Open Access Case Report

Pertrochanteric Fracture Neck of the Femur Presenting as Avascular Necrosis with Gait Abnormality - A Case Report

Vineesha Agrawal, Pratik Phansopkar, Neha Chitale

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 21-27
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i63A35208

The pertrochanteric femoral fracture is a highly common kind of femoral fracture. It is generally the consequence of a fall. A high-energy mechanism, such as a motor vehicle accident, is more likely to cause Pertrochanteric fractures in 16-30 year age group people. A 45year old man had a history of a bike crash that resulted in a pertrochanteric fracture of the right hip 2 years back, for which he was operated. The patient right now came to the AVBRH with the complaint of right hip discomfort and edema after surgery and was referred for physiotherapy. Avascular necrosis of the femoral head is a pathological condition that occurs when the blood supply to the bone is cut off, and it is a common consequence of fractures, dislocations, and other injuries and especially occurs in adult post road traffic accidents.

Open Access Case Report

Carving the Niche for Implant Placement in Narrow Alveolar Ridges: A Case Report

Shruti Sai, Mahesh Ghadage, Sumit Bedia, Mridula Joshi, Hrishikesh Mahapatra, Aarti Bedia

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 206-211
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i63A35236

Insufficient width of the alveolar ridge often prevents ideal implant placement. Guided bone regeneration, bone grafting, alveolar ridge splitting and combinations of these techniques are used for the lateral augmentation of the alveolar ridge. Ridge splitting is a minimally invasive technique

indicated for alveolar ridges with adequate height, which enables immediate implant placement and eliminates morbidity and overall treatment time. The classical approach of the technique involves splitting the alveolar ridge into two parts with use of ostetomes and chisels. Modifications of this technique include the use of rotating instrument, screw spreaders, horizontal spreaders and ultrasonic device. The purpose of this article is to thoroughly describe all the different approaches in ridge splitting technique. Procedures in Dental implantology have witnessed significant advancement in the recent times. A plethora of options have opened these days owing to improved surgical techniques and wider criteria for patient selection. Ridge-expansion technique has gained immense popularity in patients with limited crestal bone width yielding improved outcomes. The procedure entails implant placement in narrow alveolar ridges following splitting and expanding the existing bone. This article illustrates this approach with a fascinating clinical case of insufficient mandibular alveolar ridge.

Open Access Systematic Review Article

Physiological Aspect of Raktamokshana – A Critical Review

Radha Andhare, Pradnya Dandekar, Yogita Shrivas, Nandkishor Bankar, Sachin Patil

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 107-112
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i63A35221

Raktamokshana refers to the letting of blood, which is used to treat a variety of diseases, particularly when there is raktadushti, as well as during physiological function. In Ayurveda surgery, the first complete rational, systematic description of raktamokshana for numerous ailments is stated. According to Acharya sushrut, a person who regularly takes bloodletting will not be impacted by ailments like as shopha (inflammation), twak dosha (skin problems), visarpa (erysipelas), granthi (tumour), and others. The primary goal of this research is to determine the most likely method of action and effect of raktamokshana.

A literary review is undertaken utilising electronic databases such as Pubmed, Google Scholar, IJAM, and Ayurveda classics such as Charaka Samhita, Sushruta Samhita, Ashtang Sangrah, and so on. The goal was to assess the effectiveness and implications of raktamokshana in treating pathological diseases and preserving physiological function. According to the study, both Ayurveda and current science explain that raktamokshana, or significant blood loss, activates / initiates a plethora of beneficial physiological mechanisms, making the body attentive and adaptive to deal with numerous systemic problems.

Open Access Systematic Review Article

A Review on the use of Midazolam as a Co-induction Agent

Ankita Nigam, Neeta Verma

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 359-366
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i63A35769

The practice of delivering a small amount of sedative or another anesthetic drug to lessen the dose of induction agent necessary has been known as co-induction. In other terms, employment of two or more medications to generate anaesthesia is referred to as co-induction of anaesthesia [1,2]. As a coinduction agent, various medications have been trailed out. We'll look at the drug midazolam, its pharmacology, and how successful it is as a coinduction agent in this article. Midazolam has been proven to minimize the amount of propofol required to produce anaesthesia by up to 50% without compromising the recovery profile when administered in this fashion [3,4]. We looked at the literature on the drug midazolam and coinduction agents that was available on different platforms such as PubMed, medline, Scopus, Web of Science, and Google Scholar. We looked at several articles about midazolam and coinduction agents, as well as articles where midazolam was utilized as a coinduction agent. Prior observational studies and case reports using midazolam as a coinduction agent were mentioned in this article. After studying about midazolam's pharmacology, usage, indications, contraindications, as well as past observational studies and case reports, The substance can be used as a coinduction agent and has a variety of purposes in anaesthesia.

Open Access Case Study

A Case Report on Hepatosplenomegaly and Cholelithiasis in a Case of Beta-thalassemia: Hb E Type

Amruta Kothe, Pragati Alnewar, Ruchira Ankar, Seema Singh

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 60-64
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i63A35214

Beta thalassemia is an inherited blood disorder in which the body does not produce enough haemoglobin. It is a relatively uncommon condition. The association with beta-thalassemia is uncommon. An enlarged spleen in a child with beta-thalassemia can be caused by increased red blood cell destruction, the formation of blood cells outside of the bone marrow, repeated blood transfusions, or iron overload. We report a rare case of 17 years old patient admitted with multiple blood transfusions and pneumococcal and meningococcal vaccination done on 8th November 2021 and last blood transfusion on 13th November 2021. The patient was admitted to AVBR Hospital Sawangi (M) Wardha with the chief complaint of abdominal pain that has been constantly exacerbated by movement as well as in resting period over 7 days with the clinical findings of the backache and joint pain. He was having a continuous blood transfusion in the last 7 months. After the diagnostic investigation like ultrasonography and computed tomography, the client was diagnosed with hepatosplenomegaly and cholelithiasis. The physician is treating the child with continuous blood transfusion and with iron chelating therapy which would be beneficial to reduce the iron load. The patient has been planned for splenectomy, which was the long-lasting treating strategy for his clinical presentation.

Open Access Case Study

A Rare Site of Presentation of B Cell Lymphoblastic Lymphoma

Jaistri Jaishankar, K. Senthilkumar, R. Anantharamakrishnan, . Megha

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 127-131
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i63A35224

Lymphoblastic lymphoma is seen accounting to about 2% of all the lymphomas and it is a neoplasm of precursor B cells. Lymphoblastic lymphoma is highly aggressive, but is now  frequently curable with recent therapy. Lymphoblastic lymphoma is associated with radiation exposure and also exposure to pesticide. The lymphoblasts infiltrate nodal or extranodal structures and is commonly associated with large mediastinal masses with a high chances for spreading to bone marrow and the central nervous system. The prognosis in all age groups has drastically improved with the use of intensive ALL-type chemotherapy regimes, with a disease-free survival of 73-90% in children and 45-72% in adults.

Open Access Case Study

Bilateral Hydrouteronephrosis Dilated Vur with Cystitis: A Case Study

Akash Dighade, Suhas Tivaskar, Anurag Luharia, Ravi Christian

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 260-266
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i63A35243

Background: Hydroureteronephrosis is a blockage to free flow of urine from the kidney causes hydroureteronephrosis, which causes dilation of the renal pelvis, calyces, and ureter, resulting in gradual atrophy of the renal cortex.Dilation of the ureter due to obstruction of urine outflow is called hydroureter”. Hydronephrosis produces a dull pain and discomfort in the lower abdomen due to increasing bladder distension. A continuous obstruction in the flow of urine can lead to high blood pressure, sepsis, urinary tract infection, hematuria, and renal failure.

Clinical Findings: Difficulty in passing urine since 2-3month, in situations of benign prostate enlargement, urinary frequency, a weak urine stream, and a sense of incomplete emptying, lack of appetite and fever (Temperature - 101˚F).

Diagnostic Assessment: Blood test: Hb – 9.1 gm%, Total RBC count – 5.04millions/cumm, RDW – 17.8%, HCT – 31.9%, Total WBC count – 11600/cumm, Monocytes – 04%, Granulocytes – 30%, Lymphocytes – 64%, AST(SGOT) – 45U/L. Peripheral Smear: RBCs – predominantly microcytic mildly hypochromic with mild anis poikilocytosis showing few pencil cells. Platelets – adequate on smear. No hemiparasite seen.

Ultrasonography: The right kidney measure is 5 x1.9cm and left is 5.6 x2.6cm shows mild dilation of pelvic-calyceal system. Left kidney shows mild hydronephrosis with renal pelvic diameter 1.06cm hydroureters seen up to left vesico-urethric junction. Bilateral uterus dilated up to lower end to UVR. Uterus bladder is thickened wall and distended Mild cystitis dilation of B/L dilated uterus and hydronephrosis with UVR.

Therapeutic Intervention: Syp Cefixime 2.5ml x BD, Syp. MVBC 5ml x BD, Syp. Calcimax 5ml x BD, Syp. Orofer 5ml x OD, Syp. Nitrofurantoin 2.5ml x BD, Inj. Metro 100mg x TDS, Inj. Pantop 40mg x OD, Inj. Ceftriaxone 500mg IV x B and IVF DNS with Inj. KCL stat.

Outcome: After treatment, the child show improvement. No complaint of fever, pain, and difficulty in urine pass and urine frequency .

Conclusion: The patient was hospitalized to AVBRH's Pediatric Ward No. 14 with Bilateral hydrouteronephrosis dilated VUR with cystitis. Her health begins to improve when he received proper therapy.

Open Access Study Protocol

Parents Experience among Fathers of Premature Children

Anushri Kale, Bibin Kurian

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 55-59
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i63A35213

Background: The improvement of preterm youngster have shown that helpless social/intuitive abilities, poor conduct and passionate self-guideline, enthusiastic troubles, and decreased consideration are the most well-known conduct issues in preterm babies and kids. The fathers were faced with a significant burden, yet they did not express themselves, even in tough situations, and instead relied on self-comfort to make decisions free of emotion. Parents' psyche and physiology may be altered as a result of having a premature baby. Premature infants are at greater risk for cerebral palsy, delays in development, hearing problems and problems with their vision. The earlier a baby is born, the greater these risks will be. Premature newborns have many physiologic challenges when adapting to the extrauterine environment.

Objectives: Parents experiences of fathers of premature born-children. To associate the parents experience of fathers with selected demographic variables.

Materials and Methods: The study will based on phenomenal research approach with focused group design. The study will be conducted on different hospitals of Wardha city. In this study total sample no is 40 fathers who fulfill the inclusion criteria will be selected.

Expected Results: This study planned the parents’ experiences among fathers of premature born children. Hence it is expected to have their own experiences as fathers.

Open Access Study Protocol

Assessment of Attitude and Perception of COVID 19 Vaccine Hesitancy in Rural and Urban Areas of Maharashtra, India

Radhika Gadge, Shreya Gupta, Amit Reche, Priyanka Paul Madhu

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 71-76
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i63A35216

Background: COVID 19 pandemic has afflicted the whole world. Older age group and people with comorbidities are on major risk to COVID 19. Around 200 vaccines are being developed around the world in hope to return the life to normal. On January 3, 2021, India’s drug regulator approved two COVID 19 vaccines in India- Covaxin and Covisheild. COVID 19 vaccines are a great boon for the public health but they have posed new challenges amongst the healthcare workers as well as general population. Hesitancy towards these vaccines is one such significant botheration to public health.

Objectives: To evaluate the attitude and perception of COVID 19 vaccine hesitancy amongst the different age groups i.e., 18-45 years, >45 years (without co-morbidities and >45 years (with co-morbidities).

Methodology: A special questionnaire would be designed for evaluation of the hesitancy for COVID 19 vaccine amongst the 400 participants from various rural and urban areas in Maharashtra according to different age groups i.e., 18-45 years, >45 years (without co-morbidities and >45 years (with co-morbidities).

Expected Results: As the world is fighting with the deadly pandemic, COVID 19 vaccines have come to the relief of the people. The emanation and distribution of these vaccines have put forth many challenges in front of the government and the health care workers. COVID 19 vaccine hesitancy is one such challenge amongst the Indian population. Thus, this study is formulated to assess the attitude and perception of people towards COVID 19 vaccine hesitancy and to determine the cause of it.

Conclusion: This study will evaluate the attitude and perception for COVID 19 vaccine among the participants. Senior citizens perceive that they will have some side effects due to vaccine whereas 18+ citizens perceive that their immunity can resist COVID-19.

Open Access Study Protocol

Comparative Evaluation of Microleakage in Premolars after Placement of Microhybrid and Nanohybrid Composite Using Snow Plow Technique

Meghna Dugar, Anuja Ikhar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 93-97
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i63A35219

Background: Microleakage is the significant reason for composite restoration failure. The type of composite material utilized should reduce polymerization shrinkage and hence avoid micro-leakage.


  1. To evaluate microleakage in Class I cavity using microhybrid composite in snow plow placement technique.
  2. To evaluate microleakage in Class I cavity using nanohybrid composite in snow plow placement technique
  3. To compare microleakage in Class I cavity with microhybrid composite and nanohybrid composite using snow plow placement technique.

Methodology: Prepared Class I cavities in 22 human premolars will be divided randomly into 2 groups based on the restorative material used. These cavity preparations will be restored using the snow plow technique. All the specimens will be thermocycled and stained with 50% silver nitrate solution. We will wash the specimens in the distilled water, store them in the developing solution and for 24 hours exposed to sunlight. The samples will be sectioned longitudinally from the middle of cavity into two parts and will be then evaluated for microleakage on the basis of silver nitrate penetration under stereomicroscope (20X). To compare the microleakage, data will be subjected to statistical analysis.

Expected Results: Nanohybrid composite placement using snow plow technique is expected to have less micro-leakage than microhybrid composite placement using the same technique.

Conclusion: If this study proves correct, this would be helpful for the clinicians to choose the most efficient restorative material with the best technique and minimal microleakage which will aid in the success of the root canal treatment.

Open Access Study Protocol

Comparative Study of Efficacy of Jatamansi (Nardostachys jatamansi DC) and Imipramine in Generalized Anxiety Disorder (G.A.D.): A Randomized Controlled Double Blind Clinical Trial

Thosar Sheetal, Pathak Swanand, Wadnerwar Nilima, Yende Mohan, Gupta Rajkumar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 132-140
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i63A35225

Background: Onset of G.A.D. is related with bigger excessiveness and uncontrolled worry, along with more chronic course and more severe life mutilation.Individuals suffering from G.A.D. are at high risk of bothered mental health, social functioning, and overall physical &mental well being. Limited long-term efficacy of anxiolytic drugs has shown by clinical trials but drowsiness, dependency, impaired cognition and memory and sexual dysfunction like loss of libido are common adverse side effects of these drugs. Nardostachys jatamansi is a reputed Ayurvedic herb useful for treatment of various disorders mainly central nervous disorders. Various preclinical and clinical studies had proven anxiolytic activity of Jatamansi. Hence present study is planned to assess effects of Jatamansiin Generalized Anxiety Disorder.

Materials and Methods: Presentdouble-blind randomized control clinical study involves two groups with 38 subjects each. Group A (Study Group) will be treated with administration of Tab. Jatamansi in the dose of 1000 mg B.D. orally with water. Group B (Control Group)will betreated with administration of Tab. Imipramine 75 mg H.S. orallyfor 60 days. Assessment parameter will be anxiety score based on symptoms of Generalized Anxiety Disorder.   H.A.M.-A. Scale, G.A.D. – 7 Scale, Manas Bhava and Oxidative Stress. Primary outcome of study is improvement in the sign and symptoms of anxiety with reduction in anxiety scale score.

Open Access Study Protocol

A Cross-sectional Survey on Knowledge and Awareness of Dental Professionals Towards Medicolegal Issues in Teledentistry in Sharad Pawar Dental College

Anumeha Morey, Vaibhavi Boradkar, Dimpal Rohankar, Avanti Date, Kumar Gaurav Chhabra, Priyanka Paul, Amit Reche

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 149-153
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i63A35227

Background: Many dental professionals are not familiar with medicolegal issues in teledentistry. Through our survey, many dental professionals will be aware of medicolegal issues in teledentistry. 

Objectives: To evaluate the knowledge and awareness regarding medicolegal issues in teledentistry among dental staff and postgraduates and assess the correlation of demographic information with knowledge and awareness regarding medicolegal issues in teledentistry among dental staff and postgraduates.

Methodology: The dental professionals and postgraduates of Sharad Pawar Dental College will be chosen.

Expected Results: Evaluating the knowledge and awareness of medicolegal issues in teledentistry among dental students. A more significant number of dental professionals are not familiar with medicolegal issues in teledentistry.

Conclusion: It is beneficial in long-distance clinical training and preserving with education, screening, and dentist laboratory communication. In rural regions in which there may be a scarcity of specialists, loss of complete and complicated health care teledentistry can amplify care to remote patient populations at an affordable value as well as ease the hassle of a scarcity of specialized dental consultants, with few drawbacks and steady efforts to fight them, teledentistry has promising future and an extended manner to go.

Open Access Study Protocol

Evaluation of Vamana and Virechana Karma in the Treatment of Hypothyroidism – A Study Protocol

Ashish Mehta, Shweta Parwe

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 161-169
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i63A35229

Background: Hypothyroidism can be understood and assessed on the basis of Agni, Doshas, Dushyas, Sthanas and Srotasas. In Ayurveda Vamana and Virechana Karma is considering as best line of Shodana procedures for the removal of toxin materials from the human body. Hypothyroidism occurs because of hypo functioning of thyroid gland which is located in neck region and even most of the signs and symptoms prove the involvement of Kapha Sthana and Kapha Dosha. So, in the present clinical research, Vamana and Virechana karma of Panchkarama will be selected as clinical tool to check its impact on Hypothyroidism (Galaganda).

Aim and Objectives: To explore Vamana & Virechana Karma regarding their Clinical Importance. To validate Vamana & Virechana Karma as an effective mode of treatment in the management of Hypothyroidism.

Methodology: 90 (45 in each group) patients will be selected by randomized reference standard controlled single blind double arm clinical trial, and third party will assign and enlist the patient. In Group A (Control) – Standard/ Control Group treated with Thyroxin and Group B (Experimental) – Intervention Group treated with Vamana and Virechana Karma. The evaluation will be recorded on 0 30, 60, 90, 120, 150, 180 days.

Results: Changes will be observed in objective outcomes. 

Conclusion: Vamana and Virechana will be effective in Hypothyroidism.

Open Access Study Protocol

Diagnosis of Genital Tuberculosis by Cartrdige Based Nucleic Acid Amplification Test in Subfertile Women of Rural Hospital

Asawari Deo, Deepti Shrivastava, Harsha Shekhawat, Uttara Shelke

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 170-174
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i63A35230

Tuberculosis has serious extra-pulmonary manifestations that are sometimes difficult to diagnose and thus left untreated. One such manifestation is female - genital tuberculosis (FGTB). Any diagnostic test is not efficient enough to prove the evidence of female genital tuberculosis. High level of clinical examination, detailed history of the patient, systemic examination, a series of tests to document M. tuberculosis as well as imaging techniques for characteristic structural changes are essential for the diagnosis.

There exists lot of diagnostic dilemmas for genital tuberculosis in the available single test is found confirmatory except for wet culture and histopathological positivity, which may become paucibacillary extrapulmonary sites and time consuming, which creates a need for an investigation which can provide quicker and accurate results. cartridge based nucleic acid amplification test [CBNAAT] being a molecular test may be rapid and promising to diagnose these lesions.

The diagnostic value of CBNAAT in detection of female genital tuberculosis seems to be limited, although it has a high positive predictive value.

Open Access Study Protocol

Protocol on Comparative Efficacy of Bruhatyadi Kwath as Compared to Furosemide for Improving e –GFR and Albuminuria in Chronic Kidney Disease-A Randomized Controlled Study

Namrata Arvind Shankarpure, Sadhana Misar Wajpeyi, Sunil Kumar, Shamli Hiware

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 175-182
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i63A35231

Background: The steady decrease of kidney function is referred to as chronic kidney disease. The kidney function is measured by Glomerular Filtration Rate (GFR). According to Ayurveda the CKD can be correlated to Mutraghatabecause of similarity of symptoms. In Ayurveda Mutraghata is described under Mutrarogawhich comes under Mutravahastrotas (urinary system).

Objective: To assess and compare the efficacy of Bruhatyadikwath, Furosemide and Bruhatyadikwath along with Furosemide on symptoms, eGFR, and Albuminuria in various stages of Chronic Kidney Disease.

Methodology: Total 90 patients will be divided in 3 equal groups. Patients in group A will be treated with Bruhatyadikwatha, group B patients will be treated with Furosemide and patients in group C will be treated with Bruhatyadikwatha and Furosemide for 90 days. Follow up will be taken after every 30 days.

Expected Results: Furosemide along with Bruhatayadikwath will show better improvement in e-GFR and Albuminurea as compared to only treated with Bruhatyadikwath and Furosemide. Assessment of subjective criteria like edema, anorexia, weakness and vomiting will be done on day 0, 30, 60 and 90 whereas assessment of Serum creatinine, Blood Urea, Sr. Sodium, Sr. Potassium, eGFR (Cockcroft formula) and Albuminuria will be done before and after treatment (on 0 and 90th day). Result: Subjective and objective outcomes will be assessed by statistical analysis.

Conclusion: It will be drawn from the result obtained.

Open Access Study Protocol

Comparative Efficacy of Osteotome vs CAS Kit Assisted Indirect Maxillary Sinus Lift and Immediate Implant Placement in Posterior Atrophic Maxilla – A Study Protocol

Himanshu Shende, Bhushan Mundada, Nitin Bhola

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 183-188
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i63A35232

Background: In today’s era implants are mostly used for replacing missing teeth. The greatest challenge for placing an implant is posterior maxillary teeth where the problems arise due to presence of maxillary sinus due which increases the risk of perforating the sinus membrane while implanting. In literature there are many techniques to overcome these problems and place the implant without perforating the sinus membrane. The current study is conducted to check either the traditional technique osteotome or modern technique CAS-Kit is better for placing an implant in posterior maxillary region.

Objectives: The aim of these study is to compare and evaluate clinical and radiological outcomes of conventional osteotome technique and CAS kit use for indirect sinus lifting in atrophic posterior maxilla.

Methodology: Two groups (study & control) with 20 individuals requiring implant prosthesis in atrophic posterior maxillary region with RBH < 3mm and minimum crestal width of 6mm are considered for the study model. After completion of osteotome and sinus lift procedure, integrity of sinus membrane will be checked by Valsalva manoeuvre. At three months after implant placement a second step surgery will be performed, stability of each implant will be checked. Marginal bone loss and amount of bone generation will be checked on Cone-beam computed tomography systems (CBCT) at 3, 6 & 9 month interval.

Expected Results: CAS kit is relatively newer and advanced equipment which is safer in placing implant in posterior atrophic maxilla without perforating sinus membrane with good amount of bone generation and stability of implant. with minimal marginal bone loss.

Conclusion: Placement of an implant with CAS-Kit is better option than performing osteotome procedure which is time consumable with high chance of membrane perforation and large amount of marginal bone loss.

Open Access Study Protocol

Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices Related to Healthcare Ethics among Medical and Dental Postgraduate Students in Central India

Bhairavi Kale, Sudhir Ninave, Chitrika Subhadarsanee, Priyanka Jaiswal

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 189-194
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i63A35233

Aim: To assess knowledge, practices and attitudes to health care ethics among Postgraduate Medical and Dental Students

Materials and Methods: The total number of 180 post graduates students will be participated in the study during the Period of 6 months. This will be the Questionnaire based cross sectional study, carried within the span of 1st January 2020 to 30th June 2020. The pre validated questionnaire will be validated and then manually distributed among all the medical and dental post graduate students. After receiving the feedback of the questionnaires the data will be studied and resulted.

Results: Postgraduate students in medical and dental education face various ethical dilemmas during their day to day working in their clinics. These ethics related doubts and issues will be cleared during their postgraduate life. The postgraduate students will be cleared with all the dilemmas and that will be useful for them throughout the clinical practices.

Conclusion: The questionnaire feedback will be useful to the postgraduate students for their future clinical practice following the Ethics.

Open Access Short Communication

Short Note on Tecovirimat

S. Padmaja, C. Sushil

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-3
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i63A35205

Smallpox, an infectious disease, caused by one of the two virus variants, Variola major and Variola minor. Smallpox is a highly contagious and fatal disease. The last case which occurred naturally was in October 1977. The disease was eradicated globally by the World Health Organisation in the year 1980. Since there is a longstanding concern that smallpox can be used as a bioweapon, US FDA has approved the drug, Tecovirimat (TPOXX) for its treatment.

Open Access Minireview Article

Orchids of Shimla Hills: A Mini Review

. Yamini, Saranjeet Kaur

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 123-126
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i63A35223

The objective of writing this review is to explore medicinal orchids species growing in Shimla hills. Family orchidaceae is one of the vast groups among angiosperms which incorporate numerous types of Orchids species. The family is known for cheered ornamental hybrids. Orchids are having varied colourful and designed flowers. This paper is written to review the medicinal importance and use of different species of orchids for the treatment of various diseases.Since ancient times, orchids are used in traditional medicinal system such as Yunani, Homeopathy, Ayurveda and Siddha.

Open Access Minireview Article

The Physiological Aspect of Backbending Asana's

Priyanka Verma, Rashi Sharma, Biju Pegu

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 400-404
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i63A35865

The Hathyogic Asanas are the preparatory limbs for spiritual awakening, but they are also an essential health science. True, practicing Asanas takes more time and work for a long-term and beneficial effect, but it is a very potent and effective therapy.

The numerous organs and systems in the physical body each have their own function to fulfill, but there should be total coordination between them, which is achieved via the practice of Hathyogic Asanas. Asanas serve to control psychosomatic disorders by improving physiological efficiency, anatomic balance, and mental poise and equilibrium in the body.

It was employed by yogis and rishis in ancient times for the relief and elimination of all kinds of ailments and faults, and it was only recently recognized that asana are more powerful and effective techniques of managing the entire body. Hathyogic asana has been the subject of scientific research and investigations for the past three decades, proving that it offers biological benefits. In this study we have used a literature survey method on the basis of different yogic texts to find out the actual effect of back bending asana.

Open Access Original Research Article

An Analysis of Backward and Forward Linkages of Pharmaceutical Sector in India Based on an Input- Output Model

Manisha Das, Ankita Kashyap

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 4-12
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i63A35206

Aims: The paper study about the inter-linkages between pharmaceutical sector and other sectors of Indian economy. The paper also measures the effects of growth in pharmaceutical sector on other sector’s growth.

Study Design: The study is mainly a static analysis based on secondary data concentrated in studying the production structure of Indian pharmaceutical sector. 

Duration of Study: The time taken for the research to be completed is for a period of four months.

Methodology: We have used the latest input-output table available for the period of 2015-16 to conduct the analysis. First, we converted the input-output table from 131 sectors structure to a 60 sectors structure by aggregation of most related sectors. Then, technical coefficient matrix and Leontief inverse matrix for the 60 sectors included in the table has been calculated to analyze the forward and backward linkages of the industry. In addition to that we have calculated output multiplier of pharmaceutical industry to know the effects of changes in the growth of pharmaceutical sectors on all other sectors of the economy.

Results: The input-output analysis reveals that both forward linked indicator and backward linked indicator are greater than one. The forward linked indicator is of value 1.12 and backward linked indicator is of value 1.50. These results indicated that pharmaceutical sector is strongly inter-linked both backwardly and forwardly with other industries in the Indian economy. The value of output multiplier of the industry is 2.34; it indicates positive contribution of the pharmaceutical sectors both directly and indirectly to the Indian economy.

Conclusion: The study finds that pharmaceutical industry is a key industry in stimulating the production activities of other industries. Thus with proper planning and execution of pharmaceutical industry it can help in promoting other sectors growth.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Fenugreek on Lactation among Postnatal Women’s of Selected Hospital at Vadodara

R. Chhayankben Rathwa, T. Vinaya Kumary

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 13-20
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i63A35207

Background of the Study: Breast feeding is the pleasant vitamins for infants. Most of the postnatal moms face the trouble of inadequate breast milk which influences the wellness of an infant. Hence the researcher had taken up this study, used fenugreek among the postnatal mother who has insufficient breast milk secretionas an effective way to boost the production of breast milk.

Methods: A quantitative research approach with experimental pre-test post-test control group design was used to assess effect of fenugreek on lactation among postnatal woman. The study was conducted among 60 postnatal mothers in a selected hospital, Vadodara.

Results: The present study revealed that in experimental group in pre-test, majority 25(83.3%) had insufficient lactation and only 5(16.7%) had sufficient lactation while in post-test 20(66.7%) had sufficient lactation and 10(33.3%) had insufficient lactation. The impact of fenugreek on lactation amongst experimental group turned into examined through the usage of paired t test with obtained t value (t=8.348, df=29, p=0.001) turned into statistically highly significant at p<0.05 level of significance. The post-test lactation revealed that in control group mean score was 22.97±3.755 and in experimental group mean score was 30.03±5.334 with mean difference of 7.06 with obtained t value (t=5.934, df=58, p=0.001) was statistically significant at p<0.05 level. The association between pre interventions lactation of postnatal woman of experimental and control group with selected demographic variables such as age, educational status, occupational status, religion, residency, type of family and food habits were found statistically not significant at p<0.05 level with pre interventions lactation of postnatal woman of experimental and control group. 

Conclusion: The overall effect of fenugreek on lactation among experimental group was tested by using paired t test with obtained t value (t=8.348, df=29, p=0.001) was statistically highly significant at p<0.05 level of significance. Study findings revealed that fenugreek was effective in promoting lactation of postnatal mothers in experimental group as compared to control group.

Open Access Original Research Article

Morphological and Morphometric Analysis of Gonial Angle with Reference to Lingula in South Indian Mandibles

G. V. Venkatakarthikeswari, Karthik Ganesh Mohanraj

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 49-54
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i63A35212

Introduction: Gonial angle is located at the junction of lower border and posterior region of mandible. Lingula is a bony projection which provides attachment for sphenomandibular ligament and is superior to mandibular foramen. The purpose of this study was to research the gonial angle in reference to the position of the lingula helps to guide the oral surgeons to stop injury to inferior alveolar nerve and peripheral blood vessels during surgeries.

Materials and Methods: The distance from the gonial angle to the tip of the lingula and the gonial angle to the base of the lingula on both right and left sides of the mandible was measured using a protractor. The values are calculated from gonial angle with reference to lingula on both sides. The obtained values of both sides were correlated using descriptive statistical analysis and by applying paired t-test. p<0.05 was considered statistically significant for this study.

Results: The mean value for right gonial angle to base of  lingula is 26.54 mm ± 3.30 mm and the left gonial angle to base of lingula is 25.59 ± 0.56 mm. The right gonial angle to lingula tip is 33.25 ± 2.65 and the left gonial angle to lingula tip is 32.83 ± 1.36mm. The mean gonial angle on the right side is 88.60° and on the left side it is 89.40°.

Conclusion: It was found that there was no correlation between the right and left side gonial angle to mandibular lingula since the mandibular angle, was measured within the group of unknown sex of dry human mandible.

Open Access Original Research Article

Clinical Outcome and Laboratory Parameters in Sickle Cell Anemia Patients of Pediatric Age Group Post Hydroxyurea Therapy

Nihar Gupta, Kishore Hiwale, Sunita Vagha, Arvind Bhake, Sukanya Pawar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 65-70
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i63A35215

Background: Homozygous condition in Sickle cell disease (SCD) is called as sickle cell anemia(SCA). In sickle cell anemia patients clinically presents as hemolytic anemia, vaso-occlusive events, along with organ dysfunction and acute chest syndrome. Recently Hydroxyurea has shown promising results in treatment of sickle cell anemia. Hydroxyurea is the only approved drug by FDA which has shown disease modifying results. 

Aim: To determine the clinical outcome and laboratory parameters in SCA patients of pediatric age group post-hydroxyurea therapy.

Methods: A total of 30 patients who were diagnosed as Sickle cell anemia (SCA) patients in Sickle cell anemia OPD of Pediatric department were included in the study.

Results: Hydroxyurea therapy is expected to increase HbF% levels and improve the clinical outcome and laboratory parameters in sickle cell anemia patients of pediatric age group.

Open Access Original Research Article

Study of Clinical Profile and Management of LABC- our Experience

Pravin Nikhade, Avinash Rinait, Anil Akulwar, Shriniwas Surpam, M. Sai Vikas

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 88-92
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i63A35218

Introduction and Objective: Worldwide, breast carcinoma is among the most common carcinoma in females. It is commonly seen site-specific carcinoma in females. Due to lack of education, breast carcinoma patients present in later stages of the disease to healthcare facilities, especially in developing nations. Patients with Locally advanced carcinoma breast (LABC) are commonly seen in developing nations and its treatment multidisciplinary approach. This study is our experience of clinical profile and LABC in a rural setup.

Methodology: This is a retrospective and prospective study done in the medical college. Data was taken from 72 cases that were operated on at the institute from July 2018 to June 2021 and diagnosed with LABC. Patients who had histological evidence of malignancy were undergone surgery and other treatment modalities like neoadjuvant chemotherapy, adjuvant chemoradiation, and hormonal therapy.

Results: Seventy-two patients diagnosed with LABC over three years were included in the study. The mean age was 51 years. The tumor size was more than 5cm in 60 (83.3%) patients. Involvement of axilla was present in 62 (86.1%) patients. All patients were diagnosed with histopathology after core needle biopsy. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy was given to 62 (86.1%) patients. Most of the patients (65) were undergone MRM as surgery, while the remainder (7) were undergone breast conservation therapy. Very few patients had postoperative complications, but with limited follow-up until this study, 5 (6.9%) patients had a recurrence of their study.

Conclusion: In developing nations high percentage of Locally advanced breast carcinoma at presentation result in poor prognosis, high rate of metastasis, and mortality. Awareness and education about breast health and multimodality treatment of LABC will have long-term effects to decrease morbidity and mortality and improve outcomes.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Serum Nesfatin-1 Levels in Women with Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome and Estimating Its Correlation with Body Mass Index and Clinico-metabolic Profile

Nidhi Makhija, Surekha Tayade

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 141-148
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i63A35226

Background: Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is a diverse condition marked by irregular menstruation, hyperandrogenism, and recurrent anovulation. An incidence of 6% to 20% of PCOS in women of reproductive age has been reported. Nesfatin-1 is a potent anorexigenic peptide having antihyperglycemic effects and is associated with energy balance and homeostasis, glucose metabolism, obesity, and probably gonadal functions. Nesfatin-1 is related to obesity, insulin resistance, and appetite. Nesfatin-1 is associated with insulin resistance, body mass index, diabetic inflammatory stimulation, hypertension, and PCOS. This study aims to evaluate the serum Nesfatin-1 levels in women with Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome and correlate with Body Mass Index, clinical and metabolic profile.

Materials and Methods: This will be a prospective Hospital-based observational study conducted at  AVBRH in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology. A total of 96 women of reproductive age (15-45 years) will be enrolled. Detailed history of the menstrual cycle, obstetric history, background, medical and family history, and any primary care and inquiries will be documented. The general and systemic examination will be done to note any clinical evidence of hyperandrogenisms like acne, alopecia, acanthosis nigricans or hirsutism. The Ferriman-Gallwey Score (FGS) will be calculated. The ELISA method will be used for the calculation of N1. Serum Nesfatin-1 values will be correlated with clinical and metabolic profiles divided in the lean versus obese PCOS group. Data will be entered into a predetermined, pretested proforma and analyzed with appropriate statistical tests.

Expected Results: The levels of Serum Nesfatin in PCOS patients are expected to be abnormal. We will measure sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value, and efficacy. We will analyze the difference of results between lean PCOS and Obese PCOS and association with the clinico-metabolic profile.

Open Access Original Research Article

Efficacy of Task Oriented Training vs. Group Circuit Training Programme to Improve Functional Mobility in Children with Cerebral Palsy

Sashikala Bhandaru, Dasari Neelima, Shazia Neelam, Saina Swathi, P. Senthil

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 154-160
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i63A35228

Introduction: Cerebral palsy (CP) refers to a group of non-progressive neurological disorders that appear in infancy or early childhood. Since CP in children causes structural and functional changes in the neuromusculoskeletal system they are mostly presented with motor disorders, sensory disturbances which leads to impairment in functional mobility, several physical rehabilitation techniques benefited the children with CP in improving their physical health and mental wellbeing. The aim of the study is to analyse the effectiveness of group circuit training and task oriented training on functional mobility in children with cerebral palsy.

Materials and Methods: This study design is a comparative study design and was done in physiotherapy OP department in KGH hospital, RK mission cerebral palsy clinic in Visakhapatnam. Based on the inclusion and exclusion criteria a study sample of 30 subjects was selected. The subjects were allocated into two groups through random sampling method, group A(n=15) received Task oriented training along with conventional physiotherapy, and group B(n=15) received circuit training along with conventional physiotherapy 3 sessions/week for 5 weeks for 30-40 minutes. Functional mobility was assessed by using the outcome measures GMFM 88 scale and TUG test.

Results: The findings of the study revealed improved clinical outcomes in both groups. There was a statistical significance difference between the circuit training group and task oriented training in all the outcome variables at (P<0.05).

Conclusion: The study concluded that there was improvement in functional mobility in both groups. However the task oriented training was more effective than circuit training in improving the functional mobility in children with cerebral palsy.

Open Access Original Research Article

A Cross Sectional Study to Assess the Knowledge, Attitude and Practice of Contraceptive Methods among Postpartum Women, Kanchipuram, Tamil Nadu, India

P. K. Tejasvi, . Akanksha

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 195-199
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i63A35234

Background: Family planning programmes exist to protect the welfare of the mother and child and in turn, care about the welfare of the family. Irrespective of socioeconomic status or place of residence every member of the country should have access to the right contraceptive method. Unplanned pregnancies have serious implications on both the mother’s and child’s morbidity and mortality. It can affect the health of a family as a whole.

Objectives: To estimate the awareness of different contraceptive methods, its identify factors affecting it’s usage and assess the pattern of usage.

Materials and methods: In this cross-sectional study, knowledge, attitude and practice of contraceptive methods among postpartum women were assessed using a structured questionnaire. Sample size was 330 and analysis was done through CHI square test.

Results: Majority of the participants were between the ages of 20 and 30 years. Most of the participants (96%) were aware of at least one contraceptive method.

Conclusion: Family planning is vital to the health and proper functioning of a family.

Open Access Original Research Article

Post Vaccination Effects of m-RNA Covid-19 Vaccine & Its Efficacy with Detailed Self-Reported Symptoms from Healthcare Workers and General Population in Central Gujarat

Hiren Patel, Hetul Patel, Kartik Dholakia, Takshil Shah, Saloni Shah, Farhin Saiyed

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 200-205
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i63A35235

Background & Aim: Concerns are prevailing about the safety and side effects of the mRNA vaccine for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Hence a study aiming the effectiveness of vaccine, post vaccination symptoms, natural progression of infection in the individuals was performed.

Methods: A randomized, cross-sectional survey was performed comprising the 757 individuals from the pool of 1000 people, to investigate the side effects of the vaccines using an independent online questionnaire gathering responses from healthcare workers (HCWs) and general population with detailed review of organ systems.

Results: A total of 757 people responded, led us to the point where 476 people (62.87 %) of people experiencing minimum one symptom following the first dose of either of the two vaccine, in comparison to 188 responses (24.8%) of people experiencing at least one symptom following second dose of either of the two vaccine.

Conclusion: Commonly reported symptoms (occurrence in descending order) were soreness, fatigue, myalgia, headache, chills, fever, joint pain, nausea, muscle spasm, sweating, dizziness, flushing, feelings of relief, brain fogging, anorexia, localized swelling, decreased sleep quality, itching, tingling, diarrhea, nasal stuffiness and palpitations. Despite this, remarkable acceptance for the second dose of the m-RNA Covid vaccine was found among all the individuals.

Open Access Original Research Article

A Cross Sectional Study on Awareness of Risk Factors of Maternal Obesity among Women in a Tertiary Care Hospital in Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India

S. Sivarama Krishnan, . Archana

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 212-219
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i63A35237

Background: There has been a rise in prevalence of obesity all around the world. Obesity during pregnancy has various adverse outcomes on both the child and mother. Maternal affects include pregnancy induced hypertension, gestational Diabetes, pre-eclampsia and foetal outcomes includes macrosomia, pre term birth and obstructed labour.

Aim: Of this study is to assess the knowledge and awareness of complications of obesity during pregnancy among women.

Materials and Methods: This is a cross sectional descriptive questionnaire study conducted among 384 women attending the out-patient’s department of obstetrics and gynaecology during a time period of January 2021 to June 2021.

Results: Average level of awareness was found among the participants. 53.3% women were aware and 46.6% participants were not aware of the adverse effects of maternal obesity.

Conclusion: In this study, it was observed that half of the participants were unaware, hence perinatal counselling and awareness camps needs to be conducted to raise the awareness and knowledge levels among general population for a healthier society.

Open Access Original Research Article

Epidemiological Study of Fingertip Injuries in a Tertiary Care Center in Kancheepuram District, India

Anand Prasath Jayachandiran, Sandip V. Bose, Surya Rao Venkata Mahipathy, Alagar Raja Durairaj, Narayanamurthy Sundaramurthy, P. Suresh

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 220-224
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i63A35238

Background and Aim: Although fingertip injuries are common, there is limited literature on its epidemiology. This study examines the clinical characteristics of fingertip injuries in adults treated at a tertiary medical hospital. The aim of the study is to investigate and examine the epidemiological variables impacting patients' fingertip injuries in a tertiary care hospital in Kancheepuram.

Methods: An epidemiological study of patients with fingertip injuries managed at a tertiary hospital in Kancheepuram over a period of twelve months (March 2020-March 2021). The patients’ profile as well as the clinical presentation, management options and the outcome of care of the patients were documented and analyzed using descriptive statistics.

Results: Fifty one fingertips patients were managed. The median age was 23.50 years, with 88% of male. 36 [70%] injuries involved accidents in their workplace. A total of 34 [66%] injuries occurred in the fingers of the right hand. The management offered included PSS (Primary Skin Suturing), V-Y flap, RHAF, Nail bed repair and K wire fixation. About 91.5 % of the patients reported a satisfactory outcome.

Conclusion: In the workplace, right-handed males between the ages of 18 and 25 are more prone to have fingertip injuries. While proper diagnosis and adequate response are critical for a positive result in fingertip injuries, a safer environment and workplace would assist to alleviate the burden.

Open Access Original Research Article

Adherence of Insulin Therapy in Diabetic Mellitus Patients in a Tertiary Care Hospital

R. Ahalya, Mahendra Kumar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 225-229
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i63A35239

Aim and Objective: The aim of this study is to evaluate the adherence of Insulin therapy in Diabetic mellitus patients and to identify the factors leading to poor adherence of Insulin therapy among diabetic patients in a tertiary care hospital.

Methodology: A prospective study was carried out in the department of medicine in Saveetha medical college from January to June 2021.

50 diabetic patients were included in the study and their adherence to Insulin therapy was monitored and the patients with low adherence were assessed for the cause so that appropriate interventions can be taken to improve its adherence.

Results: The study enrolled about 50 patients out of which 23 of them had low Insulin adherence. The main reasons for low adherence were expense of Insulin(40%),lack of knowledge of administration(36%), and others factors include family problems, having faith over alternative medicines and fear of side effects.

Conclusion: Given the great prevalence of primary non-adherence and the variety of reasons for it, it is evident that these treatment barriers must be removed. Dedicated diabetes instructors at each diabetes clinic, as well as the availability of low-cost insulin and blood glucose monitoring devices for the disadvantaged, are essential to achieving this goal.

Open Access Original Research Article

Prospective Cross-sectional Study of Intrauterine Insemination with Hydrotubation in Women with Infertility

Asawari Deo, Deepti Srivastava, Harsha Shekhawat, Uttara Shelke

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 248-253
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i63A35241

Background: Hydrotubation is the instillation of a solution of medicine through the cervix into the uterus and fallopian tubes under pressure into the peritoneal cavity. It has little value to test whether or not the tubes are blocked in the investigation of infertility and therapeutically to flush or clean the fallopian tubes.

Methods: Sixty women with unexplained infertility were scheduled randomly for hydrotubation either with normal saline or low dose Lidocaine in saline,prior to the procedure patient were given antibiotic coverage with tab.doxycycline. Hydrotubation was carried out one day before intrauterine insemination in clomiphene citrate stimulated cycle. Outcome measures were rates of pregnancy, first trimester abortion, ectopic pregnancy and multiple pregnancy.

Results: There were higher clinical pregnancy rates in Lidocaine group which when compared with saline group but statistically no significant difference found.

Conclusion: Hydrotubation with low dose Lidocaine 1% in saline one day before IUI allowed a higher pregnancy rate when compared to saline alone in couples with unexplained infertility.

Open Access Original Research Article

Knowledge, Attitude and Practice Study on Effects of Smoking, Alcohol and Substance Abuse on Human Health among Students

V. C. Abishek, R. Kannan

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 254-259
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i63A35242

Introduction: It is well documented that tobacco, alcohol and drug use can be detrimental to health. However, little is known about the effect of smoking, alcohol and substance abuse on human among students. The aim of this study was to study the effect of smoking, alcohol and substance abuse on human among students.

Methods: The study was carried out on 51 students comprising of 26 M.B.B.S and 25 non-M.B.B.S students. The students were given a pretested questionnaire and asked to fill up the questions. The responses were collected and analyzed using appropriate statistical tools for parametric and non-parametric data with the help of SPSS for Windows version 22 software.

Results: The knowledge of participants on Effects of smoking, alcohol and substance abuse was 73%.

The participants had a positive attitude towards the complete ban of advertising of tobacco products and most of them (58%) had a positive attitude towards the complete ban of tobacco usage.

19.6% of participants consumed alcohol and 22.2% had at least once smoked a cigarette and 9.8% practiced substance abuse.

Conclusion: The study concludes that there is a definitive and palpable practice of smoking, alcohol and substance abuse among students. To prevent such practices awareness must spread among the students.

Open Access Original Research Article

Cytohistological Correlation of Palpable Breast Lesions in a Tertiary Care Centre – A Retrospective Study

Lakshmi Priya Asokan, G. Reshmi, Sonti Sulochana

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 267-273
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i63A35244

Background: Breast cancer is one of the leading causes of death from cancer among women. WHO reported that around 1lakh new cases of carcinoma breast are diagnosed every year in India and about 70,218 deaths due to breast cancer was estimated in Indian women every year. Early diagnosis and prompt treatment plays an important role in decreasing the mortality due to breast cancer. Presenting complaint in majority of the cases is a palpable lump in the breast. Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) is a simple, fast, inexpensive method and reliable. It is being used as a first line procedure for diagnosing breast lesions

Aim: This study is aimed to examine the cytological features of FNAC done on palpable breast lesions and to correlate the results of these breast FNAC with the corresponding tissue biopsy reports. Thereby we are determining the accuracy of reporting FNAC breast lesions in our hospital.

Material and Methods:  This is a 1-year retrospective study of breast lumps seen in Department of Pathology, Saveetha Medical College, Chennai. All patients who had FNAC of breast lumps with subsequent histological confirmation over this period are included in this study. Cytological diagnosis was categorized as benign, inflammatory, suspicious for malignancy, positive for malignancy and inadequate and compared with histopathological diagnosis for correlation. Statistical analysis was done to test sensitivity specificity, positive predictive value and accuracy.

Results: This is a 1-year retrospective study of breast lumps seen in Department of Pathology, Saveetha Medical College, Chennai. All patients who had FNAC of breast lumps with subsequent histological confirmation over this period are included in this study. Cytological diagnosis were categorized as benign, inflammatory, suspicious for malignancy, positive for malignancy and inadequate and compared with histopathological diagnosis for correlation. Statistical analysis was done to test sensitivity specificity, positive predictive value and accuracy

Conclusion: FNAC is a quicker, easier, inexpensive, safe and readily acceptable procedure. Though definitive specific diagnosis may not be possible by cytology, but it can be categorized and differential diagnosis can be derived. So, to conclude, Aspiration cytology can be done as a first line procedure but cannot be considered as a substitute for histopathology.

Open Access Original Research Article

Investigation of Proapoptotic Effect of Digera muricata Leaf Extract against the Skin Cancer Cell Line (B16-F10)

J. Dhivyadharshini, P. Elumalai, S. Raghunandhakumar, T. Lakshmi, Anitha Roy

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 274-284
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i63A35631

Introduction: Skin cancers, such as melanoma, basal cell carcinoma, and squamous cell carcinoma, frequently begin as changes in the skin. Cancer research continues to focus on finding tumor-selective and new anticancer drugs with fewer adverse effects. Digera muricata is a medicinal herb in the Amaranthaceae family that has antibacterial, antifungal, free radical scavenging function, anti tumor, and other valuable medicinal properties.

Aim: To investigate the pro-apoptotic effect of Digera muricata leaf extract against the skin cancer cell line.

Materials and Methods: MTT assay was used to determine the viability of B16-F10 cells treated with different concentrations (20-200μg) of Digera muricata leaf extract. Phase contrast microscopy was used to examine the morphological changes. In addition, the mode of cell death was assessed using AO/EtBr dual staining and observed under a fluorescence microscope. Statistical analysis was performed, keeping the level of significance at p<0.05.

Results: The MTT assay revealed that the ethanolic extract of Digera muricata leaf had significant cytotoxic and apoptotic potency against the B16-F10 skin cancer cell line, which was validated by significant morphological alterations under phase contrast microscope after 24 hours of treatment. AO/EtBr dual staining results clearly showed the Digera muricata leaf extract treatment induced the early apoptotic cells with bright orange areas of condensed or fragmented chromatin in the nucleus. Late apoptotic cells showing uniform bright red nucleus.

Conclusion: Within the limits of the analysis, it can be inferred that the leaf extract of Digera muricata was cytotoxic and triggered cancer cell apoptosis at a concentration of 50 μg/ml within 24 hours. More research is needed to understand the cytotoxicity mechanisms of this plant extract.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Cytotoxic Potential of Digera muricata Leaf Extract on Lung Cancer Cell Line

S. Deepthi, P. Elumalai, S. Raghunandhakumar, T. Lakshmi, Anitha Roy

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 285-293
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i63A35632

Lung cancer is the second most frequent cancer, accounting for one out of every five male cancers and one out of every nine female cancers. Treatment for lung cancer is determined by the disease's cell type, the extent to which it has spread, and the patient's overall health. It is common knowledge that tumours impart resistance to chemotherapeutic medicines or radiation in part owing to apoptotic pathway dysfunction in cancer cells. Digera muricata (D.muricata) has been used as medicinal remedies for various ailments due to its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-bacterial, anti-tumor activity. The objective of the study was to examine the cytotoxic activity of ethanolic leaf extract of D.muricata on lung cancer cell lines. The cytotoxic potency of D.muricata leaf extract was carried out by MTT assay against the lung cancer cell line (A549). Different concentrations of D.muricata ethanolic leaf extract (25-150µg/ml) were treated for 24h. Furthermore, the morphological changes were analysed using phase contrast microscopy. Pro-apoptotic and nuclear morphological changes in D. muricata ethanolic leaf extract treated cells were examined using DAPI staining. The ethanolic leaf extract of D.muricata showed the dose dependent cytotoxic potency against the A549 cell line which confirmed with greater morphological changes upon 24 hrs treatment. The MTT assay clearly showed that the D.muricata treatment has significantly reduced the cell viability when the concentration was increased for 24hrs. We observed IC-50 dose at 50 μg/ml concentration. DAPI staining clearly showed condensed chromatin and fragmented nuclei in treated lung cancer cells. All these results clearly showed that ethanolic extract of D. muricata treatment significantly inhibited the cell proliferation and induced apoptosis in lung cancer cells.

Open Access Original Research Article

Production of Protease Enzyme and Antimicrobial Activities from Marine Actinobacterium of Streptomyces SP

R. Ananya, P. Sivaperumal, Anitha Roy, T. Lakshmi

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 302-311
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i63A35634

Introduction: Actinobacteria are Gram-positive bacteria that have traits of both bacteria and fungus. They are found in both terrestrial and aquatic habitats and aid in the breakdown of deceased species' organic matter. Marine actinobacteria are unusual in that they have antibacterial, anticancer, antiviral, insecticidal, and enzyme inhibitory activities. The biggest genus of Actinobacteria is Streptomyces. They create more than two-thirds of all-natural antibiotics that are therapeutically relevant (e.g. Neomycin, Cypemycin, Grisemycin, Bottromycins, and Chloramphenicol). Alkaline proteases are generated by a variety of microorganisms, including yeast, bacteria, and plants. The process of destroying or suppressing disease-causing bacteria is referred to as antimicrobial activity. This is accomplished using a variety of antimicrobial potential as well as antiviral properties.

Aim: To find out the antimicrobial activity of protease enzymes produced by the Streptomyces sp of marine actinobacterium.

Materials and Methods: A sediment sample was collected and marine Actinobacteria were isolated in Kuster’s Agar Medium (KUA) and were identified based on their chemotaxonomical characteristics.

Results: Screening for protease was carried out to assess enzyme production and enzyme assay was carried out to assess the enzymatic activity. The effect and pH on enzyme production were observed. Then the antimicrobial potential of protease enzymes was tested against a few bacterial strains at optimum temperature and pH.

Conclusion: From the above study, we conclude that the protease enzyme obtained from Streptomyces shows a potential antimicrobial (antibacterial) effect.

Open Access Original Research Article

Preparation of Methanolic Crude Extract of Padina Gymnospora Seaweed and their Anticancer Activities against Cancer Cell Line

Charanya Suresh, Anitha Roy, P. Sivaperumal, Lakshmi Thangavelu

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 312-321
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i63A35635

Background: Cancer is a major health problem worldwide and still lacks fully effective treatments. As a result, natural-products-based alternative medicines have been developed. Marine algae are a vital part of the marine environment, with high biodiversity and contain a diverse range of useful chemicals.

Aim: Aim of the study was to assess the anticancer activity of Padina gymnospora crude extract against lung cancer cell line

Materials and Methods: The Seaweed P. gymnospora was evaluated for its anti-cancer activity via MTT assay, further, morphological study of the cells was done to check its efficacy. Finally, the results were analyzed by Student's-t-test using MS-Excel, represented as mean ± SD for triplicates. The results were computed statistically (SPSS/10 Software Package; SPSS Inc., Chicago) using one-way ANOVA. The level of statistical significance was set at p<0.05.

Results and Discussion: The results of this study indicate that P. gymnospora has significant anticancer activity. At the highest concentration, 500μl, methanolic crude extracts of P. gymnospora showed the maximum anticancer activity, where the cell viability was only 16.41+7.15. The morphological study also revealed that maximum cell death had occurred in the maximum concentration of the methanolic crude extract of P. gymnospora.

Conclusion: Despite the widespread use of algae-derived compounds and extracts in the food industry, there are still limited anticancer drugs available in the industry. Thus, it is imperative that new drug discovery programs using seaweeds with a much more mechanistic approach are needed.

Open Access Original Research Article

Cytotoxic Effect of Lippia nodiflora Leaf Extract against the Prostate Cancer Cell Line

R. Sharmila, P. Elumalai, S. Raghunandhakumar, T. Lakshmi, Anitha Roy

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 322-329
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i63A35638

Prostate cancer is the second most common cause of cancer deaths for men. Lippia. Nodiflora (L. nodiflora) has been used as a natural remedy for various diseases, because of its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-bacterial, and anti-tumor effect. This study was to investigate the cytotoxic effect of L. nodiflora ethanolic leaf extract in prostate cancer cell lines (PC-3). The growth inhibitory effect of L. nodiflora ethanolic leaf extract was assessed by MTT assay. The cell morphological changes in L. nodiflora leaf extract-treated cells were observed using an inverted phase-contrast microscope. Apoptosis induction by L. nodiflora was determined by AO/EtBr (acridine orange and ethidium bromide) dual staining. MTT test results showed dose-dependent cell growth inhibition in PC-3 cells treated with L. nodiflora leaf extract (10-120 µg/mL). The IC-50 dose was observed at 40µg/ml. Morphological changes such as reduction in the number of cells, cell shrinkage, and cytoplasmic membrane blebbing were observed in the treated cells. Induction of apoptosis by L. nodiflora (40µg/ml) treated cells showed an increased number of early apoptotic and late apoptotic cells. The above data indicate that L. nodiflora inhibits cell proliferation and induces apoptosis in prostate cancer cells. Therefore, it can be concluded that L. nodiflora exhibits anti-cancer activity, and thus it raises new hope for its use in anti-cancer therapy.

Open Access Original Research Article

Antiproliferative Efficacy of Centella asiatica Aqueoues Leaf Extract on Human Lung Cancer Cell Line

Amirtha Varshini, Lakshminarayanan Arivarasu

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 330-337
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i63A35639

Aim: To assess the anti proliferative efficacy of Centella asiatica queoues leaf extract on human lung cancer cell line

Introduction: Centella asiatica (family Apiaceae), commonly known as Indian Pennywort, is an ethnomedical plant that is widely used in India for treating skin problems and for revitalizing the brain and nervous system. It has been reported to have various pharmacological activities, including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, neuroprotective, cardioprotective, skin protective, radioprotective, immunomodulatory, memory-enhancing, and wound-healing properties. Asiatic acid and its derivatives possess a broad spectrum of pharmacological activities, such as anticancer, wound healing, anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic ,hepatoprotective and neuroprotective activities. The aim of the study is to assess the antiproliferative efficacy of Centella asiatica queoues leaf extract on human lung cancer cell line.

Materials AND Methods: Human lung adenocarcinoma-A549  cell line was procured from National Centre for Cell Science (NCCS, Pune), India.

The effect of Centella asiatica on cell viability was measured by MTT assay following the method by Mosmann  Briefly, the cells (1 × 105 cells per ml) were seeded in a 96 well micro titre plate (100 μl per well) with replications. Treatment was conducted for 24 with different concentrations (50,100,150,200,250 and 300 μM) of Centella asiatica .After incubation, 20 μl of 5 mg/ml MTT stock solution was added to each well and incubated for 4 h at 37 °C. The obtained formazan crystals were solubilized with DMSO and the absorbance was measured at 570 nm using a microplate reader (SpectraMax M5, Molecular Devices, USA). Cell viability (%) has been shown as a ratio of absorbance (A570) in treated cells to absorbance in control cells (0.1 % DMSO) (A570). The IC50 was calculated as the concentration of sample needed to reduce 50 % of the absorbance in comparison to the DMSO-treated control. Percent cell viability was calculated following the equation: Cell viability (%) = {A570od of ( sample)/A570 od of (control)} x 100

Results and Discussion: Results show that centella asiatica has an  antiproliferative effect on human lung cancer cell line. The characterisation of morphological changes in human lung cancer cells treated with Centella asiatica leaf extract  compared to their respective controls were observed under phase contrast microscope.Visible destruction of the cancer cells were observed at the initial concentration of 25 microgram/ml. Further concentrations however showed increased antiproliferative activity proving it to be a potent anticancer drug.

Conclusion: This research concludes that centella asiatica leaf extract has a potent antiproliferative effect on human lung cancer cell lines.However further research is needed to understand the mechanisms of cytotoxicity of the plants.

Open Access Original Research Article

Preparation and Free Radical Scavenging Activity of Mint and Green Tea Formulation

R. Akshaya, Lakshminarayanan Arivarasu

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 338-346
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i63A35640

Background: Antioxidants are an essential defence mechanism to protect our body against free radical damage. They balance the production of free radicals and detoxify them when in excess. Green tea manufactured from dried leaves of camellia sinensis. Mint belongs to the genus mentha which is pungent in taste with post ingestive effects. A number of health benefits have been attributed to green tea, including prevention or control of atherosclerosis, hypertension, CHD, DM and Obesity.

Aim: The aim of this study is to evaluate the preparation and free radical scavenging activity of mint and green tea formulation.

Materials and Methods: To 100ml of distilled water, 1g of green tea leaves and 1g powdered mint is added. This Mixture was heated for about 15-20 minutes and then filtered using filter paper. The mixture was again heated and concentrated from 70ml to 20ml. And then free radical scavenging activity was done and % of inhibition value was calculated.

Results: This shows that 50μl concentration of DPPH activity shows 86% of inhibition. Higher concentration of DPPH activity shows higher percentage of inhibition.

Conclusion: From the study, it has been concluded that high concentration(in μl) exhibits a higher percentage of inhibition. The highest percentage of inhibition of antioxidant property in mint and green tea formulation is about 86%. It shows that green tea and mint formulation shows better antioxidant activity.

Open Access Original Research Article

Ameloglyphics why Not with Stains?- An Observational Study

Dinesh Yasothkumar, Abirami Arthanari, Pratibha Ramani, A. Melvin George

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 347-352
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i63A35650

Background: In forensic Odontology, the term ameloglyphics refers to the study of enamel rod end patterns. These enamel rod end patterns are specific and are different for each individual. Enamel is the hardest tissue and it is resistant to several environmental factors like fire, acid exposure and microbial decomposition.

Aims: This study was done to evaluate various stains and staining methods in tooth prints under stereomicroscope. The purpose of the study is to find out the utility of several stains for studying the enamel rod end patterns in forensic Odontology.

Methods: Twenty seven freshly extracted maxillary premolars were collected for the study from the Department of Oral & maxillofacial Surgery. All the teeth collected were irrespective of age to avoid the bias related to different enamel characteristics of deciduous teeth.

Results: In our study, hematoxylin and toluidine blue showed the surface score of 7 out of 9 which was the highest when compared to remaining stains. On comparing 3 different staining methods using hematoxylin and toluidine blue stains in soak method showed superior score when compared to other two methods.

Conclusions: To conclude, Ameloglyphics patterns can be studied by staining the tooth. Hematoxylin and toluidine blue stains can be used for studying the Ameloglyphics pattern. Soak method of staining the tooth can be done to study the pattern. Ameloglyphics patterns can play an important role in personal identification using staining methods and shows promising future in field of forensics.

Open Access Original Research Article

Organophosphorous Compounds in Assessment of Histomorphological Alterations of Natural Tooth

Snega Thamilselvan, Abirami Arthanari, R. Abilasha, Pratibha Ramani

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 353-358
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i63A35651

Background: Pesticide poisoning has indeed been recognized as a significant global health problem, and it is the most common cause of morbidity and mortality.Organophosphorus compounds (OP) are extensively used in agriculture, domestic pest control, and biological agents. Each year, an estimated 25 million farmers in developing countries are poisoned by pesticides, commonly OP, which is known to cause serious health ill effects.

Aim: The aim of this study is to assess the histomorphological alterations in natural tooth due to exposure to different organophosphorous compounds.

Materials and Methods: This research was carried out with organophosphorous compound - ANUFURAN 3G, carbofuran 3% CG purchased from local commercial market. The OP was available as solid crystals which made into a solution by adding 1g of OP compounds to 100ml of distilled water. The natural tooth was immersed in the respective solution for an hour and assessed for morphological &histological alterations through ground sections (200μm).

Results: Visually, there were very mild purplish tint on the cervical and apical 1/3rd of the tooth. Histologically, there were increased enamel lamellae which may have propagated to crack. The dentinal tubules were prominent and the pulpal tissue was completely dissolved.

Conclusion: The OP compounds did not prove to show any morphological or histological alterations to natural tooth.

Open Access Original Research Article

Qualitative and Quantitative Determination of Secondary Metabolites and Antioxidant Potential of Centaurea behen L. Root Extracts

Neesha Gupta, A. Kalaiselvan

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 367-373
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i63A35822

Plants have been used by humans as a natural source for treatments and cures since ancient times, and medicinal herbs have gained popularity due to their widespread usage and lack of adverse effects. Plant study has grown in popularity across the world in recent years, and a large body of data has been gathered to demonstrate the enormous potential of medicinal plants employed in diverse traditional systems. Centaurea behen L (C. behen) is a South Asian root that belongs to the Astarcease family and is known as Safed Behman. C. behen is used to treat brain, heart, and liver weakness, as well as palpitation, hepatitis, melancholia, sexual debility, neurasthenia, spermatorrhoea, weariness, and stomach and bowel problems. It is also a heart tonic and is used to treat jaundice. Several sesqueterpene lactones, the guaianolides cyanraopicrin, augerin B, desacylcynaropicrin, grosshemin, and traces of a ketone closely related to solstitialin A were found in aerial sections of C. behen. The goal of this study was to assess in vitro antioxidant activity, as well as qualitative and quantitative phytochemical analyses of C. behen root gathered in the Bhopal region of Madhya Pradesh. The well-known test methodology was used to determine qualitative analysis of various phytochemical ingredients and quantitative analysis of total flavonoids. The antioxidant activity of an ethyl acetate extract of the roots was tested in vitro using conventional techniques against DPPH and nitric oxide (NO) radical scavenging assays. Phenols, flavonoids, tannins, saponins, alkaloids, and other phytochemicals were discovered by phytochemical investigation. Ethyl acetate, methanol, and aqueous root extract of C. behen contained 0.740, 0.381, and 0.465 mg/100mg of total flavonoids, respectively. The anti-DPPH and anti-NO actions of ethyl acetate extracts were concentration dependant. The plant's broad variety of phytochemicals implies that it has medicinal potential, which might be investigated in the pharmaceutical sector as well as in traditional medicine.

Open Access Original Research Article

Design, Synthesis and MAO Inhibitor Activity of Chroman-4-one Derivative

Somesh Kumar Saxena, Ashish Pathak, Om Prakash Agrawal

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 374-384
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i63A35826

Two chalcones (4a, 4b) and nine Schiff bases (4c – 4k) of 7-hydroxy-3-formyl chromen-4-one have been synthesized. All the synthesized compounds 1–18 were screened for their hMAO (human Mono Amine Oxidase) inhibitory activity using recombinant human MAO isoforms. hMAO inhibitory activity was determined by measuring the production of H2O2 from p-tyramine, the common substrate for both hMAO-A and hMAO-B, using the Amplex1-RedMAO assay kit. The compounds and reference inhibitors did not react directly with the Amplex1-Red reagent indicating that they do not interfere with the measurements. The compounds were also confirmed, as they did not interact with resorufin by treating the maximum concentration of compounds with various concentrations of resorufin in order to detect if the fluorescence signal is the same with or without our compounds in the medium. No significant quenching of resorufin was observed.

Open Access Original Research Article

Analysis of Bleeding and Clotting Time among Patients Visiting a Private Dental Hospital - an Institutional Study

S. Kameswari, Pratibha Ramani

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 385-392
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i63A35836

Introduction: Detection of dental problems starts from childhood, with regular check-ups to the dental specialist. Hemostasis is a stoppage of bleeding from damaged veins which includes a number of endothelial cells from vessels, small venules, or arterioles, then platelet plug is formed and eventually the bleeding stops.

Aim: The main aim of this study is to analyse the Bleeding time and Clotting time among the patients visiting the private dental hospital.

Materials and Methods: This study was based on the comparison of bleeding and clotting time among the patients. Samples size for the present study was collected from Jun 2019 to Feb 2021 using Dental hospital management study. This study includes 3428 patients. SPSS software had been used in the analysis and the results were described in the pictorial graphs.

Results: Among the total patients, 41.45% of them were males and 58.55% of them were females. It was observed that the females had a higher percentage of both bleeding time (1 min 21 sec) with p=0.402 and clotting time (6 min 11 sec) with p=0.300 compared to males. However, this was not statistically significant, as the chi square test showed p > 0.05.

Conclusion: Dentists are facing a consistently increasing number of conditions associated with abnormal hemostatic function. In this study, it is found that females have more bleeding and clotting time as compared to males due to the hormonal differences.

Open Access Original Research Article

Study of Vital Capacity Relation to BMI in 1st-Year Medical Students

Anubhuti Sriwastwa, Angesh Bagade

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 420-426
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i63A35902

Being overweight and other problems due to increasing weight increased BMI are looked forward as an “epidemic shoot up,” having a massive effect on every country in the world nevertheless it being developed or developing. Obesity is related to a vast range of devitalizing, enervating, and destructive issues, which include circulatory, vascular, cardiorespiratory, metabolic, and different non-transferable diseases. Apart from the contribution of these elements, the increment in BMI, the irregularity in eating regimen, lack of exercise, and addiction as a result of traumatic situations in which stress mental health appears to play a crucial role, therefore it’s being taken into consideration as an unbiased component for increment in BMI by everyone. During the training period, medical school students are prone to various stress. Therefore, to discover the prevalence of obesity and increased BMI problems amongst the undergraduate students of the medical school, this observation is being carried out.

Purpose: To determine the prevalence of obese and increased BMI problems amongst medical students and its relation with vital capacity. Additionally, to discover the connection of the subsequent threat factors with increased BMI: (a) lacking exercise, (b) sleep pattern, (c) dietary regime, (d) mental health (trauma, stress), and (e) unison of varied variety of diseases (thyroid issues, menstrual problems).

Procedure: A detailed cross-sectional study was carried out in the Physiology Department among hundreds of students. After taking the consent of the hundred students, these facts have been gathered by using pretested questionnaires. These students’ height and weight were precisely taken, and their BMI was calculated carefully.

Results: Of these100 medical school students, the mean ± standard deviation, height was 1.67 ± 0.09 meters (m), and the mean weight was 66.61 ± 12.71 kilograms (kg), and the mean BMI was 23.54 ± 3.09 kg/m2. A normal BMI was observed in 73.1%of the MBBS students, whereas 22.3% were overweight, 3.1% were obese, and only 1.5% were underweight. Corpulent and increased BMI was observed drastically greater in boys than girls.

Inference: The recent studies offer a concept about the excessive occurrence of adiposity and obesity among medical school students. Consciousness and intrigue are to be necessarily created concerning a healthy diet regime and a weight controlling framework amongst the doctor population in the future. Dietary nutrition training on food and ingestion practices and existence alternations to the way of living ought to be constructed in and as for academic interest throughout entire schooling years.

Open Access Original Research Article

Formulation Development and Evaluation of Colon Targeting Nanosponges of Deflazacort Using Box Behnken Design

Sarvesh Mishra, Neeraj Sharma, Shailesh Jain

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 451-459
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i63A35961

Deflazacort is a glucocorticoid that is often used as an anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressant for patients suffering from Inflammatory Bowel Disease such as ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD). IBD is difficult to manage, and the most difficult issue for doctors is the recurrence. There are several regulated and colon focused medication delivery devices available for therapy, however they have a low success rate. The goal of this work was to create nanosponges loaded with deflazacort using the quasi-emulsion solvent diffusion technique using Eudragit S-100 and to investigate the influence of process factors on response using the Box-Behnken design. The effect of three independent parameters, Eudragit S100, PMMA, and PVA, on two dependent responses, particle size and percent drug entrapment, was investigated. Using the Box-behnken design, seventeen nanosponge formulations were created using the quasi-emulsion solvent diffusion technique and Eudragit S-100 (0.2 percent to 0.5 percent w/v), PMMA (0.2 percent to 0.5 percent w/v), and PVA (0.5 percent -1.5 percent w/v). Particle size, percent drug entrapment, shape and surface morphology, drug content determination, and in vitro drug release behaviour were all evaluated in the nanosponge formulations. The generated nanosponge was virtually spherical in form and spongy in character, with particle size 170.45 nm and a drug entrapment percentage of 73.42 percent. Over a 24-hour period, in vitro drug release of optimised formulations was shown to have a maximum drug release of 90.33.3 percent in colonic fluid with 4 percent w/v caecal content. The observed values of several assessment parameters were found to be in close agreement with the projected values using the Design expert programme. The nanosponge formulation obtained using Eudragit S-100 in low concentration, optimum concentration ratio of eudragit: PVA along with low stirring speed showed desired features. The mathematical models were further designed to develop nanosponge with required characteristics.

Open Access Original Research Article

Sensitive and Selective Analytical Method for the Quantification of Two Potential Genotoxic Impurities in Azilsartan Drug Substance by using LC-MS/MS with Multiple Reaction Monitoring (MRM mode)

Chandramohan Alluri, Kiran Kumar Naramsetti, G. Veera Raghava Sharma

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 467-478
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i63A36047

The main aim of the present study to Synthesize,method development and method validation for quantification of two potential genotoxic impurities i.e., Methyl(Z)-2-ethoxy-1-((2'-(N'-hydroxycarbamimidoyl)-[1,1'-biphenyl]-4-yl) methyl)-1H-benzo[d]imidazole-7-carboxylate(Impurity-A) and 2-ethoxy-1-((2'-(N'-hydroxycarbamimidoyl[)-[1,1'-biphenyl]-4-yl)methyl)-1H-benzo[d]imidazole-7-carboxylicacid(Impurity-B) by using LC-MS/MS MRM mode at trace level determination inAzilsartan drug substance. The new LC-MS/MS MRM mode method was developed by using Inertsil ODS-3V 150x4.6mm,5µm column as stationary phase. The mobile phase used is the composition of 10Mm Ammonium formate pH3.00buffer:Acetonitrile(9:1)%v/v as mobilephase-A and 10Mm Ammonium formate pH3.00buffer:Acetonitrile(2:8)%v/v as mobile phase-B, isocratic  elution of mobile phase-A and Mobile phase-B (60:40)v/v at flow rate of 0.8mL/min.The concentration limits of the both genotoxic impurities were calculated a limit of 37.5ppm based on the concept of TTC (threshold of toxicological concern) and MDD (maximum daily dosage which is 40mg/day for Azilsartan drug substance.The limit of detection(LOD) was found to be 1.4ppm for both Impurity-A  and Impurity-B.The limit of quantification(LOQ) for Impurity-A was 4.7ppm and Impurity-B was 4.5ppm respectively The method was found to be linear from 4.7ppm to 78.4ppm for Impurity-A (correlation coefficient:1.000) and 4.5ppm to 75.7ppm for Impurity-B (correlation coefficient:0.999). The method was precise and found percentage of relative standard deviation for six replicate sample preparations of Impurity-A and Impurity-B was below 5.0%. The method accuracy was confirmed based on the recovery studies. Based on the method validation study method was sensitive and selective for quantification both genotoxic impurities.

Open Access Original Research Article

Analytical Method Development and Validation for Estimation of Bedaquiline (BDQ) Using RP-HPLC

Sharma Shubham, Dubey Nitin, Dubey Nidhi

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 479-484
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i63A36048

The United States Food and Drug Administration (USFDA) approved bedaquiline (BDQ) in 2012 for the treatment of drug-resistant tuberculosis, which has become a serious global issue. For the measurement of bedaquiline in bulk medication, a reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) approach was devised and validated. The separation was obtained using a 10mM Ammonium acetate: methanol in the ratio 15:85 v/v (pH adjusted to 4.5 with OPA) as mobile phase at a flow rate of 1.0 ml/min on a Thermo C18 analytical column (250mm4.6 mm i.d.,5.0µ). A UV detector with a 232mm focal length was used for detection. The entire chromatographic analysis time per sample was around 5.0 minutes, with emtricitabine eluting at roughly 3.225minutes retention time. The accuracy, precision, specificity, linearity, and sensitivity of the approach were all tested. Validation studies have shown that this HPLC approach is simple, specific, quick, dependable, and repeatable. The standard curve was linear over the concentration range of 5-25μg/ml with r2 close to one (0.999). Bedaquiline had a limit of detection (LOD) of 0.3525μg/ml and a limit of quantitation (LOQ) of 0.95 25μg/ml, respectively. The suggested method's high recovery and low relative standard deviation show its usefulness for determining bedaquiline in pharmaceutical formulations.

Open Access Original Research Article

Extraction, Phytochemical Screening and Antioxidant Potential of Hydroalcoholic Extract of Aerial Parts of Bauhinia variegata

Amit Kumar Jain, Kavita R. Loksh

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 485-491
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i63A36060

The goals of this research are to screen phytochemicals, perform thin layer chromatography, assess the quantity of phenolic and flavonoid compounds, and measure the antioxidant potential of Bauhinia variegata. The well-known test methodology available in the literature was used to determine the qualitative analysis of various phytochemical elements as well as the quantitative analysis of total phenol and flavonoids. The hydro alcoholic extract of Bauhinia variegata aerial parts was investigated for qualitative and quantitative analyses, as well as antioxidant activity using an in vitro model, namely the 1,1-diphenyl, 2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) assay. The presence of phenols and flavonoids was discovered by phytochemical research. The total phenolic and flavonoid content of Bauhinia variegata hydroalcoholic extract was 1.454 and 1.112mg/100mg, respectively. Ascorbic acid, which was employed as a control, was also assessed for comparison. In the investigated models, the extract demonstrated dose-dependent free radical scavenging activity. Bauhinia variegata aerial parts For the DPPH technique, hydroalcoholic extract had an IC50 value of 60.22g/ml, which was close to that of ascorbic acid (IC50=17.68g/ml). The IC50 value for the hydrogen peroxide technique was determined to be 76.97g/ml, which compares favourably to ascorbic acid (IC50=18.69g/ml). The current study discusses the phytochemical profile, antioxidant activity, and TLC of Bauhinia variegata, which will be employed for medical purposes in the future.

Open Access Original Research Article

Development, Characterization and Evaluation of Lactoferrin Conjugated and Memantine Loaded Peg-Plga Nanoparticles for the Treatment of Alzheimer's Disease

Rashi Jain, Virendra K. Sharma

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 492-497
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i63A36091

Alzheimer's disease is a degenerative neurological condition that has no cure and only a few treatment options. It has a negative impact on one's cognitive and behavioural abilities. Traditional medications, such as acetylcholinesterase inhibitors, are often ineffective because they do not penetrate the blood-brain barrier. Targeted therapy strategies involving nanoparticulate drug delivery devices have been employed to improve the efficacy of Alzheimer's disease treatment. Memantine is an Alzheimer's disease medicine that has been approved for the treatment of mild to moderate symptoms. To boost memantine's action at the target region, we employed a twofold emulsion technique to generate lactoferrin (Lf) combined with biodegradable PEG-PLGA nanoparticles (NPs). The average particle size of the synthesised NPs was 162.60.5 nm, with a polydispersity index of 0.1 and a surface charge of -21.5 mV. The crystalline drug was disseminated within the PLGA matrix, according to the physicochemical characterisation of NPs. During in vitro dissolution studies, the new nanoparticulate formulation displayed a sustained release profile of memantine. The NPs were noncytotoxic to brain cell lines, and bEnd.3 cells had a greater concentration of Lf-NP than unconjugated nanoparticles. The researchers discovered that Lf-conjugated PEG-PLGA nanoparticles carrying memantine are excellent for Alzheimer's disease targeted delivery.

Open Access Original Research Article

Reinforcement of Oral Epithelial Barrier Function by Vitamin D Induction of the Antimicrobial Peptide Cathelicidin. A Novel Therapeutic Approach in Chronic Periodontitis

Aditi Bose, H. N. Santosh

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 511-519
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i63A36095

Introduction: Oral epithelium forms a physical, chemical and immunological barrier against the invading microorganisms. The chemical barrier mainly comprises of anti-microbial peptides (AMPs) like cathelicidins which are endogenously produced antibiotics. Transcription of the cathelicidin anti-microbial peptide (CAMP) gene is induced by binding of the bioactive form of vitamin D to the vitamin D receptor. Thus, an increase in vitamin D should significantly improve the chemical barrier function by increasing AMPs.

Through a randomized controlled trial we tend to explore a well accepted molecule like vitamin D in primary prevention of chronic periodontitis by reinforcing the oral epithelial barrier by increased action of cathelicidin.

Aim of the Study: The aim of this study was to assess the effect of vitamin D administration systemically on levels of cathelicidin LL-37 in gingival crevicular fluid of chronic periodontitis patients.

Methodology: 40 vitamin D insufficient subjects with chronic periodontitis were divided into 2 groups. Gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) sampling was carried out a day after the periodontal examination. Next all patients were subjected to scaling and root planning (SRP). Test group patients were prescribed oral dose of 2000IU Vitamin D daily for a period of 3months whereas control group was devoid of any medication. GCF sampling was repeated for both the groups after three months. Cathelicidin LL-37 level was estimated using Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA)method for both the groups.

Results: Vitamin D administration increases the levels of cathelicidin in periodontal diseases. Cathelicidin levels in GCF increase after Vitamin D intake.

Conclusion: Periodontal diseases might be prevented by reinforcing the oral epithelial barrier (chemical barrier) by vitamin D induced production of AMPs.

Open Access Review Article

Relapse, Recurrence and Re-infection with SARS-Cov-2 after Recovery from COVID-19

Reetika Malwa, Sarika U. Dakhode, Sonali Rode

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 28-35
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i63A35209

This review article throws light upon the frequency of patients that are coming out to be re-positive even after complete remission from the illness, and also what can be the possible causes for the same, and how to prevent such cases and management of such patients. This is important study because usually people once getting cured from the disease are in a mindset that they wont be infected again, so even the preventive measures are neglected by the population, so understanding this would make people more aware about the personal prevenyion and how to keep themselves safe during the pandemic.

The whole world is in pain due to increase of number of cases and deaths due to novel corona virus (called COVID-19) which came upon in late 2019 in Wuhan city, in China. This viral entity causes a variety of symptoms that range from mild illness to moderate illness. Breathing difficulties and death occur in very severe cases. The most common earliest manifestation include fever, cough, cold, myalgia, chest pain, diarrhoea and headache. This disease is mainly spread through respiratory droplets which are brought about a person who is infected when he or she coughs, sneezes, or exhales.

For SARS-CoV-2, the timing, size, and duration of humoral immunity are unknown. However, understanding this is critical in order to predict the pandemic's expected future dynamics, to guide methods for allowing social distancing measures to be relaxed, and to understand as to how to deploy the vaccine doses for achieving the maximum impact.

So, since this disease is wrecking homes all over the world. There comes a necessity to be able to know about it at the earliest and effectively treating the patients by various drug modalities. Many studies are being done on the same. Tests for detecting coronavirus infection include RT-PCR, Rapid Antigen Testing, Antibodies testing, Chest Xray and some blood markers like CRP, D-dimer, LFT, KFT, Immunoglobulins etc. And with the upcoming testing options there also has been reports of reinfection or basically repeat RT-PCR test coming out to be positive after the recovery of the previous infection.

According to many studies, it is found that RT-PCR coming out to be positive in patients that have recovered from the disease. This article aims to conduct a review that will summarize the epidemiological as well as clinical characteristics of these patients and also know about the possible explanations for these kind of recurrences, the contagiousness of re-positive SARS-CoV-2 virus, and the management ofCOVID-19 patients after they are discharged from the hospital.

Open Access Review Article

Adverse Drug Reactions in Terms of Dentistry

Yogita Dangara, Kumar Gaurav Chabbra

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 36-41
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i63A35210

There is a wide range of drugs and their clinical applications that can cause adverse drug reactions (ARD) due to dose, duration, age, and gender. Drugs like ACE inhibitors, which can cause xerostomia, lichen planus, which is caused by NSAIDs and anti hypertensive drugs, ulceration, pigmentation, and osteonecrosis are not only caused by bisphosphonates but also antiangiogenic agents, and malignancy is targeted by rapamycin in the oral cavity. Changes in taste sensation, angioedema, and infection are also some of the side effects of drugs that have been reported. Immunosuppressed patients show more advanced and complex lesions. A clinician shouldn look for adverse effects of medicine.

Open Access Review Article

A Thorough Literature Evaluation of Orthodontic Therapy in Periodontitis Prone Patients

Madiha Rahim, Bhairavi Kale

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 42-48
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i63A35211

The goal is to look through the literature for clinical scientific facts on the impact of orthodontic treatment on periodontal status in periodontitis prone people. The effects of orthodontic banded attachments on periodontal disease and, more particularly, the bacteria present at the gingival edges, are examined in this paper.

This is a review focuses on important advancements in orthodontic methods and microbiological advances that have aided in the clarification of orthodontic appliance interrelationships and gum disease (periodontitis). Suggestions for how they may be improved are given, as well. As well as focusing study on specific regions. This review focuses on interrelation between malocclusion and periodontal diseases and relationship between periodontal diseases and accumulation of bacterial film around the orthodontic appliances which leads to periodontal changes or gum diseases. Study focuses on issues caused due to orthodontic bands and the focuses and shows the gingival changes caused by the orthodontic appliances. It also shows the microbiology responsible of the periodontal diseases caused. The main objective of the study is to evaluate the prevalence of gum diseases in patients with malocclusions and patients with corrected malocclusion with the help of orthodontic appliances. The review also focuses on how to prevent periodontal diseases during orthodontic correction. And shares the measures taken to prevent periodontal diseases during orthodontic corrections. The specificity of the cause and effect is explained in the below given review article. The specific issue caused by the orthodontic appliance is well explained in the review article.

Open Access Review Article

A Review on Solubility Enhancement by Solid Dispersion Technique

Anchal Sharma, Amit Chaudhary, Bhupendra Singh

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 77-87
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i63A35217

Approximately 30% of drug are lipophilic from all the newly discovered drug molecules and thus because of poor aqueous solubility fails to reach the market. In systemic circulation for achieving the desired therapeutic response solubility is one of the rate-limiting factors for orally administered drugs. The major challenge for the formulation scientist is to overcome the problem of solubility which can be achieved by using various technical approaches for the formulation product development. For enhancing the solubility of drugs Solid dispersion, micronization, and salt formation are some of the necessary approaches employed for enhancing the solubility of poorly soluble drugs and each approach has its merits and limitations. To deliver poorly soluble drugs novel technologies like Nanosuspension, Supercritical processing, and Cryogenic technologies may have various major opportunities. For the formulation development of new drug solubility behavior of any drug can be the most challenging aspect. The current review is focused on the solid dispersion technique for enhancement of solubility of drug which will be a novel technique for enhancing the solubility to diminish the amount of poorly soluble drug candidates eliminated from development and its characterization.

Open Access Review Article

A Review on Therapeutic Application of CRISPR/Cas9 for HIV

Chinmaya Mallick, Navneet Kaur, Neelam Thakur, Pankaj Mehta

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 98-106
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i63A35220

Despite the significant progress that has been made in the battle against HIV-1, the virus remains a major threat to global health. Since it can only be suppressed with the utilization of highly active antiretroviral therapy, it remains a challenge to prevent the flow of the infection. According to UNAIDS, only 70% of individuals with HIV are diagnosed and only 53% are treated. This means that 44% of the tainted people have undetectable viral load. Despite the efforts made by various governments and private organizations, the battle against HIV infection remains a challenge that requires a comprehensive approach. The fast rise and evolution of technologies that enable the modification of qualities at the DNA level has raised hopes for an end to the epidemic. Through the employment of endonucleases, we've been able to build exact changes in DNA of being cells. The capacity to alter the outflow of the HIV gene by replicating the LTR promoter played vital role. If the promoter is edited, then the impact of viral transcription might be suppressed. Using aa more limited form of the nuclease Cas9, the evacuation of crucial parts of the infective agent ordering was with success performed in HIV transgenic mice. The outcomes showed that the decrease of HIV-RNA was significant in all examined tissues and circulating lymphocytes. (Kaminski et al. Gene Ther2016; 23:690-5). This review objective is to summarise the work of eminent researcher on the utilization of CRISPR-Cas’squality treatment for the treatment of HIV-1.

Open Access Review Article

Role of Herbals as Immunity Boosters in the Management of COVID-19

. Shivani, Ritika Puri

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 113-122
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i63A35222

The review mainly focuses on various herbs that can be used for the enhancement of immunity amidst COVID-19 pandemic. Coronavirus comes under the viruses that are capable of causing common cold, raising the temperatures and also can result in severe acute respiratory syndrome. The major threat to public health is caused due to the emerging infections such as SARS.

Novel Coronavirus or COVID-19 has spread across various countries and been declared as a ‘pandemic’ by the World Health Organization. Basically, coronavirus affects the individuals which have low immunity. However, one can adopt various herbs that can increase the amount of intestinal beneficial bacteria and can make up 85% of the immune system of the body. So, making use of such herbs one can very effectively promote health and boost immunity to fight against the virus attack. Also, the plants based play a major role in boosting the immunity and preventing the individuals from catching COVID-19 infections.

Open Access Review Article

Monograph on COVID-19 Vaccines: A Review

Rajaseger Nirmal Kumar, A. S. Arunkumar, Laya Mahadevan

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 230-247
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i63A35240

In this monograph various types of vaccines available in the market and the future of vaccination in relation to COVID-19 will be discussed in detail. The design and production of vaccines to combat SARS-CoV-2 were mostly directed towards the surface exposed spike glycoprotein. Modena (mRNA-1273) COVID-19 vaccine was approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) on 18 Dec 2020 under Emergency Use Authorization (EUA). BNT162b2is a lipid nanoparticle encapsulated, nucleoside modified mRNA vaccine the encodes for the perfusion spike glycoprotein present in SARS-CoV-2. The act of proceeding to approve vaccines before Phase III trials, have installed doubt and vaccine hesitancy. This further impedes the process of vaccination thereby slowing the chance of the entire world getting vaccinated. The only way to protect oneself from being seriously ill and hospitalized is by following social distancing and getting vaccinated as early as possible. Despite, the lack of cold chain storage in certain regions, there are a variety of vaccines available to help negotiate this obstacle. More research and efforts will be poured into COVID-19 pandemic as we work towards a universal vaccine that will be effective against all the variants of SARS-CoV-2 and help eradicate the virus from the face of the earth.

Open Access Review Article

Automated Blood Analysers and Their Testing Principles: A Comparative Study

N. V. Hemanth Ragav, Palati Sinduja, R. Priyadharshini

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 294-301
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i63A35633

Computerized hematology analyzers are the absolute most significant instruments in the present clinical laboratory.  Hematology analyzers are the principal supplies in clinical labs. A very good quality, high-volume analyzers convey dependable red platelet checks, platelet tallies, and 5-section differentials of white platelets, recognizing lymphocytes, monocytes, neutrophils, eosinophils, and basophils. CELL-DYN SapphireTM is a very good quality hematology analyzer made by Abbott Technologies. The UniCel® DxH 800 Analyzer is a quantitative, automated hematology analyzer developed for use in clinical laboratories for in vitro diagnostic screening of patient populations. XE-5000 is an automated hematology analyzer used in clinical laboratories for in vitro diagnostic. XE-5000 can examine and can give output for 67 parameters. The XN-2000 platform combines two investigative components that can be customized to suit a specific clinical application. Without the need for large track-based structures, costly stains, or reflexive testing, the ADVIA® 2120i Hematology Machine will fully simplify your hematology lab. Photometry is the method used in hemoglobin measurement. The traditional method for counting cells is electrical impulse, otherwise called as Coulter Principle. It is used in most hematology analyzers. In optical light scatter measurement, through a diluted blood spectrum a beam of laser light is passed and that is projected into the flow cell by hydrodynamic focusing. This review aimed to overview the working principle of various Hematological analyzers in common use.

Open Access Review Article

Overview on Post-Inflammatory Hyperpigmentation

Abdulrahman M. Albahlool, Omar Khalid M. Alshehri, Saeed Mohammed Alrasheed, Muzaynah Abdullah Al Ali, Abdullah Owaidh R. Al Sharif

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 393-399
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i63A35864

Post inflammatory hyperpigmentation (PIH) can affect people of all skin colours, but it is more common in people of colour, such as African Americans, Hispanics/Latinos, Asians, Native Americans, Pacific Islanders, and those of Middle Eastern descent. There is no distinction between men and women. In darker-skinned acne sufferers, the prevalence of PIH might reach 65 percent. Many studies have demonstrated that topical retinoids, especially in darker skin types, can be beneficial in treating PIH associated with acne. However, Hydroquinone is still a go-to treatment for melasma and hyperpigmentation, and it's commonly referred to as the "gold standard." triple combination fixed treatment has also become a common intervention, with evidence showing that the combination is more successful than hydroquinone monotherapy. In this review article we will be looking at PIH etiology, epidemiology, different treatment options as well as the effectiveness of each medication.

Open Access Review Article

Assessment of Drug Dependence in Neonates Due to Intra-Uterine Drug Exposure- Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome

Arundhati Pande, Shailesh Nagpure

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 405-412
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i63A35900

A female, during her pregnancy, if consumes drugs exposes her fetus to the drug in its intra-uterine life. Once the drug enters the body, it sends information from VTA to the nucleus accumbens and then to the prefrontal cortex, activating the reward center in the brain. The fetus is exposed to this drug passing through the placenta. The drug binds to the mu receptors and causes hyperpolarisation of receptors. As a result, there is an increase in levels of dopamine. Due to this repetitive cycle, the fetal brain interprets these increased dopamine levels as resting dopamine levels. After delivery, the baby is now no longer under the drug influence. Due to abrupt cessation, the body cannot cope and undergoes withdrawal symptoms; this condition is known as “Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome (NAS).”  The baby shows various symptoms like crankiness, irritation, loud crying, fever, jaundice, tremors, etc. The baby is treated with medicines that the same drug family is exposed to during intrauterine life, such as buprenorphine and methadone. The doses are given to help the infant adjust to the abrupt stoppage of the drug, gradually decreasing the dosage to help wean off the drug. Early and timely treatment with close observation of both the infant and the mother is crucial.

Open Access Review Article

Pattern-based Approach to the Interpretation of Skeletal Muscle Biopsies

Apoorva Kumar Agarwal, Samarth Shukla, Sourya Acharya

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 413-419
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i63A35901

Muscle excisional is a very persistently complete and programmed idiosyncratic repetition, accomplished by many doctors all over the globe who treat sufferers presumed to be caused by the muscular disorder. Muscle excisional is vital in giving a particular reason for various neuromuscular disorders. Excisional results habitually give us the convinced sum of clues that the given pathological syndrome is of the neurogenic or myopathic source. Tertiary care hospitals are highly specialized medical care units and have advanced medical instruments, procedures, and treatment done in a state of the art and good facilities. Tertiary care hospitals have modern treatment technology. The causality or emergencies of these hospitals is mostly road traffic accident and severe traumas. Treatment is done in the tertiary care center. It is more accurate and finely done than other hospitals and care units. In lower-income countries, the estimated cost is roughly is 1-2% of countries gross. India is among the developing nations that experience the highest rate of road accidents attending casualty in the tertiary care center. Inefficient road traffic accidents cause a massive impact on the country’s socio-economic development. The overall tertiary care center is best for treatment for a road accident. Road traffic accident problems arise due to poor road construction and improper traffic rules while driving. The muscle excisional usually provides valuable hints on the data on the course of the syndrome (acute or chronic) and tells us the phase of the ailment and its development nearby. Different muscle excisional outcomes, which involve histochemical and ultrastructural analyses, are very useful in diagnosing muscular dystrophies, glycogenosis, inflammatory myopathies, and congenital myopathies. Even if the practice is straightforward and not much complicated, the clinician wants to map in advance, recognize a squad, establish if most experts are required and conclude how a lot of cloth will be required for giving out, and then administer the collected works and liberation of the tissues to avert relic and make the surreal evaded class outcome. Finally, maintain high-quality statement and well-built functioning associations with surgeons, dispensation, and orientation labs. The neuropathologist will certify the thoroughgoing worth penalties and liver mainstream categorization from a muscle excisional. This review article demonstrates the clues that a muscle excisional delivers; it also delivers a step-by-step checkbook describing the various aspects of the muscle excisional and its procedure.

Open Access Review Article

Effect of Diet on Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

Aditi Mishra, Avinash Padale, Tamana Manwani, Anil Wanjari, Sourya Acharya

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 427-436
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i63A35903

Non - alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is instantaneously progressing to the commonest and dangerous liver disease, with a diverse variety of fat-liver diseases that can progress to extreme hepatic disorders and cirrhosis. Inflammatory processes influence aetiologia of non-alcoholic fatty liver disorder. There is presently zero agreement on how to manage NAFLD with medication. However, the foundation of NAFLD care is behavioral modifications focused on the workout and a well-balanced diet for both volume and quality. The Mediterranean diets (MD), high in omega-3s, polyphenolic compounds, vitamins, and carotenoid products, are helpful in reducing heart disease risk due to their generally pro-anti-oxidant properties. MD has had a massive impact on lowering the dangers of metabolic disorders in adulthood. Nevertheless, there is little research on its impact on the diet in aged and juvenile NAFLD patients. As a result, the motive of a thoroughly comprehensive survey is to examine the existing clinical data on the influence of MD in patients with NAFLD and outline the possible major mechanisms of MD ingredients on this disease. NAFLD encompasses a broad array of diseases associated with the hepatic system, from basic steatosis to hepatic necrosis and inflammation culminating in NASH. Although the frequency of such multimodal illnesses is steadily rising in the community, there is currently no clear therapeutic strategy other than maintaining an appropriate body weight and modifying the standard of living plus behaviors, like calorie-restricted foods and burning calories with proper workout plans. According to this approach, several dietary bioactive and eating practices are beneficial for correcting and avoiding the beginning of various illnesses.

Open Access Review Article

The Impact of Physical Activity on the Psychological Welfare during the COVID-19 Pandemic- A Review Article

Amit Tandel, Nikhil Dhande

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 437-443
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i63A35904

The COVID-19 epidemic and its accompanying public health limitations are having a growing negative influence on mental health, and steps must be done to reverse this trend. Although there is a well-established link between physical activity and mental health, space and facilities for physical activity are restricted during the COVID-19 epidemic because of different constraints. Based on the most recent study findings released in 2019–2021, this article investigates the association between physical activity and mental health during the COVID-19 pandemic. First, physical activities during COVID-19, particularly supervised activities, are beneficial to happiness and mental health. Second, during the COVID-19 epidemic, physical activity decreases people's anxiety, melancholy, and despair. Third, the intensity and frequency of physical activity are linked to mental health maintenance and improvement. Physical activity that is both intense and frequent is beneficial to mental health. Finally, this study suggests crucial research directions for the future. The corona crisis has handicapped all of us in more than one way and we had to force ourselves to live within the rigid norms the government had pushed upon us. The tight lockdown, the strict curfews, the curbing of any sort of dopamine-releasing factor. All of this made us feel like we were inmates in an institution, and the feeling of helplessness crept in despite the elaborate measures the government took to make us feel that this was for the ‘greater good of our communities. The lockdown made us all couch potatoes endlessly switching channels on our television, scrolling on our exuberant number of social media applications or reading the same news over and over again, keeping track of the extent of the spread of the deadly virus hoping to find something worth spending our already wasted time on. In time this has opened a portal to which we never batted an eye and made us realize how precious our freedom is to us. This article is a small glimpse of how precious our bodily movements are to us, however minuscule or ordinary they might be.

Open Access Review Article

Malnutrition in Congenital Heart Disease

Aditya Musale, Shantanu Gomase

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 444-450
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i63A35905

Congenital heart disease accounts for nearly twenty-eight percent of all the major congenital malformations, posing a significant global health problem. Prevalence of both cyanotic and acyanotic varies from 0.7 to 5.3/1000 patients in community-based study while hospital-based study statistics range between 3.9 and 26.4/1000 live births. The increase in birth rate and the requirement of surgical and non-surgical intervention makes it a high and challenging need task for emerging nations like India, where the framework isn't created at the  root level. In this population a high prevalence of malnutrition is seen especially in infants. In the era of high survival rates, nutrition provides opportunity for development, growth optimization and a better standard of living. The morbidity & mortality associated  malnutrition in infant with congenital heart disease can be reduced by early diagnosis / optimum treatment. Approximately half of the pediatric age population suffering from Congenital Heart Disease (CHD) are found to be malnourished where the most  of the affected factor is found to be weight worse than height. The various contributory factors for malnutrition in CHD patients are cyanosis, heart defects, heart failure, pulmonary hypertension, anemia, and delayed corrective surgery. Early and Timely diagnosis is crucial as most congenital heart disorders can be corrected if apt intervention is provided, leading to better prognosis. Decreased caloric requirement , reduction in prevalence of respiratory tract infection, and better absorption will lead to early normalization of their malnourishment. The major studies done in the recent past have focused on the mechanism of failure of growth in patients suffering from congenital heart malformation or on the modalities for improvement of growth of children with congenital heart disease. The severity and frequency of malnutrition associated with congenital heart diseases has not been focused on in the past decades.

Open Access Review Article

Human Sperm Cryopreservation- A Review

Balachandran Sivaraja Ganesan, G. Sumathy

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 460-466
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i63A36045

Cryopreservation (CP) was first introduced sometime in the 1960s and since then process of CP of human sperm has been one of the effective procedures with respect to male fertility used in variety of cases prior to treatment for preserving donor and participant sperm cells prior to reproduction therapies like ART (Assisted Reproductive Therapy/Technology). CP of sperm is a common procedure for the people who are in condition like infertility due to ejaculation issues, infections, undescended testicles, hormonal imbalance etc., Several literatures are there on whether CP impacts sperm chromosomal integrity or the usage of a specific and unique freezing-thawing strategy. The purpose of this article is to discuss and bring to focus the effects of freezing and thawing on human spermatozoa and the changes in Acrosome integrity, mitochondria, DNA integrity, and plasma membrane integrity. In this age of technological advancements, after being used to treat infertility, CP acquired popularity in human medicine. It improves the effectiveness of assisted reproductive treatments by allowing all retrieved and/or fertilised cells to be saved for later use. Couples who conceive during their first treatment cycle can donate their unused frozen embryos to research under the CP programme. It enables people who are losing their fertility to maintain their reproductive cells and, in the future, conceive via assisted methods. It can be used by women who want to postpone childbirth or have a family history of early menopause. Similarly, the varied usage in critical applications makes CP the need of the hour.

Open Access Review Article

A Review on Antiurolithiatic (Pashanabeda) Effects of Herbal and Marine Resources

T. Nageswari, K. Swathi

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 498-510
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i63A36096

Urolithiasis (urinary calculi) is stone development in bladder, urinary tract and kidney. The rise in frequency and occurrence of kidney stones is talking point all over the world. 12% of the global population suffer from urinary stone formation. The phenomenon effect of urolithiasis is lowered by using the pashanabeda elements. Pashanabeda (Pashan: stone; bheda: to break) is a Sanskrit locution which implies the breakage of stone. The adverse reactions caused due to man made drugs has prompted to rejoin with the natural safe medication. The evolution of plant-based therapeutics has shown terrific notice and demand as an modernistic drug entities all over the sphere. The present review aims the investigators to easily identify and develop plant and marine resources beneficial in management of urolithiasis.