Open Access Case Report

Sellar and Supra-sellar Mass Lesion Imaging Consistent Pituitary Macroadenoma In 70 Year Old Woman: A Case Report

Prakash Bhoyar, Suhas Tivaskar, Akash More, Anurag Luharia

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 501-508
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i62A35685

Background: In the sellar region, pituitary tumors are frequent. Clinically evident pituitary lesions account for around 10% of all intracranial lesions, whereas incidental pituitary tumors are found in about 11% of people. Benign adenomas are the most common kind of pituitary tumor. These adenomas are generally tiny when they appear first and manifest early as a hormonal imbalance occurs due to overproduction. A commonly used treatment for adenomas is the excision of the tumor. If metastasis occurs, chemotherapy/radiotherapy can be used. The most common complication of pituitary adenoma is transient or permanent diabetes insipid us, CSF rhinorrhea, or visual field defects.

Case Presentation: We herein present an interesting case of a 70-year-old female patient of the department of neurosurgery. A patient came on an outpatient basis with a clinical history of severe headache in the last 15 days, blurring of vision in bilateral eyes, diplopia and fainting in the previous 8-10 days, fever (on and off) in the past 8 days. The diagnosis was done with the help of CT and MRI scan imaging and treated with excision of adenoma. Many malignancies can be prevented by making specific lifestyle modifications (such as staying at a healthy weight or quitting smoking). However, no known outside risk factors have been associated with pituitary tumors. As a result, at this moment, there is no known strategy to avoid these adenomas other than early intervention.

Conclusion: A case of sellar and supra-sellar mass lesion-imaging consistent with pituitary macroadenoma in 70-year-old women managed with a multicentric approach. Genetic counseling and psychological assistance should be provided to the members of the family. The presenting with pituitary adenoma is part of a genetic condition. With further information on adenohypophyseal cytodifferentiation pathways, the classification of these cancer  is expected to improve in the future.

Open Access Case Study

Impact of Ingudi (Balanites aegyptiaca Linn. Delile) Seed oil on Prameha Pidika (Diabetic Carbuncle): A Case Study

Sanjeev Kumar, Satyanam Kumar Bhartiya, Kamal Nayan Dwivedi

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 177-181
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i62A35195

Background: We gone a thorough the literature the use of medicinal plants and plant-based products for topical ulcers and discovered the natural products and its derivatives account for more than half of all medications taken globally today.

Case Presentation: A fifty-eight-year-old gentleman of middle socioeconomic status developed a carbuncle on right side of the nape of the neck with firm edge and a necrotic fowl smelling slough on the floor. Despite his attempts to treat the carbuncle at home and nearby allopathic physicians "it continued to enlarge and fester" (became inflamed and suppurated). The patient was visited the Trauma Surgery Out Patient Department (OPD), Banaras Hindu University (BHU) Trauma center & Super specialty Hospital, Institute of Medical Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, India, and, following surgical incision and drainage. ET nurse consultation for regular dressing but wound did not show the progressive healing, patient was referred to the Ayurvedic OPD wing of Banaras Hindu University for Ayurvedic management. Sushruta used Ingudi oil for the management of vitiated/chronic wounds. This case study aims to anticipate the clinical efficacy of Ingudi seed oil in the treatment of chronic diabetic wounds without causing any side effect, which is a complex type of Diabetic carbuncle (Prameha pidika).

Conclusion: Ingudi seed oil has prompt healing properties against diabetic wounds. Ingudi seed oil is natural, safe, and cost-effective material used in chronic diabetic wounds (Prameha pidika).

Open Access Case Study

A Case Report on Primary Infertility

Aishwaraya Vaidya, Pooja Kasturkar, Trupti Uke, Kavita Gomase, Jaya Gawai, Seema Singh, Savita Pohekar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 182-185
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i62A35196

Introduction: All womens want to become mothers. Infertility is defined as unable to or failure to conceive within one or more years of regular unprotected coitus. Primary infertility denotes patients who have never conceived.

Clinical Findings: The main symptom of primary infertility is the inability to get pregnant. A menstrual cycle is not continued. That's too long (35 days or more), too short (less than 21 days), irregular or absent results of patients not ovulating. Late menstrual cycle, pain in menstrual cycle, infertility, there might be no other signs or symptoms.

Diagnostic Evaluation: serological test, semen test in her husband, sonography, hysteroscopy, laparoscopy.

Investigation of BHCG value: BHCG value greater than 25 indicates positive results.

Therapeutic Intervention: Inj. Chorion(Human chorionic gonadotropin) 500 IU, Inj. Filgastrium(Neupogen) 300IU every third day, Inj. Lomoh 20mg Alternate day, Tab. Esrobet 2mg×TDS, Tab. Ecosprin 150mg×OD.

Outcomes: After In-vitro fertilization treatment patients show improvement. Patients can be pregnant,with the help of In-vitro fertilization treatment.

Conclusion: My patient was admitted in gynaecology ward no. 08, AVBRH (Acharya Vinoba Bhave Rural Hospital) with case of primary infertility and complaints of infertility, late menstrual cycle and repeated abortion after IVF (In-vitro fertilization) treatment patient condition improved  and got pregnant. ET(Embryo transfer)  was done on 15/11/2021.

Open Access Case Study

Case Report on Hypertension in Elderly Patients

Anjali Tripathi, Pooja Kasturkar, Kavita Gomase, Jaya Gawai, Trupti Uke, Jaya Khandar, Sonali Kolhekar, Vaishali Tembhare

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 186-189
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i62A35197

Introduction:  The other name of high blood pressure is hypertension. Blood pressure is the force exerted by person against wall of blood vessels. Normal value of blood pressure is 120/80 mmHg. Hypertension increases with increasing in age. It can cause various health complications like stroke, heart diseases and affect psychological health and sometimes cause death.

Clinical Findings: Chest pain, not having proper sleep, headache, irregular heart beat, loss of appetite, fatigue, anxiety, lack of coping ability.

Diagnostic Evaluation: After performing various kinds of the investigations the result is Hb% - 12.9 gm%, Total RBC Count – 4.6 millions/cumm, Total WBC count – 14500 millions/cumm, Monocytes – 2%, Granulocytes – 56%, Lymphocytes – 40%. Blood pressure – 160/100.

Therapeutic Intervention: Inj. Pantroprazole 40 mg IV x OD, Inj Emset 4 mg IV x TDS,  Inj. Levoflox 500 mg IV x OD, Tab Amlo  5 mg orally x OD, Tab Zincovit 5mg orally x OD, Tab. Orotex XT 10 mg orally xOD.

Outcome: After treatment there was improvement in my patients condition such as relief from Chest pain, Insomnia, irregular heartbeat, Headache. Increase in nutrition pattern and was and was able to cope up with the normal life stressors. The elevated blood pressure which was 160/100 was under the normal condition it was 120/80 mmHg.

Conclusion:  My Patient was admitted in Female Medicine ward no 23, AVBRH with known case of Hypertension and she had complains of Chest pain, Headache, loss of appetite, Insomnia. After getting proper treatment her condition was improved.

Open Access Case Study

A Case Report of USG Guided Spinal Anaesthesia in a Patient with Kyphoscoliosis

Sheetal Madavi, Kota Sneha, Neeta Verma, Nikhil Akhijom, Jui Jadhav

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 190-193
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i62A35199

Patients with spine abnormalities like kyphoscoliosis are very much challenging for the spinal anaesthesia. We report an interesting and challenging case of thoracolumbar kyphoscoliosis patient posted for supra pubic catheterization. We planned to do USG guided spinal anaesthesia. Lumbar vertebra and intervertebral spaces of the patient were scanned with help of ultrasound.  For spinal access L2-L3 interveretebral space through which dura can be observed is selected. Patient had good spinal effect and procedure is uneventful. This case demonstrates that spinal anesthesia performed under the guidance of ultrasonography will be successful in case of severe kyphoscoliosis.

Open Access Study Protocol

Evaluation of Effectiveness of Platelet Rich Fibrin Matrix (PRFM) Membrane and Platelet Rich Fibrin (PRF) Membrane using Vestibular Incision Subperiosteal Tunnel Access (VISTA) Approach Technique for the Treatment of Multiple Gingival Recession Defects in Humans – A Study Protocol

Safiya Hassan, P. V. Dhadse

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 9-15
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i62A35143

Background: To evaluate the effectiveness of Platelet Rich Fibrin Matrix (PRFM) membrane and Platelet Rich Fibrin (PRF) membrane using Vestibular Incision Subperiosteal Tunnel Access (VISTA) Approach method for the management of multiple gingival recession (GR) defects in humans.

Methodology: 20 subjects with gingival recession will be enrolled. 10 patient will be randomly allotted to test group (PRFM membrane) or control group (PRF membrame). Primary outcome will be gain in root coverage (RC) and secondary outcome will be Plaque index (PI), Papillary bleeding index (PBI), probing pocket depth (PPD), relative attachment level (RAL), relative gingival margin level (RGML), recession depth (RD), gingival thickness (GT) and width of keratinized gingiva (WKG). Clinical evaluation will be performed at 3 & 6 months of therapy.

Expected Results: When all the parameters will be compared at 6 months post-operatively to baseline data, both the treatment group (test and control) will be expected to show significant gain in RC, RAL gain, PPD reduction, decrease in RD, increase in GT and WKG. PRFM membrane will result in significant gain in RC, RAL gain, PPD reduction, and decrease in reduction depth, increase in GT and WKG at 6 months when compared to PRF membrane.

Conclusion: PRFM membrane will be effectual in management of gingival recession. PRFM membrane is expected to have significantly greater outcome as compared to PRF membrane group.

Open Access Study Protocol

Comparative Evaluation of Efficacy of Modified Ashmaghnasveda (Stone Therapy) and Choornapindasveda in Management of Katigraha (Lumbar spondylosis)

Anup Jain, Punam Sawarkar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 23-31
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i62A35145

Background: Katigraha is one of the most common illnesses affecting the Kati area, in which Vata gets are unbalanced in their own sthana (seat), resulting in Graha (stiffness) and Ruja (pain). Lumbar Spondylosis is a disease that causes back discomfort caused by spine movement and is accompanied by rigidity. Ashmaghnasveda is a key svedana treatment that helps with vataja, particularly Sama vataja and vatakaphaja illnesses. In this project, a structurally modified form of Ashmaghnasveda will be employed to produce ekangasveda. The goal of this study was to assess the efficacy of modified Ashmaghnasveda (stone therapy) and churnapindasveda in the treatment of Katigraha (lumbar spondylosis).

Methodology: A total of 64 patients will be enrolled, and they will be evenly divided into two groups. Modified Ashmaghnasveda will be performed for 14 days in GroupA(Interventional). Churnapindasveda will be performed for 14 days in GroupB (comparator group). Expected Results: The objective parameters will be monitored and documented as they change. Conclusion: Based on the information gathered, conclusions will be reached.

Open Access Study Protocol

Comparison of I-gel and Laryngeal Mask Airway Proseal for Clinical Performance in Short Surgical Procedures under General Anaesthesia: A Study Protocol

Kiranmai Chidipothu, Neeta Choudhary (Verma)

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 65-71
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i62A35151

Background: Maintenance of proper airway is one of the most critical duties of an anesthetist during surgical and operative procedures. Facemask and endotracheal tube are traditionally used for airway delivery and maintenance. Supraglottic airway devices(SAD) became a normal fixture in managing airway.  I-gel is novel supraglottic device, which is thermoelastic, single use, disposable material. This study compares the Supraglottic Airway Devices I-gel & Laryngeal Mask Airway Proseal in clinical performance in short surgical procedures under general anaesthesia.

Methodology: This Prospective observational  comparative study will be conducted at Dept. of Anesthesia, AVBRH, Wardha. 60 patients will be enrolled and randomized in two groups. In Group I,  I-gel will be used whereas in Group P, Proseal LMA will be used for spontaneous ventilation during short General anaesthesia procedures. Data will be compiled and statistical analysis will be done by using appropriate  statistical tests.

Expected Results: I-gel can be expected to be superior in terms of attempts  and duration needed  for insertion,  hemodynamic stability, and post-operative complications compared to Proseal LMA.

Conclusion: I-gel proves to be superior to PLMA regarding insertion ease and other operational issues.

Open Access Study Protocol

Three Dimensional (3D) Assesment of Clubfoot

Rahul Chaudhary, Nitin Samal, Sanjeev Chaudhary

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 118-122
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i62A35158

Background: The congenital talipes equinovarus (CTEV) or clubfoot is one of the most common and complex congenital deformities and is a completely reversible condition with timely and appropriate treatment.  The aim of this study is to perform three dimensional assessments for clubfoot to evaluate the initial severity of the clubfoot and to monitor the structural changes in clubfoot after each casting intervention.

Methods:  A Comparative Experimental Prospective Study conducted from October 2019 to October 2021 for a period of 2 year in the Department of Orthopaedics, JNMC & AVBRH.  The 3D scanning using Kinect 3D scanner is performed weekly before each casting.  Pirani Score and 3D assessment at different time periods are considered as primary outcome variables.

Results: In this study we will get to know the severity of club foot after each casting interval and the structural changes can the evaluated in foot of patient to quantify the extent of disease and the improvement after treatment protocol

Conclusion: Our study primarily tries to evaluate clubfoot by using 3D scanner and get the quantification of the disease 

Open Access Study Protocol

Estimating the Diagnostic Accuracy of High Sensitive C- Reactive Protein (hs-CRP) in Early Detection of Neonatal Sepsis

Shikha Muringathery Kakkat, Sham Lohiya

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 509-516
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i62A35686

Background:  Neonatal sepsis is a critical issue and if sepsis in neonates is diagnosed early by reliable tests, we can avoid unwanted administration of higher antibiotics, reduce the expenses of hospital care and also prevent emergence of bacterial strains that are resistance to antibiotics. Detecting neonatal sepsis in its earlier stage is still difficult as it presents as a variety of symptoms that could also classify many other disorders. Early onset sepsis presents within 72 hours of birth.  This study aims to measure the efficacy of high sensitive CRP (hs-CRP) in early diagnosis of neonatal sepsis.

Methodology: This prospective cross sectional study will be conducted at AVBRH, Wardha. Two serial measurements of hs-CRP will be taken and values will be correlated with respect to other conventional screening markers.  CRP and hs-CRP levels in these populations will be studied and compared to assess sensitivity, specificity and observed cut off values for the same. The neonates will be followed up during hospital stay till discharge and outcome will be noted and all data will be collected. Data analysis will be done at the end using appropriate statistical methods.

Expected Results: In our study we expect hs-CRP to be more sensitive in predicting neonatal sepsis as compared to conventional markers like CRP, Septic screen. We expect hs-CRP to be a better predictor in diagnosing sepsis so that we can intervene early and reduce morbidity and hospital stay.

Conclusion: Inclusion of hs-CRP as part of routine screening of neonates for sepsis can be recommended.

Open Access Minireview Article

A Comprehensive Review on Therapeutic Perspectives of Morinda citrifolia (Indian Noni) to Combat Cancer

U. Vidhya Rekha, S. Bhuminathan, P. Ravi Shankar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 272-278
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i62A35538

Back ground: Indian Noni (Morinda citrifolia L.) is a large shrub or small evergreen tree, also known as Indian mulberry. It is a medicinal plant that has been used as conventional medicine and food additives for a long time. As a drug, plant bioactivity is attributed to its secondary metabolites. M.citrifolia has very rich nutrients and consists of over 100 varieties of chemical compounds which have been isolated so far from the plant. In disorders such as skin ailments, respiratory infections, gastritis, menstrual, abortion, diabetes, and venereal diseases, it also shows beneficial effects.

Materials and Methods: The relation of noni juice or its extract (fruit, leaves or root) to anticancer and/or immunostimulant properties was investigated in this study. A Medline quest was performed along with cross-referencing using the main search terms 'Morinda citrifolia and cancer'.

Results: According to our search results for scientific studyM. citrifolia is used in literature for more than 40 forms of ailments. Crude extract is recorded from various plant and fruit juice components. There are records of amino acids, anthraquinones, fatty acids, flavonoids, iridoids, lignans, polysaccharides, sterols, carbohydrates, terpenoids, etc. in the crude extract of different sections of plant and fruit juice that are therapeutically beneficial for a wide range of pathological conditions.

Conclusion: Literature indicates that Nonii pharmacologically active and used in various cancer types (Colon, breast, esophageal, colorectal Cancers, cardiovascular disorders, diabetes, hypertension, arthritis). This plant's high potential classifies the compounds as the noteworthy medication of the future, and clinical trials are needed to demonstrate their effect on life-threatening diseases such as cancer. Further analysis warrants the isolation of the active components. These properties can be substantiated by the preclinical or/and clinical investigations.

Open Access Original Research Article

Rp-HPLC Method Development and Validation for Simultaneous Estimation of Atorvestatin Calcium and Fenofibrate in Bulk and Formulation

Swapnil Balwant Deshmukh, Ravindra Banilal Patil

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 16-22
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i62A35144

A reverse phase high performance liquid chromatographic method was developed for the simultaneous determination of atorvastatin and Fenofibrate in bulk and pharmaceutical dosage forms. The determination was performed by using Waters Symmetry C18 (250×4.6mm×5µ) as column stationary phase and Methanol: Acetonitrile: Water in the ratio of (70:10:20 %v/v) as mobile phase. The flow rate of mobile phase was optimized as 1mL/min and effluents were monitored at 274 nm. The retention time of atorvastatin and Fenofibrate were found as 4.15 min and 8.10 min respectively. The method shows linearity concentration ranges between 4-30 μg/mL and 80-400 μg/mL respectively. The developed method was validated for specificity, precision, linearity, accuracy, robustness, Ruggedness, LOD and LOQ. Recovery of atorvastatin and Fenofibrate in formulations was found to be 100.52% and 99.92% respectively which conforms the non-interferences of the excipients in the formulation. the proposed RP- HPLC method can be used for the simultaneous determination of these two drugs in bulk and formulation.

Open Access Original Research Article

Impact of Counseling and Intervention in Preventing the Drug-Related Problems after Hospitalization and Post-Discharge by Clinical Pharmacist

Gayathri Konduri, Harshini Kancherla, Keerthana Atla, Akhila Bollam, Neelam Injeti

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 32-38
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i62A35146

Background and Objectives: A Drug-Related Problem is an event or circumstance involving drug therapy that actually or potentially interferes with desired health outcome. Drug-related problems can occur at any stage of therapy which might be during prescribing, dispensing, administration. DRP’s account for most of the therapeutic failures. The prevention of DRP is the main responsibility of a pharmacist. According to Pharmaceutical care network Europe, system the DRP’S are classified according to problem, the underlying cause, intervention to be made, acceptance of intervention and outcome. The primary objective of this study was to assess the impact of interventions and counselling on a preventable drug-related problem by a clinical pharmacist.

Methodology: A prospective observational study was conducted in a tertiary care teaching hospital for  6 months i.e., December-2020 to may-2021

Results and Discussion: A total of 96 DRPs were identified and resolved in which 68 out of 96 DRPs indicate therapeutic failure, 27 out of 96 DRPs were due to drug dose too high and 54 DRPs were resolved by intervention i.e., changing dosage regimen. DRPs were classified based on the type of error in which 27 out of 96 DRPs are due to over prescription of drugs. 30 patients were counseled during discharge about possible DRPs in which 5 out of 30 patients were counseled for cardiovascular disease and after follow up it was found that only 1 patient was readmitted.

Conclusion: Clinical pharmacist plays a key role in detecting, monitoring, evaluating, resolving and preventing drug-related problems. The Clinical pharmacist has a very positive impact on patients through counselling and follow-up. Therefore, better patient care can be provided.

Open Access Original Research Article

Microwave Assisted Synthesis, Characterization and Evaluation for Antimicrobial Activity of Novel 1, 5-Benzothiazepines

B. Praveen Kumar, Phool Chandra, S. Vidyadhara, Neetu Sachan

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 39-53
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i62A35147

Aims: 1,5-benzothiazepine ring is privileged aromatic heterocycles of interest to organic and medicinal chemists because of its ease of synthesis and biological activities. This study aims to synthesize new series of 1, 5-benzothiazepine by direct and efficient microwave assistance and to evaluate for antimicrobial activity by MIC method.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted at Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Chebrolu Hanumaiah Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Guntur-19, A. P. from January, 2019 to October, 2021.

Methodology: 1, 5-benzothiazepines (BT-21 to BT-40) were synthesized by microwave irradiation. The structures of the products were established by elemental analysis, FTIR, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR and mass spectroscopic studies. The synthesized compounds were also evaluated for their Antimicrobial activity by MIC method.

Results: The microwave assisted synthetic procedure adopted yielded the 1,5-benzothiazepine derivatives BT-21 to BT-40 in good amounts and at a lesser time span. The synthesized 1, 5-benzothiazepine derivatives showed good to moderate antibacterial and antifungal activities.BT-25 having a dihydroxy-methyl-phenyl moiety proved to be more potent against all selected bacterial strains, B. subtilisS. aureusE. coli and P. aeruginosa with a MIC value of 64 µg/ml. BT-33 having fluorophenyl moiety, BT-35 having hydroxyl-nitrophenyl moiety and BT-40having dibromophenyl moiety proved to be more potent against all selected fungal strains, A. niger and C. tropicalis with a MIC value of 16 µg/ml.

Conclusion: These results showed that the synthesized 1, 5-benzothiazepine derivatives have better scope for further development as antimicrobial agents.

Open Access Original Research Article

Management of Acute Dental Pain and Oral Health Challenges among Pregnant Women in Pakistan

Faiza Arif, Ahmad Masoud, Muzzamil Shafique

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 59-64
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i62A35149

Introduction: Pregnancy is a physiological state that causes a variety of changes in the mouth cavity, as well as other physiological changes throughout the female body. Some of the modifications typically seen in pregnant women include gingival hyperplasia, gingivitis, pyogenic granulomas, and other salivary alterations.

Objectives of the Study: The main objective of our study is to find the management of acute dental pain oral health challenges faced by the pregnant women in Pakistan. Because like other systems of the body oral system also face many problems during pregnancy in women.

Methodology of the Study: A cross-sectional survey of pregnant women attending the Punjab Dental Hospital, Lahore during 2020 to 2021. A convenience sample of 100 pregnant women was invited to participate by a dental assistant.

Results: We select 100 patients for our study and these are pregnant women who completed the survey. The mean age of the participants ranged from 16 to 40 years. More than half (59.3%) reported dental problems during pregnancy, less than a third (30.5%) saw a dentist in the last six months, only 10% had received any information about perinatal oral health and many (>50%) were unaware of the potential impact of poor maternal oral health on pregnancy and infant outcomes.

Conclusion: The present study indicates that the oral health status is not appropriate among the pregnant women. On the other hand, the high prevalence of dental plaque, poor periodontal condition and unsatisfied treatment require a preventive population based strategy with an emphasis on the improvement of the oral self-care for the pregnant women.

Open Access Original Research Article

Antifungal Susceptibility Pattern of Candida albicans and Non Candida albicans Species Isolates at a Tertiary Care Hospital in India

Sanjo Gupta, Hemant B. Gadekar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 72-80
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i62A35152

Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) is a widespread fungus that affects women of all ages. After bacterial vaginosis, vulvovaginal candidiasis is the second most prevalent cause of vaginitis, affecting 40% of women with vaginal discharge. Candida is a fungus that is one of the most common opportunistic fungi in humans. The samples were processed using standard Candida isolation techniques. Candida species were identified using germ tube tests and Candida agar media. On Mueller Hinton Agar (MHA) supplemented with 2 percent glucose and 0.5 g/ ml methylene blue dye, the disc diffusion method was employed to investigate antifungal sensitivity. Candida albicans was responsible for 42 (36.3%) of the 350 Candida isolates, followed by Candida glabrata (24.1%), Candida tropicalis (22.5%), Candida krusei (12.3%), and Candida parapsilosis (12.3%). (9.7 percent). With a sensitivity pattern of 106/116, amphotericin Bis is the most effective antifungal medication against Candida isolates (91.3 percent). The resistance to ketoconazole, on the other hand, was the highest (20.6 percent). In light of the rising tide of antimicrobial resistance to fungal medicines, the current study suggests that species-level identification of Candida isolates should be encouraged.

Open Access Original Research Article

Low Back Pain among Preprimary and Primary School Teachers Affecting Their Activities of Daily Living (ADL’s): Questionnaire Based Study

Akshata Guhe, Prachi Sontake, Shiril Nagarkar, Rakesh Kumar Jha, Nandkishor Bankar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 81-87
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i62A35153

Background: Low back pain is a complicated illness that is influenced by a variety of circumstances, making it difficult to pinpoint a single cause or even a major contributor. The yearly first-time incidence of low back pain is 5% and the annual prevalence ranges from 15 to 63 percent (those suffering at the time of diagnosis).

Objective: The study's goal is to find out how common low back pain is among preprimary and primary school teachers by analyzing questionnaire responses. Methods: A suitable sample approach was used to conduct a questionnaire-based cross-sectional study on 200 school instructors in diverse schools (Mother's pet kindergarten, mundle English medium, kinder joy, etc).

Results: The results revealed that preprimary and primary school teachers have a moderate level of low back discomfort, with an average score of 25.35 percent.

Conclusion: It also shows that there is a moderate increase in low back discomfort as one's working years grow.

Open Access Original Research Article

A Healthcare Worker's Adverse Skin Reaction to the Use of Personal Protection Equipment and Frequent Hand Washing in COVID 19

Pankaj D. Mulchandani, Sudhir Singh, Mihika Suryawanshi, Mrunal Nakade, Nikhil R. Vaidya, Dhruba Hari Chandi

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 88-93
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i62A35154

Background: Due to the increasing number of covid 19 cases, HCWs must use personal protective equipment (PPE) such as N95 masks, latex gloves, and protective clothes due to the significant infectivity of COVID-19, which may cause unpleasant skin responses.

Materials and Methods: The Demographic data of 89 individuals, duration of work in covid facilities, history of skin pre-existing skin disease, information about personal protective kit used that is a type of mask used ( N95 with ear strap or head strap, FFP2, cloth mask, surgical mask), type of gloves used (nitrile, latex, rubber, plastic), frequency of hand washing and frequency of use of hand sanitizer and any adverse skin reaction seen by their use was collected from a participant who fulfilled the inclusion criteria by the distribution of questionnaires.

Results: Out of 89 individual, 73 individual showed adverse skin reactions to the use of mask, including nasal bridge scarring (10.11%), facial itching (19.10%), skin damage (4.49%), dry skin (12.36%), and rash (8.99%), acneiform eruption (7.87%), indentation and ear pain (11.24%). Facial itching was the most common adverse skin reaction in individuals using masks. Dry skin (28.08%) and Itching (17.97 %) were common adverse skin reactions. Twenty-nine individuals experienced adverse skin reactions to the use of PPE. The most common skin reactions were dry skin (12) and itching (10).

Conclusion: Due to the long-term use of PPE, masks, gloves, and adverse skin reactions, healthcare workers are prone to adverse skin reactions; a proper suggestion made that the use of cloth mask under N95 OR FFP2 mask can help reduce such adverse reactions.

Open Access Original Research Article

Aerosol Contamination in the Dental Operatory During Oral Prophylaxis: An Occupational Hazard

Dipika Inbasekaran, Jaiganesh Ramamurthy, A. S. Smiline Girija, Gopal Nambi

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 94-100
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i62A35155

Aim: To investigate the level of aerosol contamination following oral prophylaxis using ultrasonic scalers at different positions in the dental operatory at different time.

Methodology: In a pre-fumigatedroom of 10m*15m scaling was performed using ultrasonic scalers along with high volume suction while maintaining all aseptic precautions. Blood agar plates were positioned at the level of patient’s chest (P1), doctor’schest (P2), assistant’s chest (P3), on the floor directly below the patients headrest (P4) and 4 feet away from the dental chair at a height 3 feet above the ground (P5) to assess aerosol contamination occurring during scaling procedure. Similarly, blood agar plates were position at P3,P4,P5 for a time interval of 15 minutes after 1 and 3 hours of the procedure respectively to assess the levels of aerosol post procedure.

All the blood agar plates were incubated at 37°C for 24 hours, following which bacterial colony forming unit (CFU) was calculatedfor each plate and gram staining was performed to identify the organism present.

Results: At the time of procedure the patient was most exposed to the aerosol. At the end of 3 hours the percentage of aerosol reduction was 81 %. Gram staining showed that the streptococci were predominant organisms with a few short rods as observed on the plates obtained during the procedure, while gram positive bacilli were seen abundantly in samples obtained at the end of 3 hours.

Conclusion: The study examined the spreading characteristics of aerosol during and after scaling procedure. Even after 3 hours of completion of the procedure some amount of aerosol present in the room. Hence, the dentist must ensure proper precautionary measures to prevent air-borne nosocomial infections.

Open Access Original Research Article

Efficacy of Piroxicam and Tramadol as a Pre-Emptive Analgesic Agent for Mandibular Third Molar Surgery

Sneha Krishnan, Senthilnathan Periasamy, M. P. Santhosh Kumar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 101-109
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i62A35156

Objectives: The purpose of this clinical trial is to examine the effectiveness of 20 mg piroxicam with 50 mg tramadol as a pre-emptive analgesic for mandibular third molar surgery.

Methods: In this prospective study, 30 patients were referred to the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery in Chennai for surgical removal of impacted mandibular third molars with similar difficulty indexes under local anesthetic. Patients were randomly distributed to one of two groups: Group A received 20 mg piroxicam intramuscularly (IM) 50 minutes before surgery, while Group B received 50 mg tramadol IM 50 minutes before surgery. The time to analgesic re-medication, Pain intensity (VAS Scores) at 1st, 2nd, 12th, 24th hour, total analgesic consumption was evaluated.

Results: When compared to the group getting 50 mg of tramadol IM, the group receiving 20 mg of piroxicam IM demonstrated differences in pain intensity as measured by the visual analog scale and total analgesic consumption [lesser values], and the results were statistically significant(p<0.05). However, there were no statistically significant differences between the two groups in terms of time to first rescue analgesic medication, number of patients requiring the rescue analgesic procedure (10 mg of oral ketorolac), and number of patients without the need for analgesic during the evaluation period. (P >0 .05).

Conclusion: Within the limits of the study, patients who received 20 mg of piroxicam before surgery had less pain intensity and total analgesic consumption than those who received 50 mg of tramadol before surgery. In comparison to pre-emptively administered tramadol, piroxicam showed superior analgesic effects for intermediate surgical operations when given preoperatively.

Open Access Original Research Article

Study on Dynamic Balance in College Students with Flat Foot and with Normal Arched Foot using Y- Balance Test

Niyati Parekh, S. Sudhakar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 110-117
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i62A35157

Introduction: Flat foot deformity is mostly found in adults. Talus's average turn and plantar flexion are detailed, as well as calcaneus eversion, a disintegrated average curve, and forefoot snatching. Balance is a basic requirement for performing daily activities, and it plays a critical role in maintaining bodily posture. Lower limb work has included balance as a component. The balance might be affected by a little change in strength or any instability in the muscles or joints of the lower limb.

Aim of Study: The purpose of this study is to determine Dynamic balance in college students with flat feet and normal arced feet using Y-Balance test.

Materials and Methods: A total of 60 participants were recruited from Bangalore's Krupanidhi College of Physiotherapy who met the inclusion criteria. All of the subjects underwent a Navicular Drop Test and a Y-balance test.

Outcome Measures: To distinguish between Flat Foot and Normal Arched Foot, the Navicular Drop Test was utilised. The Dynamic Balance was assessed using the Y-balance test.

Statistical Tool: Unpaired t-test. Result: The P-value for the Right foot is 0.0005 and for the Left foot is 0.004, and the Mean difference for the Right side is 6.75033 and for the Left side is 8.6616, indicating that there is a significant difference in dynamic balance stability in students with Flat feet compared to students with Normal feet.

Conclusion: The study finds that students with Flat Feet have a deficit in Dynamic Balance when compared to students with Normal Arched Feet.

Open Access Original Research Article

Dermatophytosis: An Epidemiological Study in a Tertiary Care Center in Rural Sind

Shazia Bano, Kousar Parveen, Hafiz Bashir Ahmed, Sikandar Ali Sial, Tayyaba Iqbal, Amir Bux Detho

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 123-128
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i62A35159

Aims and Objects: Dermatophytosis is a common infection worldwide, and a major public health issue. Hot, humid climates and overcrowding favor the spread of skin infection in general populations. The purpose of the study is to analyze the prevalence of disease in patients attending the outpatient department of dermatology PUMHS-W Nawabshah. 

Methodology: The study type is cross-sectional,  conducted at departments of Dermatology and Pathology, Peoples University of Medical and Health Sciences, Nawabshah, for 3 months, (June 1st, 2020 to August 31st, 2020) after written permission from ERC. A total of 93 cases were included.

Skin scraping, nail clippings, hair fragments, and scalp, samples were acquired from patients approaching the Outpatient department. Wood /s lamp examination was carried out in all patients. By using 20% potassium hydroxide (KOH) on a glass slide with the sample and passing over the flame 2-3 times. After confirmation, the samples were streaked on the sterilized Sabouraud dextrose agar medium containing antibiotic, Petri plates were incubated at 25-28 °C for two weeks, all cases were directed towards the microscopic examination, and results were entered into SPSS 20 analyzed and tabulated.

Results: Out of 93 suspects 84 (90.3%) samples were positive for fungal infection, and among them, 68 (73.1%) cases gave positive growth, Male predominance is noticed with 60%.Tinea corporis 45.6%is on the top of the list causing infection and T. unguium is the least common1.5%. The adult age group 20-40yrs were more affected followed by the middle-aged group.

Conclusion: Dermatophytosis is common in the younger and adult age group, but it is prevalent in our general population irrespective of age and gender.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Preliminary Phytochemical Screening, Antioxidant Activity, Isolation and Characterization of Bioactive Compounds in Waltheria indica Linn

Velmani Krishnasamy, Sridevi Muruhan

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 129-143
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i62A35160

Objective: Waltheria indica Linn, a rare endemic medicinal plant in South India, was studied for phytochemical screening, antioxidant activity, and bioactive compound isolation from a hydroalcoholic extract.

Methods: In-vitro methods such as 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazile (DPPH), 2, 2-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS), and Reducing Power Assay were used in the study. The method of compound isolation was used to isolate pure compounds. Phytochemical components were screened for particular extracts such as hydroalcoholic, ethyl acetate and chloroform extracts at different concentrations (50-1000 μg / mL).

Results: Waltheria indica Linn plant phytochemical analysis in hydro-alcoholic extracts, finds alkaloids, flavonoids, hormones, terpenoids, phenols, tannins, and carbohydrates, among other biochemicals. Ethyl acetate included flavonoids, hormones, terpenoids, phenols, and carbohydrates, but no phlobatannine. In Chloroform extract, there was a very small amount of flavonoid, carbohydrate, and resin phytoconstituents. 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity (437.73 g / ml), ABTS assay (381.72 g / ml), and power reduction assay (550.14 g / ml). Two bioactive compounds were isolated they are (E, 7R, 11R) - 3,7,11,15 - tetramethyl hexadec-2- en-1-ol Phytol and 2- Methyl hexadecan- 1- ol 1- Hexadecanol (2-methyl).

Conclusion: The current study confirms the presence of various phytochemicals in Waltheria indica hydro-alcoholic extract, as well as its strong antioxidant ability. It can be studied further in the field of pharmaceutical science with the aid of active compound.

Open Access Original Research Article

Comparative Evaluation of Salivary Interleukin-18 in Periodontitis Patients with or without Diabetes Mellitus

B. Chithralekha, M. Jeevitha, Selvaraj Jayaraman

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 151-157
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i62A35162

Aim: The study was conducted to compare the salivary concentrations of interleukin-18 in periodontitis patients with or without diabetes mellitus

Materials and Methods: The sample size in the study was 30 and categorized into 3 groups, in each group 10 individuals were included in the respective category. The three groups are as follows: Group a- patients with clinically healthy gingiva, Group b- patients with periodontitis and diabetes mellitus, Group c- patients with periodontitis only.

Results: Salivary Interleukin-18 levels were found to be significantly higher (p<0.013) in periodontitis with diabetes mellitus (110±7.0 ng/L) when compared with periodontitis only (70.06±3.5 ng/L) and also when compared with healthy controls (66±5.6 ng/L).

Conclusion: From the study, diabetic patients with periodontitis have increased IL-18 levels than non-diabetic counterparts. Thus salivary IL-18 is an effective non-invasive biomarker associating periodontitis and diabetes mellitus.

Open Access Original Research Article

Activity of Hydroethanolic Leaf Extract of Tecoma stans against Breast Cancer Cells Line - MCF - 7

Chevuru Sai Shreya Reddy, Lavanya Prathap, Selvaraj Jayaraman, S. Preetha

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 158-166
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i62A35193

Background: Cancer is abnormal growth of cells, which invade or spread to other parts of the body. There are over 200 types of cancers. Breast cancer is a cancer which develops in tissues of the breast, most commonly originating from the inner lining of milk ducts or lobules that supply ducts with milk. Tecoma stans commonly known as trumpet flower is a yellow trumpet shaped flower belonging to Bignoniaceae, and is native to Americas. It has anti cancer and anti proliferative properties.

Aim: Aim of the is to analyse the anti cancer activity of Tecoma stans against breast cancer cells MCF-7.

Materials and Methods: Breast cancer cell line (MCF-7) was purchased from National Centre for Cell Sciences (NCCS), Pune, India. Cell viability test was done by MTT assay. BcL2 and BclxL gene expression analysis was done by Real Time-PCR. The obtained data were analysed statistically by one-way analysis of variance and Duncan’s multiple range test with Graph Pad Prism version 5 to analyse the significance. The significance was considered at p<0.05 level in Duncan’s test.

Results: The results suggest Bcl2 mRNA gene expression is reduced on induction of 400, 500 ug/ml of Tecoma stans with significant difference in comparison with control. Bcl-xL mRNA gene expression is slightly reduced on induction of 400, 500 μg/mL of Tecoma stans with no significant difference in comparison with control.

Conclusion:  From the obtained results, it can be concluded that hydroethanolic leaf extract of Tecoma stans possess anticancer activity against breast cancer cells with respect to Bcl2 mRNA gene expression as compared to Bcl xL mRNA gene expression. If complete research is done, we can use this drug to treat various cancers.

Open Access Original Research Article

Clinical Status of Pregnancy-Induced Hypertension and Pre-Eclampsia among Sudanese Women

Duaa Adil Osman, Aimun AE. Ahmed, Salah I. Khairy, Salah Eldin Abdel Hag Abdel Haleem

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 167-176
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i62A35194

Objective: The present study has been conducted with the aim of determining the clinical status of gestational hypertensive disorders in Sudan.

Methods: An analytical case-control, comparative and descriptive cross-sectional, hospital-based study was conducted at Omdurman Maternity Hospital (OMH). It included 228 cases of gestational hypertensive disorders. Data were collected through interviews, questionnaire, and admission records and analyzed statistically.

Results: The clinical status of pregnancy-induced hypertension and pre-eclampsia among Sudanese women has been estimated. Spontaneous pregnancies were 94.6% of the cases. Multigravida were 50.4% of pregnant Sudanese women presenting at OMH, 20.7% of them had a history of gestational hypertensive disorders and 18.1% had a history of miscarriage. Among the patients admitted with gestational hypertensive disorders 75% developed preeclampsia, 91% has shown non-syndromic complications and 52.2% were asymptomatic.  

Conclusion: Maternal age between 18-40 years, nulliparous primigravida or multigravida with long latency period and history of miscarriage are the commonest risk factors of hypertension complication during pregnancy, including preeclampsia, in Sudan. Significantly lower serum calcium and/or higher serum magnesium are associated with preeclampsia, syndromic HELLP is a rare association. Patient awareness is critical for early detection and prevention of disease progression.

Open Access Original Research Article

Isoxazole Clubbed 1-carbothioamido-4,5-dihydro-1H-pyrazoles: Design, Synthesis, Characterization and Antitubercular Evaluation

Pasumarthy N. V. Gopal, K. V. Ramana Murthy

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 223-231
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i62A35201

Tuberculosis (TB) is a global problem inspite the availability of drugs. This state of affairs is due to the limitations of existing drugs including muti-drug resistance and toxicites. As a result, there is a pressing need for new antitubercular medicines to be developed. In the present investigation we designed and synthesized a series of isoxazole clubbed 1-carbothioamido-4,5-dihydro-1H-pyrazoles (16-30) in considerable yeilds (43-78%). Further these compounds were purified by recrystallization and charcterized by spectral techniques-Mass, FT-IR and 1H NMR and then evaluated for their antitubercular activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv strain. Among the tested compounds, the analogues 24 bearing 3,5-dimethoxyphenyl scaffold at the 5th position of 4,5-dihydro-1H-pyrazole ring showed superior activity than isoniazid (MIC = 0.25 µg/mL) with MIC value 0.1 µg/mL whereas the compound 25 containing 2,3,4-trimethoxyphenyl had equal potency as that of isoniazid. Additionally, 24 and 25 were found to be less selective towards the human normal liver cell lines-LO2 in their cytotoxicity assays. Hence, these two compounds are safe and useful lead candidates for the development of novel antitubercular drugs.

Open Access Original Research Article

Folic Acid Supplementation Diminishes Diabetes Induced Neural Tube Defects by Recovering Impaired Embryo Gene Expression Through Its Antioxidant Activity

Kevin Li, Xuyang Chen, Yuan Hu, Bingyan Gao

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 258-271
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i62A35204

Aimes: This study aimed to determine whether folic acid supplementation could decrease the neural tube defects (NTDs) in embryos caused by hyperglycemia and the mechanism is associated with its antioxidative activity.

Study Design: Diabetic pregnancy model were made and folic acid, Vitamin E and control were given to mice. Then the neural tube defects rate, oxidative stress markers and embryos size were measured and were analyzed. 

Methodology: We injected folic acid to diabetic mice to score NTDs rate, measured embryos size, assayed ROS scavenging enzymes and Pax3 expression and oxidative stress marker including malondiadehyde and H2O2 as well as the vitamin E controls.

Results: Injection of folic acid during gestation could diminish neural tube defect rate of diabetic mice and recover the Pax3 expression inhibition which is similar to vitamin E, but no effect was observed on nondiabetic mice. Folic acid supplementation also normalized the embryos size, decreased oxidative stress level including malondiadehyde and H2O2 in diabetic mice and decreased the intracellular ROS of embryonic cells on day 8.5 induced by high glucose incubation in a dose-dependent manner. No effects were observed on ROS scavenging enzymes activity by folic acid supplementation.

Conclusion: Overall, the conclusion is that folic acid supplementation could diminish NTDs induced by hyperglycemia, the mechanism is associated with its antioxidant activity which can reduce the oxidative stress and recover the inhibition of Pax3 expression.

Open Access Original Research Article

Knowledge and Awareness of Chronic Lower Respiratory Diseases among Smokers Population in Chennai, India: A Cross Sectional Questionnaire Survey

Pawan Kumar Earasi, R. Priyadharshini, Palati Sinduja

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 279-289
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i62A35539

Aim: To analyse the knowledge and awareness of chronic lower respiratory diseases among the smoker population.

Introduction: Tobacco is a key toxin in our civilization. Tobacco use and smoking is currently one of the leading causes of death and morbidity in both developed and developing nations. Tobacco is made from a plant native to South America, specifically Peru and Ecuador. Tobacco was originally brought to Europe from America in the fourteenth century for medical purposes.

Materials and Methods: The study to evaluate Knowledge and Awareness of chronic lower 

respiratory diseases among smokers population in Chennai, India. The targeted population for the study was 110 individuals within the age groups of 18-30. In this study, there was a formulation and distribution of a survey/ questionnaire, which was conducted among the students. The questionnaire consisted of twelve general questions to test not only their knowledge but also their awareness of the issue. Only completely filled online forms were included in the study. The filled responses were verified by two reviewers and the collected data was entered on the same day. The entered data was analysed using SPSS. Pearson Chi-square was performed to calculate frequencies of categorical variables.

Results: Symptoms cannot be seen and do not show up on medical tests. Some examples of symptoms are headache, fatigue, nausea and pain vary from each illness and diseases. 60% responded with their current symptoms as shortness of breath, 35% with coughing, 1.67% experiencing wheezing, 3.33% with lack of energy. Pearson Chi-square value was calculated, with values being statistically significant (p value is 0.000).

Conclusion: Smoking is clearly linked to systemic illnesses such as cardiovascular disease, lung problems, and various cancers. Smoking is proven to be harmful to mothers and children in particular. Cigarette smoking has a detrimental impact on the oral cavity.

Open Access Original Research Article

Comparative Evaluation of Anti-diabetic Potential of Aqueous Seed Extracts of Momordica charantia, Seed Kernel Extract of Mangifera indica and Its Herbal Formulation – an in vitro Study

Chevuru Sai Shreya Reddy, R. Gayathri, V. Vishnu Priya, J. Selvaraj, S. Kavitha

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 290-299
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i62A35518

Introduction: A condition in which the body’s ability gets impaired to process blood glucose level is called diabetes, otherwise known as blood sugar. It ranked sixteenth among leading causes of death around the globe. There are estimated 72.96 million cases diagnosed with diabetes in the adult population of India. Momordica charantia possess anti-diabetic, anti hyperglycemic and anti inflammatory properties. Mangifera indica is traditionally used to treat diarrhoea, cancer, diabetes and tooth aches.

Aim: Aim of this study is to analyse comparative evaluation of anti-diabetic potential of aqueous seed extracts of Momordica charantia, seed kernel extract of Mangifera indica through in vitro analysis.

Methods: Momordica charantia and Mangifera indica were collected from local farms, and the extracts were analysed for its phytochemicals. Antioxidant and Anti-diabetic potential of the seed extract were evaluated along with standards. The data were analysed statistically by a one way analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Duncan’s multiple range test was used to see the statistical significance among the groups. The results with the p<0.05 level were considered to be statistically significant.

Results: Momordica charantia and Mangifera indica and its herbal formulation showed significant antioxidant and anti-diabetic potential.

Conclusion: The results showed both the seed and seed kernel extracts of Momordica charantia and Mangifera indica possessed anti-diabetic activity but the herbal formulation possessed much more significant anti-diabetic activity than the individual extract.

Open Access Original Research Article

Age Estimation using Mandibular Projective Ramus Height: A Retrospective Digita Orthopantomographic Study

Suvarna Kizhakkoottu, Abirami Arthanari

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 300-306
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i62A35550

Background: Mandibular projective ramus height is one of the accurate parameters in age estimation.Estimation of age by mandibular ramusheight using various digital softwares is one of the newest approach in forensic dentistry. The aim of the present study is to derive a new linear regression formula for estimating age of south Indian population using mandibular projective ramus height.

Materials and Methods: This retrospective study included OPG samples n=260 from 5 age groups between 30 to 79.9 years. Measurement of mandibular projective ramus height was done using Planmeca Romexis Viewer software and tabulated and exported to SPSS software for linear regression analysis.

Results: Mean mandibular projective ramus height value of males (28.7) is higher compared to females (27.3) in all age groups and there is also a significant decrease in mandibular projective ramus height in both gender as the age advances. The gender specific and general linear regression formula derived for estimation of age in the South Indian population.

Conclusion: Even though the current linear regression formula for estimating age carries 65% accuracy, further research with adequate sample size should be carried out across the hospitals in Chennai for more significant and region specific results.

Open Access Original Research Article

Method Development, Validation and Degradation Studies of Imatinib Mesylate by UPLC

Punna Venkateshwarlu, Mehul M. Patel

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 330-340
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i62A35541

Background: A simple, reliable and economical method was used for the study of imatinib mesylate.  The optimized chromatographic conditions were determined by using a C18 intersil ODS (250 X 4.6 mm X 5µm) and a mobile phase containing phosphate buffer (pH 3.0): Acetonitrile: Methanol (40:30:30) v/v was pumped at 1 ml/min flow rate. The injected sample volume is 20 μL and the analytes were eluted at 254 nm.

Results: The Retention time of imatinib mesylate was 3.503 minutes. The system suitability percentage RSD of imatinib mesylate is 0.27. The Assay of imatinib mesylate was found to be 99.37%.The imatinib mesylate LOD, LOQ values of were  found to be 0.901 and  2.73μg/ml. Regression equation was found to be y= 96.59x + 10.76 form linearity calibration graph. Imatinib mesylate was degraded in acid and peroxide stress conditions, and no degradation was obtained in base, photolytic and thermal conditions.

Conclusion: The reliable UPLC method validation data observed that which can be used for analyzing routine quality control. The method is economical due to the run time is reduced, which can be used in regular quality control tests in the industry.

Open Access Original Research Article

Structure Based Drug Discovery, Docking, Modelling, Synthesis and Anticancer Screening of Some Novel Quinoline Derivatives

Bharat Shivaji Honde, Kunkulol Rahul Rajendra

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 341-353
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i62A35384

A new series of (2-(substituted-phenyl) quinoline-4-yl) (3-(substituted phenyl)-5-phenyl-1H-pyrazol-1-yl) methanone derivatives was carried out docking modelling and synthesized. Purity was checked by TLC and chemical structures of synthesized compounds were elucidated by their IR, 1HNMR, MS analysis data. The synthesized compounds were screened for anticancer activity by using cell line MCF-7 (Human breast cancer cell line) correlate with docking modelling.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Virgin Coconut Oil in Plaque Related Gingivitis

V. S. Rakshitha, A. Jothi Priya, R. Gayatri Devi

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 354-364
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i62A35553

Introduction: In all individuals oral health is important. Irrespective of nationality, oral hygiene habits are taught in childhood itself. Tooth cleaning by the mechanical method is the most accepted method in the maintenance of oral hygiene worldwide. Presently to reduce plaque formation chemotherapeutic agents are used. Oil pulling is used for many years for strengthening gums, teeth and to prevent oral malodor and bleeding gums. Coconut oil is consumed as a staple diet. Coconut oil contains 50% of Lauric acid and 92% of saturated acid. The lauric acid contains anti-inflammatory properties.

Aim: This study aimed to find out the efficacy of virgin coconut oil in plaque-related gingivitis.

Materials and Methods: The sample size used for the study is 108, A self-structured questionnaire has been prepared and uploaded in Google forms. This standard questionnaire in Google forms is being circulated among the sample study population and at the end of the survey, all the data were collected and the data is been analyzed by using Chi-square analysis. The Chi-square analysis was done using the software IBM SPSS Software Version 23.

Results: The Chi-square analysis was done and the association between gender and improvement in gingival health after oil pulling in the South Indian population was found to be statistically significant. Chi-square value:11.77 and p-value:0.038, (p<0.05) hence a statistically significant decrease in gingival and plaque was noticed during the study period.

Conclusion: In summary, using Virgin coconut oil pulling could be an effective procedure in decreasing plaque-related gingivitis. This preliminary study shows that coconut oil is easily usable, cost-effective, and safe with minimal side effects which are used as an adjuvant in oral hygiene maintenance. Further studies on the antimicrobial potency of coconut oil are required for the use of coconut oil as an effective oral antimicrobial agent.

Open Access Original Research Article

Hepatoprotective Activity of Pongamia Pinnata Leaves on Antitubercular Drugs (Isoniazid & Rifampin) Induced Hepatotoxicity in Rats

Samba Siva Raju Derangula, N. S. Muthiah, H. S. Somashekar, E. Sukumar, K. Prabhu

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 365-370
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i62A35555

Hepatoprotective effect of an ethanolic extract of Pongamia Pinnata on antitubercular drugs (isoniazid and rifampin) induced hepatotoxicity in rats.

Methods: The experiment used five groups of male wistar rats, each with six individuals. The two control groups were given gum acacia and a mixture of isoniazid and rifampin. The two test groups received 200 and 400 mg/kg of an ethanolic extract of the leaves of Pongamia Pinnata, respectively. The fifth group was given silymarin (50mg/kg, orally). The concentrations of serum Alanine aminotransferase (ALT), Aspartate aminotransferase (AST), Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP), tissue Malondialdehyde (MDA) & thiols were calculated. One-way ANOVA was used for statistical examination, monitored through Tukey's test.

Results: When rats were given a mixture of antitubercular drugs and a high dosage (400 mg/kg) of an ethanolic extract of Pongamia Pinnata, blood enzyme levels were lower than when they were given antitubercular drugs alone. The co-administration of a high dose of Pongamia Pinnata extract with antitubercular drugs reduced MDA levels and elevated thiol levels considerably (p˂ 0.05). These biochemical marker levels, however, were not adjusted.

Conclusion: In rats, Pongamia Pinnata encompasses a partial protective effect against the hepatotoxicity caused by antitubercular drugs at high doses.

Open Access Original Research Article

Anti- Diabetic and Cytotoxic Effect of Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles Synthesised Using Boerhaavia diffusa

M. B. Sai Keerthana, Lakshminarayanan Arivarasu, S. Rajesh Kumar, Lakshmi Thangavelu

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 371-379
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i62A35611

Introduction: Nanotechnology is the art of manipulating matter in terms of nano scale. It mainly aims at combining nanotechnology with drugs to improve the ability of a specific target. These materials are produced at nanoscale level as it is safe to administer in the body. Boerhaavia diffusa is a flowering plant which is also known as Punarnava. It is a herbal medicine that is used for pain relief. It has been used primarily for its anti-diabetic and diuretic properties. Zinc oxide nanoparticles is one of the prominent metal oxide nanoparticles which is used in applications of many research projects and industries. The synthesis using plant sources is used for the production of ZnO NPs due to its environmental, economic, and medicinal benefits.

Aim: The aim of this study is to determine the anti diabetic and cytotoxic effect of zinc oxide nanoparticles synthesised using Boerhaavia diffusa.

Materials and Methods: Zinc oxide nanoparticles were synthesised using Boerhaavia diffusa extract and Anti- diabetic activity was carried out using alpha amylase inhibitory activity and cytotoxic activity was done by brine shrimp lethality assay.

Results: The percentage of lethality was found to be 60%, 70%, 70%, 90%, 90%, and 0% in the 5 microliters, 10microliters, 20 microliters, 40 microliters, 80 microliters and 100 microliters concentration levels. Alpha amylase inhibitory activity was performed which showed better results indicating anti diabetic and cytotoxic activity. In anti diabetic inhibitory activity the values were 40%, 50%, 75%, 80% and 82% in 10mg/mL, 20mg/mL, 30mg/mL, 40mg/mL, 50mg/mL respectively. Both anti diabetic and cytotoxic effects showed prominent inhibitory effects.

Conclusion: Zinc oxide nanoparticles synthesised using Boerhaavia diffusa exhibited  significant Anti -diabetic and cytotoxic activity in brine shrimp lethality assay showing emergence of a drug candidate for further research.

Open Access Original Research Article

Preparation of Ethanolic Extract of Cassia auriculata and Its Anti-Diabetic Activity

T. Srinivasa Surya Sitaram, Lakshminarayanan Arivarasu, S. Rajeshkumar, Lakshmi Thangavelu

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 380-386
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i62A35612

Introduction: Diabetes has caused a major burden to the health sector in the developing countries and has shown an increasing trend among the urban population. It is estimated that most patients are with type II diabetes which could be easily treated with dietary changes, exercise, and medication. Sri Lanka carries a long history of ayurvedic medicine where it uses the plant for treating many diseases. Therefore it is important to screen medicinal plants scientifically so they could be used safely and effectively in the traditional medical system and also be used for further investigations. Cassia auriculata is a plant used in the Ayurvedic medical system in Sri Lanka for treating many diseases including diabetics. We evaluated the anti-diabetic properties and the antioxidant properties of Cassia auriculata leaves.

Methods: The methanol extract of the leaves was sequentially extracted with petroleum ether and thereafter was partitioned between EtOAc, and water. The α-amylase inhibition assay was performed using the 3,5- dinitrosalicylic acid method. The antioxidant activities were measured using the DPPH free radical scavenging activity and the total phenolic content using Folin-Ciocalteu’s reagent. The cytotoxicity of the extract was evaluated using the Brine shrimp bioassay.

Results: The extract shows very good anti-diabetic activity  for the Cassia auriculata extract by using BSA and EAA Assay.

Conclusion: The leaf extracts of cassia auriculata exhibit remarkable α-amylase inhibitory activity in the crude methanolic extract. Hence leaves of cassia auriculata have a potential to be used as a regular green vegetable and also be investigated further in isolating pure compounds with anti-diabetic activity.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Antitumour Activity of Ethanolic Extract from Tribulus terrestris in Human Breast Cancer Cells

M. Kamalli, S. Raghunandhakumar, D. Ezhilarasan, T. Lakshmi

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 387-395
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i62A35613

Introduction: Breast cancer is the form of cancer that occurs in the breast cells. After skin cancer, breast cancer is considered to be the most common cancer diagnosed in women. The number of deaths associated with this disease was increased in case of lack of early detection. Tribulus terrestris is an annual herb belonging to the Zygophyllaceae family. Flavonoids, alkaloids, and saponins are some of the main phytoconstituents of the herb. They are known for their pharmacological actions such as anti carcinogenic, anti inflammatory, antimicrobial, antioxidant properties.

Aim: The aim of the present study is to evaluate the antitumor activity of ethanolic extract from Tribulus terrestris in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells.

Materials and Methods: The effect of Tribulus terrestris on cell viability was measured by MTT assay carried against breast cancer cells and morphological changes were investigated with phase contrast microscopy to confirm its antitumor activity. 

Results: the cell viability assay results indicate that 24hrs treatment with ethanolic extract of significantly reduces the cell viability in dose dependent manner. At 40 μg/ml of the Tribulus terrestris extract inhibits 50% cell viability and it has been fixed as IC50 value for further Tribulus terrestris experiments.

Conclusion: From the results, the extracts were cytotoxic to the human breast cancer cell and it might be a good therapeutic value for further investigations needed to understand the mechanisms to develop antitumor agents.

Open Access Original Research Article

Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Cassia auriculata Flower Extract

Soorya Ganesh, Lakshminarayanan Arivarasu, S. Rajeshkumar, Lakshmi Thangavelu

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 396-403
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i62A35614

Introduction: Medicinal plants have provided recent medicines with numerous plant derived therapeutic agents. Avaram is extremely valued in Indian medicines for management of painful inflammation and diabetes. The target of this study was to measure the anti-inflammatory potential of Cassia auriculata flowers extract. The anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated using albumin denaturation assay, proteinase inhibitory activity and membrane stabilization at different concentrations. Aspirin and Voltaren were used as standard drugs. The share of inhibition was compared with those of normal drugs

Materials and Methods: BSA and EAA assay was used to test the anti-inflammatory activity of plant extract. Cassia auriculata were purchased commercially from an herbal health centre in Chennai.  The obtained powder Cassia auriculata is stored in an airtight container. 5 gram of powder is mixed with 50 ml of ethanol and kept in the orbital shaker for 72  hours, after it has boiled in a heating mantle at 62- 70 degree c for 5-10 min. The extract is filtered using whatman filter paper 1. The filter extract again contracted using heating mantle.

Results: The extract shows very good antiinflammatory activity for the Cassia auriculata extract by using BSA and EAA Assay.

Conclusion: The antiinflammatory activity of Cassia auriculata ethanolic extract preparation was effective.

Open Access Original Research Article

Prevalence of Clinically Missing Permanent Teeth Due to Agenesis and Secondary Factors among Patients between 8-17 Age Group Visiting a Private Dental Hospital - an Institutional Study

S. Padmaja, Pratibha Ramani, P. K. Reshma

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 404-413
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i62A35615

Introduction:  Congenitally missing teeth or hypodontia is a condition where some of the adult teeth fail to develop. There have been theories involving genetic and environmental factors which lead to prevalence of permanent missing teeth. Missing teeth can affect the patients and cause many other problems such as malocclusion, periodontal damage, delay in bone growth, reduced mastication and unfavourable skeletal appearance. Thus having awareness about missing teeth and the eruption sequence dentists will be able to identify the missing teeth and correct the same.

Aim: The aim of this study is to analyse the prevalence of missing in the paediatric population between 8-17 years of age.

Materials and Methods: The data for the study n=4453 patients was collected by analysing the case sheets of patients who visited Saveetha Dental college from June 2019-  February 2021.The collected data was analysed and subjected to statistical analysis using the SPSS software by IBM of version 23.

Results: From the results of the study, missing teeth in the 8 to 10 age group was highest in the second quadrant at 27.27% with most common missing teeth being left maxillary lateral incisor 15.76%, in the 11-13 age group it was highest in the third quadrant at 32.39% with most common missing teeth being left mandibular lateral incisor 16.37% and in the 14 -17 age group it was highest in first quadrant at 40.87%  with the most common missing teeth being right maxillary first premolar 15.08%. It is also observed that the most common cause of missing teeth in 8-10 age group is due to congenital absence at16.46%, in 11-13 age group due to trauma at 16.46% and in 14-17 age group due to caries at 18.90%.

Conclusion: Missing teeth is a very common dental anomaly encountered these days. From the present study it can be concluded that the most common cause of missing teeth was congenital absence of it. Larger community based studies should be conducted to estimate more precisely the causes for missing teeth. They are very important to be analysed so that they can prevent complications that can occur. In our study missing teeth is being analysed at an earlier age group of 8-17 reducing the chances of future complications.

Open Access Original Research Article

Antioxidant and Antiinflammatory Activity of Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles Synthesised Using Mucuna pruriens

B. Sachin Aditya, Lakshminarayanan Arivarasu, S. Rajeshkumar, Lakshmi Thangavelu

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 414-422
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i62A35616

Introduction: The genus Mucuna, belonging to the Fabaceae family, sub family Papilionaceae, includes approximately 150 species of annual and perennial legumes. Titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles (NPs) are manufactured worldwide in large quantities for use in a wide range of applications.Various studies have been done in this topic like determining the efficacies of antibacterial and antioxidant activities of aqueous leaf extract of Psidium guajava mediated biosynthesis of titanium dioxide nanoparticles. Other studies have suggested that Obtaining biopeptides by enzymatic hydrolysis adds value to proteins of vegetative origin, such as Mucuna pruriens L. Thus it evaluated the effect of enzymatic digestion of protein derivatives obtained from M. pruriens L. Although a lot of studies have been done on Titanium dioxide nanoparticles and its various activities like anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and anti diabetic, there are not many studies in the area of checking anti inflammatory and antioxidant activity of titanium dioxide nanoparticles synthesised using Mucuna pruriens The aim of this study is to observe the antioxidant and anti inflammatory activity of Titanium dioxide nanoparticles synthesised using Mucuna pruriens.

Materials and Methods: A titanium dioxide nanoparticle is synthesised using Mucuna pruriens, extract used to perform albumin denaturation assays and DPPH method, where % zone of inhibition increases as the concentration of nanoparticles increases.

Results: The Mucuna pruriens medicated titanium dioxide nanoparticle has positive antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties.

Conclusion: The present study concluded that Mucuna pruriens mediated copper nanoparticle has good antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity at its high concentration which is nearer to that of the standard drugs.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Anti-Cancer Activity of Saraca asoca Flower Extract against Lung Cancer Cell Line

A. Divya Dharshini, P. Elumalai, S. Raghunandhakumar, T. Lakshmi, Anitha Roy

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 423-431
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i62A35617

Lung cancer is the second most common type of cancer, affecting one out of every five men and one out of every nine women. Lung cancer treatment is dictated by the cell type of the cancer, the amount to which it has spread, and the patient's overall condition. It is well known that cancer cells, in part due to apoptotic pathway malfunction, confer resistance to chemotherapy drugs or radiation. Saraca Asoca (S. asoca) has been used as medicinal remedies for various ailments due to its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-bacterial, anti-tumor activity. The objective of the study was to evaluate the anti-cancer activity of S. asoca flower extract against lung cancer cell line. The cytotoxic effect of S. asoca flower extract was carried out by cell viability assay against the lung cell line (A549). Different concentrations of S. asoca flower ethanolic extract (20-120µg/ml) were treated for 24h. Furthermore, the morphological changes were analysed using inverted microscopy. The nuclear morphology of S. asoca flower ethanolic extract treated lung cancer was analyzed by DAPI staining. The cell viability assay clearly showed that the extract of S. asoca flower treatment has significantly reduced the lung cancer cell viability in a dose dependent manner. We observed the IC50 dose at 60 μg/ml concentration. The DAPI staining results showed increased apoptotic cells with condensed chromatin and nuclear fragmentation in ethanolic extract of S. asoca flower treatment in lung cancer cells. The present study shows ethanolic extract of S. asoca flower treatment inhibits cell growth and induces the apoptosis in lung cancer cells. Further research is needed to find out the active compounds and understand the mechanisms of anti-cancer effects of S. asoca flower.

Open Access Original Research Article

Correlation of Blood Sugar Levels and Chronic Periodontitis in Out-Patients Visiting a Dental Hospital

N. Naveenaa, Pratiba Ramani

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 432-439
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i62A35618

Introduction: Periodontitis is the inflammation of the periodontium including periodontal ligament and alveolar bone. It is a multifactorial disease which is caused by the activity of microbial invasion followed by destruction of periodontal tissues. The major risk factor involved is smoking which increases the severity of the disease and other conditions like diabetes, immunocompromised state, medication and also genetic factors. Diabetes mellitus is a disorder which is characterized to have altered glucose or impaired lipid and carbohydrate mechanisms. Diabetes has been confirmed as a major risk factor for causing periodontitis.

Aim: To assess the correlation of blood sugar levels and chronic periodontitis in out-patients visiting a dental hospital.

Materials and Methods: The study was conducted among the outpatients of Saveetha dental college. The data was collected and analysed from a total number of 5,35,951 patients between June 2019 - February 2021 and the sample size was 65. The data was collected from DIAS (Dental Information Archiving Software) and statistically analysed using SPSS software.

Results: 52.3% of female population has chronic periodontitis where it was 47.7% in male population. From the age group of 21-30 years 20% of the chronic periodontitis individuals were diabetic, which was highest when compared to other age groups. The male population with 30.77% had diabetes and female population with 33.85% had diabetes.  

Conclusion: Within the limitation of the study, there exists a positive correlation between increased blood sugar levels and chronic periodontitis. And the presence of increased blood sugar levels were seen in the age groups 61-70 years and more commonly seen in the female population. So people with poorly glycemic controls must be considered as a risk factor for periodontitis and people with diabetes must be informed of the risk factors.

Open Access Original Research Article

Anti-proliferative Potential of Erythrina indica Leaf Aqueous Extract against Human Breast Cancer Cells

V. Thiru Kumaran, S. Raghunandhakumar, D. Ezhilarasan, T. Lakshmi

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 440-447
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i62A35619

Introduction: Breast cancer is a type of cancer that arises in the cells of the breast. Breast cancer can develop in either the lobules or the ducts. Breast cancer might develop in the fatty tissue or fibrous connective tissue.

Materials and Methods: The effect of Erythrina indica (E.indica) on cell viability was measured by MTT assay. Briefly, the cells (1 × 105 cells/ml) were seeded in a 96 well microtiter plate with replications. Treatment was carried out for 24 with different concentrations (50-300 μg) of E.indica. The percentage of cell viability was calculated and plotted in graph. The cell morphological changes of E. indica leaf aqueous extract treated cells were observed under inverted phase contrast microscopy.

Results: The crude extract obtained from E.indica leaf greatly inhibits the cancer cell proliferation in dose dependent manner. We observed IC50 at 100 μg/ml of E. indica leaf aqueous extract treated for 24 hrs in breast cancer cells and also it induces apoptosis, which was confirmed by cell morphological changes evaluated using phase contrast microscope.

Conclusion: The results suggest that the E. indica leaf aqueous extract shows the potent anti-proliferative activity against breast cancer cells, and it might be a novel new anticancer drug for cancer therapy.  

Open Access Original Research Article

Anticariogenic Activity of Selenium Nanoparticles with Pterocarpus santa

A. Sabaritha, Lakshminarayanan Arivarasu, Rajesh Kumar, Lakshmi Thangavelu

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 448-457
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i62A35620

Introduction: Nanoparticles (NPs) are used to minimise toxicity, increase bioactivity, improve targeting, and monitor the release profile of the encapsulated moiety in a variety of ways. Inorganic NPs such as Ag, Au, Ce, Fe, Se, Ti, and Zn hold a special position among NPs due to its versatile bioactivities in nanoforms.Selenium (Se) is an essential trace mineral.SeNPs have been studied in the treatment of oxidative stress and inflammation-related diseases such as arthritis, cancer, diabetes, and nephropathy.Medicinal plants have long been a valuable source of natural active constituents that have been used in products for preserving human health. Pterocarpus santalinus (Fabaceae) has been used as a folk medicine and has been shown to have anti-inflammatory, anti- ulcer, and anti-cancer properties. The aim of the present work is to evaluate synergistic Anticariogenic properties of Pterocarpus santalinus (red sandalwood).

Materials and Methods: Anticariogenic activity of respective nanoparticles against the strain staphylococcus aureus, Candida albicans, and Enterococcus faecalis and s.mutans . MHA agar was utilized for this activity to determine the zone of inhibition. Muller Hinton agar was prepared and sterilized for 45 minutes at 120lbs. Media poured into the sterilised plates and let them stabilize for solidification. The wells were cut using the well cutter and the test organisms were swabbed.The nanoparticles with different concentrations were loaded and the plates were incubated for 24 hours at 37°C. After the incubation time the zone of inhibition was measured.

Results: Agar well diffusion demonstrated that Pterocarpus santa significantly inhibited the growth of S.Aureus, S.mutans, E. faecalis and C.albicans . The increase in concentration increases the zone of inhibition.Data were implied as mean ± SEM with the level of statistical significance at p<0.05.

Conclusion: Selenium nanoparticles were synthesised from Pterocarpus santa and they are characterised .Their special study showed the potent anticariogenic activity against pathogens.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of General Heath State, Therapy Satisfaction, INR Control on Quality of Life in Warfarin Patients

Muhammad Shahid Iqbal, Salah-ud-Din Khan

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 458-463
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i62A35665

Objective: This study aimed to assess effect of general heath state, therapy satisfaction and INR control on quality of life in warfarin patients.

Methods: A cross-sectional study using a newly developed and validated research tool was conducted in patients on warfarin. Data was collected by convenience sampling method. Descriptive, comparative, and inferential statistics were used by Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) ver. 24 to determine the sociodemographic correlates of warfarin knowledge in warfarin patients.

Results: Among total 275 studied warfarin patients, the majority of the studied warfarin patients were females than males (n=184, 62.4%, and n=111, 37.6% respectively). A total of 188 (63.7%) patients were satisfied from their healthcare providers while 107 (36.3%) were not satisfied from healthcare providers. Around 128 (43.4%) of the patients were actively managing their disease while 167 (56.6%) of the patients were not able to actively manage their disease.

Conclusion: These results confirmed that overall study participants had moderate effect of QoL on general heath state, therapy satisfaction, and INR control among patients on warfarin.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Anticancer Effect of Aegle marmelos in Human Breast Cancer Cells by In-vitro Analysis

R. Neha, G. Sridevi, J. Selvaraj, S. Preetha

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 464-471
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i62A35669

Background: Cancer is uncontrolled division and proliferation of abnormal cells in the body. Nowadays, therapeutic Treatment of cancer has become a great clinical challenge and alternative medicines are being extensively studied to cure cancer. Aegle marmelos is one such plant Which has many pharmacological activities.

Aim: To study the anticancer activity of Aegle marmelos which promotes cell death in human cancer breast cells MCF7 by modulating wnt/beta catenin expression.

Materials and methods: Human Breast Cancer cell line (MCF-7) was purchased from NCCS.Cell viability was assayed using a modified colorimetric technique that is based on the ability of live cells to convert MTT. The specificity of the amplification product was determined by melting curve analysis for each primer pairs. The obtained data were analyzed statistically by one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Duncan's multiple range test with a computer-based software.

Results:  the viability of cancer cells after addition of Aegle marmelos has decreased from 100% to 50% with increase in concentration of the extract 100-600 micrograms/ml. It is also evident that there was a fold change in control over Wnt m-RNA expression of MCF7 that decreased significantly on the addition of Aegle marmelos extract. The results also showed that there was a fold change in control of the beta catenin m-RNA expression of MCF7,which decreased significantly in addition to Aegle marmelos.

Conclusion: The present study concluded an innovative finding that Aegle marmelos promotes cell death in MCF7 cells by modulating the pathway. The plant extract also possesses hepato- renal protective effect thus, it can be used as a novel and safe anti-cancer drug against breast cancer cells.

Open Access Original Research Article

Analysis of Microbial Load in Air at Different Time Intervalin Dental Clinic

S. Saivarshine, N. P. Muralidharan

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 472-480
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i62A35670

Introduction: Patients and healthcare professionals can be exposed to several microorganisms that colonize or invade the oral cavity and respiratory tract, or are transported in the water used during treatment, which increases the risk of infection.

Materials and Methods: To determine the air germ count over four consecutive hours, by exposed plate method using Brain heart infusion agar (BHI) plates in the multi chair treatment room of the Department of Prosthodontics, Department of Periodontics, Department of Pedodontics, Department of Conservative dentistry & Operative Dentistry of Saveetha Dental College.

Results: The CFUs in the multi-chair treatment room were between 47 and 243 CFU m3. . During treatment, it reached up to 243 CFU m3.

Conclusion: During treatment, the bacterial count was greater than the actual time before treatment. While bacterial numbers in dental rooms have been substantially higher, the risk in dental clinics is higher due to the formation of aerosols that contain microorganisms.

Open Access Original Research Article

An Evaluation of Long Term Physical Exercise on Cognitive Function in the Age Group of 40-55 Years of Both Genders

N. Shalini, G. Sridevi, S. Preetha

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 481-489
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i62A35671

Aim: To determine the effect of long term physical exercise on cognitive function.

Introduction: Physical exercise is a strong gene modulator and it affects the brain plasticity by influencing cognitive function. It is also a protein factor of neurodegeneration.

Materials and Methods: 20 healthy adults in the age group of 40-55 years of both genders with no history of neurological condition were chosen for the study. The participants were categorised into 2 groups, one with subjects on regular physical exercise for a period of 1 year and another with subjects without any physical mode of exercise.

Results: Attention and calculation tasks conducted on long term physical exercise and non physical exercise are significant and recall tasks conducted on long term physical exercise are significant. The level of registration and language was high in the long term physical exercise population as compared to the non-physical exercise population.

Conclusion: The present study added an innovative evidence that the role of exercise enhances cognitive function in young subjects and reduces cognitive decay. Regular exercise has the potential to reduce risk of various neurological diseases including Alzheimer, Huntington’s and Parkinson’s.

Open Access Original Research Article

Antibacterial and Antioxidant Activity of Garcinia mangostana Mediated Selenium Induced Nanoparticles: An In vitro Study

J. Georgia Benitha, Pratibha Ramani, S. Rajeshkumar, S. Gheena, R. Abhilasha, K. Reshma

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 490-500
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i62A35672

Introduction: The biosynthesis of selenium nanoparticles (SeNPs) has gained interest due to their unique chemical and biological properties, which are critical for their possible applications in a variety of fields. Garcinia mangostana (mangosteen) is a tropical fruit known for its edible pulp. The edible pulp accounts for just 30% of the total fruit weight, while the pericarp and seed are discarded. In response to rising public demand for naturally safe foods and items, we conducted a study to determine the antioxidant ability and antibacterial activity of mangosteen pericarp induced with selenium nano particles.

Methods: The antioxidant capacities of selenium nano particles induced mangosteen’s pericarp were determined using 2,2- diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay, whereas agar well – diffusion technique was used to assess the antibacterial activity on chosen oral pathogens such as Streptococcus mutans, Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis.

Results: In this study, the G. mangostana mediated selenium nanoparticles were synthesized using a green synthesis method. The maximum absorbance of the synthesized selenium nanoparticles was measured using a double beam UV visible spectrophotometer, resulting in a maximum absorbance of 325 nm. The Garcinia mangostana pericarp extract mediated selenium nanoparticles shows potent antimicrobial and antioxidant activity.

Conclusion: The outcomes of our study could facilitate future application of mangosteen waste as a bio preservative in the food industry.

Open Access Original Research Article

In vitro Anti-inflammatory Properties of Various Extracts of Andrographis echioides

. Javith, G. Sridevi, J. Selavaraj, S. Preetha

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 517-523
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i62A35697

Background: Andrographis echioides (Acanthaceae) which is commonly known as false water willow is a herb commonly found throughout India. Some of them are medicinally important. The plants from genus Andrographis are used in goiter, liver diseases, fever, fertility problems, bacterial, malarial, helminthic fungal, diarrhea and larvicidal disorders.

Materials and Methods: The in-vitro anti inflammatory properties of aqueous, ethanolic, chloroform extracts were evaluated by Protein denaturation assay. Aspirin was a positive control. The experiment was done in triplicates and percent inhibition of protein denaturation was calculated. The data were analysed statistically using one way analysis of variance ( ONE-WAY ANOVA). Duncan's multiple tests were used to analyse the statistical significance between groups. The level of significance was considered at the levels of p<0.005.

Results: There was a dose-dependent increase in protease inhibition of protein denaturation in three extracts from the concentration ranging from 100 to 500 ug/ml. All the three extracts of Andrographis echioides showed better in-vitro anti-inflammatory effect compounds.

Conclusion: The study concluded an innovative finding that aqueous, ethanolic, chloroform of Andrographis echioides possessed potent in vitro anti inflammatory effect attributed to its flavonoid, phenyl glycosides compounds.

Open Access Original Research Article

Screening of Antibacterial Activity from Mangrove Plants (Rhizophora mucronata) Leaf Associated Actinobacterium of Streptomyces Species

John Francis, Lakshminarayanan Arivarasu, Pitchiah Sivaperumal, Lakshmi Thangavelu

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 524-533
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i62A35698

Introduction: Mangrove is a shrub or small tree that grows in coastal saline water mostly. The term is also used for tropical coastal vegetation consisting of special species. Mangroves occur worldwide mostly in the tropics and subtropics, mainly between latitudes 25° N and 25° S. The total mangrove forest area of the world was 137,800 square kilometres spanning 118 countries and territories

Materials and Methods: The fresh leaves of were collected from Pichavaram area, Tamilnadu. The leaves were washed thoroughly with tap water then surface sterilized with 1% of hydrogen peroxide. Then the sample was macerated in mortar and pestle.

Results and Discussion: The antibacterial activity of the rhizophora extract was analysed using two types of assays, namely disc diffusion method and Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) assay. The disc diffusion test was done for different concentrations for the selected clinical isolates (Klebsiella, streptococcus and vibrio ).

Conclusion: From this study ,we  can conclude that  has good antibacterial activity against these microorganisms (Klebsiella, streptococcus and vibrio) and further studies can be done in future.

Open Access Original Research Article

Antibacterial Activity of Sargassum Species Seaweed Extracts against E. coli

G. S. Sutharshan, Anitha Roy, Pitchiah Sivaperumal, T. Lakshmi

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 534-541
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i62A35699

Introduction: Seaweeds are marine macroscopic algae; they are the raw materials for the production of agar and algin and later they are consumed as foodstuffs. Seaweeds are grouped under three divisions viz., Chlorophyceae, Phaeophyceae, and Rhodophyceae which are found in relatively shallow coastal waters. Sargassum, a genus of brown seaweed, and it was commonly known as gulfweed belonging to the family Sargassaceae. The antibacterial activity of a molecule is completely associated with compounds that kill bacteria or slow down their growth rate, without being highly toxic to nearby tissues. The main aim of the study is to prepare and                     evaluate the potential antibacterial activity of Sargassum species seaweed extract against                    E. coli.

Materials and Methods: The fresh seaweed Sargassum sp. was collected from Tuticorin coastal area, Tamil Nadu. The extract was prepared using ethanol and stored in a shadowy aluminum container at 4ºC for further analysis. The bacterial suspension was made using Gram-negative Drug-resistant Escherichia coli, Uropathogenic E. coli, and Verotoxin-producing E. coli. The antibacterial activity of seaweed extract was performed with a disc diffusion method. Minimal Inhibitory Concentration of seaweed extract was observed.

Results: The data was collected and tabulated and the bioactivity of the seaweed extracts was expressed as minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). The antibacterial activity against the selected isolated E. coli, UPEC and VPEC was more susceptible to the crude extract of the seaweed (Sargassum sp.), as the MIC was 20 µg/ml. The extract showed the antibacterial activity.

Conclusion: It can be concluded that Sargassum sp. Seaweed has antibacterial potential. Further future work should be done to determine the exact active compounds responsible for activity

Open Access Original Research Article

Treatment Effectiveness of Biologic-DMARDs and their Impact on Disease Control among Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients

Yaman W. Kassab, Amra Salahuddin, Muhammad Umer Abdul Moiz, Abdullah Ehsan, Haroon Khalid Syed, Abdul Haseeb, Abdullah Mohammed Alghamdi, Shashidharan Menon, Muhammad Zahid Iqbal, Muhammad Shahid Iqbal

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 542-547
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i62A35673

Objective: The study aimed to evaluate treatment effectiveness of biologic-DMARDs and their impact on overall disease control and management among rheumatoid arthritis patients being treated on biologic-DMARDs.

Methods: The study was performed among RA patients and disease activity score (DAS) were calculated using DAS 28. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used to obtained the results. Descriptive and inferential statistics were applied using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 24.0. A p-value < 0.05 was considered statistically significant.

Results: Different demographic characteristics were studied from the selected cohort of the RA patients. Around 89 of the studied patients were males and 64 were females. More than half of the patients were 60 years or above. Around 50% of the patients were diagnosed with RA five years or earlier. Among the studied RA patients, a significant therapy response was obtained which resulted in overall improvement in disease outcomes and showed treatment effectiveness among them.

Conclusion: From the obtained results, it was concluded that all of the studied RA patients received optimum medication therapy with biologic-DMARDs and achieved significant therapy response which resulted in overall improvement in disease outcomes.

Open Access Original Research Article

Psychometric Validation of Cohen’s Perceived Stress Scale among Warfarin Patients: A Cross-sectional Study

Salah-ud-Din Khan, Muhammad Shahid Iqbal

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 548-553
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i62A35674

Objective: This study aimed to perform the psychometric validation of Perceived Stress Scale 10 among warfarin patients.

Methodology: A cross-sectional study was performed among warfarin patients using the Perceived Stress Scale 10. Sociodemographic and patients reported clinical data were collected. Descriptive and inferential statistics were applied using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 24.0. A p-value < 0.05 was considered statistically significant.

Results: Out of total 409 study participants, there were more male patients (n=280, 68.5%) than the female patients (n=129, 31.5%). No major issues regarding internal consistency, factorial validity, convergent validity and floor and ceiling effect were observed.

Conclusion: The present study confirmed the psychometric properties of Perceived Stress Scale 10 among the studied cohort of the warfarin patients.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Sociodemographic Correlates on Quality of Life of Heart Failure Patients

Muhammad Zahid Iqbal, Yaman W. Kassab, Mehr Ali Shah, Shashidharan Menon, Ahmed Abdelrahman Gadelseed Salih, Amra Salahuddin, Muhammad Umer Abdul Moiz, Muhammad Shahid Iqbal

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 554-560
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i62A35751

Objective: This study aimed to determine effect of sociodemographic correlates on quality of life (QoL) in heart failure patients.

Methods: A cross-sectional study using a newly developed and validated research tool and MLHF research tool, was conducted in heart failure patients. Data was collected by convenience sampling method. Descriptive, comparative, and inferential statistics were used by Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) ver. 24 to determine the sociodemographic correlates of QoL in heart failure patients.

Results: Out of total 177 studied patients, the majority of the studied heart failure patients were male 103 (58.2%) and the females were 74 (41.8%). The most of the studied heart failure patients were from > 60 years of age group 73 (41.2%). In Spearman’s correlation analysis, statistically non-significant (p >0.05), weak and positive associations were observed. The studied demographic variables like gender, age, marital status, educational level, monthly income, smoking, family history and weight were found to have positive correlation with patients overall QoL

Conclusion: The study results concluded a weak but positive correlation between various studied demographic variables and QoL of the heart failure patients.

Open Access Review Article

Neutrophil-lymphocyte Ratio as a Bio- Inflammatory Prognostic Marker of Fetomaternal Outcomes of Preeclampsia: A Narrative Review

Neema Acharya, Shazia Mohammad, Shirin Mohammad, Sourya Acharya, Samarth Shukla

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i62A35142

Background: Preeclampsia & its related problems have potential contribution to maternal mortality & morbidity. Early diagnosis & appropriate management of preeclampsia can prevent antenatal, intranatal & postnatal complications associated with preeclampsia. The neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR) which is derived from a complete blood count & dedifferentiation, is a straightforward inflammatory index (1). Pre-existing studies have shown that NLR is indicator of Preeclampsia.

Objective of this Narrative Review:  In this we summarized the evidence regarding the clinical utility of NLR in preeclampsia & its related complications.

Methods: A comprehensive systematic search from PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, VIP database for relevant literature. Sensitivity, specificity & other measures of accuracy of NLR for the diagnosis of PE were pooled.

Open Access Review Article

Radiological Findings in COVID-19 Patients

R. Agrawal Aditya, Brij Raj Singh, Vaibhav Anjankar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 54-58
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i62A35148

After its starting point in Wuhan, China, Corona Virus related respiratory disease has been spread worldwide and pronounced by WHO in 2020. Since it's obtained through respiratory beads, local area spread is obligated for the new worldwide emergency. RT-PCR and a few serology tests, including but not limited to the recently affirmed five-minute serology assays, are examples of demonstrative techniques. The infection influences lower respiratory tract illness. Recounted encounters have shown that imaging qualities are essential to the conclusion as radiological proof of infection shows up preceding clinical indications, which can be valuable in anticipating the phase of the illness. According to the exam, a CT scan is much more sensitive than a chest X-Ray in identifying these lung progressions.

Open Access Review Article

Role of Curcumin in Beta Thalassemia: A Review

M. B. Sai Keerthana, Palati Sinduja, R. Priyadharshini

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 144-150
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i62A35161

Beta-thalassemia is an inherited blood disorder characterized by defective beta chains of hemoglobin which often lead to the development of anemia. These patients require periodic blood transfusions to compensate for anemia. However, these transfusions often lead to complications such as iron overload. This abnormal hemoglobin can lead to anemia and cause other medical problems. Curcumin which is a polyphenol has anti-inflammatory properties and also can increase the number of antioxidants in the body. The main aim of the study is to determine the efficiency of curcumin in the treatment of β-Thalassemia.

The administration of curcumin in the treatment of β-Thalassemia has aided to be beneficial. Curcumin also exhibited hepatoprotective properties as serum bilirubin decreased in the β-Thalassemia patients. Supplementation of curcumin is seen to improve insulin resistance, lipid profile, and systemic inflammation by reducing HOMA-IR, TG, TG/HDL ratio, and hs-CRP levels. Curcumin when used in the treatment for β-Thalassemia showed low or no side effects. It has powerful anti-inflammatory effects and acts as a potent antioxidant where it can neutralize the free radicals due to its chemical structure.

Open Access Review Article

A Comprehensive Review of Quantifications, Profiling, and Regulations of Pharmaceutical Impurities

Dev Prakash Dahiya, Geetanjali Saini, Amit Chaudhary, Bhupendra Singh, Pooja Sharma, Vandana Thakur, Nisha Thakur, Manish Vyas

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 194-222
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i62A35200

In the past few decades impurity profiling has continuously gained the attention of regulatory bodies due to the rise in the number of drugs frequently entering the market. International regulatory agencies like ICH, FDA, Canadian Drug and Health Agency emphasize carrying out impurity profiling of drugs in strict compliance with the regulatory guidelines that have been laid down intending to ensure production of high quality and safe pharmaceutical drugs to serve mankind. Simple impurities can be easily evaluated by conventionally available methods whereas impurities present within complex matrix structure pose significant challenges to the analyst and require a more sophisticated approach. The work has been carried out with great efforts to make the study possible distinctively and comprehensively.

Open Access Review Article

1,3,4-Thiadiazole Derivatives as an Antimicrobial: An Update

Harigopal S. Sawarkar, Mahavir Singh, Birendra Shrivastav, R. L. Bakal

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 232-257
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i62A35203

Persistent and uncontrolled use of antibiotics results in development of bacterial resistant. The situation is getting worsen day by day and scientists are investigating thousands of potentially active drugs like molecule in laboratories around the world every day in search of effective antibiotics. During last decade considerable attention was given to five-member heterocyclic moieties while designing new antimicrobial agents. One of important heterocycle is five-membered 1,3,4-thiadiazole with unique bioisosteric properties displaying unusually wide spectrum of biological activities. This comprehensive review represent the recent 1,3,4-thiadiazole and its derivatives, which can be considered as potential antimicrobial agents in the period of 2015 and onwards. This review may help the medicinal chemists to develop new leads possessing 1,3,4-thiadiazole nucleus with higher efficacy and reduced side effects.

Open Access Review Article

A Review on Impact of Glyphosate on Development of Cancer

Monisha Prasad, U. Vidhya Rekha, Ponnulakshmi Rajagopal, Durairaj Sekar, Selvaraj Jayaraman

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 307-316
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i62A35551

Pesticides are a vast mixture of compounds used to control pests like plants, moulds, and insects. In agriculture, non-agricultural vegetation management, and crop desiccant harvesting aid, chemicals from every major functional family of pesticides, such as insecticides, herbicides, fungicides, and fumigants, were frequently used. Herbicides are one of the most effective tools for farmers to obtain optimal crop yields when used correctly. Glyphosate (N-(phosphonomethyl) glycine) is a broad-spectrum weed killer that is used all over the world in agriculture and forestry. Glyphosate's herbicidal activity in plants is to disrupt the shikimic acid pathway's generation of branched-chain amino acids by preventing the binding of phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) to the enzyme 5-enolpyruvylshikimate 3-phosphate synthase. This causes a deficiency in aromatic amino acid synthesis and, as a result, weeds mortality. Glyphosate exposure through food, drinking water, wind, water erosion, and other environmental pathways has been linked to human health issues as a carcinogen, mutagen, and reproductive toxicity. Glyphosate has a wide range of tumorigenic effects in biological systems, and epidemiological evidence suggests that glyphosate use on crops is linked to a wide range of cancers, including liver cancer, breast cancer, thyroid cancer, pancreatic cancer, kidney cancer, bladder cancer, and myeloid cancer. The shikimate pathway enzymes, intermediates, and derivative amino acids, which have been associated to genotoxicity and carcinogenicity, are thought to have a role in most cancer pathologies. This review summarises glyphosate's function in cancer pathology, including the ability of the glyphosate circuit to induce cancer and implications for future therapeutic methods.

Open Access Review Article

Etiology and Management of Hypersensitivity of Teeth - A Review

T. Pranati, Padma Ariga, Dhanraj Ganapathy, Abhirami Arthanari

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 317-329
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i62A35552

Hypersensitivity of teeth is a common clinical condition usually associated with exposed dentinal tubules. It is predominantly found in patients belonging to 20-60 years of age and most commonly affects the canines and premolars of both the arches. This article concisely reviews the etiology, patho-physiology, mechanism and management of dentin hypersensitivity. Treatment of dentin hypersensitivity should start with an accurate diagnosis and removal of the etiology. Differential diagnosis should be made and all other probable causes should be excluded. An often neglected phase of clinical management of dentin hypersensitivity is the identification and treatment of the causative factors. By removing the etiological factors, the condition can be even prevented from occurring or recurring. There are various treatment modalities available which can be used at home or may be professionally applied. The “at home” desensitizing agents include toothpastes, mouthwashes or chewing gums and they act by either occluding the dentinal tubules or blocking the neural transmission. The in-office treatments include application of potassium nitrate, fluorides, adhesive resins, copal varnish and oxalates. This article also discusses the recent treatment options like carbonated nano hydroxyapatite crystals bioglass, calcium silicate derivative of Portland cement, lasers and casein phosphopeptide.

Open Access Review Article

The Impact of Medical Negligence on Patient Safety in Healthcare Organization

Waseem Khan, Avinash Waghmode

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 561-566
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i62A35888

Medical negligence (carelessness, nonperformance, laxness) is at peak to concern about public health among public health care providers as it affects public health and safety and also not only health wealth. It indicates the main or fixes of patient injury or health. Or any disability which Is permanent to the subject or patient. patient safety is dependent on doctors’ skill and experience that how he \she is gone treat the subject. All negligence by which patients suffer a major trauma \injuries \disability is major negligence which is bad for doctors’ reputation \and also harms its degree may be the chances of getting suspension and also stay at its practice. this research analyzed negligence and lack of awareness of doctors toward patients’ treatment. Patient safety is vital among and during its treatment and nourishing. various site is used to analyze the vital data to preserve the review among all article it’s like collecting all the data from various Biblio form which implement the same issues of negligence.

The annual percentage or counting (quantity) of cases is increasing of negligence in the medical field due to wrong (incorrect, unrelated medicine), maximum charging (billing) of various process unnecessary. All the doctors (interns) and all medical officers are responsible for patient death which happen um needed in hospitals. in tertiary care hospitals, the number of negligence cases is increasing due to rush of emergencies causalities trauma patients is gradually increasing, thus various investigation is needed against negligence or carelessness cases which harms the patients or subjects reason for the disability of subject or victims. Thus this is the review article for medical negligence in health care organizations and its impact on public safety and health.

Open Access Review Article

Black Plague: History and Analysis

Vinay Ahir, Avinash Taksande, Alka Rawekar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 567-572
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i62A35889

The Black Death was a terrifying bubonic plague outbreak that swept over Europe and Asia in the 1300s. The plague ravaged Europe in October 1347, just as 12 boats from the Black Sea arrived in the Sicilian port of Messina. A large portion of the sailors on board had died, and the people who suffer were weakened and covered with dim wounds that flooded blood and release. The naval force of "death ships" was rapidly compelled out of the harbor by Sicilian subject matter experts, but it was too far to turn back: the Black Death would kill in excess of 20 million people all through Europe throughout the accompanying five years, representing in excess of 33% of the mainland's populace. The Black Death is said to have been achieved by the plague, which was achieved by a defilement with the minuscule organic entities Yersinia pestis. As demonstrated by present-day genomic examination, the Y. pestis strain introduced during the Black Death is genealogical to all or any circumnavigating Y. pestis strains known to cause ailment in individuals. Consequently, plague eruptions in the current time frame may be followed directly back to the Middle Ages. The Black Death, as demonstrated by other coherent disclosures, was achieved by a disease. It's hard to reproduce past plague pandemics solely dependent on rodent insect transmission since human cases are frequently the outcome of numerous transmission courses. During pandemics, the proliferation of plague has been an argumentative subject. The reason for the Black Death has been discussed ordinarily, with some guaranteeing it was brought about by a bacterial sickness (Yersinia Pestis) and others asserting it was brought about by a viral infection. In this survey study, we will try to clarify the causes, outcomes, and starting points of the pandemic.

Open Access Review Article

Effectiveness of Immunotherapy on COVID-19

Vidhi Agrawal, Tripti Srivastava

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 573-579
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i62A35890

COVID-19 is an infection triggered by a recently discovered coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2. COVID-19 patients experience respiratory illnesses, including difficulty breathing, pneumonia, cough, etc. People also suffer from body aches and extreme weakness. Sp02 level becomes significantly less, leading to worsening of the disease. Many people have lost their lives due to corona becoming a pandemic. After many investigations, a vaccine against this virus has been discovered, which reduces the infection. Still, vaccinated people also have chances of getting an infection, but the severity of symptoms gets reduced to much extent. It was found that novel vaccine technology used in the COVID-19 vaccine can prevent up to 95% of infections. Immunotherapy plays a significant role in fighting against infection. According to studies, hematology patients are more prone to suffer from an infection. The macrophages, neutrophils, and dendritic cells help in reducing the infection. There are mainly two types of vaccine discovered against coronavirus disease –

  • Covaxin
  • Covishield

Covaxin is 78% - 100% effective whereas Covishield is 70% - 90% effective.

Clinical studies are used to assess vaccine effectiveness. After receiving the corona disease vaccine, several adverse side effects may arise. Vaccines rescue the breaths of millions of diseased beings with viruses and bacteria. We celebrate the advances made and the highpoint challenges ahead in vaccinations and the science underlying them as the world waits for safe and effective COVID-19 vaccines. We outlined the current prospective therapeutic methods for disorders caused by COVID-19 infection, as well as their mechanisms of action, safety, and efficacy, in this study.

Open Access Review Article

Maximizing Drug Effect & Reducing Pain by Placebo Drug Therapy by Diminishing and Ending Use of Painkillers/ Anaesthesia in Chronic Painful Disorders

Vedant Hedau, Swapnil Patond

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 580-586
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i62A35891

The placebo effect has shown prominent results with scientific evidence. It is the methodology of giving placebos that raises questions. There is limited investigation/research on the placebo pain-relieving effects. As the ethical concerns have contended. Many medical service providers use placebo habitually and patients are accepting these interventions. The positive patient-clinician outlook is very essential to develop a clinically meaningful placebo effect in chronic pain patients. For clinical use of placebo, it is important to understand that placebo-based clinical trials yield ethical possibilities and boundaries. Since the placebo effect contributes to active responses, it is possible to enhance the positive placebo effect. Placebo is psycho-neurobiological responses capable of modulating pain and producing variable changes of the different neurobiological bodies at emotive and analytic levels. This development can be achieved by different contextual factors (CFs) presented in the therapeutic encounter between patient and healthcare provider, such as healing rituals and signs. The CFs directly impact the quality of the therapeutic outcome. When we say chronic pain, we know the patient is suffering from some condition for a long period of time. In this scenario, there are high chances of a patient taking some pain management medication. Most chronic pain conditions such as arthritis, osteoarthritis, IBS, fibromyalgia, etc. cannot be cured. Pain with time increases as the patient gains tolerance to the medication therefore the doses of the medication are increased due to no effectivity of the drug is changed. This continues lifelong, due to these heavy pain medications given with the pain causative condition medication causes various negative effects on the body. In Clinical psychology placebo, drug therapy can be very helpful in depression, anxiety disorders, mood disorders, psychotic disorders, etc.  Every year, we learn new data about the clinical application of the placebo effect.

Open Access Review Article

A Brief Overview of Diabetic Nephropathy

Shikha Sinha, Vaishali Pauniker

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 587-592
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i62A35892

In hatched nations, Diabetic nephropathy is a condition that affects diabetics' kidneys. A variety of factors causes major CKD and renal failure. Diabetic nephropathy has increased in morbidity and mortality in the global population during the last few decades. Diabetic individuals, in contrast to kidney injury, are at risk for a variety of consequences, including retinopathy, neuropathy, and certain cardiovascular illnesses. The complications indicated above all add to a significant risk of death. Diabetic nephropathy uses metabolic and hemodynamic factors to interact in a complex way, for example, RAASblood glucose, but then advanced glycation end-products and causing health difficulties in patients (RAS). Hence, indicating that the transcription factor in the downstream nuclear element activated B cell kappa-light-chain enhancer. As a result, the main treatments for diabetic nephropathy are insulin and RAS inhibitors, which reflect and modify glycaemic and blood pressure levels.V. In both industrialized and developing countries, patients with DN continue to progress to the level of ESRD rapidly. As a result, the novel pathogenic models, with the exception, could be determined for improved control of hyperglycemia and hypertension Nephropathy care. The apparent function of DN cellular senescence is currently attracting a lot of attention. However, a complete explanation has yet to be achieved. The involvement such as Diabetic nephropathy, cell membrane aging, and associated functions will be studied. Be the focus of this review. We'll also look into the possible therapeutic targets of cellular senescence, which could lead to new clinical techniques for DN treatment.

Open Access Review Article

Medicinal Properties of Terminalia Arjuna: A Review

Vaishnavi Verma, Sangita Jogdand

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 593-604
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i62A35893

Terminalia arjuna, also commonly referred to as T. arjuna, is a deciduous tree that belongs to the family Combretaceae. It can be found in many regions of India. T. arjuna is a 60- to 80-foot-tall tree found alongside rivers and streams all over the Indo-sub-Himalayan areas of Delhi, Uttar Pradesh, Chota Nagpur, the southern part of Bihar, Madhya Pradesh and Deccan regions. It has been used to cure several ailments for as far back as the ancient times of India. It is most prevalently consumed to cure and manage several cardiac and vascular diseases, including those like CADs, Angina Pectoris, CHF/Hypertension, and Dyslipidaemia. Its extracts are used to improve cardiac muscles and thus effectively improve heart pumping, heart rate, and blood pressure. The many parts of the tree consist of several phytochemicals, including tannins, flavonoids, glycosides, and triterpenoids like Arjunolic acid, which contribute to its anti-oxidant anti-inflammatory antimicrobial, anticarcinogenic and antimutagenic properties. As of today, there have not been any reports of any harmful side effects regarding its administration. While there are various studies that support its use for a problem of diseases, further research is still required to understand its exact mechanisms. There is also a need for further research on T. arjuna regarding its drug interactions, its specific molecular mechanism of action, and the toxicology involved.