasal septal deviation. Patients will undertake Sino Nasal Test -22 questionnaire. Investigations like Diagnostic nasal endoscopy with 30 degree nasal endoscope, X-ray PNS Water’s view and complete blood count including absolute eosinophilic count will be carried out. Data will be analysed using appropriate statistical tests.

Expected Results: A significant correlation is expected between Nasal Septal Deviation, External Nasal Deformities, and Severity of Sino-nasal Symptoms.

Conclusion: This study will reflect on internal nasal valve and it’s correlation with etiopathological process of upper respiratory tract. It will also guide clinicians in choosing appropriate surgical approach.

Open Access Short Research Article

An Observational Study on Gluteal Muscle Surface Electromyography and Physical Activity in Male Adults with Non-Specific Low Back Pain

E. Thamizhselvan, B. Shivaranjani, Saina Swathi, P. Senthil, N. Shazia Neelam

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 140-145
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i64B35338

Background: Nonspecific low back pain is defined as a low back pain without a plausible cause alike to that in the European guiding principles. Every year around 15%-45% of adults suffer from low back pain and 5% of people visit hospital with a new episode. Approximately 10%were having work absenteism and about 20% had persistent symptoms for 1 year. Gluteus medius weakness and gluteal muscle tenderness are common symptoms in people with nonspecific LBP .Surface electromyography (sEMG), a measure of muscle activity, allows both a patient and clinician to have direct and immediate access to muscle functioning that is not possible with manual palpation or visual observation. In addition too much or too little physical activity is associated with low back pain.

Objective: To analyze the activity of gluteus maximus and medius with surface EMG among young male adults with nonspecific low back pain. To analyze the correlation between IPAQ and NPRS among young male adults with nonspecific low backpain.

Participants and Methods: This observational study was conducted in six dots health enhancement academy with total of 50 participants. The participants were selected based on inclusion and exclusion criteria. The sampling method used is convenient sampling method. The outcome measure used was (sEMG), IPAQ and NPRS.

Results: There is a significant, weakness of right and left gluteus medius. The EMG activity of right and left gluteus medius (R=44.37, L=44.34) indicates the weakness compared to EMG activity of right and left gluteus maximus (R=47.41, L=47.01). There is a significant correlation between NPRS and IPAQ; the p value0.027 which is <0.05.

Conclusion: This observational study results proved that there is a significant difference between EMG activity of gluteus medius and maximus, in which gluteus medius muscles were weaker than gluteus maximus muscles among young male adults. There is a significant correlation between numerical pain rating scale and international physical activity questionnaire, which states that increase in physical activity, can increase severity of pain among young male adults.

Open Access Short Research Article

Developing Process for Multi-modal Sustained Pressure Trigger Point

Prasannajeet Pramod Nikam

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 351-354
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i64B35725

Introduction: Myofascial torment disorder presents as clinically alluded torment, a restricted scope of movement in the joints, and is related with a nearby jerk reaction and engine endplates following mechanical incitement of the MTRP.

Objective: Of the present disclosure is to provide a multi-modal sustained pressure trigger point release process intended to treat myo-fascial trigger points (MTrP’s) in both static as well as dynamic ways.

Method: The multimodal sustained pressure trigger point release process comprises the steps of keeping the muscle in shortened or contracted position and applying apply gradual pressure over the MTrP using the thumb pad of the dominant side.

Result: The MTrP is located by superficial palpation throughout the length of the muscle.

Conclusion: The patients who were observed after giving treatment under MRTP have showed better recovery when compared with those who were not given such treatment.

Open Access Minireview Article

Teledentistry and Advancements in Traditional Dental Care

Kunal Jha, Yagnaseni Mandal, Avinash Jnaneswar, Gunjan Kumar, Vinay Suresan, Arpita Singh

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 515-524
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i64B35936

Health care affordability, accessibility, availability, and quality have long been a major concern for humanity. Telemedicine has emerged as a new promise for alleviating health care constraints. It is the use of tele-communications and information technology for consultations, education, and public awareness, with the goal of improving patient care and time management. Teledentistry is a form of telemedicine that is used in the field of dentistry. It is beneficial in improving services to underserved people, such as those in rural or less developed areas. The recent spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and its associated coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has caused widespread public health concerns However, due to restrictions in movement, it was difficult for the patients to visit the clinics for routine check-ups. This was overcome by the advent of INTERNET OF DENTAL THINGS (IODT) which has a major impact on and have tremendously transformed teledentistry. Dental health app platforms using AI have made teledentistry more accessible and user-friendly. The advent of sensor and camera technologies has opened up new possibilities and breakthroughs. Furthermore, teledentistry can be a beneficial tool for peer education, consultations, and ensuring proper referral channelizing.

Open Access Minireview Article

Intrathecal Midazolam: A Review on the Drug's Pharmacological Features, as Well as Its Therapeutic Efficacy and Side Effects

Deepjit Bhuyan, Aruna V. Chandak, Vijay Chandak, Sanjot Ninave, Neeta Verma

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 610-616
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i64B35995

Introduction: Spinal anaesthesia with lignocaine was highly popular earlier for short surgical procedures as it had a predictable onset and provided dense sensory and motor blockade of moderate duration. Unfortunately, some reports of neurotoxicity had cast doubts on the intrathecal use of lignocaine. Post operative pain relief is an unresolved issue. One of the methods of providing postoperative analgesia is by prolonging the duration of intrathecal hyperbaric bupivacaine (0.5%) by adding various drugs such as opioids, midazolam, clonidine, ketamine, neostigmine etc. Discovery of benzodiazepine receptors in the spinal cord triggered the use of intrathecal midazolam for analgesia.

Methodology: This review article was prepared after a thorough study of the literature using data search engine such as ‘Pubmed’. This article referred to prior Randomized Controlled Trial (RCT) on Intrathecal Midazolam.

Review Findings: Midazolam is a potent short acting benzodiazepine that has been shown to have anti-nociceptive effects when administered intrathecally both in laboratory animals and in humans. Preservative free midazolam is also being used in recent times. As an additive to intrathecal hyperbaric bupivacaine to prolong the quality and duration of analgesia. It is said to be associated with less side effects compared to neuraxial opioids.

Conclusion: Intrathecal midazolam can be used for postoperative pain relief. It can prolong the duration of analgesia and prolonged motor and sensory block without any significant hemodynamic compromise.

Open Access Original Research Article

A Cross-sectional Study to Assess the Patient's Confidence Regarding Secondary Lifestyle Modification and Knowledge of Heart Attack Symptoms Following Percutaneous Revascularization in Selected Hospitals of Navi Mumbai, India

Rubina Ansari, Rita Lakhani, Yamini Patil

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 13-23
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i64B35324

Background of the Study: Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) is affecting millions of people in both developed and developing countries. Although the rate of death attributable to the disease has declined in developed countries in the past several decades, it is still the leading cause of death and extorts a heavy social and economic toll globally. In low-middle income countries, the prevalence of CVD has increased dramatically. By 2020, the disease is forecasted to be the major cause of morbidity and mortality in most developing nations. The Global Burden of Disease study estimate of age-standardized CVD death rate of 272 per 100000 populations in India is higher than the global average of 235 per 100000 populations.

CAD was estimated to account for around 15%–20% and 6%–9% of all deaths in India and the US. In addition to mortality, CAD is also responsible for morbidity and loss of quality of life

Materials and Methods: Qualitative cross-sectional study design with a descriptive research approach was adopted for the present study. The study was conducted in D. Y. Patil Hospital and Terna Multi-Speciality Hospital and Research Centre, Nerul, Navi Mumbai with a sample size of 75. A Non-probability purposive sampling technique was used. In this study samples were patients who underwent Percutaneous revascularization for coronary artery disease. Data was collected using an Interview technique. The data was tabulated and analysed in terms of objectives of the study, using descriptive and inferential statistics.

Results: The study results show that the majority of the respondents belonged to the age group 46 - 65 years with a frequency of 27 (36%) and were married 57 (76%). Representation of male respondents was 44 (59%) and the rest of the respondents belonged to female gender. They were educated up to high school and employed (service staff); their monthly income was <30,000. They were currently diagnosed as STEMI 22 (29.33%), NSTEMI 17 (22.66%) and CAD/IHD 36 (48%). All the respondents had undergone PCI for CAD. Majority of them presented with the selected risk factor variables mentioned in the data collection tool. The respondents had knowledge about the classical symptoms of heart attack. However, they were unable to identify the other associative symptoms of heart attack. 97.33% of the respondents verbalized the correct response that is sudden pain and heaviness on the chest (n=73) which reciprocates to and sudden pain at the back of chest bone with pain moving towards the left or both arms (n=18) which reciprocates to 24%. However, few respondents have identified that heart attack is a sudden weakness of the upper arm and lower limb on one side of the body (n=26) which reciprocates to 35% and this option remains incorrect. Although from this (n=8) which reciprocates to 10% of the respondents have also managed to verbalize the right response which suggests that they may not have complete knowledge about heart attack symptoms. There was a significant difference between the number of people who were confident and those who were not confident, also there was a significant difference between confidence to some extent and versus confident (that is P<0.05) about the items on the lifestyle modifying factors. The results indicate that fewer patients were confident about the lifestyle modifying factors. Also, the respondents showed positive correlation (< +1.0) and negative correlation (<-1.0) with risk factor variables.

The study findings revealed that, patient did not verbalize complete knowledge and confidence regarding secondary lifestyle modification through the statistical analysis. There is a significant difference between the number of people who were confident versus those who were not confident and there was a significant difference between confidence to some extent versus confidence about the items on the lifestyle modifying factors. Also, there is a significant difference between risk factors and all the lifestyle modifying variables.

Conclusion: There were substantial disparities in the confidence levels associated with lifestyle modification and recognition/response to heart attack. These gaps need to be studied further and disseminated to improve awareness in terms of health education in the population which will eventually increase their level of confidence.

Open Access Original Research Article

Biosynthesis of Silver Nanoparticles from Medicinal Plant, Pedalium murex L and Evaluation of its Antibacterial Activity against Selected Pathogens

S. Sivaranjani, K. Revathi, A. Josephine, B. Kaleeswaran, G. Lakshmanan, S. Ramadevi

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 76-91
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i64B35323

Silver nanoparticles play an important role in controlling mosquito population as well as multidrug resistant pathogens. An aqueous extract of Pedalium murex L. was used for the synthesis of silver (Ag) nanoparticles and its antibacterial activity. The green synthesis of nanoparticles in plants is cost-effective and eco-friendly approach. To identify the compounds responsible for the reduction of silver ions, the functional groups present in plant extract were investigated by Fourier Transformation Infra Red Spectroscopy (FT-IR) and characterization of nanoparticles was done using standard analytical methods. UV-visible spectrum of the aqueous medium containing silver nanoparticles showed absorption peak at around 350-600 nm. The compounds observed from FT-IR spectra are correlated with the reduction and capping material of silver nanoparticles. The observed results suggested that the bioactive compounds present in Pedalium murexL, was found to exhibit a significant inhibitory activity against selected pathogens.

Open Access Original Research Article

Tooth Mobility Pattern in Periodontitis Patients with Diabetes Mellitus

Aarthi Muthukumar, M. Jeevitha, Selvaraj Jayaraman, M. Naveen Kumar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 31-40
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i64B35326

Background: Tooth mobility may be a common problem among patients seeking dental treatment. Tooth mobility is defined as an extent of horizontal and vertical tooth displacement created by external forces, trauma and periodontal diseases.

Aim: The aim of the present study is to evaluate the pattern of tooth mobility in patients with diabetes mellitus.

Study design: Retrospective study

Materials and methods: The case sheet records ( DIAS data ) of tooth mobility in diabetic patients were extracted. A total of 1568 case sheets were analysed for the study. Age, gender and pattern of tooth mobility with respect to the region were collected and statistically analysed using SPSS statistical software. Descriptive statistics (percentage, mean, SD) and inferential test (Chi square test) were performed to determine the association between age, gender and region of tooth mobility in diabetes mellitus patients.

Results:  Results showed that tooth mobility was more common among males when compared to females. According to age, patients between 41 to 50 years with diabetes mellitus were more affected by tooth mobility. Tooth mobility was more commonly seen in the mandibular anterior region.

Conclusion: The present study showed a possible relationship between diabetes mellitus and tooth mobility. Results showed that 80% of patients with diabetes mellitus had tooth mobility. Therefore, early diagnosis, preventive therapeutic measures and oral hygiene reinforcement is needed to prevent progression of periodontal disease leading to tooth mobility.

Open Access Original Research Article

To Assess Prevalance of Various Feeding Techniques Used for Children with Cleft Lip/Palate Prevalent in Southern India and to Assess Their Effectiveness in Improving Energy Intake and Growth of Children with Cleft Lip/Palate

G. Santhya, Surya Rao Venkata Mahipathy, Praveen Ganesh Natarajan, Narayanamurthy Sundaramurthy, Ananth Easwar, Alagar Raja

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 41-46
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i64B35328

Aim: To assess various feeding techniques used for children with cleft lip/cleft palate.

Introduction: Cleft lip/palate is a condition wherein there is an opening or slit in the upper lip/palate. Maintaining optimum nutrition in children with cleft lip/palate is a challenge owing to the feeding and swallowing difficulties these children face. This article aims to discuss various feeding techniques used in southern India and to analyse their effectiveness in helping the infant with weight gain and overall development.

Materials and Methods: Cross sectional study done in south India using structured questionnaire. It consisted of 100 children <2 years of age visiting the cleft clinic in Saveetha Medical College and Hospital. Data was analysed statistically and evaluated using chi square test.

Results: This study concluded that paalada (65%) was the most commonly used technique to feed children with cleft lip/palate in southern India. The study also concludes that formula feed was the most widely used feed to effectively increasing weight of the child with cleft lip/palate. Education about feeding practices is vital in helping the mother understand the importance of healthy weight gain, growth and development.

Conclusion: Though the majority of parents visiting a cleft clinic are educated on the do's and don'ts of feeding a child with cleft lip/cleft palate, the data is inconclusive of the exact situation in India, so more research on the subject is needed to improve the feeding experience of children with cleft lip/cleft palate.

Open Access Original Research Article

A Study of Histopathological Spectrum of Lesions in Cervix Biopsies in a Tertiary Care Hospital

K. S. Kerthi, Vimal Chander

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 47-53
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i64B35330

Introduction: Uterine cervix is prone to numerous infections, inflammations and malignancy. cervical cancer is the most common cancer in women which may be detected early with the aid of doing screening examination.

Aim: This study was done to examine and analyze the histopathological lesions of cervix and to evaluate the frequency of these lesions, to understand the spectrum of various neoplastic and non-neoplastic cervical lesions and to study the incidence and frequency of various cervical lesions in different age groups so as to target them for various diagnoses, early detection and raising awareness.

Study Design: Retrospective cross-sectional study.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted for a duration of 15 months from January 2019 to March 2020 retrospectively. Different types of pathological lesions in cervix were analyzed in the department of Pathology at Saveetha medical college.

Methodology: This study consists of a total of 534 cases, Patients’ available clinical profile and the histopathologic diagnosis were noted from the registers and all cases of cervical biopsies over the above time period were included for this study. The diagnoses were then classified into non-neoplastic, pre-invasive and invasive lesions and statistical analysis was done using IBM SPSS statistical package version 23 and JASP statistical package version 0.13.1.

Results: In this study, 534 cases are studied. The most common age group associated with the occurrence of cervical lesions were 41-50 years, among them the most common non-neoplastic lesion was chronic cervicitis and the most common malignant lesion observed was squamous cell carcinoma.

Conclusion: In this study, non-neoplastic lesions were more common as compared to neoplastic lesions, adding to that chronic cervicitis being the most common. Histopathological examination and tissue biopsy help in the early detection and diagnosis of malignant and premalignant conditions. These prognostic measures could help the patients to have better treatment options and can at times reduce the fatality rate.

Open Access Original Research Article

A Prospective Study on the Functional and Radiological Outcomes of AO Type C Distal Humerus Fractures in Adults Treated Surgically with Bicolumnar Fixation

Rohit Sunil Yadav, . Srinivasan, C. Vasanthkumar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 54-63
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i64B35331

Purpose: To study the functional and radiological outcomes of AO type C distal humerus fractures (DHFs) in adults treated surgically with bicolumnar fixation.

Methods: A prospective study of 30 adult patients with AO/OTA type C fractures of the distal humerus treated operatively with bicolumnar fixation between September 2018 to December 2020 at Sree Balaji Medical College & Hospital, Chennai was performed. Closed distal humerus fractures with intra-articular extension were fixed with bicolumnar plating, with orthogonal or parallel configuration of plate fixation decided intra-operatively. This was achieved in all patients after performing an olecranon osteotomy for better exposure of the fracture site, which was later fixed with either CC screws or K-wires with tension band wiring. The functional and radiological outcomes in this study group were assessed on regular post-operative follow-up. The Mayo Elbow Performance Score (MEPS) was used to evaluate the functional outcomes in our patients.

Results: The mean age of the patients was 44 years, with 18 (60%) males and 12 (40%) females in the study. The right-sided elbow was more frequently involved (57%) in our study. The most common mode of injury was Motor Vehicle Accident (MVA) (14 cases; 47%), while domestic fall contributed to 10 (33%) cases. Fall from height and direct trauma to the elbow made up the rest of the cases, with a 10% incidence each. A majority of cases (22 cases; 73%) showed radiological union between 12-16 weeks post-operatively, whereas 8 cases (27%) united between 17-21 weeks. The Mayo Elbow Performance Score (MEPS) used to assess the functional outcome showed excellent results in 25 (83%) cases, good and fair results in 2 (7%) cases each, and a poor outcome in 1 (3%) case.

Conclusion: For satisfactory results in intraarticular fractures of the distal humerus treated with bicolumnar plating, thorough pre-operative planning, posterior surgical approach with adequate exposure via olecranon osteotomy, anatomical inter-fragmentary stabilization by dual plating, and early post-operative mobilization with physiotherapy are important steps to be followed.

Open Access Original Research Article

Survey on Problems Faced by Dental Patients having Diabetes Mellitus

. Britina, Dinesh Premavathy

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 106-113
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i64B35332

Introduction: The objective of this study is to investigate that patients having diabetes mellitus face more problems in a dental clinic or hospital. Oral care provided by dentists in these patients play an important role.

Materials and Methods: The survey was conducted through an online platform, results were evaluated using SPSS software. Responses of these questionnaires were analysed using SPSS statistics. Crosstabs with Monte Carlo and confidence level 95% was used. Statistical significance was then analysed.

Results: Results and data after analysis showed that many problems are faced by dental patients with diabetes mellitus.

The main reason for this survey is to know whether people are aware about the problems faced by dental patients having diabetes mellitus and to make people aware about that.

Conclusion: The present study thus concluded that patients who are having diabetes mellitus must follow the clinicians suggestions to control the blood sugar level and cooperate with the practitioners for the safest procedures.  

Open Access Original Research Article

Mother’s Knowledge on Neonatal Danger Signs and Health Seeking Behaviour in a Tertiary Care Hospital, Thandalam, India

K. Prageetha, . Kumutha

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 64-71
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i64B35333

Objective: The aim of this study is to find out mother’s knowledge on neonatal danger signs and health seeking behaviour in a tertiary care hospital.

Methods: A cross sectional descriptive study was conducted among mother’s of infant(below 1 year) attending Department of Paediatrics and Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Saveetha Medical College, Thandalam between January 2021 to April 2021. A semi structured questionnaire was used in this study. The data were entered in Microsoft Excel. The chi square values were determined, P<0.05 was considered significant.

Results: Among the 273 respondents,102(37.36%)of mothers were found to have good knowledge on neonatal dangersigns.161 mothers had sick neonate who need medical attention. Of the 161, 146 (90.68%) mothers sought health facility for help and had their baby treated. Factors that were significantly associated with mother’s knowledge on neonatal danger signs were mother’s educational status and occupation, income, husband’s involvement in antenatal and reproductive service, information on neonatal danger signs given after delivery. Significant associated factors for safe health seeking behaviour were mother’s educational status, AN check up, PNC follow up, husband’s involvement, good knowledge on neonatal danger signs.

Conclusion: The study shows that 37.36% of mothers had good knowledge on neonatal danger signs and 90.68% had safe health seeking behaviour. Despite the low knowledge on neonatal danger signs, mother’s health seeking behaviour was better (90.68%) which might be due to their good antenatal check up, postnatal follow up.

Open Access Original Research Article

Knowledge, Attitude and Practice about Pre-Analytic Errors of Blood Transfusion among Interns

K. Monisha, A. Hariharan, Suresh Kumar, S. Chitra

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 72-75
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i64B35335

Aim: The aim of this study is to evaluate knowledge, attitude and practice about pre-analytic errors among interns. This elicits the efficiency of interns on the basis of knowledge, attitude and practice in blood transfusion and to analyse about the pre-analytic errors in blood transfusion.

Study Design: A cross sectional study

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Transfusion Medicine, Saveetha Medical College Sriperumbudur, between January 2020 to August 2020.

Methodology: The prospective study will be done by distributing online questionnaire. From the questionnaire the interpretation of pre-analytical errors will be analysed statistically.

Results: A total of 150 interns in a Tertiary care teaching hospital were given the online questionnaire in which 136 interns responded and 14 were not responded and the results showed lower frequency of incidents in pre-analytic errors.

Conclusion: Though the pre analytic errors were less, the lack of knowledge among the medical staff in transfusion is obvious. Therefore, we must have the possibility of organizing regular training and follow-up activities to improve the knowledge of interns in transfusion.

Open Access Original Research Article

Will Suprahyoid Muscle Release be Effective to Improve Swallowing in Patients with Temporomandibular Disorders? A Single Group Experimental Study

Kavita Joshi, Sukdeb Mahanta, Milind Kahile, Neha Deshmukh, Vivek Patel, Vasant Gawande

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 131-139
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i64B35337

Background: As for jaw opening force, hyoid resting position and hyoid dynam­ics are very important and are considered to be affected directly by the suprahyoid muscles. MFR is found to be effective in giving symptomatic relief and increasing jaw ROM in patients with myofascial TMD. The study will specify the importance of Suprahyoid MFR in improving swallowing & jaw function in TMD.

Objectives: The study aimed at finding out the effectiveness of suprahyoid muscle MFR on swallowing and jaw function in patients with TMD.

Methods: 20 participants with myogenous TMD were included after fulfilling the selection criteria. Treatment strategies involved MFR to suprahyoid muscle for 3 sessions in a week for one week and home exercise program involving the tongue proprioception exercises. The outcome measures were evaluated through Sydney swallowing questionnaire (SSQ-17), LDF-TMD questionnaire and maximal interincisal opening (IIO). The data was analysed and inference was drawn through paired and unpaired t tests.

Results: The result of the present study showed that participants improved significantly (p <0.05) at post one week on all the outcome measures (IIO, SSQ & LDF-TMD).

Conclusion: This study demonstrated that suprahyoid release is effective in improving swallowing in patients with TMD.

Open Access Original Research Article

Testicular Mass with Liver Metastasis: A Case Report

Yamini Gawande, Suhas Tivaskar, Akash More, Anurag Luharia

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 146-153
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i64B35339

Background: A malignancy of testicles is known as testicular cancer. The testicles are positioned directly below the penis in the scrotum. The testicles' purpose is to create sperm for reproduction. A lump in the testicles and pain or swelling in the scrotum are the possible symptoms. Infertility may occur as a result of treatment. An undescended testis, a family history of the disease, and a previous history of testicular cancer are all risk factors. Germ cell tumors, which are split into seminomas and non-seminomas, are the most prevalent form. Sex-cord stromal tumors and lymphomas are two more forms. Liver metastasis is a cancerous tumor that has spread to the liver from another organ that has been impacted by malignancy. In liver metastases, the malignant cells that develop are not liver cells. They are cancer cells from the region of cancer's genesis in the body. Cancer has progressed to the liver from another portion of the body, doctors may refer to the metastatic liver disease as stage four or modern cancer. The incidence of primary liver cancer is lower than that of liver metastases: cirrhosis or hepatitis are common risk factors in persons with primary liver cancer. 

Case Presentation: We present a case of a 24-year-old male with complaints of mass in left testis for the past one and half years. The mass was slow-growing, non-painful. The patient complained of heavy feeling in the lower abdomen with a recent history of loss of appetite, weight loss, and backache. The diagnosis was done with the help of ultrasound, blood tests, computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan imaging & treated with excision.

Conclusion: Testicle’s malignancy is regarded as an oncologic achievement because more people will be treated with an amalgamation of chemotherapy and surgery. The radiologists are crucial in finding cancers throughout the patient presentation, correctly grading illness, and detecting recurrence malignancy during scanning monitoring. A case of Testicle’s malignancy and liver metastasis in a twenty-four-year-old man that had managed with a multicentric approach. Genetic counseling and psychological assistance should be provided to the family of a person presenting with the testicular mass as a part of the genetic condition.

Open Access Original Research Article

Osteometric Measures of Mandible on Its Various Aspects in South Indian Dry Skull

Srivarsha Ranjeet, Dinesh Premavathy

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 161-167
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i64B35369

Introduction: Mandible is the single bone articulated with cranium forming a temporomandibular joint and it contributes to the lower jaw containing teeth. The mandible is composed of the body and the ramus.

Aim: Aim of this study is to find the distance between each parameter in different mandibles.

Materials and Methods: The present study has utilized 30 south indian dry skulls from the Anatomy Department of Anatomy, Saveetha Dental college. The following parameters are taken to measure by using vernier calipers. They are the maximum distance between the mandibular incisors, mandibular inter canine, mandibular 1st premolar, mandibular molar, mandibular coronoid process, mandibular condylar process, mandibular notch on either side. The results were analysed statistically by using t-test calculator in Graph pad.

Results: From the study it was observed that the mean distance between the mandibular incisors is 15.658 ± 1.642416 , mandibular inter canine 29.0025 ± 9.04636, mandibular 1st premolar 40.746 ± 2.543341, mandibular molar 62.076 ± 3.4988, mandibular coronoid process 85.8735 ± 5.10615, mandibular condylar process 103.013 ± 3.794, mandibular notch on either side 88.368  ± 3.5832 (Table 1 & Figs. 1-6).

Conclusion: The present study thus concluded that the morphometric analysis of the mandible is of utmost importance in determining the gender, anatomical studies, clinical and anthropometric studies.

Open Access Original Research Article

A Study on Branching Pattern of Branches of Middle Meningeal Artery Based on Meningeal Grooves Present in the Cranial Cavity in South Indian Dry Skulls

. Sushmitha, Dinesh Premavathy

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 175-181
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i64B35371

Aim: To study the branching pattern of branches of the middle meningeal artery based on meningeal grooves present in the cranial cavity.

Introduction: Middle meningeal artery is the major human dural artery. It is a neurologically very important artery for treatment and study of various neural health problems. Its origin and course can vary a lot in relation with embryological development. Complex sequences of MMA gives many opportunities for variant anatomy. It is clinically very important.

Materials and Methods: In this study we decided to investigate the anatomical organisation of the MMA, its branching pattern by taking south indian human dry skulls (N=30). It can be easily traced next to foramen spinosum. The statistical analysis was performed using the t-test calculator.

Results: Most of the skulls had its middle branch of MMA from the anterior branch. There were many variations observed in the branching pattern.

Conclusion: The branching pattern had many anatomical variations, which differed from one skull to another. The future scope of this study is to analyse skulls of people from different ethnical groups, observe the variations and trace the correlations.

Open Access Original Research Article

Prevalence and Antibiogram of Multidrug Resistant Klebsiella Species

Ulfat Sultana, Tajwar Sultana, Syeda Amber Zaidi, Faiza Qureshi, Yameen Bocha, Tayyaba Kazmi

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 187-191
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i64B35373

Aim: To find out the prevalence and susceptibility of MDR klebsiella isolates in Karachi.

Study Design: Pre-clinical in-vitro study.

Place and Duration of Study: Study was conducted at the microbiology lab of the tertiary care hospital of Karachi, Pakistan during May to October 2021.

Methodology:  About 550 samples of blood, urine and wound swab were inoculated on blood agar and MacConkey agar and incubated at 37° Celsius for 24 hours. The antibiotic susceptibility was identified by Kirby Bauer’s disc diffusion method. Antibiotic disc of amoxicillin-clavulanate 20 µg, Fosfomycin 200 µg, Ciprofloxacin 5 μg, Moxifloxacin µg, Gentamicin 10 μg and Ceftolozane/tazobactam (30/10 μg) were placed on agar plate and then incubated at 35°C for 16-24 hours. Data was analyzed by using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 20.

Results: Out of total 550 strains of Klebsiella 35% were multidrug resistant while 64% were not. Sensitivity and resistance pattern of multiple antibiotics against Klebsiella showed that majority of antibiotics were resistant to Klebsiella. The highest resistance was noted with amoxicillin that was 90%, followed by amoxiclave, nitrofurantoin, doxycycline, ceftazidime and ciprofloxacin with frequency of 86%, 75%, 64% 56% and 54% respectively. On the other hand, combination of Ceftolozane and tazobactam were highly sensitive against klebsiella followed by fosfomycin, Imipenem and combination of piperacillin and tazobactam with frequency of 95%, 89%, 88% and 68% respectively.

Conclusion: It can be concluded that klebsiella species have developed high resistance against a number of antibiotics resulting in high morbidity and mortality. Currently combination of Ceftolozane and tazobactam is highly sensitive so it should be preserved as a future lifesaving drug. Beside this, fosfomycin, Imipenem and combination of piperacillin and tazobactam also reported high sensitivity.

Open Access Original Research Article

Potential Therapeutic Activity of Mango (Mangifera indica L.) Leaves on Excess Consumption of Fructose in Rats

Alyae M. S. Gabal, H. E. El-Kewawy, Gehan M. Morsy

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 192-204
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i64B35386

Background and Objective: High fructose consumption has increased worldwide. It causes various metabolic, genetic and histologic alterations. Alternative medicine, primarily herbal plants, has been proposed to alleviate the negative effects of high fructose consumption. The main objective of this study was to explore the efficacy of supplementation or treatment with mango leaves against high fructose induced alterations in male rats.

Methodology: Mango leaves nutritional and active components were determined. A total of sixty male adult rats were used in this study. Fifteen rats were kept as healthy (negative control group; rats fed on balanced diet) while in others metabolic alterations were induced by consumption of high fructose diet ad libitum. Rats fed on high fructose diet were splited into 3 groups (15 rats in each), one group set as positive control group; rats fed on high fructose diet only and the other 2 groups; mango treated group; rats fed on high fructose diet until induction of hyperglycemia (one month and half) then fed on high fructose diet with replacement of fiber with 5% mango leaves and mango supplemented group; rats fed on high fructose diet with 5% mango leaves replacing fiber.

Results: Mango leaves contain significant amounts of crude protein, crude fat, carbohydrates, crude fiber, ash, total flavonoids and polyphenols that controlled and corrected the following high fructose consumption results. Consumption of high fructose diet significantly (p≤0.05) increased final body weight (FBW), body weight gain (BWG), abdominal circumference (AC), Lee index and body mass index (BMI). High fructose also significantly (p≤0.05) increased levels of systolic blood pressure (SBP), serum  triacylglycerol (TAG), total cholesterol (TC), fasting blood glucose, insulin, homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), serum tumor necrosis factor-α   (TNF-α), leptin, malondialdehyde (MDA), advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and adipocyte size as well as blood histone deacetylase (HDAC) enzyme activity. High fructose consumption contrarily caused significant decrease (p≤0.05) in levels of quantitative insulin check index of insulin sensitivity (QUICKI), adiponectin, muscular insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1) and glucose transporter-4 (GLUT-4) gene expression as well as blood reduced glutathione (GSH). Furthermore, microscopic examinations of the pancreatic and adipose tissues corroborated the biochemical findings.

Conclusion: Mango leaves are a cheap source of macro and micronutrients as well as active constituents. By limiting metabolic and genetic abnormalities caused by high fructose consumption, either mango leaf supplementation or therapy improved and ameliorated all biochemical and microscopic data. The mango leaves supplemented group showed the most improvement.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effectiveness of Ginger Candy on Dysmenorrhea among Adolescent Girls of a Nursing College at Vadodara

Aishwaryakumari S. Patel, T. Vinaya Kumary

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 231-239
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i64B35423

Background of Study: Adolescence period for a girl is a time of physical and mental preparation for a safe mother. Dysmenorrhea is a painful menstrual cycle. It is characterized as painful pelvic pain that begins shortly before or early in the menstruation and lasts 1 to 3 days. Anxiety and fatigue were ongoing problems for girls with dysmenorrhea. There are a variety of options for treating dysmenorrhea that include a medical and non-medical approach. Ginger is a drug that is found to have a relaxation effect on muscle disorders which is why it can play a positive role in dysmenorrhea.

Materials and Methods: The present study aims to assess the effect of Ginger Candy on dysmenorrhea among adolescent girls at College of Nursing, Parul University, Vadodara. Quasi experimental study design was adopted for the study. A total of 60 samples (30 in experimental group and 30 in control group) were selected using Non probability purposive sampling. The tool consists of socio-demographic variable, menstrual variables and Numerical pain rating scale to assess dysmenorrhea pain. Study participants were explained about the risks and benefits of the study and assured that anonymity and confidentiality will be maintained. Informed consent was obtained from all the participants. Pre-test level of dysmenorrhea was assessed, Ginger candy was administered to participants in experimental group (morning and evening for first two days of menstruation). Post-test was conducted to assess dysmenorrhea pain using numeric pain rating scale. The data was arranged and analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics.

Results: Present study results showed that in experimental group pre-test majority 21(70%) of adolescent girls had severe dysmenorrhea whereas in post-test majority 18(60%) had mild dysmenorrhea. In control group pre-test majority 19(63.3%) had severe dysmenorrhea while in post-test majority 23(76.7%) had moderate dysmenorrhea. Findings revealed that in experimental group post-test mean pain score was 3.37±1.189 and in control group post-test mean score was 5.07±1.202 with mean difference of 1.70 with obtained t value (t=5.509, df=58, p=0.001) was significant at p<0.05 level. There was no significant association found between dysmenorrhea and selected demographic variables of adolescent girls.

Open Access Original Research Article

Condylar Height: Age and Sex Determination Using Orthopantogram in Forensics

L. Casilda Sushanthi, Abirami Arthanari, Pratibha Ramani

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 266-271
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i64B35439

Background: Since time immemorial, Condyles has been the area of interest for anthropologists, and the condyle size in men is higher than that of women. The condyle measurement is usually studied in two planes, i.e. anteroposterior and mediolateral, which are more gender-alliant. Different conventional X-rays are used for condylar imaging whose panoramic views of both condyles are provided by the OPG. For the creation of biological profiles during mass disasters the skull has remained useful. However, the technical procedures must in most cases be based on fragmented skull bones, when the whole skull is not available.

Materials and Methods: The study samples were retrieved from DIAS of Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals between the retrospective months from November 2020 to February 2021. The study sample consisted of 300 OPG’s (150 males and 150 females), which were taken using Genoray Papaya machine, of age ranging from 10 to 24.9 years in which mandibular condylar height was measured using PlanmecaRomexis Software.

Results: The standard deviation for evaluation of condylar height for female is ±4.38 while for males it is ±4.91.The standard error mean for condylar height for females is 0.35808 and for males is 0.40136 with non-significant p value of 0.893.

Conclusion: By analysing the condylar mandibular height, the results of this study could improve human identification.For validation and comparison purposes, further research may be required in order to expand other associated parameters into a broader sample size.

Open Access Original Research Article

A Clinico–radiological Correlation of Patients with Lumbar Spinal Instability

Ulhas J. Dudhekar, Ratnakar Ambade, Kiran Saoji, Aditya Kekatpure, Sarthak Gupta

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 287-292
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i64B35442

Background: A larger than normal range of motion in the spinal segment defines lumbar segmental instability, which is a sort of aberrant motion to physiologic stressors. Clinical complaints and signs such as low back ache or radiculopathy, as well as Kotilainen and Valtonen's three criteria for instability (painful catch, instability catch, and apprehension) will be correlated with an MRI investigation to determine lumbar spinal instability. Disc degeneration and facet degeneration along with soft tissues supporting spinal motion segment are important provocative factors for lumbar spine instability. The existence of lumbar instability must be identified since it can alter the treatment approach and patient prognosis.

Objective: To evaluate clinical signs and symptoms in patients with Lumbar spinal instability, as well as to investigate radiological signs using X-rays and an MRI scan.

Methods and Materials:  In this study in which patients with history suggestive of Lumbar spinal instability will be evaluated clinically and radiologically. Patients of age group of 25-75 years will be included in this study. Clinical tests, static and dynamic Xrays and MRI scan will be studied.

Expected Outcomes: By this study we can expect clinico–radiological co relation in patient with low back ache in lumbar spinal instability. Outcome data will be assessed on Clinico-radiological Criteria of Lumbar Instability and clinic-radiological correlation will be done.

Open Access Original Research Article

Knowledge Awareness and Perception on Comorbidities of Obesity among Dental Students: A Survey

V. Sri Sreshtaa, R. Gayathri, V. Vishnu Priya

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 299-309
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i64B35545

Aim: The aim of this study is to evaluate the awareness of kap on comorbidities of obesity among dental students.

Introducion: Obesity is characterized by an excess of adipose tissue. The increase of food intake (hyperphagia) triggered by a period of fasting is a simple but compelling example of food-intake regulation. The balance between energy intake (food consumption) and energy expenditure (basal metabolic rate, i.e. biochemical processes required to maintain cellular viability, physical activity and adaptive thermogenesis) is tightly regulated.

Materials and Methods: An online survey was conducted and circulated among dental students, which included a questionnaire assessing the awareness levels of the comorbidities related to obesity.

Results and Discussion: The results obtained showed that 75.8% of the people are aware that obesity can lead to sleep apnea, 80.5% of the people are aware that obesity can lead to gastrointestinal disturbances and diabetes.

Conclusion: The discussion makes an attempt to trace the basic modern day concepts of obesity and its effect on health.

Open Access Original Research Article

Prevalence of Kinesiophobia in Treating Lateral Epicondalgia through Physical Therapy

Kiran Jeswani, Manisha Rathi

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 310-315
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i64B35713

Background: Physical treatment (PT) addresses a significant methodology in treating lateral epicondalgia. Which is less explored so far, thereby we tried to throw light a bit in little acknowledged area.

Methodology: Review was led in India in patients with lateral epicondalgia alluded to PT. Kinesiophobia was scored with the Tampa Scale of Kinesiophobia (TSK), Patients who agreed for the study were considered with a consent form.

Results: 500 patients with lateral epicondalgia were considered, 45.5% female and 65.5% of males alluded to PT. Patients with fear of movement were essentially more seasoned. A critical increment of PT fulfillment was seen in patients.

Conclusion: Kinesiophobia with lateral epicondalgia who comes for physical management is seen significantly.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of the Antioxidant Activity of Banana Stem Mediated Copper Nanoparticles : An In vitro Study

Charanya Suresh, S. Balaji Ganesh, S. Rajeshkumar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 323-331
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i64B35722

Background: Musa sapientum, commonly known as banana, is an herbaceous plant of the Musaceae family. Copper-based nanoparticles (Cu-NPs) enhance the scavenging capacity of various antioxidants and improve the treatment of ROS-related diseases. The aim of this study is to evaluate the antioxidant activity of banana stem mediated copper nanoparticles.

Materials and Methods: Banana stems weighing 200 grams were cut into small pieces. These fragments were powdered and mixed with 200 cc of sterile distilled water in a blender. CuCl2H2O (0.5 mmol, 5 mL) was applied to ethanol, and the reaction mixture was allowed to react with 1 M NaOH while stirring. Cu-Nps and the prepared banana stem extract were mixed together. The DPPH assay was used to investigate the antioxidant activity of banana stem mediated Cu-Nps. The percent inhibition values were determined using the formula after the absorbance values were measured with a UV spectrophotometer.

Results: At the highest concentration used in the study, the antioxidant activity of banana stem mediated Cu-Nps was 88.10 percent and that of vitamin C was 92.15 percent. This demonstrated that Cu- Nps mediated by banana stems have a concentration-dependent antioxidant effect.

Conclusion: The antioxidant activity of banana stem mediated Cu- Nps tested here was higher than the standard antioxidant drug vitamin c in lower concentration. In higher concentration, vitamin c standard showed higher antioxidant activity.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Apoptotic Activity of Ethanolic Extract of Andrographis paniculata Linn in Human Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cell Lines

Sneha Kannan, T. Lakshmi, Raghunandha Kumar, Anita Roy

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 332-341
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i64B35723

Introduction: Andrographis paniculata is one of the highly used potential medicinal plants in the world. This plant is traditionally used for the treatment of common cold, diarrhoea, fever due to several infective cause, jaundice, as a health tonic for the liver and cardiovascular health, and as an antioxidant. It is also used to improve sexual dysfunctions and serve as a contraceptive. All parts of this plant are used to extract the active phytochemicals, but the compositions of phytoconstituents widely differ from one part to another and with place, season, and time of harvest.

Materials and Methods: All data obtained were analysed by Student t test using MS- Excel. The results were computed statistically using one way ANOVA.The reagents used were MTT [3-(4,5-dimethythiazol-2-yl) 2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide]: 0.5 mg MTT/ml of serum-free DMEM, Solubilization solution: Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO)and Phosphate Buffered Saline (PBS; pH 7.4).The cytotoxic effects of lycopene Ag NP on 3T3 cells. Cells were treated with Lycopene Ag NP(10, 20, 30, 50, 100 and 200 μM) for 24 h, and cell viability was evaluated by MTT assay. Data are shown as means ± SD (n = 3). * compared with the control-blank group, p < 0.001.

Results: The results were evaluated using three tests namely, MTT assay, Dual staining (acridine orange/ethidium bromide) and morphological changes.

Conclusion: Different stages of apoptosis revealed the importance of A.paniculata in hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines. Andrographolide and analogues have been subjected to extensive chemico- biological investigations for anticancer drug development. Several andrographolide analogues have shown superior anticancer activities in both in vitro and in vivo models. Further clinical and biomedical studies are required to confirm the pharmacological, pharmaceutical and toxicological properties of andrographolide.

Open Access Original Research Article

Prevalence of Denture Stomatitis among Patients Visiting Private Dental Hospital in Chennai - An Institutional Study

S. B. Sree Lakshmi, Pratibha Ramani

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 342-350
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i64B35724

Aim: The aim of the study was to assess the prevalence of denture stomatitis among patients visiting private dental colleges in Chennai.

Introduction:  Denture stomatitis is the inflammation of the denture bearing mucosa mostly affecting elderly population. The classical signs of denture stomatitis are burning sensation, bad taste, discomfort and sometimes they are asymptomatic. It occurs mostly under the maxillary denture due to less salivary gland, high retention, poor cleansing activity of the tongue.

Materials and Method: This is a descriptive study which was performed under a university setting in which the data of patients who were diagnosed with denture stomatitis in the department of oral medicine at a private dental college in Chennai, India from June 2019- February 2021. The data was collected by reviewing patient records and the analysis of data of n =5,35,951 was done. The parameters such as age of the patient, gender of the patient, site of lesion and clinic type were noted in the study. The collected data was compiled, reviewed, tabulated in spss software (version 22.0) for statistical analysis.

Results: The prevalence of denture stomatitis is about 30.58% and  more common among the age group of 70-79 years and had a more female prediction. The most common site of denture stomatitis was the maxillary denture (80%) and most of the patients had undergone treatment in Undergraduate clinics (86.78%).

Conclusion: Thus the knowledge of prevalence of denture stomatitis and correlation with various parameters is essential in dental practices for improving clinical performance.

Open Access Original Research Article

Long Scarf Related Injuries in Female Bike Riders Reported at Different Tertiary Care Hospitals Karachi

Sadaf Iqbal, Farhana Memon, Bushra Zulfiqar, . Shafaatullah, Ashfaq Ahmed Memon, Maryam Noor

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 355-358
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i64B35727

Objective: To determine the frequency of long scarf related injuries in female bike riders.

Study Design: This is an observational study.

Setting: This study was conducted in the emergency department of a tertiary care hospital in Karachi and aims to calculate the type of injury due to long scarf in female bike riders. It was conducted during the period of Dec, 2020 to Nov, 2021.

Materials & Methods: Participants visiting the emergency department due to motor bike accidents and female patients were screened for long scarf related injuries. Statistical analysis was done by SPSS version 21 and descriptive statistics were used.

Results:  For one year time, we received 174 patients due to motor bike accidents and 20.6% injuries were due to long scarf in females. As 36 patients matched our inclusion criteria due to long scarf while riding a motor bike. The mean age of females was found to be 34 years (range 16-55 years). Majority of the patients had more than one site of injury and left leg fracture was the most common injury found in 44.6% of females. Out of 32 patients, 14 patients required admission urgently. 

Conclusion: A considerable number of injuries and deaths can be prevented by simple interventions and carefulness while riding on motorcycle. We have identified this problem only in a small group of population but this issue needs to be highlighted at a higher place.

Open Access Original Research Article

Anti-cariogenic & Cytotoxic Activity of Red Sandal (Pterocarpus santalinus) Ethanolic Extract

Harini Palani, Lakshminarayanan Arivarasu, S. Rajeshkumar, Lakshmi Thangavelu

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 368-373
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i64B35737

Introduction: Pterocarpus santalinus, with the common names red sanders, red saunders, red sandalwood, Rakt Chandan, and saunderswood, is a species of Pterocarpus endemic to the southern Eastern Ghats mountain range of South India. This tree is valued for the rich red colour of its wood.The use of ethanolic extract is a cost-effective way to produce a quality extract from a large volume of plants.Pterocarpus santalinus has a characteristic anti-cariogenic and cytotoxic activity.This study aimed to find the Anti cariogenic and cytotoxic activity of Pterocarpus santalinus (Red sandal) ethanolic extract preparation.

Materials and Methods: The anticariogenic activity was done by using agar well diffusion technique and the cytotoxic activity was done by Brine Shrimp Lethality Assay. Pterocarpus santalinus were purchased commercially from an herbal health centre, in Chennai.  The obtained powder Pterocarpus santalinus stored in an airtight container. 5 gram of powder is mixed with 50 ml of ethanol and kept in the orbital shaker for 72  hours , after it has boiled in a heating mantle at 62- 70 degree c for 5-10 min. The extract is filtered using whatman filter paper 1.The filter extract again contracted using heating mantle.

Results: The extract shows very good anticariogenic and cytotoxic activity of  P.santalinus ethanolic extract by using Brine Shrimp Lethality Assay.

Conclusion: The Anti-cariogenic and cytotoxic activity of Pterocarpus santalinus ethanolic extract preparation was effective.

Open Access Original Research Article

Virtual Screening to Identify the Protein Network Interaction of Theophylline in Red Complex Pathogens

S. Amrithaashri, J. Vijayashree Priyadharshini, A. S. Smiline Girija, P. Sankar Ganesh

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 374-381
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i64B35738

Background: Plants, herbs and plant derived compounds have been used since decades in folk and traditional medicine. These compounds were found to be non-toxic and compatible with the human cells. Screening of this exhaustive collection of compounds seems to be a herculean task. Hence, virtual screening methods have been developed to predict the potential targets of these compounds enabling researchers to acquire preliminary data on the compound intended to be tested in vitro.

Aim: The present study aims to identify protein targets of theophylline in red complex pathogens which are mainly associated with periodontitis.

Methods: The STITCH v5.0 pipeline was mainly used to classify drug-protein interactions, while VirulentPred and VICMPred were used to determine the proteins' virulence properties and functional classes. PSORTb v3.0 was used to determine the subcellular localization of viral proteins, and BepiPred v1.0 Linear Epitope Prediction was used to classify epitopes.

Results: Proteins of red complex pathogens implicated in cellular process, metabolism, and virulence were identified to interact with theophylline. The virulent proteins attacked by the drugs were present in the cytoplasm, which would improve the drugs' antimicrobial efficacy even more. Finally, epitope prediction showed a number of epitopes in virulent proteins that can be targeted.

Conclusions: Proteins involved in the cellular process, metabolism, and virulence of red complex pathogens targeted by theophylline were identified. To substantiate the true interactions between the drugs and the protein arsenal of pathogens, further in vitro experiments on a broad range of pathogens are required.

Open Access Original Research Article

A Study on Variation of Origin of Gastroduodenal Artery

Rohan A. Gawali, Sumedha Anjankar, Trupti Balwir, Ujwal Gajbe, Brij Raj Singh, Vaibhav Anjankar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 391-394
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i64B35740

Aim: The aim of the study is to note the variation in the origin of Gastroduodenal artery (GDA).

In a study done on 30 cadavers at Seth G.S. Medical College and K.E.M. Hospital, Mumbai, India, during the period 2011–2012, it was found that there was a rare type of branching pattern of the gastroduodenal artery (GDA). The knowledge of variations is very important during the operative, diagnostic and endovascular procedures. Variations in the branching pattern of the cystic artery often occur and may be encountered during cholecystectomy or laparoscopic cholecystectomy and hepatobiliary surgeries. This study describes unusual origin of cystic artery from the gastro duodenal artery as found during routine dissection in a cadaver. The embryological development and clinical importance of such a variation have been emphasized.

Open Access Original Research Article

Antioxidant and Anti Inflammatory Activity of Copper Nanoparticles Synthesized Using Red Tea

R. Bharathi, Arvina Rajasekar, S. Rajeshkumar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 395-405
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i64B35741

Background: Recently, nanoparticles have been playing a pivotal role in modern material development. Nanotechnology has provided great possibilities in various fields of science and technology. The antioxidant characteristics of Aspalathus linearis, also known as rooibos, include antimutagenic, anticarcinogenic, anti-inflammatory, and antiviral capabilities.

Aim: To determine the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activity of copper nanoparticles synthesized using red tea.

Materials and Methods: Preparation of the red tea extract, synthesis of copper nanoparticles, preparation of nanoparticles powder and then antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity of nanoparticles were analysed. Antioxidant activity and anti- inflammatory activity was assessed using DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl-hydrate) assay and inhibition of albumin denaturation assay. The standard used was diclofenac sodium in various concentrations.

Results: The formation of copper nanoparticles was indicated by the peak found in the spectroscopy. Copper nanoparticles synthesized using red tea showed highest absorbance at a concentration of 50μl (82%) when it was subjected to DPPH assay to check for its antioxidant property at a wavelength of about 517 nm. Copper nanoparticles synthesized using red tea showed highest absorbance at a concentration of 50μl (92.2%) when it was subjected to inhibition of albumin denaturation assay to analyse for its anti-inflammatory activity at a wavelength of about 660 nm.

Conclusion: The present study suggests that red tea mediated copper nanoparticles showed good antioxidant activity and anti-inflammatory activity. It can be concluded that the antioxidant activity of red tea is not as efficient as Diclofenac but it can be more efficient when it’s concentration is raised to safe levels and anti-inflammatory activity of red tea is as efficient as Diclofenac.

Open Access Original Research Article

Anti Inflammatory Activity of Musa Sapientum and Its Mediated Copper Nanoparticles- An In Vitro Study

R. Akshaya, S. Balaji Ganesh, S. Rajeshkumar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 406-414
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i64B35742

Introduction: Musa sapientum commonly known as ‘banana’ is widely used in Indian folk medicine for the treatment of diabetes mellitus. Copper nanoparticles demonstrate a very strong catalytic activity, a property that can be attributed to their large catalytic surface area. The copper nanoparticles (Cu NPs) have been a strong focus on applications to health-related processes due to its antibacterial properties and antifungal activity in addition to their catalytic, optical, and electrical properties. The aim of the study is to check the anti-inflammatory activity of musa sapientum and its and it's mediated copper nanoparticles.

Materials and Methods: 1g of musa sapientum was weighed aseptically and then dissolved in 100ml of distilled water. Then the solution is boiled for about 5 minutes at a temperature of about 60-80 degree celsius and then allowed to cool down followed by filtration of extract and then copper nanoparticles were synthesised and anti inflammatory activity was done.

Results:  It has been identified that, in 10µL concentration, the percentage of inhibition was noted as 43.5%, 20µL concentration shows 47.5% of inhibition, 30µL shows 83.6%, 40µL shows 85.4% and 50µL concentration shows 85.8% of inhibition which results in good anti inflammatory activity observed from 10 to 50µL concentration. From the study it can be clearly seen that a concentration dependent increase in the anti inflammatory activity was evident in copper nanoparticles and the standard in this study.

Conclusion : It has been concluded that the copper nanoparticles synthesised using the extract of  musa sapientum have shown better anti-inflammatory activities.

Open Access Original Research Article

Correlation between Level of Functional Ability and Sports Performance among Football Players with Chronic Ankle Instability (CAI)

Shenbaga Sundaram Subramanian, Soon Yuen Teng, P. Senthil, Riziq Allah Mustafa Gaowgeh, Saad Suleman Alfawaz, Ziyad Neamatallah

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 415-424
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i64B35780

Background: Chronic ankle instability (CAI) is the most common injury among the football players and it occurs with the players who have history of repetitive ankle sprain. This will result in limitation of functional ability and sport performance of a football player. However, most of the sport rehabilitation focused on the sport performance of an athletic after ankle sprain injury and the functional ability was not stressed on during the return to sport process. It is because the relationship between the level functional ability and sport performance among the football players with CAI is still unclear.

Objectives: To determine the relationship between the level of functional ability and sports performance among the football players with chronic ankle instability (CAI).

Study Design: Correlation study.

Methods: Forty two (n=42) of football players were involved in this study by convenience sampling design. Football players filled in the questionnaire which was Foot and Ankle Ability Measure (FAAM) which included the activities of daily living (ADL) subscale and sports subscale. The total score of each subscale for all the players were calculated and Pearson’s Correlation Coefficient was used to analyze the relationship.

Results: A total of twenty five (60%) of the football players had higher ADL score than the sports score while seventeen (40%) of them had higher sports score than ADL score. The mean score for ADL subscale was 79.63±20.64 (%) whereas for sports subscale was 75.59±25.43 (%).  Pearson’s correlation was .92 (r=.92) and it is significant at .01 level (p <.00).

Conclusion: There is a significant relationship between the level of functional ability and sports performance among the football players with chronic ankle instability (CAI).

Implication: It provides a guideline for the physiotherapy or football player to plan a more structured rehabilitation in order to improve the quality of return to sport performance.

Open Access Original Research Article

Prevalence of Osteomyelitis in Jaws among the Patients Visiting Private Dental Hospital: An Institutional Study

L. Akshayaa, Pratibha Ramani

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 425-432
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i64B35781

Introduction: Osteomyelitis is an inflammatory condition of bone that involves the medullary cavity and periosteum. The prevalence rate of this disease was found predominantly among the males than females with an incidence of 30-39 years. This condition involves one or more facial bones in the head and neck, mainly mandible, frontal bone, cervical spine, maxilla and nasal bones. Various types of osteomyelitis are acute, primary chronic suppurative and secondary chronic and fungal osteomyelitis.

Aim: To assess the prevalence rate of osteomyelitis in jaws among the patients visiting private dental hospitals in chennai.

Materials and Methods: This present study was carried out in a private dental hospital under a university setting, in Chennai. Sample size for the present study includes the patients who were diagnosed with osteomyelitis from Jun 2019 to Feb 2021 which was collected using the Dental hospital management system.  Sample size of the study was found to be n= 5 cases of osteomyelitis in jaws among 5,35,951 patients. The data collected was verified and tabulated in excel and statistically analysed using SPSS software. Chi square test was done to compare the groups (p<0.05) which shows the significance and the results were interpreted.

Results : Among the total patients, 40 % of them were males and 60 % of them were females. It was observed that 60 % of the subjects had acute osteomyelitis, 20 % with chronic suppurative and fungus associated osteomyelitis and found to be more prevalent among the individuals who were aged between 41-50 years. Majority of the females, 40% were highly affected with acute osteomyelitis than males, 20% of them were affected. However, p value less than 0.05 is considered as statistically significant, here the chi square test p value = 0.329, as (p > 0.05 ) it is insignificant.

Conclusion: The prevalence of osteomyelitis has recently decreased in developing countries, as attributed to the improvement in the oral and dental care with standard antibiotic treatment. From the results of our study it is evident that out of 5 cases of osteomyelitis in jaws, the majority of patients 60% were diagnosed with acute osteomyelitis. This shows that there is a reliable prevalence of osteomyelitis in jaws among the patients who are visiting private dental hospitals.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of the Association between Clinical Examination and Investigations with Outcome in Cases of Abdominal Malignancy

S. Rashmi, S. N. Jajoo

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 433-446
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i64B35782

Introduction: Abdominal malignancy is a serious problem in the western world which is presently rising in India due to change in lifestyle. The etiopathogenesis are hereditary, environmental and lifestyle factors. The signs and symptoms vary depending upon the type and stage of cancer. Routine investigations, tumor markers, radiology, endoscopy and biopsy examine patients. There have been advances in chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and palliation but still surgery is curative.

Methods: This is a prospective observational study including all cases of abdominal malignancy presenting to Surgery OPD. The sample size is 46 patients.

Results: Mean age of presentation is 54.63 years. Preoperative abnormal parameters such as CEA, CA 19-9, preoperative biopsy, lymph nodal metastasis on CT and liver metastasis on CT were correlated with outcome which were found to be significant. Operative findings such as site, area, spread outside serosa, lymph nodal metastasis, and liver metastasis were correlated with same in the radio-pathological findings and were found to be significant. Outcome was assessed. Reasons for delay in presentation, diagnosis and treatment were assessed. 

Conclusion: Maximum number of patients were in the age group of 41-60 years. There was a definite difference in outcome with reference to preoperative abnormal parameters. There was comparative variation of operative and radio-pathological findings. Study subjects death were due to malignancy as most of them presented to the hospital at advanced stages of malignancy and others dropped out of chemotherapy or radiotherapy and those who took proper treatment had good outcome.

Open Access Original Research Article

Association of Signs and Symptoms at Menarche with Pitta Pre-dominant Prakriti: An Observational Study

Zoya Hasan Khan, Gaurav Sawarkar, Priti Desai, Punam Sawarkar, Amol Deshpande

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 447-453
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i64B35797

Background: Menarche a sign of puberty which links childhood to adult hood. It is the phase of progression of sexual characters required at the adolescent’s age. It is seen that premenstrual symptoms regularly occurs in luteal phase of menstrual cycle. Similarly, when we can see premenarcheal symptoms in luteal phase of first menstrual cycle. Bhawmishra has explained that difference in color is due to different Prakriti es of individuals and vitiated doshas are responsible for symptoms like pain and burning sensation.

Materials and Methods: A total 673 girls were screened from Wardha city and out of them 150 were recruited for the study. Data were gathered with the help of specially designed proforma and Prakriti questionnaire. Qualitative analysis was done based on recorded data.

Observation & Results: Around 105 girls with Pitta Prakriti noted the problem of dysmenorrhea. Various observations were recorded based on regularity (16.67%)- irregularity (83.33%), quantity (Excess 19.34%, Moderate 68.66%, Scanty 12%), consistency (Clot 23.34%, Viscous 37.33%, Watery 39.33%), smell (Foul 18.67%, Normal 81.33%), dysmenorrhea condition (No 30%, Yes 70%), pain intensity (High 16.67%, Medium 72.67%, Scanty 10.66%) and other associated sign & symptoms like back pain, headache, pain in abdomen, body ache, stomach pain.

Conclusion: It was concluded that average age group were seen around 12 years, majority of participants had watery flow and viscid flow which can be explained as Pitta dosha has dominance of Agni. The duration of menstruation was seen averagely about 6 days in most of the participants.

Open Access Original Research Article

Incidence of Angular Cheilitis among Patients Visiting Private Dental Hospital in Chennai: An Institutional Study

Anu Iswarya Jaisankar, Pratibha Ramani

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 454-465
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i64B35807

Introduction: Angular cheilitis is defined as the localised inflammation of the lip commissure. The angles of the mouth are more prone to inflammation as they serve as the points of interface between the squamous epithelium and oral mucosa. It is a multifactorial disease and occurs due to varied etiology. It can be due to microbial infections, poor dentures, or can be due to smoking and pan chewing habits, Nutritional deficiency or Generalised Immunosuppression. Most of the lesions respond well to the topical antifungal medications and steroids.

Aim: The current study aims to assess the Incidence of Angular cheilitis among patients visiting the  Out patient department of a private dental hospital setting

Materials and Methodology: The study was performed in the Out patient department of saveetha dental college, under a university setting. The study was a retrospective study and the data required were procured by reviewing patient records dating between June 2019 and March 2021 and the sample size was n =125. The data thus collected were sorted and tabulated in the excel sheet. The sorted data were then entered in the IBM SPSS software and descriptive analysis was performed. The results were interpreted in the form of pictorial graphs.

Results: n = 125 patient records who had been diagnosed with Angular cheilitis had been retrieved. Our results show that the majority of them i.e 52% of the people were Females and 48% of them were Males.Our results also show that the people of  age group 41 to 50 were the most affected with 31.20% and people with 20 to 30 years of age group were the least affected with 12.80%.

Conclusion: Within the limitations of the study, it can be concluded that Angular cheilitis has got a predominant Female predilection and more commonly affects people of 41 to 50 years of age.

There is also a positive correlation between the Gender of the population and smoking and pan chewing habits; and Gender of the population and Iron deficiency anemia induced Angular cheilitis.

Open Access Original Research Article

Design and Selection of Novel Kinase Inhibitors Implicated in Alzheimer’s Disease by High Throughput Virtual Screening

Diwakar Sunil Kumar, Singh Anoop

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 539-548
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i64B35946

CDK5 (cyclin dependent kinase 5) is a promising target for treating a variety of neurodegenerative illnesses. The discovery of effective and selective CDK5 inhibitors that engage the polar side chains of the ATP-binding pocket as well as establish specific hydrogen bonds with the kinase has made significant progress. To find novel prospective CDK5 inhibitors with improved effectiveness, ADME characteristics, and a large margin of safety. High throughput virtual screening employing flexible docking was used to screen 2,50,000 compounds from the Specs database against the CDK5 crystal structure (PDB ID: 1UNL). The docking simulation was performed using HTVS first, then SP, and finally XP. The interaction pattern to the receptor with fresh lead candidates has been found and selected based on the GLIDE docking score. The lead moiety in the co-crystallized roscovitine with CDK5 complex retains critical H-bonding patterns while also introducing hydrophobic interactions with Ile10 and Leu133. Selected hits demonstrate hydrophobic interactions with Asn 144, Gly 13, and Ala143 within the ATP cleft in a comparable way to reference compounds (Roscovitine). The lead compound's binding pattern revealed by GLIDE docking experiments demonstrated that molecules bind to the kinase's well-conserved catalytic pocket.

Open Access Original Research Article

Development and Evaluation of Extended Release Tacrolimus Tablets by Melt Granulation in Combination with Magnesium Alumino Metasilicate

Asif Anwar, Priyanka Soni, Ankit Anand Kharia

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 549-561
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i64B35978

To increase the effectiveness of tacrolimus, the present study sought to develop extended-release tablets. It is used to treat mild to severe atopic dermatitis as well as to prevent organ rejection after organ transplantation. Tacrolimus, on the other hand, has a poor bioavailability and a short half-life. The current research aims to create extended-release tacrolimus tablets by melting and granulating utilizing lipid and adsorbent materials to ensure excellent flow and a hypromellose matrix system to regulate release for 12 hr. Tacrolimus granules were prepared by melting with glyceryl behenate in rapid mixer granulator in the presence of polyethylene glycol followed by magnesium alumino metasilicate for adsorption purposes. Adsorbed granules were milled, sifted, and mixed with extra granular material such as hypromellose, lactose monohydrate and magnesium stearate. Granules were compressed to tablets using oval-shaped plain tooling. In vitro dissolution profile of solid dispersion and extended release tablets were investigated. Release profile of tablets and solid dispersion were improved by melt granulation due to the polymorphic form conversion of drug substance from crystalline to amorphous.Release kinetics of tacrolimus extended release tablets were fitted with zero order release with R2 value of 0.964, which designate constant release for 12 hr. Therefore, the present findings from the study revealed that the formulation was successfully prepared and showed extended release pattern over 12 hr.

Open Access Original Research Article

Prevalence of Joint Hypermobility in Adolescent Females

Poonam Dhankher, Joginder Singh Yadav, Ashish Devgan

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 562-569
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i64B35979

The joint hypermobility syndrome is a condition that characterises joints that are mobile past the range expected for that particular joint. Hypermobility has a significant impact on quality of life of affected individuals. Hypermobile individuals may be more susceptible to musculoskeletal maladies and orthopaedic problems [1] like joint effusions, pain, joint subluxations [2] and alterations in joint proprioception. The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence of generalized joint hypermobility in school going adolescent females (13-18 years). A cross sectional observational study was undertaken with a sample size of 1827 adolescent females studying in schools of Haryana. Generalised joint hypermobility was assessed using a cut-off Beighton score of ≥5 in accordance with the 2017 International Classification of EDS criteria. Selective joint hypermobility was classified on scores from 1-4/9. Score 0/9 was taken as no hypermobility at all. Adolescent females in the age group of 13-18 years who were not injured were chosen as subjects because young females are more likely to have generalised joint hypermobility. The point prevalence of hypermobility was 28.51 percent whereas prevalence of selective joint mobility was 56.10 percent. 15.59% percent females were not hypermobile according to Beighton’s score in 13-18 year old females. In this population of youngsters, predominantly women, localized hypermobility was more frequent than generalized hypermobility. The fifth metacarpophalangeal joint is the most commonly affected joint, followed by thumb, elbow, spine and then knee joint. Left side showed more hypermobility than right side. Upper limb joints showed more hyper-mobility than lower limb joints and spine.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Antiasthmatic Activity of Eraippu Noi Chooranam (ENC)

A. M. Amala Hazel, V. Mahalakshmi, R. Patturayan, R. Meenakumari

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 570-576
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i64B35981

Background: Every human race has its own traditional system of medicines. Siddha system of medicine is unique and ancient of its kind originating from Tamil Nadu in India. Siddha system could be considered as the crown of all the traditional arts of the ancient Tamil. Eraippu Noi Chooranam is a modified Siddha Poly Herbal formulation indicated for respiratory diseases in the text Siddha research pharmacopoeia. The indicated traditional claim enforced to evaluate its efficacy in the management of Bronchial asthma.

Aim and Objective: The aim of study is to evaluate the anti asthmatic activity of ENC in Bronchial asthma.

Materials and Methods: In the present study, aqueous extract of ENC was evaluated for its anti asthmatic activity using histamine induced bronchospasm, in guinea pig at different dose levels.

Results: The test drug ENC at all the three doses of 100,200,300 mg/kg p.o significantly (p<0.01) increased  the latent period of convulsions following exposure to histamine aerosol when compared to control. The percentage of protection by the standard drug was 82.8 % whereas the protection offered by ENC at 100,200 and 300 mg/kg was found to be 61.5%, 71.1% and 80% respectively. High dose of ENC offered highest protection which was comparable to standard.

Conclusion: It can be concluded that aqueous extract of ENC may be used in the management of asthma.

Open Access Original Research Article

Phytochemical Investigation and Determination of Total Phenols, Flavonoid and Alkaloid Concentration in Leaves Extract of Miliusa tomentosa

Nikhil Brijendra Kumar Shukla, Neeraj Sharma, Shailesh Jain

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 597-601
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i64B35996

The genus Miliusa (Annonaceae) has over 60 species that are native to India, Bhutan, Australia, and New Guinea, but are mostly found in numerous Asian nations such as Vietnam, Thailand, and China. The growing interest in secondary metabolites' potent biological action highlighted the need of assessing their presence in therapeutic plants. Miliusa tomentosa (Roxb.) J. Sinclair (Annonaceae, M. tomentosa) is also known as hoom, kari. It is a huge deciduous tree that may reach a height of 20 metres. The bark is a dark brown. The leaves are thick leathery, ovate, oblong, 4-10 cm long, 2-5.5 cm broad, smooth above, gently hairy below, base rounded, border whole, tip pointy, and the leaf-stalk is 2-5 mm long. They are burned, and the smoke is allowed to travel over the baby's body after birth to minimise swelling. In the summer, children are fed fruits to help them recover from their frailty. The current study's goal is to look at the phytochemical profile of M. tomentosa leaf. The well-known test procedure available in the literature was used to determine the qualitative analysis of various phytochemical elements as well as the quantitative analysis of total phenolics, flavonoids, and alkaloids. The phenolic and flavonoids were quantified using the Folins Ciocalteau reagent technique and the aluminium chloride method, respectively. The presence of alkaloids, glycosides, flavonoids, phenols, proteins, carbohydrates, and saponins was discovered by phytochemical study. The present study concluded that the crude extract of M. tomentosa is a rich source of secondary phytoconstituents which impart significant antioxidant potential. The findings of the present study will be helpful to phytochemists, pharmacologists and pharmaceutical industries.

Open Access Original Research Article

Formulation and Evaluation of Obeticholic Acid Solid Dispersion Tablet

Pawan S. Avhad, Revathi Gupta

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 602-609
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i64B36003

Obeticholic acid is a farnoside X receptor agonist that was recently licenced by the US Food and Drug Administration. In a solvent, solubility is lower, therefore it is necessary to improve solubility. Solid dispersion is one of the most effective methods for increasing Obeticholic acid's solubility. Solid dispersion can be prepared in a variety of ways. Fusion (Hot Melting) is one of the most straightforward and cost-effective methods for producing solid dispersion. Poloxamer is one of the finest polymers for solid dispersion production. Poloxamer 188 and Poloxamer 407 are widely accessible. Above solid dispersion is made using the fusion or hot melting procedure. The solubility of the prepared solid dispersion has increased to 0.347 mg/ml. In comparison to the polymer combination, which has a drug release rate of 99.63 percent, the percent drug release is also superior. Precompression settings were found to be within a reasonable range. Post compression parameters such as Hardness, Friability, Uniformity of weight, content uniformity are in standard range. F7 formulation shows 99.63 ± 0.19 in 60 minutes of time. Phosphate buffer 7.4 is used for dissolution test apparatus. All result parameter shows that prepared solid dispersion of Obeticholic acid by using poloxamer gives improved solubility and increased drug release.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Reliability of Various Cephalometric Angles for Assessing Sagittal Jaw Dysplasia in Different Skeletal Pattern: A Cephalometric Study

Swati Vishwakarma, Janis Shajan, Rony T. Kondody, R. N. G. Rajesh, Partha Pratim Roy, S. V. Paramesh Gowda

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 617-626
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i64B36004

Objective: The study aimed to compare the reliability of different cephalometric angles like the Beta, Yen, W and Pi angles to evaluate sagittal dysplasia in various skeletal patterns and assess the correlation between the variables.

Materials and Methods: 135 pre-treatment lateral cephalograms were taken and further divided into Class I, Class II and Class III groups. Each group had equal samples of 45 (n=45), based on ANB angle using Nemoceph software. Cephalometric landmarks Pi, Yen, Beta and W angle were identified and measured. Statistical analysis was done using the ANOVA test followed by Correlation coefficient analysis.

Results: Pi angle was highly predictable for differentiating class I cases, with 91.1% accuracy. Whereas in class II cases Pi and Beta angle were found to be most predictable with 73% and 66% accuracy respectively, while in class III cases Yen angle was found to be most predictable with 88% accuracy.

Conclusion: Overall Pi angle is considered the most reliable for assessing anteroposterior jaw relationship, followed by Beta and Yen angle.

Open Access Original Research Article

Prevalence of Xerostomia among Patients Visiting Private Dental Hospital in Chennai: A Retrospective Study

E. Thariny, Pratibha Ramani

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 627-637
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i64B36012

Introduction: Xerostomia is a dry mouth condition caused by insufficient or absent saliva flow. Xerostomia is not a disorder, but it may be a symptom of a variety of diseases, a side effect of head and neck radiation, or a side effect of a number of drug medications. It may be linked to reduced salivary gland activity or not.

Aim: To assess the prevalence of xerostomia among patients visiting private dental hospitals in chennai.

Materials and Methods: This was a retrospective study done in a university setting. Case sheets of patients who were diagnosed with xerostomia n=24 were obtained from DIAS for analysis between June 2019 - February 2021. The data was then collected using SPSS tools for statistical analysis. A comparison was made between xerostomia with age, gender and predisposing factor.

Results: There was a high prevalence of xerostomia in females (83.3%) when compared to males (16.7%) among the patients visiting private dental hospitals. Xerostomia was more prevalent in the age group of 55-65 years (41.6%). Most common reason for xerostomia was found to be drug medications (60.87%) followed by other factors like diabetic mellitus, radiation therapy etc. On comparison of age with the predisposing factor of xerostomia it was found that the age group of 55-65 year were mostly affected with drug medications as the most common reason to induce xerostomia which was found to be a statistically insignificant ( P value =0.151) Similarly on comparison of gender with predisposing factor of xerostomia, it was found that females were found to be most affected with drug medications as the main predisposing factor which was found to be a statistically significant with p =0.037.

Conclusion: Despite the limitations of this study, it can be concluded that oral dryness will continue to be a significant health problem as life expectancy rises. As a result, it's critical to comprehend the pathophysiology of xerostomia, as it may be a contributing factor in any systemic disorder.

Open Access Original Research Article

Synthesis and Antimicrobial Activity of Schiff’s and N-Mannich Bases of Indoline 2, 3-Dione and Its Derivatives with N-(4-(4-Aminophenylsulphonyl) Phenyl) Acetamide

Udit N. Soni, Anoop Singh

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 638-647
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i64B36014

Indoline 2, 3-dione and substituted Indoline 2, 3-dione derivatives were reacted with N-(4-(4-aminophenylsulphonyl) phenyl) acetamide to generate a variety of Schiff's bases. Using these compounds' Mannich bases were created by reacting them with formaldehyde and secondary amine (piperidine). The compounds were all described using IR, 1H NMR spectroscopic data and elemental analysis. The antibacterial activity of the produced compounds was determined using the tube dilution and Well plate methods. When compound UNS-2 was incubated at concentrations of 100, 50, and 25mg/ml, it showed the greatest Zone of Inhibition against Enterococcus faecalis. When compared to the reference medication, all of the synthesised compounds demonstrated superior antimicrobial efficacy.

Open Access Original Research Article

Study of Phytobioactive Constituents and Antioxidant Potential of Different Fractions of Leaves Extract of Boswellia serrata

Sujata Kushwaha, Chandra Kishore Tyagi

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 655-664
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i64B36129

Many of the current treatments that we use to treat our various ailments are derived from plants or plant-based therapies. The herb is particularly important in traditional medicine because of its ethnomedicinal properties. Boswellia serrata, often known as Indian frankincense, is a plant extract that has been utilised in Ayurvedic medicine for thousands of years. Because Boswellia serrata has a strong anti-inflammatory effect, Western medicine has verified its traditional use in the treatment of osteoarthritis, as it has with many other herbs. The goal of this study was to find out what phytochemicals were present in Boswellia serrata leaf extracts, as well as their antioxidant activities. The MeOH (85 percent) extract of Boswellia serrata leaves exhibited the highest total phenolic content and antioxidant activity, according to the findings of this study. Furthermore, the EtOAc and n-BuOH fractions (85 percent) generated from MeOH extract had a high total phenolic content and antioxidant activity. Total phenolics and antioxidants have a strong positive relationship. For further separation and identification of their chemical components, sophisticated chromatographic and spectroscopic technologies are advised due to the significant quantity of total phenolics and antioxidant capacity of EtOAc and n-BuOH fractions. The leaf of Boswellia serrata is a great source of natural antioxidants, according to this study. Furthermore, overall phenolic content and antioxidant activity have a close association.

Open Access Original Research Article

Frequency of Multiple Canals in Mandibular Premolars and its Correlation with Other Anatomical Variants (C Shaped Canals in Mandibular Second Molars): A Retrospective and Cross-sectional Study

T. Keerthana, Sindhu Ramesh

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 665-672
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i64B36144

Introduction: Recognition of variations in molar root morphology is critically important for dental procedures such as root canal treatment and apical surgery. Usage of CBCT enables systemic evaluation of teeth including the number of roots and canals, location of roots, etc. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of multiple canals in mandibular first and second premolars and to evaluate correlations between other anatomical variants using Cone beam computed tomography (CBCT).

Methodology: The protocol of this retrospective, cross-sectional study was approved by the Ethics Committee of Saveetha Dental Hospital, Chennai, India. Images of mandibular premolars were obtained from patients who had undergone CBCT scanning at the hospital between January 2018 and November 2020.Cross-sectional images in the axial, coronal, and sagittal planes were reconstructed using GALILEOS ComfortPLUS ( Sirona 3D)is an advanced CBCT that provides seamless workflow integration. Serial axial, coronal and sagittal-plane CBCT images were closely examined at 1.0-mm intervals from the canal orifice to the apex.

Results: Using SPSS software (ver. 21; SPSS, Inc., Chicago, IL, USA), chi-squared test was performed for analyses of different parameters involved. Various anatomical variants such as distolingual roots of first molars, C shaped canals of second molars are highly correlated with different canal configurations of mandibular premolars.

Conclusion: This retrospective study showed that different configurations of mandibular premolars canals was significantly correlated with the presence of Distolingual root (DLRs) in first molars, and C shaped canals in second molars. Understanding and identifying  anatomical variants is important in comprehensive success of endodontic treatment.

Open Access Original Research Article

Extraction, Phytochemical Screening and Antioxidant Potential of Hydroalcoholic Extract of Viola odorata Linn

Kiran Tiwari, Sachin Bhatt, Namrata Jain

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 673-680
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i64B36173

Bioactive chemicals found in medicinal plants are used to treat a variety of human ailments and serve a vital part in healing. Alkaloids, flavonoids, phenol, saponin, steroids, and tannins are examples of secondary components. Anticancer, antibacterial, antidiabetic, anti-diuretic, and anti-inflammation properties are all found in medicinal plants. The growing interest in secondary metabolites' significant biological action has highlighted the need of assessing their presence in therapeutic plants. Viola odorata (Viola odorata, Violaceae) is a Viola species native to Europe and Asia that has recently been introduced to North America and Australasia. In India, the plant is known as Banafsa, Banafsha, or Banaksa, and it's often used to treat sore throats and tonsillitis. It was known to be used to treat cancer-related pain. It has traditionally been used to treat anxiety, sleeplessness, and high blood pressure. Alkaloids, glycosides, saponins, methyl slicylate, mucilage, and vitamin C are all found in it. Antioxidant, analgesic, antihypertensive, and diuretic properties have been documented for the plant. The goal of this research is to identify phytochemicals, assess phenolic and flavonoid content, and measure the antioxidant potential of V. odorata flowers. The well-known test methodology was used to determine qualitative analysis of various phytochemical elements as well as quantitative analysis of total phenol and flavonoids. The antioxidant activity of a hydroalcoholic extract of V. odorata flowers was tested in vitro using the 1,1-diphenyl, 2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) assay and the hydrogen peroxide radical scavenging technique. Phenols, flavonoids, tannins, saponins, alkaloids, and other phytochemicals were discovered by phytochemical investigation. The total phenolic and flavonoids content of the hydroalcoholic extract of V. odorata flower was 0.521 and 0.637 mg/100 mg, respectively. In the investigated models, the extract showed dose-dependent free radical scavenging properties. For the DPPH technique, the IC50 value of V. odorata floral extract was 109.78g/ml, which was close to that of ascorbic acid (IC50=27.82g/ml). The IC50 value for hydrogen peroxide was discovered to be 85.85g/ml, which compares well to ascorbic acid (IC50=16.48g/ml). The present study describes the phytochemical profile and antioxidant activity of V. odorata flower which will further used for medicinal applications.

Open Access Original Research Article

In-vivo Immunomodulatory Activities of Isolated Compounds from the Leaves of Amaranthus spinosus and Achyranthes aspera

Rishikesh Sharma, Gurdeep Singh

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 698-703
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i64B36233

The purpose of this study was to look into the  Immunomodulatory action of isolated compound of Achyranthes aspera and Amaranthus spinosus in experimental model of immunity. Cellular immunity was carried out by neutrophil adhesion test and carbon clearance assay, whereas, humoral immunity was analyzed by mice lethality test and indirect haemagglutination assay. The dose was selected after acute toxicity study of isolated compound of Achyranthes aspera and Amaranthus spinosus and administered at 5 mg/kg orally. The Levamisole (0.68mg/kg, p.o) was used as standard. Isolated compound of Achyranthes aspera (IAA) and Amaranthus spinosus (IAS) at 5 mg/kg produced significant increases in adhesion of neutrophils and an increase in phagocytic index in carbon clearance assay. Both doses of IAA and IAS significantly prevented the mortality induced by bovine Pasteurella multocida in mice. Treatment of animals with IAA, IAS and Levamisole significantly increased the circulating antibody titre in indirect haemagglunation test. Among the different Isolates, (IAS) was more effective in cellular immunity models than the (IAA). However, Both the Isolates IAA and IAS exhibited similar protection in humoral immunity procedures. It is concluded that isolated compound of Achyranthes aspera(IAA) and Amaranthus spinosus(IAS)possesses potential for augmenting immune activity by cellular and humoral mediated mechanisms more at doseof (5 mg/kg).

Open Access Original Research Article

In vitro Antioxidant Activity of Parangipattai Rasayanam (PRM)- A Siddha Polyherbal Formulation

V. Mahalakshmi, A. M. Amala Hazel, N. J. Muthukumar, R. Meenakumari

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 704-711
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i64B36235

Background: The Siddha system of medicine uses a interesting combination of herbs, minerals and metals to promote good health and longevity. Parangipattai Rasayanam is a polyherbal formulation mentioned in the Siddha literature and is indicated for Soolai (Pain), Viranam (Various ulcers), Kiranthi (Venereal diseases), Kuttam (Skin diseases), Gunmam (peptic ulcer) and Moorchai.

Aim: Evaluate the in-vitro antioxidant activity of Parangipattai Rasayanam.

Materials & Methods: The antioxidant activity of Parangipattai Rasayanam was evaluated by using various assays such as DPPH (2, 2-Diphenyl 1-2 picrylhydrazyl) Assay, Nitric Oxide Radical Scavenging Assay, ABTS Assay, Hydrogen Peroxide Radical Scavenging Assay.

Result: Parangipattai Rasayanam has promising anti-oxidant activity in the estimated assays.

Open Access Original Research Article

Knowledge, Awareness, & Attitude towards Implant Therapy for Replacing Missing Teeth: A Cross Sectional Survey from Northern West Bengal, India

Washim Akram, Arindam Sinha, Moumita Pal, E. Nagaraj, Rony T. Kondody

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 712-719
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i64B36237

Aims: The purpose is to assess the awareness, knowledge & attitude towards implant therapy for replacing missing teeth.

Material & Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in Department of Dentistry of Malda Medical College & Hospital, Malda, West Bengal, over a period of July 2019 to July 2021. A total of 1200 partial or complete edentulous patient, age above 15 years were selected. A standardized 9 close ended questions were asked to patients. The data were collected in tabular form and statistically analyzed by Chi-Square test.

Results: We found that 22.83% (274) were aware about dental implant therapy, among them male were 13%(156) and female were 9.83%(118). The difference between male and female awareness were statistically highly significant (p<.001). The major source of information regarding implant was dentist (55.83%). Only 8.08% (97) were interested in implant therapy in near future, among them 5.08%(61) male and 3%(36) were female. The difference were statistically non significant (p=0.62). Major reason for not opting implant therapy was high cost (32.76%).

Conclusion: Within limitation of the study we concluded very less awareness (22.83%) regarding implant therapy among the Malda Population. So there is need for bringing more awareness program brought by various Government & Public organization to educate the general population

Open Access Original Research Article

Extraction of Lepidium sativum Seed Mucilage: Optimization of Extraction Process with Maximum Yield by using Full Factorial Design

Abikesh Prasada Kumar Mahapatra, P. N. Murthy, Niranjan Panda, Amit Gupta, Basudev Paul, Suryanaryan Malla, Subodhkant Panigrahy

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 720-735
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i64B36244

Objective: The present investigation helps to isolate the seed mucilage of Lepidium sativum by using an economic extraction process with utmost yield. Diligence effort was given to get the maximum yield of the mucilage with good flow properties without affecting the intrinsic properties of the extracted mucilage. The yield of the seed mucilage of Lepidium sativum was optimized by using a quality by design approach. The full factorial design was used using three variables (pH of extract, water to seed ratio, and drying temperature) at two levels (high and low). Overall, ten formulation trials were generated through statistical software Minitab placing 2 center points, 1 replicate, and 1 block. All trials were executed to evaluate the percentage yield.

Results: The extraction process was evaluated with different solvents (such as ethanol and acetone) and different techniques to monitor the yield of the process. The maximum yield was achieved by soaking Lepidium sativum seeds in water (1:30 ratio), maintaining an alkaline pH, blending by hand blender, and using acetone as a solvent. A factorial design was used to observe the responses like the yield of the isolated mucilage for different levels of all the independent variables. A polynomial equation was developed and model plots (contour plot and Pareto chart) were generated to study the impact of the critical variables on the response yield. ANOVA analysis of the model suggested that the independent variables had significantly affected (p < 0.05) in predicting the response (% yield) and the coefficient terms with a p-value less than 0.05 had a significant effect on the prediction efficacy of the model. Finally, the optimized parameter was established based on statistical evaluation obtained from the polynomial equation as well as the recommendation obtained from the response optimizer. The study indicates that the obtained linear regression equation has a linear relation with a regression coefficient of 0.9869 % for response % yield.

Conclusion: A cost-effective extraction and isolation process was established to extract the seed mucilage of Lepidium sativum with maximum yield. The isolated mucilage was evaluated for flow properties and demonstrated that it is having good flow properties and can be used as an excipient or adjuvant in different pharmaceuticals and food industries. The applicability of factorial design was well demonstrated to optimize the yield by optimizing the critical factors.

Open Access Original Research Article

Comparative In-vitro Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activity of Hydroalcoholic Extract of Miliusa tomentosa

Nikhil Brijendra Kumar Shukla, Neeraj Sharma, Shailesh Jain

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 736-743
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i64B36249

Green medicine, the drugs derived from plants attained a wide spread interest, as believed to be safe and dependable, compared with costly synthetic drugs that have adverse effects. The present study aimed to analyze a comparative in vitro free radical scavenging and antimicrobial potentials of leaf hydroalcoholic extract fractions of Miliusatomentosa (Roxb.) J. Sinclair (M. tomentosa, Annonaceae) commonly known as hoom, kari.It is a large deciduous tree, growing up to 20 m tall and are given to children to cure the weakness in summer. The hydroalcoholicextract of leaves of M. tomentosa was studied for antioxidant activity on different in vitro models namely 1,1-diphenyl, 2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) assay, Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and Nitric oxide (NO) radical scavenging method. Agar well diffusion method has been used to determine the antimicrobial activities of plant extracts against Gram-positive bacteria, Gram-negative bacteria (Enterococcus faecalis, Salmonella Bongori,Propionibacterium acnes), and fungus (Aspergillusflavus). In the investigated models, the extract showed dose-dependent free radical scavenging properties. For the DPPH technique, M. tomentosa leaves extract had an IC50 value of 335.92g/ml, which was close to that of ascorbic acid (IC50=17.68g/ml). The IC50 value for hydrogen peroxide was determined to be 96.42g/ml, which compares favourably to ascorbic acid (IC50=36.61g/ml). The IC50 value for nitric oxide was 105.87g/ml, which was close to that of ascorbic acid (IC50=24.63g/ml). The extracts exhibited both antibacterial and antifungal activities against tested microorganisms using standardampicilin, ciprofloxacin, clindamycin and fluconazole (10-30μg/ml). The antimicrobial activity was determined by measuring the diameter of the zone of inhibition in term of millimeter (mm). The antimicrobial activity of hydroalcoholic extract of leaves against all microorganisms was concentration dependent but less than standard drug. On the basis of results obtained, it is suggested that both M. tomentosa leaves extracts may be a potential source of natural antioxidants and antimicrobial compounds to be used in the treatment of various oxidative disorders, infectious diseases caused by resistant microorganisms.

Open Access Original Research Article

Comparative Study of Arjun Twak Lepa and Arjun Twak Kukkutand Pottali in Management of Vyanga with Special Reference to Melasma: An Update

Priyanka Shelotkar, Shweta Parwe, Swapnil Borage

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 744-757
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i64B36281

Background: Hyperpigmentation is a darkening of the skin caused by an excess of the pigment melanin in the skin. Healthy and glowing facial skin enhances a person's beauty and self-confidence. Vyanga is a Kshrudraroga with the facial features of Niruja (painless) and Shavavarna Mandalas (bluish-brownish patches). Melasma, a hyper pigmented disorder with similar clinical features, can be compared to it. When applied locally, whole raw egg/egg yolk alone or with herbs has shown to be very effective in tightening skin, improving complexion, and healing skin disorders. In the current study, an egg is combined with Arjun Twak Churna (Fine powder made of skin of Terminalia Arjun) in pottali (poultice) in the experimental group to improve Vyanga management. Aim of the study was to study Arjun Twak Kukkutand Pottali's effect on MASI (Melasma Area Severity Index). MASI of the patients was investigated, and the effects of Arjun Twak Kukkutand Pottali and Arjun Twak Lepa on MASI were compared.

Methodology: A total of 44 patients were enrolled in the study (22 in each group). Arjun Twak Lepa was given to the control group for local use for 21 days. Arjun Twak Kukkutand Pottali was provided for local application for 21 days in the experimental group. On the 0th and 21st days, the assessment was completed.

Results: Positive Changes were seen in eight subjective and objective parameters, out of ten. Conclusion: Arjun Twak Kukkutand Pottali performed better in reducing MSI (Melasma Severity Index).

Open Access Original Research Article

Preliminary Phytochemical Analysis of Anti Hyperlipidimic and Xanthine Oxidase Inhibitory Activities of Malus domestica

A. Ruhina Hussaini, V. Vishnu Priya, R. Gayathri, S. Kavitha

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 758-764
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i64B36289

Introduction: Malus domestica is a well known plant commonly known as apple belonging to the family Rosaceae. The fruit is rich in flavonoids and many other phytochemicals. The fruit is also reported to have many therapeutic properties.

Aim: The aim of this study is to analyse phytochemical constituents and to evaluate antihyperlipidemic and xanthine oxidase inhibitory activities of Malus domestica aqueous extract.

Materials and Methods: The phytochemical screening, and assessment of in vitro anti cholesterol and xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity were done in aqueous extract of Malus domestica using standard procedures.

Results and Discussion: Many phytochemical elements, such as alkaloids, proteins, amino acids, terpenoids, flavonoids, carbohydrates, saponins, and steroids, were found in Malus domesticus extract. The extract also has anticholesterol effect in vitro, according to the findings. The extract is also efficient in inhibiting the xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity in a concentration dependent manner. The results obtained in the study show that Malus domestica has significant anti cholesterol and antioxidant activities.

Conclusion: The present study established the potent in vitro anti cholesterol and xanthine oxidase inhibitory potential of Malus domestica.

Open Access Review Article

Coconut Water: A Review on Its Health Benefits, Pharmacological Properties and Traditional Uses

. Nishtha, . Sonia

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 24-30
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i64B35325

Coconut water is an ancient tropical drink used since over a thousand years ago and has long been a symbol of religious culture. Internationally, the popularity of coconut water is increasing every day. it is a sterile, pure, sweet, and refreshing liquid. Coconut water is rich in nutrients, has natural hydrating qualities and is good for health. All its parts are used in some form in the daily lives of the people who live in traditional coconut growing regions. It is low in fat and calories, and is rich in antioxidants, vitamins and proteins, potassium, and chloride, and contains natural sugars. It is good for the body and can also be used for skin and hair care because it is an excellent source of natural moisture. Coconut fruit is unique source of various natural products to produce medicines against many diseases. Its fruit constituents, such as the mature coconuts and sweet coconut water, offer several pharmacological characteristics, including antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, antidiabetic, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory capabilities. Therefore, this review summarizes the health benefits and various uses of coconut water.

Open Access Review Article

Diabetes and its Prevalence in the Indian Population

Sawane Srushti, A. Sahastrabudhhe, Roshan Kumar Jha

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 100-105
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i64B35329

Background: India is one of the world's epicenters of the diabetes pandemic. The increased sensitivity of Indians has resulted in a massive increase in diabetes mellitus prevalence in India. Diabetes mellitus type 2 is significantly more frequent than diabetes mellitus type 1. In India, most of those affected are affluent and educated urbanites rather than uneducated or underprivileged rural dwellers. The change in lifestyle choices, urbanization, and various other factors have led to this.

Conclusion: The mushrooming weight of diabetes is an actual threat in India. The health system has conventionally been designed to cater to acute illness and maternal and child health apprehensions in India. This emphasizes the need for a multi-protracted strategy to minimalize the burden of diabetes and its complicationsMain gaps exist in laborers to comprehend the load nationally and globally, specifically in developing nations, due to an absence of accurate data for monitoring and observation.

Open Access Review Article

Psychiatric Disorder and Its Management through Ayurveda: A Review

Pooja P. Thakre, Vinod Ade, Shweta Parwe

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 114-122
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i64B35334

The prevalence of psychiatric diseases is startling. According to the National Institute of Mental Health, about 25% of adults have one or more diagnosable mental disorders. Psychiatric conditions, for the most part, respond well to treatment. Many Ayurvedic remedies are beneficial in the treatment of psychiatric problems. As a system of medicine, Ayurveda cannot overlook the importance of a patient's psychological state in diagnosing and treating illnesses. Psychic tensions are the core cause of various diseases, according to medical science. Ayurveda has a well-developed area of psychiatry, with scientifically validated methods for treating mental and physical problems related to psychological imbalance. Drugs that are synthesised for human health Synthetic medications for human brain illnesses are costly, long-acting symptomatic treatments that can have substantial and unavoidable adverse effects and low patient adherence. For various individuals' mental problems, such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, depression, epilepsy, schizophrenia, anxiety, and others, herbal and Ayurvedic remedies are favoured over synthetic medications. The Ayurvedic school of medicine has long been utilised to treat a variety of neurological problems. Plant products have numerous advantages, including their accessibility, low frequency of side effects, and cost-effectiveness. The established traditional methods of herbal therapies for various brain illnesses are receiving a lot of attention these days, which gives sufferers hope. Ayurvedic medicines, including either one or the other plant uniqueness or a blend of plant material, have been shown to be particularly effective in treating such diseases. Plant components prescribed for these ailments range from whole plants, roots, stems, bark, leaves, flowers, fruits, and seeds to herbs and perennial trees with a variety of plant components spanning from complete plants to portions of plants, roots, stems, bark, leaves, flowers, fruits, and seeds. It's been tried before to describe Ayurvedic treatment and the problem of synthetic pharmaceutical side effects.

Open Access Review Article

Upper Crossed Syndrome: Trends and Recent Advances in the Physiotherapy Treatment a Narrative Review

Neha Mol, Abeeshna Ashok, Dhanesh Kumar K. U.

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 359-367
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i64B35734

Background: How does it affect the quality of life of the patient?

Upper Crossed Syndrome (UCS) is also discussed as proximal or shoulder crossed syndrome. According to Vladimir Janda, UCS is characterized by the tightness of the levator scapulae muscle, upper trapezius muscle, on dorsal sides crosses with tightness of pectoralis major muscle and minor muscle. Weakness of the deep cervical flexors ventrally crosses along with weakness of the middle and the lower trapezius. The weakness and tightness lead to postural imbalance. In addition to this, it creates postural patterning of rounded shoulder forward head posture, loss of cervical lordosis, and increased kyphosis. These can lead to postural adjustment in the upper quarter of the body.

Materials and Methods: Out of 17 articles screened 8 studies are included in this review according to the inclusion and exclusion criteria. The inclusion criteria are forward head posture, articles from the year 2011 to 2021, patient age between 20-50 years, article published in English languages, articles available in full text, and RCT’S. The exclusion criteria are, articles published before 2011, age less than 20 years and more than 50 years old, articles published other than English language, and articles not available with full text. Relevant studies were retrieved through Cochrane, PubMed, CINHAL, and Embase databases from the year 2011 to 2021.

Results: All the physiotherapeutic treatments including conventional and recent trends showed a beneficial effect on patient with upper crossed syndrome or postural abnormalities.

Conclusion: All physiotherapy interventions like strengthening and stretching, resistance exercises, postural correction exercises, and ROM exercises has a positive effect on the prevention and treatment of upper crossed syndrome. Also, recent trends like dry needling, yoga therapy, myofascial trigger release, eccentric muscle energy technique, Kinesio taping, and IFT and EMG activity has also shown positive result in UCS.

Open Access Review Article

A review of Dhatura as Poison and Kamala Patra as Antidote

Sonali Dilip Wairagade, Tanvi Dilip Wairagade, Monali Rajendrakumar Sahu, Poonam Madan, Toshal Wankhade, Shailesh Nagpure

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 382-390
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i64B35739

Dhatura plant has been noted for intoxicating, narcotic properties, they produce temporary insensibility (stupefying effects) in ordinary doses.

Dhatura (Datura metel) is cerebrotoxic, Deleriant poison which is also classified as Upavisha in Ayurveda

In Ayurvedic literature according to Basavrajeeyam under the heading of Vish-Prativishani, Chincha Rasa and Kamal Patra churna has been described to be possessing antidote action which may act by some way to counter toxicity of Dhatura.

It is necessary to verify the efficacy of these antidotes on scientific parameters so that it can be useful in emergencies.

Open Access Review Article

Nano-medicine in General Medicine

Samriddhi Srivastav, Sunil Kumar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 466-472
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i64B35917

Nanotechnology has emerged as a high-potential technical field because it should be utilized in practically almost every situation of recent life. Medical research is among the fields where nanotechnologies are predicted to play a vital role. The fusion of nanotechnology and medicine has given rise to a brand-new scientific subject referred to as nanomedicine. Nanomedicine may be a field that strives to improvise person’s well-being in every possible manner and imaginable by utilizing nanotechnology techniques and principles. In terms of observations, diagnostic, bioanalysis, and imaging, nanotechnology offers monitoring tools and technology platforms. The National Institutes of Health has coined the term "nanomedicine" to explain applying nanotechnology to biological systems for diagnosis, treatment, evaluating, and control. Cancers (tumour cells, similarly as tumour neo-vasculature) are mononuclear phagocytes, dendritic cells, and endothelial cells. Presently, nanotechnology plus nanoscience methods to particle design and formulation are setting out to extend the marketplace for many pharmaceuticals and are laying the groundwork for a lucrative niche within the business, but a number of the anticipated benefits are exaggerated. The potential hazards and negative effects of nanoparticles are explored. These particles are at the forefront of nanotechnology's fast-paced development. Due to their idiosyncratic size-dependent characteristics, these materials ought to be excellent and indispensable in many human activities. This brief study attempts to summarize current discoveries in the field of applied nanomaterials with their applications in medicine.

Open Access Review Article

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and its Evolution

Aditya Chauhan, Anjali Vagga

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 484-494
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i64B35920

The organic process standing of Attentiveness deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is principal to the estimation of whether the fashionable community has generated it, either mundanely or culturally, and is doubtless helpful in the apprehension of biological sciences’ cornerstone and foundation. The high widespread of the syndrome (5–10%) and its intrinsic coalition with the 7-repeat citrons of DRD4, which is entirely elite in advancement, augment the chance that the syndrome will increase the procreative robustness of the individual and the cluster. Nevertheless, preceding recommendations of organic process roles for syndrome haven't reckoned for its restrain to a considerable minority. As a result of one among the pointer options of the syndrome is its divergences, and plenty of edges of diverging community area unit well conceded (as in exemption), we tend to analyze the influence of bands' activity diversification is shown on their health. Diversity happens to several extents, and just for intangibility, we elect unforeseeable (or changeable), way over that may be a well-orthodox attribute of the syndrome. Counterfeit of the dynamic Food cluster charge puts before you the uncertain behavior by the outnumbered optimizing results shown from the cluster. The trait of such cluster inspection chore area unit peril danger-taking, within which prices area unit borne principally by a discrete individual; and statics-sharing, within which edges ensure the complete cluster due to previous knowledge of evolved selflessness. We conclude that even singly impairing combos of genes, like syndrome, will carry particular edges for the community, which may be elite at that stage, instead of simply genetic fortuity with outcomes limited to the individual. The communal edges presented by diversity occur within and outdoors. The ‘normal’ varies, and these could also be definite. This read has the extra advantage of clarifying the usual sexuality and age distribution, asperity dispersal, and no uniformity of syndrome.

Open Access Review Article

Impact of Digital Devices on Myopic Individuals

Riya Kumari, Archana Thool

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 507-514
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i64B35923

Background: Today's generation has all been using a more significant deal of time on their digital devices, whatever it may be. It leads to a surge in cases of myopia in the population, especially in the Asian population. The average screen time usage has increased significantly, especially during pandemic situations. Digital devices also contain a spectrum of rays and blue light, damaging the retina and disturbing eye health. This has caused a trend of increasing myopic cases in the young generation. Risk factors and prevention of using digital devices should be known to the public for better care of their eyes.

Objective: To study various articles on the association between digital device usage and myopia in the young population. Based on the results of various studies, conclude and discuss the risk factors of myopia and how it can be minimized in the young generation.

Methodology: Various articles were reviewed during the study; recent papers published in the last five years were considered due to the pandemic effect. There is an increase in average screen time, which further needs to be studied to understand the individuals’ situation better. Various methodologies in the published articles have been studied or identified risk factors of myopia.

Conclusion: Due to various advancements and behavioral changes in the population of developed countries and developing countries, there is an increase in the sedentary lifestyle of most of the population, which is leading to the increased usage of digital gadgets, which in turn maximize the tendency to develop myopia in the population.

Open Access Review Article

Finite Element Analysis of Biomechanical Behaviour of Remaining Coronal Dentin in Endodontically Restored Tooth - A Systematic Review [Evaluation of Stress Distribution in FEA Studies]

Shahinwaz Mulani, Surekha Dubey-Godbole, Shoeb Shaikh, Safia Shaikh, Dipak Shinde

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 525-538
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i64B35941

Background: Since few years finite element (FE) analysis has turn out to be a widespread tool for investigators seeking to simulate the tooth biomechanics and associated structures. Finite element method plays important role to expand understanding of the ferrule effect. This paper contains a systematic review and conclusions from FE method grounded computational simulations of the the tooth with post and core to simulate function and tissue behavior

Methods: 14 applicable papers were linked within this systematic literature search. Uprooted data contained information on type of tooth, location of tooth, magnitude of force, software used for modelling, boundary condition, method of scanning, validation, tooth with ferrule, tooth without ferrule, key findings.

Results: Included papers illustrated use of FE analysis for replication of including nonlinear tooth and tissue mechanics, contact analysis and rigid body movements. We executed multi-database systematic review through PRISMA standards accomplishing inclusion criteria and results were investigated and précised for appropriate papers.

Discussion: With prompt expansions of computer knowledge, the FEA now recognized as a potent method in dental biomechanics due to its flexibility in measuring stress dispersals within multidimensional structures. The researcher will be well equipped to understand the results of FEA investigations and correlate these results to clinical settings after learning the basic theory, application, method, and limitations of FEA in dentistry. Ferrule has a precarious impact on stress reduction. Teeth are less stressed when posts and cores are composed of strong materials. Keeping supragingival tooth structure included within the crown gives repaired teeth extraordinary strength.

Open Access Review Article

Coumarin: A Novel Tool for Multidisciplinary Activities

Sonali M. Jadhav, Prajakta V. Adsule, Anuruddha R. Chabukswar, Sushil S. Kore, Krishna S. Shevate

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 577-596
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i64B35994

Coumarin 2H-1-benzopyran-2-one core has been a field of attention due to its exclusive propensity to accept variable classes of replacements which proves it as the origin for multi-disciplinary activities. Many researchers replicates that coumarin derivatives synthesized by structural modifications & alterations that exhibits diverse pharmacological activities like Anticancer, Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibition, Anti-bacterial, Antifungal, Antiviral, Anticoagulant, Anti Alzheimer activity, Anticonvulsant Activity, Anti-inflammatory etc.The motive of this study is to review, various substituted coumarin derivatives and provide the opportunity of designing & synthesizing novel coumarin based drugs and exploring their possible derivatives in the cure of numerous disorders. This review summerizes the recent development in synthesis of Coumarin based derivatives with various biological activities.

Open Access Review Article

Recent Developments on Novel Heterocyclic Compounds Thiadiazoles and Heterocyclic Compounds for COVID-19 Targets in Drug Discovery

B. Madhavi, G. Veera Raghava Sharma

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 681-697
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i64B36210

This article mainly reviews the recent developments in the synthesis of novel 1,3,4-Thiadiazoles and also recent development of drug molecules for the treatment of COVID-19. The Thiadiazole heterocycle and its derivatives are the most important class of compounds among various heterocyclic compounds due to their wide range of biological activities and pharmaceutical importance. Thiadiazolemoeity exists as a principal structural pharmacopore in the combination of drug categories such as antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antiepileptic, antiviral, antineoplastic, antitubercular agents. In this review article, we have attempted to show various synthetic procedures of thiadiazole derivatives along with their pharmacological activities and also the recent studies on Antiviral targets for the discovery of new drugs to combat Covid19 like viruses.