Open Access Case Report

Adrenal Pheochromocytoma: A Case Report

Milind Pande, Sunita Vagha, Aditi Goyal, Raunak Kotecha

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 422-426
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i64A35757

Pheochromocytoma is a rare catecholamine secreting tumour originating usually from adrenal medulla and produces signs and symptoms due excessive catecholamine secretion from tumour. A young male patient of 36 yrs age presented with hypertension since 2 yrs, palpitation, profuse sweating, weight loss. Clinical suspicion of Pheochromocytoma was confirmed by CT scan and USG abdomen followed by catecholamines levels in plasma and urine. After preoperative preparation laparascopic removal of Pheochromocytoma was done. Postoperative recovery was uneventful and BP regains to normal range from 1st postoperative day. Pheochromocytoma is a rare cause of hypertension. If the diagnosis of Pheochromocytoma is overlooked, the consequences could be disastrous, even fatal; however, if a pheochromocytoma is identified, it is potentially curable, as being one of the cause of surgically correctable hypertension.

Open Access Case Report

A Case Report on Mucocutaneous Leishmaniasis

Sahil Kirade, Priyanka Meshram, Roshan Umate, Hemlata Wasnik

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 538-542
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i64A35915

Mucocutaneous Leishmaniasis (ML) can have devastating consequences, although early detection can help avoid difficulties. This research aims to explore clinical markers that can detect ML early. The protozoal infection Leishmaniasis is caused by fungal pathogens. The skin and mucosa are affected by mucocutaneous leishmaniasis (MCL). India is home to species like Leishmania donovani and Leishmania major, which cause visceral and epidermal leishmaniasis, respectively.

The Main Diagnosis, Therapeutic Intervention and Outcome: Mucocutaneous Leishmaniasis was diagnosed after a physical examination and investigation by the doctor. Patient was treated antiepileptic drug and antianxiety drugs to reduce fear and anxiety.

Therapeutic Intervention: Antipyretics and antibiotics such as Tab. Paracetamol, Injection Ceftriaxone 1 gm IV (BD), Tablet Pantoprazole 40 Mg iv (OD), Inj. Ondansetron 4 mg iv (TDS) were given for 7 days in this instance with Narcolepsy.

Outcome: For fever, the patient was given medications prescribed by the doctor, such as paracetamol. In addition, the patient's condition improved as a result of the medical treatment. The patient's problems had subsided, and he reported feeling better.

Nursing Perspectives: To control fever, the patient was given medications prescribed by the doctor, such as paracetamol. In addition, the patient's condition improved as a result of the medical treatment. The patient's problems had subsided, and he was in better shape.

Conclusion: The patient was admitted to A.V.B.R. Hospital with a headache, breathing difficulties, muscle weakness, walking difficulties, reduced balance and coordination, and other symptoms. In this case of Mucocutaneous Leishmaniasis, the patient received the necessary treatment and medications. The condition of the patient had improved.

Open Access Systematic Review Article

Pregnancy Related Heart Diseases: A Review

G. Sasi Priya, R. Priyadharshini, Palati Sinduja

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 32-37
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i64A35296

To summarise the literature regarding susceptibility of pregnant women to heart disease, we have conducted a review using a PubMed search and other strategies during the month of february 2021. Studies were included if they reported information on heart disease in pregnant women pregnant existing conditions which can predispose the pregnant woman to cardiovascular disease included hypertension, diabetes mellitus and congenital heart disease. Women often present with symptoms and signs of acute heart failure. On the other hand there is a disease which is directly related to pregnancy such as hypertension disorder of pregnancy and peripartum cardiomyopathy or where pregnancy increases risk of a disease as example, the risk of a myocardial infarction. This review summarises the knowledge about awareness on pregnancy related heart disease.

Open Access Systematic Review Article

New Perspectives on Clopidogrel Resistance Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

Tahani Alrahbeni

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 194-202
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i64A35319

Background: Clopidogrel resistance can be defined as the failure of clopidogrel to inhibit its target of action.  The prevalence of clopidogrel resistance in various studies ranges between 5%–44%. Clopidogrel resistance is a serious scary condition whereby clopidogrel drug is less or not effective for some patients than expected. Hence the present Systematic review was conducted to explore the new perspectives of Clopidogrel and to evaluate the effect of genetic cytochrome CYP2C19 (CYP2C19*2, CYP2C19*3) of the key drug metabolizing enzymes on the response to the anti-platelet effect of clopidogrel. To provide insights into the commentary summarizes the clinical evidence on the pharmacokinetic determinants of clopidogrel efficacy.

Material and Method: Systematic review is a type of literature reviews that collects and critically analyzes multiple research studies using methods that are selected before one or more research questions are formulated and then finding and analyzing studies that relate to and answer those questions in a structured methodology.

Results: Accumulated information from suggested the presence of high incidence of clopidogrel resistance. Associated with acute coronary syndrome (ACS),  Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and stroke. There was no significant difference in the incidence of resistance according to the type of studies.

Conclusion:  Accumulated information from previous studies and the present systematic review suggested the presence of high incidence of clopidogrel resistance. This resistance was associated with serious complications such as acute coronary syndrome (ACS), Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and stroke.

Open Access Systematic Review Article

Compressive Review on Plant Profile, Ethnomedicinal Uses, Phytochemistry and Pharmacology of Paeonia emodi Royle (Himalayan Paeony)

Arvind Kumar Sharma, Vishal Gupta, Ashish Manigauh

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 549-558
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i64A36099

Members of the genus Paeonia, which contains well-known ornamentals as well as traditional medicinal plants with a history reaching back over 1500 years, may be found all throughout the Northern Hemisphere. Many of these ethnomedicinal properties have been studied in animal models. It has been listed as a critically endangered plant species. P. emodi has been shown to have antioxidant, nephroprotective, lipoxygenase inhibitory, cognition and oxidative stress release, cytotoxic, anti-inflammatory, antiepileptic, anticonvulsant, haemaglutination, alphachymotrypsin inhibitory, hepatoprotective, hepatic chromes, and pharmacokinetics of carbamazepine expression. spas Data was acquired from unpublished theses (India, China, Pakistan, and Nepal) and numerous published research articles related to pharmacology, phytochemistry, and other activities using certain keywords. The pertinent information about medicinal uses, taxonomic/common names, parts used, collection and recognition source, authentication, voucher specimen number, plant extracts and their characterization, isolation and characterization of phytochemicals, methods of study (in silico, in vivo, or in vitro), model organism used, dose and time, minimal active concentration, bioactive compound(s), mechanism of action on single or multiple targets, and toxicological information. Triterpenoids, monoterpenoids, phenolics, and tannins are among the natural substances produced by the species. The purpose of this study was to collect broad traditional medicinal uses, phytochemistry, pharmacology, and toxicological data on P. emodi. This work also emphasises taxonomic validity, experimental design quality, and weaknesses in previously published Himalayan paeony material, which may help researchers plan for future research.

Open Access Case Study

Anaesthetic Management of Pre Eclamptic Patient with Solitary Kidney and Uterine Didelphys Posted for Emergency Caesarean Section: A Case Report

S. Induja, . Anand, B. Balamurugan

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 87-90
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i64A35304

Uterine didelphys results from impaired fusion of the paired Müllerian ducts. The incidence of uterine anomalies is believed to be 0.5–2.0% of reproductive-age women, with didelphic uterus renal agenesis accounting for approximately 10%. Uterine didelphys is associated with in approximately 25% of cases1. Pre eclampsia is defined as SBP more than 160 mmhg, DBP more than 90 mmhg, associated with proteinuria and urine protein excretion >300mg in a 24 hour period or a protein creatinine ratio of atleast 0.32. Neuraxialblockade stands an effective mode of anaesthesia for these patients. Management of pre eclampticpatient with solitary kidney can be a challenge to anaesthesiologist due tovarious metabolic derangements including hyperkalemia, hypocalcemia, hyperphosphatemia and metabolic acidosis.Multidisciplinary approach is required to have good pregnancy outcome in these patients.

Open Access Case Study

Anaesthetic Management of a Pregnant Patient with Repaired Ventricular Septal Defect: A Case Report

Priyanka Deshmukh, Pratibha Deshmukh, Parag Sable, Vivek Chakole

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 104-107
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i64A35307

Congenital heart disease (CHD) is the most common congenital anomaly. Pregnancy is not always well tolerated in women with congenital heart disease (CHD) such as atrio-ventricular septal defect (AVSD), predominantly due to heart failure deterioration and increasing pulmonary hypertension (PH). Management of those patients are challenging, especially during third trimester and after delivery care. Decision about time of termination, mode of delivery and anaesthetic management are also debatable.

Open Access Case Study

Impact of Hayes Martin Maneuver and Anterograde Dissection on Identification and Preservation of Marginal Mandibular Nerve during Neck Dissection in Patients with Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma

Sumeet Shinde, Nitin Bhola, Rajiv Borle

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 218-226
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i64A35360

Background: Hayes Martin maneuver (HMM) and Anterograde dissection technique (ADT) were originally described in 1951 as a means of preserving the marginal mandibular nerve (MMN) during level 1B clearance in a neck dissection procedure address the cervical metastasis in patients with oral squamous cell carcinomas.

Objectives: To compare and evaluate the efficacy of HMM and ADT in preservation of MMN using Electromyography of muscles supplied by the nerve ie Mentalis, Depressor labii inferioris and depressor anguli oris, to evaluate muscle function.

Methodology: 20 patients undergoing neck dissection over a period of 6 months grouped were into two groups (10 patients for Hayes Martin manoeuvre and 10 patients for anterograde dissection technique) calculated by purposive sampling method. Postoperative Electromyography and assessment of nerve function using House and Brackmann grading was done on day 5,15 and 30.

Expected Results: HMM proves to be a less time consuming technique than Anterograde dissection by a significant margin considering perifacial node clearance and level 1B clearance. Anterograde dissection technique proved to be more effective than Hayes Martin Maneuver for preservation of MMN as average neuromuscular electrical activity in anterograde dissection cases was higher than the average of HMM cases. Although, no significant statistical difference was found when the neural function was compared on a house and brackmann grading scale

Conclusion: Anterograde dissection technique is technique sensitive, relatively time consuming and requires a higher surgical operator skill. However, provides statistically proven better results in terms of neural electric activity and post-operative functional neural deficit in the operated subjects.

Open Access Study Protocol

Comparative Analysis of Bone Regenerative Potential of Simvastatin Vs Platelet Rich Plasma in Mandibular Third Molar Extraction Socket: A Study Protocol

Suraj S. Malu, Pawan Hingnikar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 19-23
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i64A35294

Background: Third Molar Extraction is a treatment used by oral and maxillofacial surgeons in which distal bone loss to the second molar is a major concern due to consequences such as pain, mastication difficulty, and pocket development. Platelet -Rich Plasma (PRP), a novel adjunct to promote bone regeneration. The method of its preparation is cumbersome and need a costly centrifuge machine. Hence many studies have been conducted to find an effective alternative to Autologous PRP. Statins have also proved effective in inducing bone regeneration of which Simvastatin has been more effective.It can also be used in immediate implant cases where faster and better bone healing is necessary for osseointegration.

Aim: To assess the effectiveness of simvastatin and PRP in regenerating bone in third molar extraction sockets.

Materials and Methods: All together 15 patients will be selected with identical bilateral third molar impaction. All the patients will be divided into two groups of simvastatin and PRP.

Expected Results: If the results prove significant, Simvastatin can be used as an osteoinductive agent for bone healing.

Conclusion: If the outcomes favor the bone regeneration potential of Simvastatin to be equivalent or superior than PRP, then Simvastatin can be used for osteoinduction in Third Molar Extraction socket or other small bony defects.

Open Access Study Protocol

Study on Effectiveness of Blastocyst Transfer over Cleavage Stage Embryo Transfer in Patients with Failed Conception

Rajvee R. Chokhandre, Akash More, Mehul Salve, Deepti Shrivastava

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 24-31
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i64A35295

Background: IVF has been proved a blessing for many couples.   Embryo selection and transfer are key steps in ART. In-vitro fertilization includes embryo transfer either at cleavage stage (day2/ day3) or at blastocyst stage (day5). Implantation rate can be improved by transferring blastocyst stage embryo. Implantation rate may decrease after repeated unsuccessful implantation. This study aims to assess the effectiveness of Blastocyst Transfer in patients with history of failed Cleavage Stage Embryo Transfer.

Methodology: This will be an observational study conducted at Wardha Test Tube Baby Centre, AVBRH.  40 infertile women with history of previous IVF failure will be included in the study. Embryo Transfer will be done at blastocyst stage and βhcg level  will be measured on 14th day of embryo transfer.

Expected Results: We expect that blastocyst stage embryo transfer may give more positive result compare cleavage transfer. We predict that transferring embryo at blastocyst stage may increase implantation and pregnancy rate.

Conclusion: Blastocyst stage embryo transfer is effective compared to Cleavage Stage Embryo Transfer.

Open Access Study Protocol

Assessing the Oral Flora Changes Pre-operatively, Post-operatively and Post Radiotherapy in Patients Having Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma

Srajan Hora, Prafulla Gaikwad

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 38-43
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i64A35297

Background: The occurrence of oral malignancies like oral squamous cell carcinoma has an effect on the microbiota present in the oral cavity. It is observed that radiotherapy exposures can also lead to disturbances within the oral microbiota.

Objectives: To assess the oral microbiota in patients having oral malignancy and in normal healthy individuals, and compare them to evaluate the changes associated with oral malignancies and their treatment.

Methodology: The study will be conducted in the Oral & Maxillofacial Surgery Department at SharadPawar Dental College, DMIMS, Sawangi(Wardha). The study comprises of 50 Participants who will participate in the study after agreeing to an informed consent.

Results: Athorough investigation of the biological behaviour of the microflorawas considered necessary to understand their exact specific roles in the process of carcinogenesis, which can be achieved by isolating the specific associated strains and their consequent profiling using various sequencing methods.

Conclusion: There can be a definite relationship between the prevalence of oral malignancies and their consequent changes in the oral microbiota.

Open Access Study Protocol

Evaluation of Pancreatic Lesions by Computed Tomography Scan: A Study Protocol

Sharvari Shashikant Gulve, Pratap Singh Parihar, Rajasbala Dhande

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 44-50
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i64A35298

Background: The pancreas is a hidden organ and was one of the last organs in the abdomen to be analyzed by anatomists, physiologists, physicians, and surgeons. Pancreatic lesions may range from mild inflammation to malignancy. Ultrasound was the first cross-sectional technique that permitted direct imaging of the pancreas. It permitted precise visualization of pancreatic parenchyma, pancreatic ducts and bile ducts. This study aims to evaluate various pancreatic lesions using CT scan and assess their correlation with  histopathological findings.

Methodology: This will be an observational study conducted at department of radiodiagnosis, AVBRH, Wardha.  Total 180 patients with pancreatic disease confirmed by clinical, laboratory and ultrasonography will be enrolled in the study. All 180 patients will undergo plain and contrast enhanced CT scan. Results will be judged, based on the observations and finding on CT scan, biochemical and histopathological reports whenever possible. Modified CT Severity Index / Mortele Modified CTSI Scoring will be used to assess severity of acute pancreatitis and acute exacerbation of chronic pancreatitis.

Results:  We expect to explore on the common etiological factors, gender and age distribution of various pancreatic diseases. Correlation between grade of acute pancreatitis according to modified CT severity index and clinical outcome of patients. In case of chronic will be evaluated. 

Conclusion: CECT is excellent diagnostic modality to stage severity of inflammatory process and staging of neoplastic lesions. Severity grading in acute exacerbation of chronic pancreatitis will be meticulously observed and significant conclusive findings will be found. CECT imaging with its postprocessing techniques represents the image of choice for diagnosis and predicting pancreatic masses.

Open Access Study Protocol

Evaluation and Comparison of Biomechanical Properties of a New “PRP Loop” with that of Opus Loop and L-Loop - a FEM Study

Smita Kumari, Priyanka Niranjane, Ranjit Kamble

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 75-79
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i64A35302

Introduction: Closure of space is a salient factor in orthodontic treatment. Friction and frictionless mechanics are the methods of extraction space closure. Retraction loops eg. T loop, Opus loop, K Sir loop, L loop etc used force system as frictionless mechanics. An attempt has been made to blend the design of both Opus and L loops to form a new loop called “PRP loop” so that the beneficial properties of L loop and Opus loop can be integrated into the new loop. This study is therefore undertaken to evaluate the biomechanical effect of PRP loop and compare it to the “L loop and Opus loop”.

Objectives: To evaluate and compare the moment to force ratio of PRP loop, Opus loop and L loop fabricated in “0.019×0.025 inch” and “0.017×0.025 inch” “TMA wire with and” without any “ preactivation bends” and to “compare the moment to force ratio” of PRP loop with “Opus loop”, and L loop fabricated in 0.019×0.025 wire with those fabricated in 0.017×0.025 wire.

Methodology: PRP loop, “L loop and Opus loop” will be fabricated in “0.019×0.025 and 0.017×0.025 inch TMA wire” without pre activation bends. Using the dHAL software moment to force ratio will be calculated for PRP loop of “0.019×0.025 inch” and “0.017×0.025 inch” “TMA wire with and” without different degrees of alpha pre-activation bends.

Ansys 16.0 finite element analysis software will be used to form the loops of three dimensional model after that the forces and moments in all three dimensions will be studied.

Expected Result: The moment to force of PRP loop will be evaluated to so that optimum force level can be determined to prove its clinical efficiency.

Conclusion: No such study has been done on PRP loop. Hence, a study is planned to evaluate and compare the ”biomechanical properties of PRP loop with that of Opus loop and L loop”

Open Access Study Protocol

Estimation of Serum Sodium, Potassium and Calcium Levels as Prognostic Markers in Cirrhosis of Liver: A Study Protocol

Twinkle Pawar, Rajesh Sarode, Vijendra Kirnake, Sunil Kumar, Sourya Acharya, Shilpa Bawankule, Anil Wanjari, Sachin Agrawal

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 154-160
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i64A35314

Background: Cirrhosis of the liver is final stage of chronic liver disease [1], which can lead to complications associated with portal hypertension and liver failure. In a much remunerated state, the cirrhotic patient maintains close association to traditional solution and acid–base standing, however this delicate balance may be discontinuous by malady progression, infection, dietary indiscretion/deprivation, or medicine intervention. Many mineral metabolism disorders are represented in relation with hepatic diseases. This study aims to estimate the levels of Sodium, Potassium and Calcium in Cirrhosis of Liver and correlate them with severity of cirrhosis and in-hospital morbidity and mortality.

Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study is planned to be carried out in Medicine department, AVBRH, Wardha. Total 50 patients with liver diseases will be enrolled. The lab. investigations will include different parameters of liver function tests along with assessment of sodium, potassium and calcium level. Child-Pugh, end-stage liver disease scores model will be determined using required formulas. All such patients’ in-hospital death records will be collected. Data will be collected and analyzed. The mean and standard deviations of the measurements per cluster will be used for applied analysis (SPSS twenty-two.00 for windows; SPSS INC, Chicago, USA). For every assessment purpose, data will be statistically analyzed using factorial ANOVA. Distinction between 2 groups determined using student t-test similarly as chi sq. test (p <.05).

Expected Results: We expect significant correlation between the level of Na, K and Calcium with in-hospital morbidity and mortality in patients of cirrhosis.

Conclusion: Serum levels of calcium, potassium and sodium should be integrated into model for predicting in-hospital mortality in patients of cirrhosis. Considering that prognostic accuracy of elements may well be comparatively modest, any studies ought to confirm clinical quality of liquid body substance sodium, potassium, and Ca concentrations.

Open Access Study Protocol

Study of Platelet Indices in Patients with Metabolic Syndromes: A Study Protocol

Divit P. Shah, Sunil Kumar, Sourya Acharya, Shilpa Bawankule

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 170-176
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i64A35316

Background: Metabolic syndrome is a syndrome of unified metabolic disorder which includes abdominal obesity (AO), hypertension, hypertriglyceridemia (HTG), hyperglycemia and decreased high-density lipoprotein (HDL). Metabolic syndrome subjects are exposed to greater chances to have insulin resistance, visceral fat accumulation, atherogenic changes to the vessels, abnormal lipid levels and abnormal functioning of endothelium. Platelets play a key role in hemostasis. The mean platelet volume (MPV) and platelet’s proportion are indicators of platelet function. This study aims to find the correlation between various platelet indices in patients with Metabolic syndromes.

Methods: This prospective study is planned to be conducted in AVBRH, Wardha. Patients anthropometric parameters like height, weight, blood pressure, waist circumference, hip circumference and biochemical parameters such as fasting blood glucose, serum triglycerides, serum HDL, and mean platelet volumes will be assessed. Total 130 subjects will be assessed and data will be analyzed to estimate a correlation between platelet indices and metabolic syndromes.

Expected Results: A significant correlation is expected between various platelet indices in patients of different metabolic syndromes.

Open Access Study Protocol

A Study Protocol for Estimating the Association of De Ritis ratio (AST/ALT) with Outcomes in Patients of Acute Ischemic Stroke

Shubham Nimkar, Anuj Varma, Sourya Acharya, Sunil Kumar, A. K. Wanjari, Shilpa Bawankule

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 186-193
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i64A35318

Background: One of the clinical endpoints of atherosclerosis is stroke, the most prominent clinical manifestation of cerebrovascular disease. It is a cerebral blood vessel disease that nourishes the brain. A global health concern is stroke. It is the second most prevalent cause of death worldwide and the fourth leading cause of disability. The underlying pathophysiology in most ischemic strokes is atherosclerosis. Few studies have shown that high AST/ALT ratio was independently corelated with the  increased danger of complication and death in cerebrovascular event patients. This research aims to assess the correlation of De Ritis ratio in cases of acute ischaemic stroke at admission and their prognosis at 3 months.

Methodology: This will be a observational cross sectional study. About 65 patients with  signs suggestive of acute ischemic will be examined. A comprehensive laboratory examination will be carried out. For confirmation of the diagnosis, all patients will undergo CT SCAN or MRI assessment. The primary results of stroke severity on admission will be obtained according to the NIHSS scale. The ranking for NIHSS would be dichotomized to less than 5 and more than 5. For all cases diagnosed with acute ischemic stroke, AST/ALT RATIO will be computed. Data will be analysed with relevant statistical tests.

Results Expected: We expect a significant correlation between serum de-Ritis ratio and prognosis of acute ischaemic stroke.

Open Access Study Protocol

Determination of Spectrum of Symptoms Observed Followed by Administration of 1st and 2nd Doses of COVISHIELD™ Vaccine in Datta Meghe Institute of Medical Sciences (Deemed to be University) – A Study Protocol

Gaurav Mishra, Rajasbala Dhande, Abhay Gaidhane, Rohan Kumar Singh, Prerna Patwa, Prashil Jumade

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 245-251
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i64A35363

Background: The 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV or SARS-CoV-2) was first detected in December 2019 in Wuhan City of Hubei, Province of China with population of 11 million, after outbreak of pneumonia. Present study deals with acceptability of newly manufactured vaccines against Covid 19 disease component of social misconceptions regarding the post vaccination symptoms and/or adverse events. Main rationale of this study is to list all post vaccination symptoms observed at multiple points of time to clear misconceptions resulting in possible increase in acceptability of newer vaccines.

Aim: To determine the spectrum of symptoms observed followed by administration of 1st and 2nd doses of COVISHIELD™ vaccine in Datta Meghe Institute of Medical Sciences (deemed to be university).

Methods: This will be a Prospective analytical cohort study conducted over a period of  5 years. 

Procedure: Followed by letter of informed consent, pre validated questionnaire will be circulated amongst the healthcare professionals having been administered the 1st and 2nd doses of COVISHIELD™ vaccine filled and submitted to authorized email for further study and will be evaluated for enlisting post vaccination symptoms with time of onset and duration following 1st and 2nd doses of COVISHIELD™ vaccine. Follow up will maintained at regular intervals and questionnaire will be amongst participants at 6 months, 1 year, 2 years, 3 years, 4 years and 5 years after the 2nd dose of COVISHIELD™ vaccine.

Expected Outcome: Post vaccination symptoms following 1st and 2nd doses of COVISHIELD™ vaccine with range of time of onset and duration of the same will enhance status of the COVISHIELD™ vaccine awareness, social acceptability and willingness.

Conclusion: All conclusions will be drawn after proper statistical analysis.

Open Access Study Protocol

Assessment of Awareness about Occupational Safety among Laboratory Staff in Healthcare Settings: A Study Protocol

Ekta Sandip Chiwande, Vitthal Shinde, Vandana Gudhe

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 262-267
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i64A35365

Background: Occupational health and safety is very important factor in the health care industries. The health care professionals are very important part of the hospital that provides number of services to the population. To provide better services to the community the health care professionals have to take care of themselves very well at their workplace. In this health care industries the health care professionals who are working in the diagnostic laboratories are the major factors. Health and safety of the health care professionals is very important aspect to reduce the risk factors. Medical diagnostic laboratories pose a lot of risks to the healthcare staff and awareness generation among the health care professionals to mitigate the hazards is important. This study aims to assess the awareness about occupational health safety measures among the laboratory staff and instil awareness about safety measures.

Methodology: This will be a cross-sectional study. Investigator will administer a structured questionnaire among selected study participants from Central laboratory at AVBRH . The data will be analysed with appropriate analytical software and statistical tests.

Expected Result: The expected outcome could reflect that the health care professionals are well aware of occupational hazards and health and safety issues at their work place.

Conclusion: The level of awareness about the health safety at the workplace among health care workers working in the central laboratory is the vital parameter to ensure occupational safety and security.

Open Access Study Protocol

Multi-Detector Computed Tomography for Evaluating Characteristics, Distribution and Extension of Mediastinal Masses

Bhansali Pratik Jayprakash, Bhushita Nilesh Guru, Rajasbala Pradeep Dhande

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 415-421
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i64A35755

Background: The area in the thorax between the lungs is Mediastinum which is surrounded above by thoracic inlet, in front by sternum, below by diaphragm, back by vertebral column laterally by pleura of both lungs. Multiple classification systems are used by doctors. Shields classification system is most commonly used, however the conventional Fraser and Paré, Felson, and other categorization are in daily use in radiology. The present schemes used in practice of radiology is more of nonanatomic divisions based primarily on the chest radiograph. So a typical classification based on multi detector CT is demanded to describe mediastinum and make to the purpose differential diagnoses. This study aims to assess characteristics, distribution and extension of Mediastinal masses by MDCT and correlate the histopathological diagnosis to CT scan findings.

Methodology: This will be a prospective study conducted at AVBRH, Wardha. Total 100 patients with Mediastinal Masses diagnosed clinically and on Chest X ray will be enrolled in the study. Contrast CT scan of all patients will be done. Histopathology reports of masses (FNAC/Biopsy) will be collected.

Results: Significant accuracy of mediastinal CT in diagnosing the mediastinal masses and a significant corelation to FNAC/biopsy reports is expected.

Conclusion: MDCT will prove to be an useful evaluation method for diagnosis and classification of mediastinal masses.

Open Access Study Protocol

A Study Protocol for Evaluation of Clinical and Functional Outcomes of Forearm Bone Fractures Treated by Screw Intramedullary Nail

Parth Shah, Nareshkumar Dhaniwala

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 427-433
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i64A35758

Background: The incidence of forearm fractures has increased rapidly over the past few years as a consequence of industrial accidents, interpersonal assaults, road traffic accidents, sports injuries, etc. The advantages of Closed or mini-open reduction using screw intramedullary nail and stable fixation include short duration and low-cost of surgery, 3 point fixation, and satisfactory union of the fracture. This study aims to assess the clinical, radiological, and functional outcomes of forearm bone fractures treated by Screw intramedullary nails.

Materials and Methods: This will be a Prospective Observational study conducted on 25 skeletally mature patients reporting to the dept. of Orthopedics, AVBRH, Wardha. Patients with fracture of radius and ulna together or single bone diaphyseal fracture in the forearm will be enrolled in the study. The findings will be analyzed using parameters proposed by Anderson et. al. scoring system for functional assessment and radiological union. Statistical analysis would be done to conclude the findings.

Expected Results: Significant clinical, radiological, and functional outcomes of forearm bone fractures treated by Screw intramedullary nail are expected.

Open Access Study Protocol

A Study Protocol for Assessing the Effect of Pre-Emptive Oral Clonidine on Intraoperative Hemodynamics and Surgical Field Quality during Functional Endoscopic Sinus Surgery (FESS) under General Anesthesia

Kapil K. Khandelwal, Jayashree Sen

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 455-461
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i64A35790

Background: Typically, endoscopic sinus surgery is reserved for patients with documented rhinosinusitis. The nasal mucosa is impregnated with supply of highly rich blood vessels, so excessive occurrence of bleeding during the procedure may obscure the visibility of the surgical area which might lead into complications. So to control the intraoperative blood loss, controlled hypotension during the surgery can be adopted. Clonidine, a centrally acting α2 agonist has antihypertensive property with decreasing sympathetic outflow. Clonidine given orally judiciously prior to surgery would potentiate the inhalation agents for hypotensive action during the anaesthetic procedure without having the disadvantages of vasodilators given intravenously. This study to assess the effects of clonidine as an oral premedicant in patients who are undergoing Functional Endoscopic Sinus Surgery.

Methodology: This prospective randomized double blinded placebo controlled study will be conducted in the department of Anaesthesia, Acharya Vinoba Bhave Rural Hospital, (DMIMS) Jawaharlal Nehru Medical College Sawangi Wardha, within the period of time of December 2020 to November 2022. Total 60 patients will be enrolled and randomized in two groups: Group C (n= 30): Patients will be given Clonidine (200 μgm); Group P (n= 30) will be Placebo group. To shrink nasal mucosal vessels, all patients will receive nasal packing of 2% xylocaine with 1:200000 adrenaline. Then, 60 minutes after study drugs are given, patients will be shifted for procedure. Using Six-point Average Category Scale, the grading of surgical field in terms of bleeding, will be done by the operating surgeon. Qualitative data will be documented with the help of percentage table, quantitative data will be presented as mean and standard deviation, student t-test will be taken for comparison among the study groups, Chi-square test will be utilized for comparison of categorical data. SPSS (Statistical Package for Social Sciences) 20.0 version will be the Software used in the analysis and p < 0.05 will be considered significant statistically.

Expected Results: Oral clonidine when used as premedicant will be effective in reducing bleeding during the procedure of Functional Endoscopic Sinus Surgery.

Open Access Study Protocol

Functional and Radiological Outcome Analysis of Bipolar Prosthesis Used in Femur Neck Fracture through Inter-Prosthetic Joint Movement: A Study Protocol

Prateek Upadhyay, Ratnakar Ambade

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 462-470
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i64A35791

Background: Fracture neck of femur is the commonest fracture in old aged individuals because of osteoporosis and advancing age causing more brittleness of bone. Blood to neck and head of femur is rich and complicated. A hip operation is successful only when it provide a stable hip which is pain free and has a good range of movement.

The Austin – Moore and Thompson prostheses have been used successfully for treating fracture NOF. Excruciating pain and erosion of acetabulum are very common complications after the use of the Austin- Moore prosthesis. The bipolar prosthesis was developed by James E Bateman in 1974, which had the great advantage of second joint, below the acetabulum. So hip motion is to occur at two surfaces thus reducing the articular erosion. Studies have shown that over an increasing period of time the bipolar prosthesis will become more of a unipolar prosthesis functionally due to stiffening up of the inter-prosthetic joint. By this study we will be able to assess whether bipolar prosthesis really functions as it’s name suggests or vice versa.


  1. Analysis of Inter – prosthetic joint movement in Bipolar prosthesis by radiological means. 
  2. Co-relating the inter-prosthetic joint motion with functional outcome of Bipolar prosthesis using Oxford hip score.

Methodology: By appropriate and easy sampling method, the patients undergoing Bipolar hemiarthroplasty for NOF fracture will be assessed radiologically for amount of inter-prosthetic joint motion during post-operative period.

Results: Results would be assessed on basis of clinical evaluation, functional evaluation and radiological evaluation and statistical analysis would be done to conclude the findings.

Conclusion: That over an increasing period of time the bipolar prosthesis will become more of a unipolar prosthesis functionally due to stiffening up of the inter-prosthetic joint. 

Open Access Study Protocol

Assessment of Correlation between Amniotic Fluid Index (AFI) and Feto-maternal Outcomes of In-term Pregnancies

A. Manisha, Amardeep Tembhare

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 480-486
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i64A35809

Background: Amniotic fluid plays a crucial role in providing basic life support to the fetus. This clear, slightly yellowish liquid that surrounds the fetus is helpful in the development of fetal systems by providing thermally controlled and a non-restricted sterile environment for fetal growth. During labour, amniotic fluid helps in providing an adequate cushion for umbilical cord. It is this mechanical function of the cushion which aids in preventing compression of cord in-between fetus and uterine wall during uterine contractions and fetal movements. Therefore, helps to prevent fetal distress. It protects fetus from any kind of injury and helps in preventing infection by its bacteriostatic properties. This study aims to estimate the effect of decreased amniotic fluid index (AFI) on maternal and fetal outcomes in term pregnancy.

Materials and Methods: This will be a Prospective cross sectional observational study conducted in OBGY dept. of AVBRH, Wardha. Pregnant women will be enrolled and divided into 3 groups as per Amniotic Fluid Index. Group A with low amniotic fluid index (AFI< 5 cm) Group B with borderline amniotic fluid index (AFI>5cm and <8cm)and Group C with normal amniotic fluid index (AFI 8cm-24cm). Data will be collected, analysed and compared between the groups in terms of the ultrasonographic findings and feto-maternal outcomes of in term pregnancy.

Expected Results: Significant correlation is expected between AFI and feto-maternal outcomes.

Conclusion: Unexpected adverse outcomes can be minimized by estimation of AFI and timely antepartum treatment in mothers with decreased AFI.

Open Access Study Protocol

Estimating the Vitamin-D Levels in Patients with Retinal Vein Occlusions: A Case Control Study

Varsha Kandambeth, Pradeep Sune

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 487-493
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i64A35810

Background: Retinal vein occlusion in diabetic retinopathy resulting in visual impairment and complete vision loss is well-known especially in older population. Ischemic occlusion of retinal vein can cause macular edema, macular ischemia and neovascularization which might end up in complete vision loss. Role of Vitamin D in maintaining vasculature and function of endothelium is evident from a number of studies. This study aims to estimate vitamin D levels in individuals with retinal vein occlusions.

Methodology: This will be a hospital based case control study conducted in Ophthalmology department of AVBRH, Wardha. About 70 consecutive patients will be enrolled and assigned to Case and Control groups of 35 each. Vitamin D levels will be estimated in all 70 patients. Including best corrected visual acuity (snellens chart), slit lamp inspection, intraocular pressure (IOP) measurement (Applanation tonometer) and fundoscopy (slit lamp biomicroscopy with 90 D) will be performed on all patients. Data will be collected, tabulated and compiled. Statistical analysis will be done by using unpaired student t test and Chi square test.

Expected results: Expected findings include deficient vitamin D levels in patients with retinal vein occlusion.

Conclusion: Retinal vein Occlusions are a leading reason for vision impairment which is preventable by timely treatment with Vitamin D.

Open Access Short Research Article

Challenges and Issues of Nurses in Serving COVID-19 Patients: A Study with Reference to Guntur District of Andhra Pradesh

Savanam Chandra Sekhar, Maddirala Sai Harshitha, Darahas Bolisetty, Sudheshna Tummala, Samudrala Bhoomika

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 80-86
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i64A35303

Health care became priority due to COVID-19 pandemic. Despite governments have taken utmost preventive and safeguarding measures, many people lost their lives due to disorganized medical care system in India. The role of nurses in serving the severe COVID patients is exuberant. Nurses have direct contact with COVID patients and must spend longer hours in and around the patients. The way nurses rendered services under extreme lockdown conditions is quite palpable. They do have lot of stress in discharging duties during the pandemic. The aim of this paper is to address the challenges and issues of nurses while serving COVID-19 patients and to provide appropriate measures to overcome challenges during the pandemic. The study is empirical and descriptive in nature. Shortage of nurses, afraid of viral infection, longer shifts, heavy workload, inadequate PPE, social stigma, maintaining social distance with loved ones of family members, relatives, and friends, lack of appreciation and recognition by the doctors, helplessness towards colleagues, and lack of awareness of safety protocols among COVID-19 positive patients caused physical and psychological stress among nurses. They have adapted a coping mechanism with belief in God, support from family and friends, soothing conversation with a peer group, kind treatment to each other, concern for well-being of humanity to bail out the situation during the pandemic.Outbreak of COVID-19 created unprecedented challenges and lessons to people of the globe. People praise only doctors in contribution of saving lives while healthcare professionals like nurses often are ignored, undervalued, and underpaid in healthcare sector. Nurses play vital role in saving lives with their altruistic services. They too have faced drastic challenges in the pandemic. Insufficient medical staff and equipment, increased workload with longer shifts, social exclusion, fear of being infected, shortage of PPE kits, and mismanagement are some challenges which put nurses in adversity with physical and psychological stress. Monetary and non-monetary incentives such as economic support, word of appreciation and work recognition, safe and adequate PPEs, and appropriate workload would motivate nurses to contribute more during the pandemic. Public health emergency must put in practice to ensure quality healthcare services.

Open Access Short Communication

Recouping Maternal and Child Nutrition: Mitigation Strategies in COVID-19 Pandemic

S. S. Lokesh Kumar, U. Sharath, R. Hanitha

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-2
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i64A35291

The global health and economycontinues to devastate because of COVID-19 pandemic. This pandemic has a huge impact on access to appropriate nutritive foods, essential interventions and poverty. There arises a significant concern that the COVID – 19 pandemic and its repercussions have had a bad impact on the women and children’s nutrional status and this could worsen over the time. There are 149 million children under 5 years of age who are stunted according to the current estimates. Now COVID-19 threatens to reverse or halt further more. The effects on the linear growth in children and stunting could be more than the short-term effects of under nutrition if left unaddressed. Prioritizing nutrition for vulnerable children and women is of prime importance. Re-strategizing and reprioritizing investments forthe COVID-19 erashould be together done by the development partners, donors and governments using data-driven decision making.

Open Access Minireview Article

Fruit Wine and Its Therapeutic Potential: A Mini Review

Shubham Kumar, Jasdeep Singh

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 3-9
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i64A35292

Wine is defined as the undistilled fermented beverages product made with different variety of fruits. About 10-15% of alcohol content is found in the wine with numerous bioactive compounds such as phenols, catechin, quercetin and gallic acid, flavonoids, and resveratrol. The presence of these antioxidants is associated with the lower risk of cardiovascular diseases, free radical formation, and hyperglycemia in human body. Resveratrol present in red wine has potential chemo preventive activity. Generally, wine is prepared with the help of yeast mediated fermentation of grapes. However, various other tropical fruits such as plum, jackfruit, palm and pineapple can also be used for the wine production. Various herbs such as basil, ginger, amla and aloe-vera can also be infused into the wine, to enhance its therapeutic value. Herb-induced wines, commonly called as restorative wines can be of great importance to human health. This review provides a overview of different types of wines, the medicinal potential of wine for human health, as well as the diverse fruits utilized in wine production.

Open Access Original Research Article

A Study of Glucose Tolerance Test, Body Mass Index and Waist Hip Ratio as a Marker of Pre-Diabetes

Vijayashree S. Gokhale, Ponvijaya M. Yadav, Rupesh Parati, Dhiral R. Mahajan, Atiullah Malik

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 10-18
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i64A35293

Background: India is becoming the “Diabetes Capital of the World”. Younger and younger individuals are being diagnosed with Diabetes. This study was planned to diagnose prediabetes in younger individuals having positive family history with aim of encouraging to develop lifestyle modifications to delay progression to Diabetes.

Aims: To study prediabetes in first degree relatives (FDR) of diabetic patients in the group of 30-45 years by glucose tolerance test (GTT), body mass index (BMI) and waist hip ratio (WHR).

Study Design:  Cross sectional observational study.

Place and Duration of Study: Study was conducted at Department of general medicine, Dr D Y Patil Medical College, Pune 18 from July 2019-september 2021.

Methodology: This study conducted in a semi-urban Teaching Hospital in Maharashtra, India. 100 asymptomatic first-degree relatives (31 women, 69 men) age group 30-45 years, of diabetic patients were selected for study after informed consent. The study participants were clinically examined and subjected to OGTT (oral glucose tolerance test) and BMI, WHR were calculated. Data analysis was done using SPSS (Statistical Package for Social Sciences) Software version 20.

Results: In our study, out of 100 participants 61% study subjects were overweight having a BMI of 25-29.90 and 13% were obese. 65% subjects had raised Waist to hip ratio. 36 subjects had raised fasting Blood sugar level (BSL) and 40% had raised 2hr BSL on OGTT and incidence of diabetes and prediabetes were 14% and 26% respectively.

Conclusion: Significant correlation of Prediabetes was seen with abnormal OGTT, Raised Fasting Blood glucose, raised BMI. We found higher incidence of Prediabetes in those with Maternal Diabetes.

Open Access Original Research Article

A Demographic Profile of ACS Associated with Thyroid Dysfunction in North Indian Population

Priyadarshini Arambam, Anshu Alok, Neha Taneja, Priya Ranjan, Rajiv Janardhanan, Upendra Kaul

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 51-61
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i64A35299

Background: Thyroid disorders have an important bearing on the cardiovascular (CV) system leading to hypertension, dyslipidemia, heart rhythm disorders, obesity etc. Data regarding the influence of subclinical hypothyroidism and CV disease and outcomes have been conflicting. Since subclinical hypothyroidism is seen often in clinical syndromes of coronary artery disease, we undertook this study to evaluate the overall prevalence and demography of patients admitted with the diagnosis of ACS in a North Indian population.

Methods: We studied consecutive 171 hospitalized patients between March 2018 to February 2020 with a diagnosis of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) to determine the features of thyroid dysfunction both clinical and sub-clinical and the associated biochemical parameters. All patients underwent complete medical history of cardiac risk factors for developing CAD. Thyroid function Tests - free T3, free T4 and TSH were collected from all the patients within 24 hours of admission to CCU.

Results: Forty (23%) of these patients had thyroid dysfunction. Subclinical hypothyroidism was the commonest abnormality seen in 26 (23%), followed by overt hypothyroidism 12 (9%). Hyperthyroidism was uncommon (1.5%). Euthyroid sick syndrome was seen in 4% and these patients were excluded. 

There was a predilection for the elderly population (females 52%).  STEMI (52%) followed by NSTEMI (25%) was the commonest diagnosis at presentation. A significant correlation was seen with serum lipid levels (decreased HDL C, Increased total cholesterol, triglycerides and VLDL C) and hypothyroidism. However, there was no correlation ship with LDL C.

Reduced e glomerular filtration rate (e GFR) which was seen in 50% of patients had a linear relationship with hypothyroidism. Patients with hypothyroidism had no differences in the prevalence of concomitant diabetes and hypertension. The left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) in the group of patients had a trend to be lower.

Conclusions: Hypothyroidism seems to be an important risk factor in patients with ACS, especially STEMI.  The impairment of renal function was also prominent in these patients. These patients also suffered from impaired renal function.

Open Access Original Research Article

Incidence of Aberrant Right Subclavian Artery in General Population

S. Vishnu Raj, Sam Raja, Yatin Mendu, Sneha Yarlagadda, Seena Cheppala Rajan

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 62-68
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i64A35300

Objective: The existence of an anomalous right subclavian artery is the most significant aortic arch defect. Dysphagia, wheezing, stridor, and other symptoms may occur if this vessel pressures the neighbouring structures. The goal of this study is to find out how common ARSA is based on CT scans of the thorax and neck (plain and contrast).

Method: Between January 1st and December 31st, 2020, 1122 patients had CT Thorax/neck scans, and the data were evaluated. The origin of the ARSA, the vessel's path, and the Kommerell diverticulum were all assessed. We looked at the literature to see how important ARSA is in clinical practise.

Results: ARSA was found in eight of 1122 patients. All of the ARSAs in these eight individuals began at the posterior part of the aortic arch and travelled via the retroesophageal path to the thoracic outlet. All eight ARSA were found in the front part of the thoracic vertebral bodies, from the first to the fourth.

Conclusion: Other clinical symptoms such as dysphagia, dyspnea, retrosternal discomfort, cough, and weight loss must be differentiated from compression of surrounding tissues by an abnormal right subclavian artery.

Open Access Original Research Article

A Comprehensive Review of the Ocular Manifestation and Role of Shalakya in Managing Novel Corona Virus 2019 Disease

Amit W. Chandankhede, Roshna Bhutada, Pradeep Sune

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 69-74
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i64A35301

A Novel corona virus (CoV) in December 2019 cause with the aid of using the sever Acute Respiratory Syndrome Corona Virus -2 (SARS-Cov-2) emerged from Wuhan China. The Coronavirus Pandemic has become the globals interest the immune mechine, The Body’s Defense Mechanism towards Disease inflicting virus & different organism that we contact inquest & Inhale each day [1]. ‘The idea of epidemic become very a whole lot properly outline in Ayurved Charaka the fantastic health practitioner of every ages has referred to epidemic Diseases beneath Neath the Heading of Janapadodhwans. In gift time whilst there may be no Absolute remedy for the virus whilst there may be no 100% vaccine safety proved, The Role Ayurved Stand ideally suited .Shalakya one the Eight Branches of Ayurved has an ideally suited function in preventing in opposition to the lethal Novel corona Virus. Ayurved Drugs are capable of enhance the immunity & combat in opposition to the Infection in a far powerful manner. The predominant goal to the assessment to recognized ocular Manifestation & Role of shalakya in coping with novel corona virus 2019.

Open Access Original Research Article

A Comparative Study on Changes in Postoperative Care of Patients Undergoing Emergency Surgeries in a Tertiary Care Centre between COVID and Non-COVID Patients

Kaviya Kamaraja, S. Rajesh

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 91-95
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i64A35305

Aim: To observe and analyze changes in postoperative management between COVID and non- COVID patients who undergo emergency surgeries in a tertiary care hospital in Kanchipuram, Chennai.

Objective: To analyze the postoperative care and compare the hospital stay, incision, drugs used and other system complications between COVID and non-Covid patients.

Materials and Methods: A retrospective observational study of 40 subjects who came to the general surgery department for emergency procedures were studied. The study duration was 4 months. The exclusion criteria were obstetric and orthopaedic emergencies and patients between the age of 16 years and above 60 years. All the emergencies in the general surgery department were done under anaesthesia.

Results: The postoperative outcome between the subjects who were COVID positive and negative was quite similar but an increased postoperative stay due to delay in wound healing was observed. This was not found to be directly caused by the COVID infection but mostly due to the drugs used in its management and the patient’s comorbidities and lifestyle choices.

Open Access Original Research Article

Antidiabetic and Antiinflammatory Potentials of Sida Acuta Leaf Ethanolic Extract

Preethi Shankar, R. Gayathri, J. Selvaraj, V. Vishnu Priya

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 96-103
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i64A35306

Introduction: Sida acuta is known as common wireweed, and has a pantropical distribution. Antioxidants fight against free radicals and prevent a variety of diseases. Anti Inflammatory reaction is the ability of a substance to reduce swelling or inflammation. Antidiabetic substances are defined as agents which help in maintaining the level of glucose in the blood.

Aim: Present study was aimed at assessing the in vitro antidiabetic and antiinflammatory potentials of Sida acuta leaf ethanolic extract

Methods: Sida acuta was purchased and its ethanolic extract was prepared. Protein denaturation inhibition, DPPH radical scavenging, alpha amylase and alpha glucosidase inhibitory assays were carried out in order to check in vitro antiinflammatory, antioxidant and antidiabetic activity spectrophotometrically..  The data were analysed using one-way analysis of variance  (ONE-WAY ANOVA) to see the statistical significant among the different concentrations of extract. P<0.05 levels were considered as statistical significance.

Results: The extract of Sida acuta was compared with aspirin and an antiinflammatory reaction was analysed. Statistically significant at the levels of p < 0.05.The extract proved to contain antiinflammatory and antioxidant reactions. Alpha amylase and alpha glucosidase activity was analysed by comparing the extract with metformin.

Conclusion: Sida acuta can be used for the management and treatment of various diseases and disorders. It can be used for the treatment of diabetes and cancer.

Open Access Original Research Article

Comparative Assessment of P. gingivalis Level in Periodontit is Patients with and without Diabetes Mellitus- A PCR based Study

M. Shruthi, M. Jeevitha, N. D. Jayakumar, Selvaraj Jayaraman

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 108-115
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i64A35308

Introduction: Periodontal diseases if left untreated can lead to tooth loss with the main cause being bacterial plaque. Among the subgingival plaque bacterial species, Porphyromonasgingivalis has been implicated as a major etiological agent causing tooth loss. Diabetic patients are at high risk for periodontal disease. Our aim was to compare the involvement of P. gingivalis in diabetes mellitus (DM) patients associated with periodontitis and to compare them with periodontitis patients having no other systemic pathologies.

Materials and Methods: Subgingival plaque samples from a total of 8 patients were collected. DNA was isolated from the collected samples and was quantified using RT-PCR for standardizing the polymerase chain reaction. Paired t test was performed using the statistical software Graphpad prism (Version 7.0).

Results: There was a statistically significant level of P. gingivalis seen in periodontitis patients having DM (p=0.0053), whereas the least score was seen in periodontitis patients without DM.

Conclusion: Poor glycemic control, as indicated by HbA1c≥7%, is associated with increased levels and frequencies of periodontal pathogens in the subgingival biofilm of subjects with DM.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Effects of Lifestyle Modofications on Sperm DNA Fragmentation Index

Vaishnavi Virendra Singh Chauhan, Akash More, Ujwal Gajbe, Deepti Shrivastava

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 116-122
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i64A35309

Background: Most of the men go through infertility due to DNA defects in sperm. DNA defects in sperm can be measured by sperm DNA fragmentation test. Sperm DNA splitting have been correlated with sperm viability and its major impact on male infertility. Many studies have shown that men with disturbed lifestyle habits such as smoking ,alcoholic consumption ,poor diet have very poor DNA quality compared to the men with proper habits like good diet , exercise and a well maintained routine. There has been many tests to measure the DNA breakage after conducting proper semen examination and infertility duration. This can be treated with proper medications and regular exercise.

Objectives: 1. To predict the reason for male infertility by evaluating routine semen parameters.

  1. To study the effects of daily lifestyle habits associated with SDF in patients who are not fertile.
  2. To investigate the amount of sperm DNA splitting in men who are not fertile. 4.To investigate the association between DFI and semen quality, between DFI and IVF, between DFI and IUI. 5.To estimate the outcomes of sperm DNA fragmentation index and allow the patients to seek post infertility treatments.

Methods: This non-invasive methodology includes recording of treatment history and the indications of infertility. Proper counselling for the patients were done. A proforma were filled along with their consent showing the accuracy of smoking, alcohol consumption, stress levels and other mentioned factors and hence calculating the sperm breakage levels.

Open Access Original Research Article

A Study on Short Segment Fixation for Thoracolumbar Fractures

Sohael M. Khan, Venkatesh Dasari, Nitin Samal, Rameez Bukhari, Suvarn Gupta, Antariksh Waghmare

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 123-129
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i64A35310

Background: Spine injury is being one of the commonest injuries which pose challenges to the patients and treating clinicians as well. Despite so much research and recent advances, there has not been unanimous consensus regarding the management of spinal injuries. However, the treatment aim of every injury to the spine is to restore of max possible function in patients. This study was conducted to assess the outcome of short segment fixation in fractures of the thoracolumbar spine.

Methods and Materials: This is a prospective cohort study done at our Tertiary Center during the period from April 2018 To September 2020. Patients with thoracolumbar spine injuries were, included in the study. Study on short-segment pedicle screw fixation and inter- transverse fusion for single-level acute thoracolumbar fracture.

Results: Mean age of the sample size was 40.58 years with male preponderance. The FRANKEL SCALE was used to grade the pre-op neurology; 17.2% were graded as E, 24.1% as D, 31%  as C, 13.8 % as B, and 13.8% A. ASIA motor and sensory score preoperative and postoperative at one year follow up was compared was found to be significant (p<0.05). Preoperative VAS and Functional independent measures also showed significant improvement.

Conclusion: Surgical stabilization and decompression are essential strategies for further neuroprotection and recovery after a spine injury. Short segment fixation can be an option for thoracolumbar fracture. However, an unstable fracture may require extended fixation.

Open Access Original Research Article

Awareness about Early Menarche and Its Associated Problems among Female Medical Students of a Tertiary Care Hospital in Chennai, Tamil Nadu

V. K. Siva, . Archana

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 130-136
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i64A35311

Background: In many developing countries, the age of menarche is declining due to various factors. Early pubertal development or early menarche among girls could be associated with higher risks of poor health, so it is important to bring awareness and gain knowledge about early menarche and it's associated problems.

Aim: To assess the awareness and knowledge about early menarche and its associated problems among female medical students.

Settings and Design: Cross-sectional study was done among the 1st year, 2nd year and 3rd year girls studying in a medical college in Chennai.

Methods: This study was conducted among 232 participants. A convenient sampling method was used.  A pretested semi-stricter questionnaire was used to assess the knowledge and awareness about early menarche and its associated problems.

Statistical Analysis Used: Data was entered in an excel spreadsheet and analysed using SPSS software version 16, statistical analysis was done using the Chi-square test.

Results: Out of 232 participants 33.7% had good knowledge about early menarche and its associated problems. There was a significant association between the year of study and the level of knowledge of the participants. 42.35% were aware that “early menarche can lead to breast cancer and ischemic heart disease”.

Conclusion: Thus, this study helps us to bring more awareness about early menarche and its associated problems and to prevent it by gaining knowledge about the factors resulting in early menarche.

Open Access Original Research Article

Knowledge, Attitude & Practice of Ultrasonic Bone Surgery (Piezo electric) among Dentists in the State Tamilnadu- KAP Study

R. A. Jenifer Cynthia, Kadhiresan Rathinasamy, Arunmozhi Ulaganathan, Shanmuga Priya Ramamurthy, G. Kishore Kumar, J. Arun Kumar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 145-153
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i64A35313


Objectives: To assess the knowledge, attitude, practice of Ultrasonic bone surgery (piezo electric) among dentist in the state of Tamilnadu.

Methods: A set of 29 questions was sent to dentists in and around Tamilnadu. The questionnaire was circulated digitally (Google forms & emails) and responses were recorded. 125 dentists participated in the study, among them 21 dentists were excluded since they did not have any awareness about piezo surgery or the equipment used.

Statistical Analysis: The basic data was expressed used using frequency with percentages and by diagrams. For expressing   quantitative variable, mean and standard deviation were used. Kruskal wallis test was used to compare whether knowledge score differed by characteristics of the selected variables and Dunn’s post hoc test was applied to find out which of the characteristics were statistically significant.  All the statistical analysis were done using XLSTAT 2014 software

Results: 63% of the dentists had adequate knowledge regarding piezo surgery and 53% of the dentists were currently using piezotome in their dental practice and 47% of dentists use it for harvesting bone grafts and 86% have complimented that it was less traumatic to the hard tissues. 81% felt that patient compliance was better compared to traditional methods like osteotome and chisel. Majority of the dentists showed a positive attitude towards piezosurgery and they extended their willingness to update their knowledge furthermore and emphasized that the concept of piezosurgery, its usage and its advantages should be given adequate importance in future dental education.

Conclusion: This study demonstrated that knowledge and attitude towards piezosurgery was good among the dental professionals, but the actual practice of it is still deficient. This could be probably because of the lack of training in the dental schools, which could be overcome by including piezo surgery in dental curriculum and conducting workshops for improvising the skill of the dentists.

Open Access Original Research Article

Astronaut Era: Does Your Child Patient Accept Your New Look and Practicality of Using Behaviour Modification Techniques in COVID Times?

Sana Farooq, Nazia Lone, Mohsin Sidiq

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 161-169
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i64A35315

Background: The coronavirus (COVID-19) has challenged health care professionals and dental professionals play a pivotal role in preventing transmission of COVID 19.

Aim: This study aimed to evaluate the knowledge, attitude, skills and preparedness of Pediatric dentist in managing  a case in their dental operatory in COVID times.

Materials and Methodology: A cross-sectional survey was carried out in June 2020 on  52 dental specialists who  were contacts of invigilator and had done  post graduation in Pedodontics and Preventine Dentistry at Delhi NCR or were practicing Pedodontist in Jammu & Kashmir. A 10 question based questionnaire was developed to assess their knowledge, awareness and skills . Data were subjected to appropriate statistical measures and analyzed.

Result: Amongst 52 Pedodontist who took  part in survey  23.08% were pedodontist with experience of three and more years where as  53.85% were still undergoing postgraduation in the speciality of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry.100% of pediatric dentist thought its pre requisite to screen the temperature of all the children and attendants using infrared thermometer before taking proper history and thought of conducting  examination only after a preprocedural mouthrinse of 1% hydrogen peroxide.

Conclusion: An aware and knowledgeable pedodontist  following the latest guidelines can handle children well in situation where behaviour modification techniques are hampered due to use of PPE(Personnal Protective Equipment). It is important to educate all the patients about coughing etiquettes and the dental professionals about modification required in a dental clinic set-up for managing cases requiring urgent dental care.

Open Access Original Research Article

Preparation of Mouth Wash Using Musa sapientum Mediated Silver Nanoparticles and Its Antimicrobial Activity

A. Roshan, R. Priyadharshini, S. Rajeshkumar, Palati Sinduja

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 177-185
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i64A35317

Introduction: Musa sapientum are primarily grown in tropical and subtropical countries, and are commonly used around the world for their nutritional values. Peels were examined for mineral, nutritional content. The product of the mineral content is that the concentration of potassium, calcium, magnesium, iron, manganese, bromine, and rubidium are high. M. sapientum pulp showed high antimicrobial activity against 13 gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria.

Materials and Methods: The plant extract was prepared. Silver nanoparticles were taken in the form of AgNO3. The plant extract was tested for its anti-inflammatory activity by protein denaturation assay. To assess the antimicrobial activity, the prepared extract was inoculated in different culture plates containing different microorganisms. The results obtained were collected and statistically analyzed in SPSS software and graphs were obtained.

Results: Analysis of antimicrobial activity shows The zone of inhibition in Mueller Hinton agar showed C. albicans zone of inhibition in the cultured plate with the diameter of 10 mm, 12 mm and 25 mm in 25 µL, 50 µL, and 100 µL respectively. S. mutans zone of inhibition in the cultured plate with the diameter of 15 mm, 18 mm, and 22 mm at 25 µL, 50 µL, and 100 µL respectively.

Conclusion: From the results obtained and analyzed we may conclude that silver nanoparticles synthesized using Musa sapientum extract can be used as a good anti-microbial agent. Its anti-microbial activity can be enhanced by increasing the concentration. Hence furt her advancements in this study could lead to producing and marketing natural product-based antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory agents.

Open Access Original Research Article

Measurement of Salivary Lipid Peroxidation in Periodontitis Patients with or Without Diabetes Mellitus

V. P. R. B. Ranjith Raj, M. Jeevitha, N. D. Jayakumar, Selvaraj Jayaraman

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 203-209
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i64A35320

Aim: The aim of the present study is to assess the association of lipid peroxidation in the saliva of healthy and periodontitis patients with or without diabetes mellitus.

Study Design: Cross-sectional study.

Materials and Methods: The study was conducted in the subjects who visited the University dental hospital as outpatients from October 2020 to January 2021.The subjects were categorized into 3 groups: periodontally healthy (Group a), Periodontitis with diabetes mellitus (Group b) and Periodontitis only (Group c)

Results: Lipid peroxidation levels were found to be significantly higher (p<0.021 which is statistically significant) in patients with periodontitis and diabetes mellitus (108 + 7.1) when compared to patients with periodontitis only (77 + 3.5) and healthy group (66+5.6).

Conclusion: The study concluded that lipid peroxidation levels are elevated in patients with periodontitis and diabetes mellitus compared to periodontitis only and also when compared to periodontal health which indicate that lipid peroxidation levels could serve as a biomarker for periodontitis in diabetic patients.

Open Access Original Research Article

Comparison of Hand Grip Strength among Health Care Workers and Students

N. Adhishwar Kumaran, N. Sugumar, Niraimathy Nyorai Velu Subramani, B. Jagadeesh

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 210-217
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i64A35359

Background: The information is gathered from a wide spectrum of health-care professionals, including medical students, nurses, and doctors. The study takes place at SMCH in Chennai. For students and health workers, the offered data is also utilized to compare handgrip strength between right and left handgrip. MATLAB software is used to analyze hand grip strength among health care personnel and students, and the results are far more efficient than traditional methods.

Objective: The objective of this study is to compare hand grip strength in South Indian health care workers and students under normal and sex impact situations.

Methodology: A grip strength test will almost certainly be performed if you consult an occupational or physical therapist for any problem involving weakness. A hand-held dynamometer is commonly used to assess grip strength. The patient squeezes the dynamometer three times with each hand, using all of their strength. The comparison of different types of data will be analyzed in the proposed method by using MATLAB software.

Results: This is the first study to develop models for evaluating the strength of different types of hand grips. Gender is the most important demographic variable to include when analyzing models. The comparison analysis resulting in images shows the value of each comparison. When compared to the non-dominant and left hands, the dominant and right hands demonstrated superior grip strength. Regular assessments of hand grip strength, hand anthropometric characteristics, and hand disability level are recommended as part of routine examinations in order to detect the amount of physical disability.

Conclusion: Gender is the most important demographic variable in comparison of models. Although power grip strength is common in many sports, it may not be a strong predictor of thumb push and ball of thumb strength. The students and the health care workers are classified and their hand grip strength is calculated successfully. For convenience and time savings, there are two types of hand strength.

Open Access Original Research Article

Comparative Evaluation of Garlic (Allium sativum) Extract in Chair Side Disinfection of Gutta Percha Cones: An In vitro Study

Shenbagam Rangarajan, Manali Ramakrishnan Srinivasan, Saravanan Poorni, D. Duraivel, C. Nishanthine, V. Rakshagan

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 227-232
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i64A35361

Background: Microbial contamination of gutta percha (GP) cones can be harmful for the success of endodontic therapy. A rapid chair side disinfection is preferred to avoid secondary infection.

Aim: The purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy of 20% and 100% garlic extract with 5.25% Sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) and 2% Glutaraldehyde in rapid disinfection of GP.

Materials and Methods: GP were immersed in prepared suspensions of Enterococcus faecalis and Staphylococcus aureus. The cones were disinfected in 5.25%NaoCl, 2% glutaraldehyde, 20% garlic extract and 100% garlic extract for 1 and 5 minutes. The cones were then transferred to sterile test tubes containing 1ml sterile saline and vortexed vigorously for 5minutes. 100µl of the saline suspension plated onto Brain heart infusion agar by spread plate method. The plates were incubated for 24-48 hours at 37˚C and the total colony forming units/ml were calculated.

Results: Statistical analysis was done using one-way ANOVA followed post hoc Tukey test. There was no statistically significant difference among 5.25% NaOCl, 100% garlic extract and 2% glutaraldehyde.

Conclusion: Within the limitations of the study, 100% garlic extract possesses superior antibacterial activity when compared with 2% glutaraldehyde and 20% garlic extract and similar effect as 5.25% NaOCl.

Open Access Original Research Article

Pharmaceutical Standardization of Palasha Kshara (Alkali Extract of Butea monosperma Lam.) Prepared from Two Combinations

Meenakshi Jaiswal, Anita Wanjari, Bharat Rathi, Dhirajsingh S. Rajput, Mujahid Khan, Makarand Sonare, Anup Kohale, Arvind Bhake

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 233-244
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i64A35362

Introduction: Standardization in herbal pharmaceuticals is needed in order to ensure their quality and acceptability of final medicament prepared from them. There are many plants have been suggested in the compendia for Kshara (alkali extract) preparation. Acharya Bhavamishra coined the name of plant Palasha (Butea monosperma Lam.) as Kshara Shresta means the one which is best of all Kshara. Generally all parts of plant together (Panchanga) have been suggested to be used for Kshara preparation in the texts. But considering the unavailability of all parts of the Palasha throughout the year this study has been designed to standardize the Palasha Kshara prepared from two combinations.

Aim and Objectives: Pharmaceutical and analytical standardization of Palasha Kshara PK-1 and PK-2 prepared from two combinations.

PK-1 is the Palasha Kshara prepared from combination of ashes of roots, stems, leaves, flowers and fruits.

PK-2 is the Palasha Kshara prepared from combination of ashes of roots, stems and leaves.

Observation and Results:  The total yield percentage of PK-1 and PK-2 were 20.757% and 4.067% respectively. Both PK-1 and PK-2 were found alkaline in nature having ph value of 10.44 and 10.47 respectively. The ICPAES study of both PK-1 and PK-2 reveals maximum amount of potassium in them (41.65% and 47.51% respectively.) Heavy metals such as arsenic, lead, mercury, and cadmium were not detected or were found to be within acceptable ranges. The XRD study reveals presence of more functional groups in PK-2 than PK-1. The observed crystallanity of PK-1 was more (87.5%) than PK-2 (84.6%).

Discussion and Conclusion: Two varieties of Palasha Kshara were made in this study using two different combinations of ashes. This was an attempt to identify the need of Kshara prepared from all five parts of Panchanga) over the Kshara prepared from three parts (roots, stems and leaves) and standardize them pharmaceutically and analytically.

Open Access Original Research Article

A Survey on the Problems Faced by Patients Undergoing Dental Implants during Coronavirus Pandemic

T. Srigopika, Dinesh Premavathy

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 273-281
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i64A35367

Aim: To analyse the problems faced by patients with dental implants during the pandemic.

Introduction: Dental implants have been used for a long time in the dental field and continue to dominate the field. Due to this reason, a huge amount of people go for dental implants. However, they have their own drawbacks and this is worsened by the coronavirus pandemic. Patients are unable to reach their dentist in person which sometimes leads to complications. This study hopes to shed more light on the different types of problems faced by patients with dental implants, especially during this pandemic.

Materials and Methods: This study had a sample size of 100 and data was collected using an online questionnaire with a total of 11 questions. The statistical method used to analyse data is SPSS software version 23.

Results: Some of the responses had significant p- values (of 0.001 and 0.101) whereas the others did not.

Conclusion: By the end of the study, it was concluded that most patients with dental implants underwent a lot of problems during the covid pandemic.

Open Access Original Research Article

Prevalence of Oral Carcinoma among Younger Individuals - A Cross Sectional Study

N. Bharath Kumar, Dinesh Premavathy

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 282-289
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i64A35368

Aim: To study the prevalence of oral cancer among younger individuals in India.

Introduction: It helps us to study the prevalence, management, causative agents, signs and symptoms of oral cancer. Oral cancer is defined as an uncontrolled growth of tumour cells in the oral cavity. Cancer can occur in the tongue, lips, hard palate, and soft palate, floor of mouth, cheeks and mucosal layer. There is a wide range of variations in prevalence of oral cancer in different regions from minorities or sub-population.

Materials and Methods: The survey was carried out with Google forms and recorded 104 responses for 10 self prepared questionnaires. Responses collected were analyzed using SPSS software. The analysis shows that there was a significant awareness of oral cancer.

Results: There was a significant level of awareness of oral cancer among younger individuals. The present observation shows statistically significant (0.032) between gender and awareness of prevalence by screening oral mucosa, by using Pearson Chi Square test with confidence level 95% with the value of 0.05.

Conclusion: The important message is that early detection of asymptomatic early stages of cancer translates in general terms to satisfactory clinical outcome and cures in most cases.

Open Access Original Research Article

Controlled Release Formulation of Tofacitinib Citrate Tablets Evaluated Using Quality by Design (QBD) Approach

Satyabrata Barik, Priyanka Soni, Ankit Anand Kharia

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 290-306
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i64A35688

The goal of the project is to use the quality-by-design (QbD) method to create and optimise Tofacitinib citrate matrix tablets with controlled release excipients. The drug's physicochemical parameters, reference product characterisation, QTPP (Quality Target Product Profile), and CQAs were used to start product development (Critical Quality Attributes). Hypromellose (Methocel K100 premium LV CR), Polyethylene Oxide (SentryPolyox WSR N80 LEO), and Magnesium Stearate were used as formulation variables and were optimised together. The complete factorial design of experiment (DOE) with three centre points was used to investigate traditional monolithic controlled release matrix tablets. Using Design-expert12 programme, dissolution was assessed as CQA. At acidic pH, hypromellose with a higher viscosity grade provides a regulated release pattern by retaining the integrity of the medication and preventing rapid drug release. Due to the nonionic nature of the polymer, drug release from the polymer matrices is pH independent. Present monolithic controlled release matrix system the extensive degradation of Tofacitinib Citrate in the acidic condition can be avoided with desired in-vitro drug release.

Open Access Original Research Article

Decoding the Genetic Alteration in Genes of PARP Family and the Possible Association with HNSCC

Harita Ravikumar, J. Vijayashree Priyadharsini, A. S. Smiline Girija, P. Sankar Ganesh, Nidhi Poddar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 307-317
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i64A35692

Introduction: Genetic alterations have long been associated with the transformation of normal cells into malignant cells. Several genes are related to exhibiting the phenotype. The PARP gene family is mainly involved in maintaining genome stability. They play an important role in DNA repair and the programmed cell death process.

Aim: To analyse the genetic alteration in PARP family and to determine its association with HNSCC.

Materials and Methods: Cbioportal was used as the primary database for identifying the mutations and variations. The data generated in the form of oncoprint was further assessed for frequency of occurrence, type and novelty.

Results and Discussion: It can be observed that greater amplification was found in the TIPARP gene which is 14% among all the 17 genes of the family. Also to add on, PARP 14 and PARP 15 show amplification patterns in similar groups of patients. Several types of mutations such as truncated, splicing deep deletion were found in most of the genes. The TIPARP gene was up-regulated in HNSCC patients. The Caucasians experiencing low/medium expression of TIPARP showed greater rates of survival than highly expressed African Americans. Similarly, males presenting with low or medium expression of TIPARP showed a greater rate of survival than the highly expressed females.

Conclusion: TIPARP could be a promising prognostic marker for screening populations vulnerable to acquiring HNSCC.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessing the Efficacy of Sonic Toothbrush in Reducing the Plaque Pathogens in Comparison with Manual Brushing

Akifa Begum, N. P. Muralidharan

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 318-324
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i64A35693

Introduction: The bacteria present in dental plaque are the main cause of caries, gum disease, and periodontal disease. Regular brushing will remove plaque build up and maintain the oral health. An ultrasonic toothbrush is an electric toothbrush which is designed for daily home use which operates by generating ultrasound waves to help in removing plaque and rendering plaque bacteria harmless.

Aim: The aim of the present study is to assess the effect of sonic toothbrush in reducing the plaque pathogens in comparison with the normal brushing.

Materials and Methods: Volunteers who use sonic toothbrushes were selected as a study population. The swab samples were collected before and after brushing. The collected swabs were inoculated on BHI agar and the total CFU count was checked.

Results and Discussion: The percentage reduction in case of ultrasonic toothbrush was more (86.82%) when compared to the manual brushing making it efficient in reducing plaque pathogens.

Conclusion: The present study concludes that the ultrasonic or the sonic toothbrush is efficient on plaque pathogens on the tooth surface.

Open Access Original Research Article

Studies on Chemotherapeutic Potential of Hydroethanolic Leaf Extract of Aegle marmelos on Human Lung Cancer Cell Lines

N. Bharath Kumar, G. Sridevi, R. Selvaraj, S. Preetha

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 325-332
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i64A35706

Background: Lung cancer, one of the world’s leading causes of cancer death. There is an improvement in mortality by screening of lung cancer by low dose computed tomography. Long time ago, lung cancer was a reportable disease which now became a commonest cause of death due to cancer. Discovery of medicine for various diseases is still an ongoing process. A lot of diseases are still remaining a threat without any treatment or medicine. Herbal derived medicines are preferred because of their low side effects on patients.

Objective: To investigate the role of Aegle marmelos against human lung cancer cell lines (A549 cell line).

Materials and Methods: A549 cell lines were procured from NCCS (National center for cell sciences) Pune, India. It was cultured and viability of the cells before and after adding the extract was analysed using the MTT assay. mRNA amplification was done using real time PCR.Statistical analysis was done using ANOVA and dunken’s multiple test. Corresponding graphs are also plotted.

Results: The viability of the cells decreased from 100% to 50%. The mRNA expression of wnt and β-catenin decreased after the addition of the extract.

Conclusion: The study concluded that Aegle marmelos possesses a good, novel, innovative, anti- cancer activity against the lung cancer cell lines A549.

Open Access Original Research Article

Preparation of Mouthwash using Banana Stem Extract Mediated Copper Nanoparticles and Its Cytotoxic Effect – An In-vitro Study

R. Theiva Chandran, S. Balaji Ganesh, S. Rajesh Kumar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 333-342
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i64A35707

Background: Copper nanoparticles have recently attracted researchers due to their low cost, availability and other novel properties. Various parts of Musa sapientum which belong to the family Musaceae have been used for various medicinal purposes. The aim of the study is to assess the cytotoxic effect of mouth wash prepared using banana stem mediated copper nanoparticles.

Materials and Methods: 100 mL of distilled water is mixed with 1g of banana stem extract and distilled. The filtrate is mixed with 0.477g of copper sulphate mixed in 60 mL of distilled water. There were a total of 10 shrimps per dilution. The artificial seawater upto 10 mL per test tube is controlled. The test tube was left uncovered under a lamp. The number of surviving shrimps were counted and recorded after 24 h. The percentage of motility was calculated by dividing the total number of dead nauplii by the total number and then multiplied by 100%. This is to ensure that the death of nauplii is attributed to the compounds present in nanoparticles.

Results: Percentage of lethality for the banana stem extract mediated copper nanoparticles mouthwash at concentrations of 5 μL, 10 μL, 20 μL, 40 μL, 80 μL were 60%, 70%, 100%, 100%, 100% respectively.

Conclusion: Thus, with an increase in concentration of the banana stem mediated copper nanoparticles mouthwash, the cytotoxic activity increases. Thus from the study, it is evident that natural mouthwash can be prepared with banana stem mediated copper nanoparticles with less side effects.

Open Access Original Research Article

Boerhavia diffusa Mediated Selenium Nanoparticles and their Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Activity

B. Sushma, R. V. Geetha, S. Rajesh Kumar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 343-350
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i64A35711

Introduction: Boerhavia diffusa belongs to species of flowering plant which is commonly called as *punarnava*. Its leaves are used as green leafy vegetables, with its high anti-inflammatory and expectorant properties selenium particles are synthesised. Selenium particles are used as nutritional supplements and an anti-microbial coating. Selenium (Se) was found to have anti-inflammatory properties, but its bioavailability and toxicity are limiting factors considerably.

Aim: To find the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of Boerhavia diffusa mediated selenium nanoparticles

Materials and Methods: 1 gm of Boerhaavia diffusawas added to 100 ml of distilled water and allowed to boil for 10-15 minutes at 70 degree celsius and filtered. 60 ml of 20 milli molar sodium selenite is prepared in 250 ml of conical flask, 40 ml of filtered plant extract was mixed to it. The synthesized nanoparticle was preliminarily analysed using UV visible spectroscopy. Prior to the final step the nanoparticle solution was centrifuged at 8000 rpm to prepare nanoparticle pellet powder, it was dried in a hot air oven at 80 degree celsius. The dried powder was sent for characterisation. The leftover nanoparticle solution extract was sent to evaluate antioxidant activity through DPPH assay and anti-inflammatory activity through albumin denaturation assay.

Results: Selenium nanoparticles were achieved from boerhavia diffusa plant extract, which was evident with its significant colour change in the cultivation medium. The final centrifuge was found to have potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities.

Conclusion: The selenium nanoparticles synthesized from leaf extract of Boerhaavia diffusa were evaluated for antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. This study concludes that extract bound selenium nanoparticles had potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. Therefore selenium nanoparticles may provide a great implication in the later studies for its potential activity.

Open Access Original Research Article

In-vitro Antioxidant and Antidiabetic Properties of Corchorus olitorius Leaves and Seed Ethanol Extract

. Britina, G. Sridevi, J. Selvaraj

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 364-372
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i64A35719

Background: Medicinal herbs have been widely used in therapeutic applications for various diseases in today’s world. These herbs are used by village folk medicine, but without scientific evidence.  Corchorus olitorius, also known as jute mallow is a herb that possesses many curing effects like pain, fever and many other diseases like cystitis and tumour etc.

Objective: The objective of the study was to elucidate the effects of corchorus olitorius as antioxidant and antidiabetic.

Materials and Methods: In Vitro Evaluation of antidiabetic and antioxidant properties were conducted using various tests. Alpha - amylase inhibitory activity and  alpha glucosidase inhibitory activity for antidiabetic activity and DPPH free radical scavenging assay for antioxidant property was performed. The results were compared with standard metformin and aspirin respectively.

Results: Results showed a dose dependent increase in alpha amylase inhibitory activity with concentration ranging from 100-500 micro/ml.

Results showed a dose dependent increase in alpha glucosidase inhibitory activity with concentration ranging from 100-500 micro/ml.

Results showed a dose dependent increase in DPPH free radical scavenging activity with concentration ranging from 100-500 micro/ml.

Conclusion: The results showed an innovative finding that ethanolic seed extract of corchorus olitorius has great potential as antidiabetic and antioxidant property which can be used as novel innovative natural medication in the medical field rather than using any artificial synthetic drug which causes many other side-effects like allopathic drugs.

Open Access Original Research Article

To Study Abo Blood Group Correlation with Pain Pressure Threshold and Tolerance, Core Stability in Young Healthy Individuals

Tanvi Agarwal, Deepak Raghav, Amit Dwivedi

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 351-357
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i64A35714

Background: The term “blood type” refers to the antigen phenotype, which is the serologic expression of the inherited blood group genes, such as A, B, and O in the ABO system.

Physical fitness as an important factor in assessing a person's physical health and motor ability consists of various components such as core endurance and strength. Pain pressure threshold is determined as the duration of time between the subject’s first reported pain and exposure to the painful stimulus or the minimum force applied to induce pain.

Methodology: Healthy male and female volunteers within the age range of 18–25 years were recruited for this co-relational study based on inclusion and exclusion criteria. The study consisted of one experimental session in which a questionnaire was filled out, a blood type test was performed, and two rounds of pressure pain thresholds (PPTs) over the core muscles i.e. over Rectus Abdominis, Transverse Abdominis, Multifidus and Erector Spinae were obtained separated by a cold pressor test (CPT). The session lasted 30 min. The study was approved by the ethical committee of Santosh University, Ghaziabad and conducted within the timeline of May-august 2021 at the Department of physiotherapy, Santosh hospital, Ghaziabad, U.P. T- test, Anova and Karl Pearson correlation method were used to analyze the data.

Results: Result showed that both core stability and pain tolerance had significant difference and association among different blood groups (p>0.05). Also blood group O had the least mechanical sensitivity as it had the highest pain tolerance ( mean ± SD= 56.48 ± 37.39) after CPT test. Also B+ has the good core stability as compared with means (mean ± SD= 48.50 ± 27.44) of other blood groups.

Conclusion: Study concluded that there was significance association among different ABO blood groups and pain tolerance in healthy young Indian individuals which showed evidence that blood groups can be incorporated in physical therapy assessment and management.  

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy of IOTA - ADNEX Model in Detecting the Risk of Malignancy in Ovarian Carcinomas

Cherukuri Srinidhi, Shubhada S. Jajoo

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 373-380
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i64A35721

Background: Ovarian cancer has become a major public health issue which stood in 10th rank of mortality within India. 2.4 % is the annual new cases of ovarian cancer in overall India. In 2008 it was the seventh leading cause of cancer deaths in women worldwide. 70% of cases are diagnosed with poor prognosis at an advanced stage. Ovarian malignancy death rate is of 70% within 2 yrs and 90% within five years. It’s a tough task for a gynecologist to identify ovarian cancer correctly .Ovarian malignancy is initially detected as adnexal mass. Exploratory laparotomy or laparoscopy with histopathology is a specific diagnostic procedure for adnexal mass. This study aims to study and analyse the diagnostic accuracy of IOTA - ADNEX model in detecting the risk of malignancy in ovarian carcinomas.

Objectives: To make pre-operative diagnosis of adnexal masses and conserve the in menstruating women with less aggressive management.

Methodology: This prospective study will be conducted in Obstetrics & Gynaecology department of AVBRH, Wardha from September 2020 to July 2022. This will be conducted on 50 females presenting with adnexal mass. Patients will undergo transvaginal ultrasonography with HERA W10 ultra sound system with an endovaginal EA2-11B probe. The ultra sound evaluation we will include IOTA –ADNEX Model. The mass with the most complex structure will be chosen for analysis for ultrasound imaging to know the chances of being malignant.

Expected Results: Positive correlation between the IOTA –ADNEX model and histopathological report.

Conclusion: IOTA-ADNEX model to be incorporated for ovarian malignancy diagnostic protocol.

Open Access Original Research Article

Correlation of Diet Regimen in Manifestation of Skin Diseases: A Survey

Shivani Kapurkar, Pooja Ghumde, Sonali Chalakh

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 381-393
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i64A35752

Background: Ahara plays main role in the life of every individual. Dietary regimen as always been placed first while discussing the causes for skin diseases. The normal integrity and the immunological role of skin is maintained by nutritional, biochemical and metabolic aspects of diet. Maintaining dietary lifestyle strictly prevents not only skin diseases but also various systemic diseases. So to assess the type of diet and dietary regime in the patient of skin diseases this study has been evaluated.

Aim: Assessing rule of diet-daily regimen in skin diseases of modern era with Ayurveda perspective.

Methods: 100 Patients visiting Kayachikitsa OPD within the duration of 6 months.

Results: It is observed that Aharja hetu and skin diseases are interlinked with each other which disturb psychological health, which ultimately gets affected to sleep pattern. The same subjective we came through while drawing the resultants of the present survey study, in certain aspect that, Mixed diet (70%), Oily and Spicy food (43%), Curd (42%), Tila taila (41%), Madhur (20%), Tea (28%), Snehadravya and Ushnadravya sevan (17%), Ksudha- Bad (38%).

Conclusion: Aharaj hetu are responsible for skin disease due, to habituation with various food entities, leading to rasa raktadi dhatu dushti & its precursor dhatu as  well , also it should  be taken in consideration that, dhatu are been vitiated by dushit avastha of dosha, which ultimately causes of skin disease. 

Open Access Original Research Article

The Effects of Isokinetic and Functional Training on Strength and Ability to Perform Daily Activities in Knee Osteoarthritis Patients

Shenbaga Sundaram Subramanian, Oleksandr Krasilshchikov, P. Senthil, Riziq Allah Mustafa Gaowgeh, Saad S. Alfawaz, Ziyad Neamatallah

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 394-402
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i64A35753

Introduction: Despite the well-known fact that exercises are the effective treatment in OA, exact modalities, amount and types of exercise that would be beneficial and not destructive to the affected joint are unknown and most effective types and combinations of exercise and the amount of those are still unclear. Study objectives included assessing the effects of Isokinetic Training (IT) and Functional Task Training (FT) on the peak torque at various angular velocities, pain, ability to perform daily activities and basic functional mobility in osteoarthritis patients.

Materials and Methods: Eligible 48 patients (considering possible dropouts) who fulfilled the criteria were selected and randomly assigned to isokinetic training (IT) functional training (FT) and control with no exercise (CG) groups to participate in an intervention program involving baseline, mid- (6 weeks) and post- intervention (12 weeks) assessment through isokinetic testing to assess patient’s quadriceps peak torque at 90°/s, 120°/s and 180°/s angular velocities; WOMAC physical function questionnaire to assess patient’s pain, stiffness and ability to perform daily activities; timed up and go test (TUG) to assess subjects’ basic functional mobility.

Results: Both training modalities improved patient’s strength, pain, and ability to perform daily activities and basic functional mobility with significant improvements at mid- and post-tests as compared to controls. FT group has equaled IT group in strength gains at every tested angular velocity, FT group was significantly superior in physical function.

Conclusion: Both interventions brought significant improvements in studied variables with FT group emerging superior in physical function domain.

Open Access Original Research Article

Red Tea Mediated Synthesis and Characterisation of Copper Nanoparticles

K. Akshaya, Arvina Rajasekar, S. Rajeshkumar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 434-443
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i64A35759

Background: The synthesis of metallic nanoparticles is a lively area of education and, more importantly, “application research” in nanotechnology. A wide range of chemical and physical procedures might be used for synthesis of metallic nanoparticles. However, these methods are swarming with many problems including use of toxic solvents, generation of hazardous by-products, and high energy consumption. Accordingly, there's a vital need to develop environmentally benign procedures for synthesis of metallic nanoparticles. A promising approach to realize this objective is to take advantage of the wide array of biological resources in nature. Indeed, over the past several years, plants, algae, fungi, bacteria, and viruses have been used for production of low-cost, energy-efficient, and nontoxic metallic nanoparticles.

Aim: The aim of the current study was to synthesise and characterize the copper Nanoparticles mediated with red tea.

Materials and Methods: ​The green synthesis of the copper Nanoparticles was done using red tea. Morphological characters like the shape and size of the obtained copper nanoparticles were done by transmission electron microscopy (TEM).

Results: The results confirmed that the synthesised red tea mediated nanoparticles are eco-friendly, good and non toxic. TEM images showed that the copper nanoparticles were well dispersed, crystalline in nature. Copper nanoparticles are spherical in nature. The particles size was ranging from 40 to 90 nm, The TEM image shows that nanoparticles are not combined but are separated by equal interspace between the particles, which was confirmed by microscopy visualising under the higher resolution.

Conclusion: ​In this study, a simple, biological and low-cost approach was done for the preparation of copper nanoparticles using red tea extract. Thus the green synthesized copper nanoparticles can be subjected to the various other biological activities to test their biological efficiency and can be a pioneering step towards the shift to eco friendly medicine.

Open Access Original Research Article

Incidence of Traumatic Ulcer among the Patients Visiting Private Dental Hospital- Retrospective Study

V. T. Thamarai Selvi, Pratibha Ramani

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 444-454
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i64A35786

Introduction: Oral mucosal ulcers are one of the most common types of ulcer of which Traumatic ulcers are common and acute in nature, caused by some form of trauma to the mucous membrane in the oral cavity. It is most commonly seen in the Buccal Mucosa, Lips, and occasionally in the Palate and Lateral border of tongue. It is caused by physical, chemical or thermal trauma resulting in damage and ulcer formation.

Materials and Methods: The data for the present study n = 345 patients was collected by analysing case sheets of patients who visited Saveetha Dental College from June 2019- February 2021.  The  collected  data was  subjected  to  statistical analysis  using  the  SPSS  software  by  IBM  of  version  23.

Results: From the results of the study, Traumatic Ulcer has Male predilection with incidence rate of 62.2% compared to females with incidence of 37.7%. Most of them were in the age group of 21-30 years age group  (34.5%) and least  in the 71-85 years age group  (2.9%). Traumatic ulcer was most  common  in the Alveolar mucosa  (32.2% )

Conclusion: From the present study it can be concluded that Traumatic ulcer is more common in Males. However, Gender, Age, Oral Hygiene, Usage of Tobacco products were not significantly influencing the rate of incidence of Traumatic Ulcer.

Open Access Original Research Article

Extraction, Phytochemical Screening and Antioxidant Potential of Ethanolic Extract of Drypetes roxburghii

Jowar Arvind, Jain Kumar Amit, Jain Kumar Sarang

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 358-363
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i64A35793

Humans are affected by free radicals in over a hundred different ways. Synthetic antioxidants have been linked to harmful health consequences, prompting substantial investigation into naturally occurring antioxidants, particularly those found in plants. The goal of this study was to determine the phytochemical components and in vitro antioxidant activity of Drypetes roxburghii (D. roxburghii, Euphorbiaceae) leaves collected in the Bhopal district of Madhya Pradesh. The 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH) test was used to measure antioxidant activity. The presence of cardiac glycosides, flavonoids, phenol, proteins, carbohydrate, and saponins in the ethanolic extracts of D. roxburghii leaves was discovered using phytochemical screening. The ethanolic and aqueous extracts of D. roxburghii leaves yielded 1.9 and 2.6 percent w/w, respectively. The ethanolic extract of D. roxburghii leaves contained 1.48 and 0.70 mg/100 mg of total phenolic and flavonoids, respectively. When comparing the DPPH scavenging activity of leaf ethanolic extract to Ascorbic acid (standard), the IC50 value was 87.80. It suggests that the plant has the ability to scavenge free radicals, and it might lead to new discoveries in the continuing hunt for natural antioxidants in medicinal plants that can be utilised to treat illnesses caused by free radical reactions.

Open Access Original Research Article

Demographic Profiling of Patients with Leukoplakia Visiting a Dental Hospital in Chennai, India - An Institutional Study

Saishree Anchana Rajeswaran, Pratibha Ramani

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 471-479
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i64A35794

Introduction: Oral potentially malignant disorders (OPMDs) are a group of conditions that predispose to the development of oral cancers. A few of the commonly recurring OPMDs include leukoplakia, oral submucous fibrosis, Smokers’ palate, and oral lichen planus. Leukoplakia is more common in specific populations, attributed to their habits and environmental circumstances. Hence, early diagnosis with biopsies on suspecting these lesions during regular oral health check-up ensures timely referral and addressal of the disorder. The present study aims to demographically profile patients with Leukoplakia visiting a private dental hospital in Chennai.

Aim: To demographically profile patients diagnosed with Leukoplakia, visiting a dental hospital in Chennai, a major city in the state of Tamil Nadu, India.

Materials and Methods: From the patients visiting the private dental hospital, those clinically diagnosed with Leukoplakia were considered in the inclusion criteria. Exclusion criteria involved those with poor maintenance of records and lack of follow-up of uncooperative patients. The sample size was n=100. The gender, age and locality of residence were considered and tabulated, followed by their statistical analysis using SPSS software version 22.0. 

Results: From the results of the current study, it was observed that there was a greater male predilection to the occurrence of Leukoplakia (99%) compared to females (1%). A greater number of cases were seen in the age group of 41-50 years (34%), while the least number of cases were seen in patients of 21-30 years (7%). Among the cases reported, most patients were from Thiruvallur (40%), Chennai district (30%) followed by Kancheepuram district (17%) in Tamilnadu .

Conclusion: From the study, it can be concluded that Leukoplakia is more prevalent among the middle aged male population and was found to be predominantly occurring in the regions of Thiruvallur and Chennai districts in Chennai, Tamil Nadu.

Open Access Original Research Article

Bioanalytical Method Development and Validation for the Estimation of Saxagliptin in Marketed Tablet Formulation

Prabhat Kumar Jain, C. K. Tyagi, Richa Dayaramani

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 559-565
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i64A36100

The concepts, importance and application of bioanalytical method development have been discussed for a long time and validation of bioanalytical methods is widely accepted as pivotal before they are taken into routine use. Now it is widely accepted that bioanalysis is an integral part of the clinical diagnosis, biomarker discovery, pharmacokinetic/ pharmacodynamic characterization of a novel chemical entity from the time of its discovery and during various stages of drug development, leading to its market authorization. Bioanalytical methods, based on a variety of physico-chemical and biological techniques such as chromatography, immunoassay and mass spectrometry, must be validated prior to and during use to give confidence in the results generated. This study describes the development of an innovative, rapid, precise, selective and sensitive reverse phase high-performance liquid chromatography method for the quantitative determination of Saxagliptin (SAXA) in human plasma and pharmaceutical dosage form. Extraction of drug from plasma was done by employing optimized liquid-liquid extraction procedure. The sample was analyzed using methanol: acetonitrile in the ratio of 50:50v/v as mobile phase. Chromatographic separation was achieved on Thermo C18 analytical column (250mm×4.6mm i.d., 5.0μm) as stationary phase using isocratic elution (at a flow rate of 1 ml/min). The peak was detected using UV-PDA detector set at 230 nm and the total time for a chromatographic separation was 20 min. The calibration curve obtained was linear (r2 = 0.999) over the concentration range of 5-25μg/ml for SAXA.  Method was validated for precision, robustness and recovery.

Open Access Original Research Article

Extraction and Evaluation of Musa paradisiaca Stem Mucilage as a Pharmaceutical Excipient

R. Lakshmi Rajyam, M. Keerthana, D. V. Sowmya, M. Vidyavathi

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 566-580
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i64A36133

Aim: In present Pharmaceutical trend, natural excipients are gaining more importance because of their availability, safety, performance, and cost. The present work aimed at extraction of the mucilage from the stem of Musa paradisiaca (banana) and evaluation of extracted mucilage for its binding and disintegrating properties with Paracetamol as a model drug.

Methodology: The mucilage was extracted by aqueous extraction method followed by precipitation and evaluated for various physico-chemical properties. Drug-mucilage compatibility studies were conducted by FT-IR spectrometer. The extracted mucilage in three different concentrations was used to prepare 2 different sets of tablets for evaluation of its binding as well as disintegrating properties. Binding properties and disintegrating properties of the mucilage were compared with starch as standard binder and microcrystalline cellulose as standard disintegrant for the first and second set of tablets respectively. Wet granulation method was used to prepare total eight batches of 1 gm tablets of Paracetamol. Pre compression and post compression parameters of tablets were evaluated. Then the similarity factor for both (binding and disintegration test) were calculated by comparing test and standard tablets in each set.

Results and Discussion: The results of the work shown that the mucilage extracted from the Musa paradisiaca stem (MPS) has similar binding properties as of starch and release retarding effect at increased concentration as disintegrating time was increased when compared to microcrystalline cellulose.

Conclusion: Thus, the mucilage can be used as a better binding agent in the tablet formulation and its high disintegrating time can be explored for its slow release or extended release effect.

Open Access Original Research Article

Phytochemical Investigation and Antidiabetic Activity of Herbal Formulation of Ougeinia oojeinensis Plant Extracts

Dhananjay Rai, Vishal Soni

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 581-590
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i64A36179

The goal of this study was to assess the antidiabetic potential of produced herbal formulations of Ougeinia oojeinensis plant extracts. The results show that phospholipids complex-based drug delivery systems have a lot of promise for increasing the in-vivo antidiabetic activity of plant extracts. The phospholipids complex has a relationship with different physicochemical properties such as size and entrapment effectiveness. In compared to hydroalcoholic extract (200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg), an improved phospholipids complex formulation can provide a substantial antidiabetic effect at a lower dose (100 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg). At a lower dosage than the hydroalcoholic extract, the extracts improved lipid profile and body weight. As a result, the dosage efficacy ratio was enhanced by using phospholipids complex formulation. The histological alterations of the pancreas and kidney in streptozotocin-nicotinamide caused diabetes were also prevented by an optimised phospholipids complex formulation of Ougeinia oojeinensis extract. As a result, the current investigation found that Ougeinia oojeinensis extract might be beneficial in the treatment of type 1 and type 2 diabetes with aberrant lipid profiles.

Open Access Original Research Article

Study of Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Screening of Amaranthus spinosus and Achyranthes aspera Leaves Extracts

Rishikesh Sharma, Gurdeep Singh

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 591-597
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i64A36180

The current study aims to evaluate the physiochemical, phytochemical, and antioxidant properties of Achyranthes aspera and Amaranthus spinosus leaf extracts using a water and methanol solvent system.In India, these plants play an important role in primary healthcare as therapeutic remedies. Traditional healers claim that addition of Achyranthes aspera would enhance the efficacy of any drug of plant origin. The antimicrobial activity of the prepared extracts was determined by using disc diffusion method. Both plants had a rich amount of valuable ingredients that are beneficial for health the physiochemical and phytochemical parameters and this can be useful to identify the drug and to establish its quality and purity.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Non-HDL-C and Calculated Lipid Profile Ratios among Pre-Diabetic Individuals

Jainulavudeen Mohamed Rabeek, V.S. Kalai Selvi, Chaganti Sridevi

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 598-602
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i64A36196

Introduction: The worldwide prevalence of diabetes mellitus is rapidly increasing. The major concern is the complexity and mortality that are secondary to the complications of diabetes mellitus. One among the complications is dyslipidaemia which leads to atherosclerotic diseases. Pre-diabetes is a mid-state between non-diabetes and diabetes mellitus. They have a greater chance of progressing into the disease. Dyslipidaemia, a major aetiological factor for atherosclerosis, is also noted in pre-diabetic stage, report studies. This study was a cross-sectional study involving 26 non-diabetic controls, 26 prediabetic and 26 diabetic cases. The participants were of 18-45 years of age. The data was collected over a period of three months. The groups were classified based on their HbA1c concentration. The blood samples were analysed for fasting lipid profile and the parameters, Non-HDL-C, TC/HDL-C and LDL-C/HDL-C obtained by using respective methods. The obtained lipid profile parameters, Non-HDL-C, TC/HDL-Cand LDL-C/HDL-C were found to be increased in pre-diabetic subjects and diabetic subjects when compared to the healthy non-diabetic controls. The parameters also showed a positive correlation and was statistically highly significant among the three groups. There was a positive association observed among the groups for the calculated lipid profile parameters, Non-HDL-C, TC/HDL-C and LDL-C/HDL-C and were found to be directly proportional  to  HbA1c.

Open Access Review Article

Role of Tocilizumab in Fighting COVID 19

Anuttam Arijit Pani, Abhishek Joshi

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 137-144
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i64A35312

Background: Tocilizumab is the repurposed drug used in the severely ill COVID-19 patients. A lot of traction has gain over the drug but more studies are awaited to ensure the efficacy of the drug with proper backing from empirical data. Tocilizumab, a drug which is used in treatment of rheumatoid arthritis suddenly came into limelight when it got listed as drugs used for the treatment of COVID-19 patients. As earlier discussed, many existing drugs which were already in use for treating other ailments were being tested if they are suitable to treat COVID-19 disease. Tocilizumab have the anti-inflammatory properties which were in particular were useful in COVID-19 which creates an inflammation all across the organs.

Summary: COVID-19 is the novel disease outbreak later progressed into deadly pandemic has presented the huge challenge to contain it clinically as no drug was available prior the outbreak of the disease. Vast amount of drugs can be used to at least suppress the viral spread which was found to be true. Although it was not hundred percent foolproof but it was an emergency situation and various drugs were used according to local ground conditions and patients response to the drug along with age and severity of the illness. Tocilizumab was one such drug which was repurposed for the treatment of COVID-19 patients. Many drugs such as Hydroxycholoroquine (HCQ), Tocilizumab were repurposed from their existing use. Tocilizumab is currently used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. Various studies have shown the efficacy of the drug among the severely ill COVID-19 patients which ranges up to 66 percent. In certain cases worsening of the existing medical condition has been observed.

Conclusion: Vaccine nationalism must be set aside and low and middle income countries where most of the population of the world resides, should be vaccinated as even one case can culminate into another disaster as was seen during highly contagious COVID-19. More empirical data is needed from across the globe to ensure the assessment of the efficacy of the drug. Also certain cases of shortage of the said drug for non-COVID-19 purpose also looked into seriously has it can create a parallel disaster.

Open Access Review Article

Using Blockchain Integration Patterns to Ensure Data Integrity in the Health Care Industry

Kamal Gulati, Ankit Khare, B. Sumathy, Pradeep Mamgain, Snitser Anatoly Arnoldovich, Zakharyan Elena Arkadyevna

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 252-261
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i64A35364

Security is crucial in the healthcare industry. Between 2012 and 2019, almost 179 million health records were exposed to data breaches. The intruders got into homes and companies to take credit card and banking information, as well as health and genetic research data. Blockchain is a fantastic technology for applications in the area of protection because it can keep an incorruptible, decentralized, and open record of all patient data. It is, nevertheless, secure and keeps any person's identity hidden. When dealing with decentralized technology, patients, doctors, and hospital personnel may all share the same information. On a blockchain, the cost of verifying a single transaction is negligible. You can audit a single piece of data in real time, and it's entirely visible to everyone. As a result, costless verification is economically possible. Recent audits of healthcare data, for example, have necessitated the time-consuming and costly examination of tiny units of transactions. This procedure had to be interrupted and redone on a frequent basis prior to blockchains in order to comply with regulations. Compared to traditional healthcare information management solutions, blockchain provides five potential benefits. Blockchains are ideal for decentralized administration applications, such as when hospitals, consumers, and payers want to work together without the need for a middleman. The second advantage of blockchains is that they may offer immutable archives of sensitive data, which makes them ideal for static databases (e.g., insurance claim records). Blockchains are very useful for tracing the origins and histories of digital artifacts (e.g., patient consent in clinical trials). According to cryptographic protocols, changing the ownership of an item can only be done by the person who owns it. Furthermore, the attributes' origins may be traced, making previously confirmed evidence considerably more reusable. The fourth advantage of blockchains is that they ensure the longevity, consistency, and accessibility of records. As a result, they're perfect for long-term records storage and availability (e.g., the electronic health records of patients). Patients' personal keys encrypt the data, which is only accessible with their consent, making it safer and more private. There is no method to access personal information even if the network is hacked by a hostile entity.

Open Access Review Article

Transfusion Triggers in Cardiac Surgery Patients – A Retrospective Review

I. Sureshkumar, A. Hariharan, N. V. Hemamalini, Vinod Kumar Panicker

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 268-272
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i64A35366

Aim: To determine the transfusion trigger for cardiac surgery patients and to determine the transfusion pattern in these patients.

Study Design: A retrospective cross sectional observational study.

Place and Duration of Study: This study was conducted in Department of Transfusion Medicine, SMCH, Chennai, between the periods of 2017-2020.

Methodology: This study was done by reviewing the blood bank records for patients undergoing cardiac surgery from 2017 to 2020. Patients with other comorbid conditions like cirrhosis, malignancy, those who underwent emergency surgeries and death during the surgery were excluded from the study. Patient data like age, diagnosis, number of components transfused, preoperative hemoglobin, and details of surgery done on the respective patients were reviewed from the blood bank records.

Results: A total of 100 patients were included in the study. Mean age of the patients was 53.3 ± 13.6 years. In our sample population 73% of patients underwent CABG procedure and they received packed red blood cell transfusions. Among the PRBC transfusions 93% of patients received liberal transfusions and 7% of patients received restrictive transfusions. Majority of patients in our study population about 58% belong to 45-64 years of age group.

Conclusion: We found that most of the transfusions done in cardiac surgery patients were done on liberal transfusion strategy. Thus, we conclude in our study most of the transfusions done on cardiac surgery patients followed liberal transfusion strategy, which would be less harmful to the patients.

Open Access Review Article

Purple Tea, a Rich source of anthocyanin and polyphenol: A Review

Anik Chakrabarty, Abhishek katoch, Pooja Katoch

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 403-414
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i64A35754

Tea (Camellia sinensis) is a famous drink after water which is burned-through everywhere on the world because of its medical advantages. Anthocyanin-rich purple tea shoots (PL) has higher measure of polyphenol, when contrasted with standard green leaf shoot (GL). Likewise tea items produced using PL have more significant levels of catechin profile, and cell reinforcement exercises than that of GL. Notwithstanding, purple tea has a less measure of caffeine content and a high measure of anthocyanin which is useful in human wellbeing. Fundamentally anthocyanins are polyphenol. In-plant, anthocyanins accept a critical part in augmentation, seed dissipating, getting against abiotic and biotic pressing factor. Epidemiological examinations show that every day imtake of purple tea lessens the danger of cardiovascular sickness, neurological issues, and malignant growth moreover. As a result of higher measure of anthocyanin and polyphenol, purple tea displays more cell reinforcement, militating against stoutness, hostile to microbial, hostile to hyperglycemic properties as contrast with GL. In the central tangible framework, anthocyanin and cyaniding-3-O-glucoside (C3G) show insurance just as therapeutic properties against various genuine afflictions like Parkinson's, Alzheimer's disease, etc. Hindrance of neuroinflammation and oxidative pressing factor are two guideline pathways by which anthocyanin and C3G make guarded or possibly healing effects in CNS issue. In this study, we summarize various properties of purple tea and give an audit of the piece of purple tea, concerning polyphenols and anthocyanin in the evasion of cardiovascular ailment, harmful development, and central tangible framework (CNS) tangle prevalently Alzheimer's ailment and Parkinson's infection.

Open Access Review Article

Overview on Dental Veneer Placement

Ashwag Siddik Noorsaeed, Mohammed Abdulaziz Matrood, Mohammed Salem Almutairi, Abdulrahman Nasser Alqarni, Khalid Jamal Alothman, Adeeb Hashem Alshareef, Sama Masad Almutairi, Majed Ayman Alhejazi, Khalid Abdullah Alshehri

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 494-501
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i64A35812

Cosmetic dentistry aims to improve the appearance of teeth while causing as little damage as possible. The restoration of the smile is one of the most common treatments performed by dentists. Repairing damaged, deformed, or crooked teeth can improve one's beauty significantly, boosting one's self-esteem, attitude, and social interactions. Veneers are considered one of the most conservative surgical treatment approaches since they only remove around half of the enamel thickness before veneer placement, leaving the remaining portion undisturbed. Bonded laminate veneer repairs have been demonstrated to produce good results for up to ten years in numerous clinical investigations. Regular dental veneer materials had a number of drawbacks, including the necessity for materials to be overly thick to mask any discoloration, difficulties in polishing, which can result in scratching of the opposing dentition, and the ability to stain.

Open Access Review Article

Overview on Steps of Complete Dentures: A Review

Ashwag Siddik Noorsaeed, Abdulaziz Abdullah Mohammed Aydh, Rakan Faraj Alotaibi, Saud Saad Alradadi, Abdulaziz Sayer Alboqami, Ali Ahmed Hamad Hakami, Naif Sulaiman N. Alkathery, Bashaer Sha’ban Hamadeh Alshoubaki

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 502-510
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i64A35813

Total edentulism is a serious public health issue, particularly among the aged people.  Edentulism has a detrimental impact on various elements of a patient's everyday life, including masticatory function, phonetics, and facial structure, with significant psychosocial implications. For those patients, complete dentures remain the first option. Despite the fact that age-specific rates of edentulism are expected to decline, demand for complete dentures will continue to rise in the next decades. Patients with new complete dentures who are edentulous are fairly pleased, however up to 30% of them have issues. They continue to struggle with issues such as unattractive appearance, ripping pain or discomfort owing to the failure of holding and stabilization, impaired articulation, food deposition under the denture, and trouble with chewing. These types of issues can lower one's quality of life and force him to seek additional help to resolve them. In some circumstances, a specific clinical technique known as rebasing is recommended as a solution to these issues.

Open Access Review Article

Health Consequences of Obesity: A Review

Najlaa Mohammad Alsudairy, Wafa Hamad M. Alameer, Ohoud Ali A. Alattas, Marwan Abdulmalik Modkel Altalhi, Ahmad Mohammed A. Alghraibi, Elaf Abdulkader Kanoori, Abdulrahman Khulaif Alharbi, Lujain Mohamed Yumen, Rawan Mohammed M. Altowairqi, Saleh Ali Alghamdi, Osama Hassan Alqahtani, Ayman Mohamed Omar, Anas Mohammad Alzuwayed, Abdullah Mohammed A. Bajebair

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 511-521
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i64A35819

Obesity is a global epidemic that threatens to deplete health-care resources by increasing the prevalence of diabetes, heart disease, hypertension, and cancer. Obesity is the leading preventable cause of death worldwide, affecting both adults and children. Obesity has two effects: an increase in the bulk of adipose tissue and an increase in pathogenetic product release by larger fat cells. This view of obesity as a disease allows for a straightforward distinction between the negative effects of obesity caused by fat bulk and those caused by fat cell metabolic effects. Obesity stigma causes social difficulties, sleep apnea is caused in part by increased parapharyngeal fat deposits, and osteoarthritis is caused by the wear and tear on joints caused by carrying an enlarged quantity of fat fall under the first category. A wide range of policy issues could have an impact on food ecosystems. Fiscal food policies, obligatory nutrition panels on the formulation and reformulation of manufactured foods, food and nutrition labelling implementation, and limiting marketing and advertising prohibitions on unhealthy foods are among these topics. In this review, we overview current evidences on health consequences of obesity.

Open Access Review Article

Mental Health Disorders during COVID-19 Pandemic: A Review

Varun Tiwari, Riddhi Lele, Aanchal Sharma, Shashank Banait

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 522-528
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i64A35913

India prides upon its youth, but its youth is being tarnished by mental health ailments which are significant shareholders of India’s non-fatal diseases. It is a significant primary reason for increasing substance abuse, suicide, and violence among Indian youth. If one person is suffering from depression or any other mental ailments, then the patient's family, friends, and work colleagues are all affected by it indirectly or directly; these ailments affect a person’s capability to judge a situation and his capability. It is an invisible illness but clearly visible among youth, yet still stigmatized so much that people often fear coming forward and getting help. Fortunately, some stigmas have been reduced, but there are miles to go before people are as comfortable seeking help in other diseases. Mental illness is still treated as either untouchability or a reason to justify one's action. To overcome this problem, we need to educate the population from an early age to create a safe environment to come out and report mental illness so that the treatment and counseling can start as soon as possible to save those who are being pushed into the depths of darkness and instability. But to address this problem ultimately, we will also need competent psychologists and psychiatrists. The psychiatrist to patient ratio is currently 0.75 psychiatrists for 100,000 patients, and the optimum is above three psychiatrists for 100,000 patients. According to experts, the current pandemic will increase mental instability amongst the population leading to higher substance abuse, suicide, etc.

Open Access Review Article

Choriocarcinoma: A Review

Gunjan Pandey, Neema Acharya, Ashish Bhatt

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 529-537
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i64A35914

Here in his article, we will learn about choriocarcinoma, a highly malignant tumor arising from the chorionic epithelium. Among 3-5% of all patients with molar pregnancies develop choriocarcinoma. All the types of choriocarcinomas and their defining features are discussed below in a view to you to understand better the basic pathogenesis, histology, etiological factors involved.  The patient may present with persistent ill-health, irregular vaginal bleeding, continued amenorrhea, and when it is metastasized, it forms lesions which present in the lung as cough, breathlessness, hemoptysis whereas in the vagina as irregular and at times as brisk hemorrhage. It can also have lesions in the cerebral region presenting as headache, convulsions, paralysis. Signs include pallor of varying degrees, and in all, the patient looks ill. Various investigations necessary to identify this disease are chest x-ray, pelvic sonography, diagnostic uterine curettage, etc. also, excisional biopsy, the ratio of HCG levels, CT scan, ultrasonography, chest X-ray can also be done. We also talked about staging in the forthcoming article for gestational trophoblastic tumors. Management of the same has also been discussed below to treat the disease better and cure many patients. It can be preventive as well as curative.   Here we have talked about treatment modalities for low-risk and high-risk patients. Also, add treatment for those resistant to the drugs used for low-risk and high-risk patients. Finally, prophylactic chemotherapy and follow-ups are given.

Open Access Review Article

Myths and Facts about COVID-19 and Vaccination

Shaina Dutta, Pankaj Wagh, Adarshlata Singh, Arjun Heda

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 543-548
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i64A35916

A year ago, in the year 2020, the entire globe was seized by a minuscule particle known as the CORONA VIRUS. The Coronavirus, which originated in Wuhan, China, has now spread to every corner of the world, some more than others. There has been a lot of worry and fear about this disease all around the world. There are several misunderstandings and questions about this condition, and individuals are prone to believing everything they hear in the media without verifying it. COVID19, or Corona Virus Disease of 2019, is a one-of-a-kind virus that has wreaked havoc over the world and has become one of humanity's greatest threats. All the misconceptions and confusion and beliefs have led to more damage.

Coronaviruses are a kind of virus that causes sickness in animals such as humans and birds. Infections of the respiratory system caused by coronaviruses have a wide range and can vary from person to person from no to mild infection which sometimes can be fatal, particularly in humans. Some cases of rhinorrhoea (which can be can be due to other viruses, particularly rhinoviruses) are not life-threatening, but more fatal strains can cause SARS, MERS, and COVID-19. In other species, the symptoms are different.

There are presently no drugs available to prevent or treat human infections. Even though vaccination trials have begun and individuals are being immunized all over the world. Coronaviruses are members of the Coronaviridae family, the order Nidovirale: s, and the Orthocoronavirinae subfamily of the realm Riboviria. The World Health Organization (WHO) proclaimed the COVID-19 outbreak to be a pandemic in March 2020.

Many instances of pneumonia with an unknown underlying cause have been reported in Wuhan, Hubei Province, China, since December 8, 2019. The great majority of the patients were either employees or residents of the Huanan wholesale fish market, which also sold other live animals. Severe acute respiratory infection symptoms appeared early in the course of this pneumonia, with some patients suffering from acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), abrupt respiratory failure, and other devastating consequences.

On January 7, the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) discovered a new coronavirus from a patient's throat swab sample, which the World Health Organization later called 2019 nCoV (WHO). This article includes various myths and their explanation about COVID vaccination. However, it has been observed that COVID-19 vaccination is completely safe.