Open Access Case Report

Long COVID Syndrome Presenting as Hyperferritenemia Associated Toxic Encephalopathy in a Deferoxamine Compliant Patient of Beta Thalassemia

Sujal Patel, Dhruv Talwar, Sunil Kumar, Sourya Acharya, Mansi Patel

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 241-246
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i57B34052

Ferritin overload is a frequent problem encountered in patients with beta thalassemia amounting to various complications. One of rare but important complication of ferritin overload is ferritin overload induced toxic encephalopathy. Serum ferritin has been recognised as a important marker of inflammation and cytokine storm in COVID19.We present a case of Long COVID syndrome presenting as toxic encephalopathy in a case of beta thalassemia in spite of the patient being compliant to desferroxamine therapy.This report highlights the synergistic effect of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus. 2(SARS CoV 2) mediated neuroinflammation through direct viral invasion and the release of inflammatory cytokines including ferritin  resulting in toxic encephalopathy in a beta thalassemia major patient who was already prone to develop hyperferritenemia.Ferritin functions as a pro-inflammatory cytokine and it’s level increases in both thalassemia and COVID-19 and the index case presented here had both the conditions predisoposing him to develop toxic encephalopathy even after being compliant to deferoxamine therapy. It is important to recognise and treat this condition in order to prevent mortality and morbidity in patients of beta thalassemia who contract COVID19.

Open Access Case Report

Case Report on Alcohol Dependence with Delirium Tremors

Rohini Kakade, Samrudhhi Gujar, Savita Pohekar, Ranjana Sharma, Ruchira Ankar, Vaishali Tembhare, Swapna Morye, Sonali Wavare

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 382-385
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i57B34070

Alcohol is a natural product made by reacting lactose fermentation with yeast spores. Because it includes calories. With no nutritional value, alcohol is used as a source of energy Different sugar sources are used for fermentation to create a variety of alcoholic beverages. Patient Present History:-On September 3rd, 2020, a 32-year-old male patient was admitted to hospital with a specific complaint of abdominal pain for the past three years. He began drinking alcohol on a daily basis. Initially, he only drank at night, but later he began drinking during the day.

Clinical Finding: Mood irritable, social withdrawal, mental confusion, seizure, vomiting, mood changes, lethargy and vomiting.

Diagnostic Evaluation: Hb - 11.9 mg%, MCV – 87 cum/micron, MCH- 28.9 pico/gm, Total Bilirubin- 1.47.USG –He is appearance was natural once more. There was no localized lesion or oblivious mass lesion in the pelvis.

Open Access Case Report

Conservative Rehabilitation of Partial Anterior Cruciate Ligament Tear - A Case Report

Shivani Uttamchandani, Khushboo Bhageriya, Mithushi Deshmukh

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 386-394
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i57B34071

The anterior cruciate ligament is one of the most important ligaments in the knee joint (ACL). The ACL is necessary for appropriate knee joint mobility and mechanics. When the ACL is torn, patients may experience issues with their knee's function, as well as instability and the sensation of 'falling away' while walking. The anterior cruciate ligament acts as a main restraint on tibia-to-femur translation (anterior shear). Depending on the angle of knee flexion, this function is allocated to either anteromedial or posterolateral bundle. When the knee is fully extended, the posterolateral bundle is tense; however, when the knee flexes, the posterolateral bundle loosens and the anteromedial bundle tightens.

We report the case of a 32-year-old man who twisted his leg while jogging, resulting in a partial thickness ACL rupture and mild joint effusion along the periarticular surface of the right knee, as revealed by radiological symptoms and MRI.Conservative rehabilitation in a patient aged 32 year shows good results and so the surgery was not performed. Initially 10 weeks protocol was managed in hospital under the guidance of a therapist including strengthening, stretching and conditioning of lower limb muscles, later on as pain reduced and patient achieved functional pain free range 12 week protocol was further set for home program.

Open Access Systematic Review Article

Pharmaceutical Management of General Anxiety Disorder

Rehab Hafiz, Khawlah Fairaq, Lama Alfawzan, Sharaf Alharazi, Atheer Alrsheed, Abeer Alzahrani, Faris Sultan, Aroob Alhuthail, Hanin Bashaikh, Norah Alsomali, Sohaib Alwafi, Mohammed Bukhari, Turky Aljuhani

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 395-405
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i57B34072

Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is a mental disorder defined as excessive worrying over little things. It is a one of the most common types of anxiety disorders. A study stated that 1-5% of the general population suffers from GAD.  The condition affects the quality of life of a patient negatively and activities in their everyday life. In this review article, we highlighted several studies that compared combined therapy of psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy to either therapy alone, results were conflicting and differ from one study to another.  Provide a thorough and comprehensive review of the different approaches of GAD management, several database websites were searched for articles discussing the pharmacological management of general anxiety disorder. Clinical trials, clinical guidelines, systematic reviews, meta-analyses and review articles were all reviewed and considered for inclusion. The review emphasizes the importance of taking the decision of therapy after counseling the patient, taking into account, the cost effectiveness of the treatment, patient’s symptomatology, comorbidity, medical conditions, concomitant using medications, previous trials and preference. Accordingly, thorough assessment should be done before moving to management plan, and a trial of other group or other therapies should be taken if there is no response seen. However, generalized anxiety disorder is one of the most common types of anxiety disorders. It has a lifetime prevalence around 5%, it can include intolerable cognitive, emotional and physical symptoms. Thus, GAD can adversely affect the patient’s life aspects, including personal, functional, social or educational. There are options to be taken among psychotherapy, pharmacotherapy or combined therapy.

Open Access Case Study

Effectual Physiotherapy Treatment in a 16 Year Old Case of Atrial Septal Defect- A Single Case Study

Shreya Daga, Rashmi Walke, Pallavi R. Bhakaney, . Vishnuvardhan, Ruhi Kumbhare, Moli Jain

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 161-165
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i57B34041

Background: Paediatric cardiac surgeries have an immense survival rate and rehabilitation plays a major role in such cases. Many patients are diagnosed with septal defects or valve defects at birth which come sunder cardiac surgeries.

Case Presentation: This is a case of 16 year old boy who had atrial septal defect and underwent atrial septal defect closure.

Investigations: 2D echocardiography revealed atrial septal defect.

Management: Physiotherapy intervention included patient education, breathing retraining, airway clearance techniques, positioning, and psychological support and mobility program. Outcome measures have shown enhancement in functional independence and performance of activities of daily living.

Conclusion: The evidence from this study suggest that paediatric cardiac rehabilitation found to play a pivotal role in managing a patient who had atrial septal defect.

Open Access Case Study

A 2 Years Child Bronchopneumonia with Down Syndrome

Seema Yelne, Mayur Wanjari, Hina Rodge, Sagar Alwadkar, Pratibha Wankhede, Deeplata Mendhe

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 174-177
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i57B34043

Introduction: Pneumonia and respiratory infections impact infants and children with Down syndrome; pneumonia is a leading cause of mortality in adults with Down syndrome.

Case Presentation: A 2 years old child came to AVBRH hospital with a history of fever, cough and cold for 6 days. The patient was admitted to the pediatric ward for management. Suddenly patient started to breathlessness, increase in serum creatinine and acidotic breathing. The patient shifted to the pediatric intensive care unit.

Intervention: The treatment of patients was started immediately after admission. The patient's condition was dull after the examination and patient condition inspection doctors decide to intubate the patient for further management and recovery of the patient.

Conclusion: In this report, we mainly focus on expert medical management and excellent nursing care helped in managing the complicated case very nicely. The patient response was positive to conservative and nursing management. The patient was discharged without postoperative complications and satisfactory with recovery.

Open Access Case Study

A case report on Severe Acute Respiratory Infection

Shiva Bawane, Manjusha Mahakalkar, Ruchira Ankar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 206-210
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i57B34047

Introduction: Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome is a zootoxic viral respiratory illness caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome corona virus (SARS-CoV or SARS-The syndrome was the cause of the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome outbreak in 2002–2004. The virus was traced back to cave-dwelling horseshoe bats via Asian palm civets in late 2017 by Chinese scientists in Xizang Yi Ethnic Township, Yunnan. SARS was a rare illness; there were 8,422 cases at the end of the pandemic in June 2003, with an 11 percent case fatality rate (CFR) (CoV-1), the initial strain of the SARS corona virus species (SARSr-CoV).

Clinical Finding: Swelling over Right. Half of face, Breathlessness.

Diagnostic Evaluation: Blood test: Hb – 9.2gm%, Total RBC count- 3.22 millions/, HCT- 26.6%, Total WBC count – 6600/, Monocytes-02%, granulocytes-85%, lymphocytes-10000 /mcl. HRCT Scan OF Thorax: Multiple ill defined patchy ground glass opacities with consolidation and sepal thickening in bilateral lungs filled s/o infective etiology possibility of atypical viral pneumonia. View of covid positive PCR test; imagine grading corad-6 with CT severity score – 03\25 (Mild).

Therapeutic Intervention: Inj.Amphotericin-B 500mg IV, Inj.Piptaz 4.4gm IV x TDS, Inj.levoflox 500 mg x OD, Inj.Clindamycin 300mg x BD, Inj.pantaprazol 40 mg x OD, Inj.Emset 4mg x TDS, Tab. limcee 500 mg x BD.

Outcome: After Treatment, the patient shows improvement. His swelling over face decrease, and breathlessness decrease.

Conclusion: My patient was admitted in SARI-HDU, AVBRH with complaint of swelling over face Right side, and breathlessness. After getting appropriate treatment his condition was improved.

Open Access Case Study

Case Report on Sickle Cell Anaemia (SS Pattern)

Mayur Waghaye, Sheetal Sakharkar, Samrudhi Gujar, Swapna Morey, Archana Dhengare, Prerna Sakharwade, Darshana Kumari, Pooja Kasturkar, Madhuri Naik

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 271-275
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i57B34055

Sickle cell anemia is a kind of hemolytic anemia that is passed down in families. It is a kind of hemolytic anemia caused by inheriting the sickle hemoglobin gene. Africans, as well as individuals from the Middle East, the Mediterranean region, and India's aboriginal tribes, have a lower level of the sickle hemoglobin (HbS) gene. A kind of anemia that affects both children and adults is sickle cell anemia.

Clinical Finding: Since 5 days, A 25-year-old man has been experiencing generalized bodily pain and anxiety.

Examining the Problem: ALT (SGPT)- 97 U/L, AST (SGOT)- 56 U/L, total bilirubin – 5.4 mg percent, bilirubin conjugated – 1.7 mg percent, bilirubin unconjugated – 3.7 mg percent, total    RBC count – 3.71 million/cu mm, total WBC count – 22100 cu mm, total platelets count – 6.46 lack/cu.

Ultrasonography: Heterogeneous spleen.

Therapeutic Intervention: Inj. Piptaz 4.5 gm TDS, inj. Levoflox 500 mg, tab. Hydroxyurea 500 mg, tab. Neurobion forte, inj. Pan 40 mg, inj. Tramadol 100 mg.

Outcome: The client's condition has improved as a result of the treatment. He has no longer generalized bodily aches, and his anxiety levels have decreased.

Conclusion: A 25-year-old man was admitted to Acharya Vinoba Bhave Hospital's Medicine ward with a history of sickle cell anaemia and complaints of nonspecific body aches and anxiousness. His condition improved after he received proper therapy.

Open Access Case Study

A Case of Small Bowel Intimation with Sepsis

Sanjana Sontakke, Sagar Alwadkar, Mayur Wanjari

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 292-296
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i57B34058

Introduction: Sepsis is a life-threatening organ failure that occurs in severely ill patients as a result of a primary infectious cause or subsequent infection of injured tissues. The systemic effects of sepsis have been extensively studied, and evidence of local alterations and repercussions in the intestinal mucosal compartment is gradually characterizing sepsis-related changes in the gut. The current study focuses on sepsis-induced intestinal barrier failure, which includes increased epithelial permeability, which may allow bacterial translocation. The small bowel, commonly known as the small intestine, is roughly 1 inch in diameter and 20 to 30 feet long. It has a lot of folds to help it fit inside the abdominal cavity. The small bowel is connected to the stomach on one end and the big intestine on the other.

Patient information: He was 63 years old male admitted to Acharya Vinoba Bhave Rural hospital sawangi meghe Wardha in MICU ward with chief complaints of altering sensorium. Low urine output vomiting, loss of appetite, swelling of the abdomen crampy abdominal pain that comes and goes.

The Main Diagnosis, Therapeutic Intervention and Outcomes: A CT scan revealed a thicker transverse colon wall. His flexible sigmoidoscopy revealed “patchy inflammation and an isolated area of severe deep ulceration with nodularity and edema,” according to the report. The patient was given a preliminary diagnosis of "Inflammatory Bowel Disease—likely Crohn's," and was treated with steroids and Patient was done colonoscopy and course of inj. hydrocortisone, inj. Neomol, inj. levipril.

Conclusion: In the case of acute small-bowel obstruction, helical CT is a highly sensitive approach for diagnosing or ruling out intestinal ischemia. In patients with significant trauma who are being assessed for sepsis of unknown origin, abdominal computed tomographic scans accurately identify intra-abdominal foci of infection. This patient was diagnosed with small bowel intimation and sepsis.

Open Access Case Study

Case Report on Chiari Syndrome

Asawari Meshram, Vaishali Tembhare, Seema Singh, Ranjana Sharma, Ruchira Ankar, Khushabu Meshram, Puja Nakhale, Prerana Sakharwade

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 406-411
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i57B34073

Chiari Malformation is a rare condition. A condition known as Chiari malformation occurs when brain tissue spreads into the spinal canal. When a portion of your skull is excessively small or malformed, it presses on your brain and forces it downward. Chiari malformation is a rare occurrence, although the increased use of imaging testing has resulted in more diagnosis.

Case Presentation: A 18-year-old boy was admitted to the hospital with the following symptoms: Tingling sensation, numbness over left hand since 2 to 3 months. Neck bend toward right side, pain in left hand since 6 month. Difficulty during eating by hand since 2 to 3 month. On physical examination, indicated a bright attentive person with pale conjunctiva and no symptoms of icterus. He had a tachycardia, bilateral pitting pedal edema and a swollen abdomen with shifting dullness, all of which pointed to as cites. He had a history of intermittent abdominal pain. On admission he complaint of new onset of dyspnea on exertion, fatigue and abdominal swelling. The rest of all physical examination was normal, with no skin changes and an intact arterial pulses in all four extremities.

Conclusion: The primary focus of this case study is on professional management and outstanding nursing care, which may provide the holistic care that Chiari Syndrome necessitates while also effectively managing the challenging case. After a full recovery, the patient's comprehensive health care team collaborates to help the patient regain his or her previous level of independence and satisfaction.

Open Access Case Study

Combating a Case of COVID Pneumonia with ARDS – a Physiotherapist’s Standpoint

Chaithanya Ratheesh, Aishwarya Nair

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 412-417
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i57B34074

Introduction: Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is an infectious disease caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus, affecting multiple organ systems. The disease usually presents as mild to moderate respiratory illness but in many cases has progressed to development of pneumonia and ARDS ultimately requiring ventilatory support and prolonged ICU stay. Prolonged immobilization itself is a harbinger of various complications drastically altering a patient’s functional status. Physiotherapy plays a vital role in the management of COVID-19 symptoms as well as in the prevention of complications. 

Case Study: This case report describes the progress of a 44-year old female patient diagnosed with COVID-19 presenting with subsequent pneumonia and ARDS. The patient was started with medical management and supplemental oxygen therapy. In combination to the above-mentioned protocols, physiotherapy treatment was also initiated. After 2 weeks of rehabilitation and drug therapy, the patient displayed improved respiratory function at room air and was able to independently ambulate with minimal breathing difficulty.

Discussion: This case report aims to highlight the importance of early intervention of physiotherapy in COVID-19 patients. The scope of physiotherapy treatment in patients with COVID-19 pneumonia is vast. The treatment protocol adapted for this patient are in tune with the various research articles analysed to ensure evidence-based care. This will enable the healthcare professionals to ensure timely referral and early initiation of Physiotherapy treatment.

Conclusion: As per the findings and results of this case report, it is evident that the patient benefited from the timely advent of physiotherapy intervention. The key factor was the correct identification of the problematic areas and accurate prioritization based on the clinical presentation and investigation findings

Open Access Case Study

A Clinical Case Report: Schizophrenia

Deepti Ekhar, Jaya Gawai, Pooja Kasturkar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 428-433
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i57B34076

Background: Schizophrenia (SCZ) is a serious mental disorder in which people take reality as abnormally. SCZ may cause in combination of hallucination, delusions, and extremely disorder thinking and behaviour that impairs daily functioning and cannot be disabling. There are different reasons of SCZ this may be as of Genes, Environment or Change in Brain Structures.In India around 3/1000 people were affected due to SCZ

Aim: The purpose of this case report is to determine the first line approach for a person with SCZ who has been referred to a public mental health facility for treatment.

Objective: To identifying symptoms of SCZ early, providing treatment and preventing possible complications.

Methods: Knowledge used to write this case description was gathered from PubMed outlets, search hand, searching college and personal libraries looking for research techniques and case report texts, engaging in or writing many case reports with experience.

Results: The patient was taken psychopharmacological treatment antipsychotic drugs olanzapine, Risperidone along with antidepressant Sertraline and psycho social therapy, coping strategies, family therapy, yoga, cognitive behavioural therapy, medication. After those symptoms was minimized.

Conclusion: Patients achieve positive outcomes not only through the support of their treatment management, but also through adaptation and familysupport. subsequently, with appropriate psychophysiological treatment, the patient gave a positive response and gradually all the planned goalswere achieved. Finally, the patient was discharged and she is currently beingmonitored.

Open Access Case Study

A Case Report on Alcohol Dependence Syndrome with Cannabis Addiction

Deepti Ekhar, Samual Vanlalpeka, Shabnam Sayyad, Dharti Meshram, Trupti Uke, Jaya Gawai, Pooja Kasturkar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 439-444
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i57B34078

Background: Alcohol dependence syndrome (ADS) and Cannabis use disorder (CUD) are every now and again co-happening or comorbid substance issues in the two young people and grown-ups. Indications of cross-over between ADS and CUD in people as they slowly move from pre-adulthood to adulthood. The researchers reasoned that the two substance-related issues are comorbid, albeit the closeness of their association ordinarily shifts over the long haul.

Aim and Objective: The purpose of this case report is to determine the first-line approach for a person with alcohol dependence syndrome with cannabis addiction who has been referred to a public mental health facility for treatment. To identifying symptoms of ADS with cannabis addiction early, providing treatment and preventing possible complications.

Methods: Knowledge used to write this case description was gathered from PubMed outlets, search hand, searching college and personal libraries looking for research techniques and case report texts, engaging in or writing many case reports with experience. 

Results: The patient was taken psychopharmacological treatment Anti- Anxiety drugs Lorazepam along with Tab. Benalgis, Tab. Neurobion fort and psycho social therapy, coping strategies, family therapy, yoga, cognitive behavioural therapy, medication. After those symptoms was minimized.

Conclusion: Patients achieve positive outcomes not only through the support of their treatment management, but also through adaptation and family support. Then, with appropriate psychophysiological treatment, the patient gave a positive response and gradually all the planned goals were achieved. Finally, the patient was discharged and he is currently being monitored.

Open Access Study Protocol

Assessing the Effectiveness of Cartoon Videos on Post Operative Pain and Discomfort among 5 to 10 Years Children

Mayuri Aage, Rajshree Badwaik, Disha Bageshwar, Pranay Bahadure, Badal Lohawe, Sonali Kolhekar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 189-192
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i57B34045

Introduction: A study to evaluate to assess the effectiveness of cartoon videos on post-operative pain and discomfort among 5-to-10-year children. It’s needed for the improvement in health as well as a diversion from pain and wellbeing of children. The important part of every person’s life is to understand children, without understanding we cannot communicate with children. Our whole life has been greatly influenced by our childhood and our experiences. In the hospital, children frequently encounter unpredictable and acute procedure-related pain, which can have detrimental emotional and psychological consequences.

Objective: To assess the level of pain among the children of the control group. To evaluate the effectiveness and compare of cartoon videos on post-operative pain and discomfort among 5-to-10-year children in experimental group and control group. To associate the level of pain score of the control group and experimental group with selected demographic variables.

Methodology: An interventional research strategy is used in this study. The true-experimental two-group post-test control design is used in this research. This research was carried out in Acharya Vinoba Bhave Rural Hospital (AVBRH) on Postoperative youngsters aged 5 to 10 years.

Conclusion: The statistical analysis will lead to a conclusion.

Open Access Study Protocol

Assess the Level of Stress during Covid-19 Pandemic among 10th and 12th Standard Students

Isha Thakare, Sheetal Sakharkar, Ankita Udan, Vaishnavi Telrandhe, Saurabh Tapase

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 236-240
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i57B34051

The COVID-19 pandemic has had a major impact on school children especially in their academic performance which may affect their mental health. The College students bear more pressure and have more serious physical and mental health problems. Due to the recent social changes in the education domain (e.g., the sharing of educational resources and advances in communication technology), the use of distance education is more and more, which changes the communication patterns between teachers and students, increases the isolation and  independence of students, and thus becomes an important source of pressure for students [1].

Aim of the Study: To assess the level of stress during COVID-19 pandemic among the students of 10th and 12th standard. 2. To associate the level of stress during COVID-19 pandemic among the students of 10th and 12th standard with demographic variables.

Methodology: An descriptive study will be use to assess the level of stress during COVID-19 pandemic among the 10th and 12th standard students in Wardha, Maharashtra. A purposive sampling technique will be use to pick the sample. A total 100 students who met the inclusion criteria will be select for this study. A Perceived Stress Scale was created to assess the stress.

Expected Results: This study is mainly planned to assess the level of stress in students of 10th and 12th standard with the help of Perceived Stress Scale and demographic variables.

Conclusion: Final conclusion will be drawn from final result of the statistical review.

Open Access Short Communication

COVID-19 Vaccination Status amongst College Students and Staff during Offline Classes

A. Sai Padma, N. Chandan Babu

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 231-235
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i57B34050

Aim: To understand the status of COVID-19 vaccination amongst students and staff during offline classes.

Study Design: Questionnaire with open ended questions was sent to participants through social media.

Place and Duration of Study: The present study was conducted in Bhavan’s Vivekananda College of Science, Humanities and Commerce, Sainikpuri, Secunderabad from 12th-15th September, 2021.

Methodology: Questionnaire was sent to all staff members, second and third year students of undergraduate and first year students of post graduate programmes who were attending classes during the study period. Total 1263 responses were received out of approximately 2500 students.

Results: The survey results have shown that 1128 participants (89.3%) out of 1263 have received vaccination and out of them, 742 participants (65.78%) have received single dose of vaccine and 386 (34.22%) participants have received two doses. Majority of them have received Covishield (74.5%), followed by Covaxin (24.11%).

Conclusion: The present study necessitates all educational institutions to conduct similar kind of studies to understand the current status of vaccination and safety measures taken by students and staff during Covid-19 pandemic during offline classes. This will help to keep the campuses safe and prevent further spread of infection to avoid third wave of corona virus.

Open Access Short Communication

Preventive Recommendations to Reduce the Impact of Poor Ergonomics on Children during Online Learning

Khushbu Meshram, Vaishali Tembhare, Archana Taksande, Savita Pohekar, Pooja Kasturkar, Sheetal Sakharkar, Darshanakumari Wankhede, Prerana Sakharwade

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 247-252
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i57B34053

The term 'ergonomics' and 'human factors' are interchangeable, 'ergonomics' is generally used in regard to physical features of the workplace, such as workstations and control panels, whilst 'human factors' is generally used in regard to the larger system in which people co-operate. This COVID 19 pandemic impact make the children to stay at home only and government of India has been supported the online education for the children and because of that change the whole learning system in India. While attending the classes at home mostly the parents don’t have that much knowledge regarding ergonomics to prevent the lot of physical as well as mental health problems, impact of poor ergonomics kids faced lot of problems like headache, back pain, knee pain, eye irritation etc as we called as repetitive strain injuries and musculoskeletal health has been deteriorated.

Conclusion: Parents and teachers do not appear to involve schoolchildren in conversations about safe computing behaviors, which might be due to their own lack of understanding of computer ergonomics and also the impact of COVID 19 Pandemic drastically affect the children’s schooling and have to learn at home through the online education system. Ergonomic education should also include into the school curriculum as future necessity.

Open Access Minireview Article

Management of New Born with Harlequin Ichthyosis: A Rare Disease Condition

Mayur B. Wanjari, Deeplata Mendhe, Pratibha Wankhede

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 114-117
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i57B34035

Harlequin ichthyosis is the most severe form of non-bullous ichthyosis, which is unusual in newborns and is usually marked by deadly excessive keratinization of the skin. Ichthyosis is a family of genetic skin disorders, characterized by dry, thickened, scaly skin with severe morbidity and mortality. The term “harlequin” derives from the facial appearance and the triangular and diamond-shaped pattern of the scaly skin. It occurs in about 1 in 300,000 births and has no known sex predilection. The disorder affects the skin in utero causing thick, horny, armory-like plates that cover the skin with contraction abnormalities of the eyes, ears, mouth and appendages. There is no specific guideline to manage the newborn of harlequin ichthyosis, in that nursing care is most important in the initial phase. There are required multi-disciplinary teams to take care of harlequin ichthyosis.

Open Access Original Research Article

Innocuous Lesions and Not so Innocuous Lesions of the Skin and Soft Tissue

Nayantara Srikanth, K. Nithin Diwagar, B. S. Padmapriya, Ganthimathy Sekhar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i57B34021

Background: Cystic lesions of the skin and soft tissue are often neglected and thought to be innocuous or harmless. These lesions need to be excised to exclude malignancy. The lesions may present in unusual sites and may also be of infective origin. Thus, there is an urgent need to determine the prevalence and identify the histopathological features of the cystic lesions as the innocuous appearing lesions may actually not be so innocuous. In addition, it is the histopathological features that determine the treatment modality.

Aim: To determine the features and prevalence of the types of cysts in skin and soft tissue.

Materials and Methods: A retrospective study of the cystic lesions of the skin and soft tissue was conducted. The records from the Department of Pathology, Saveetha Medical College were retrieved and reviewed for patients with cystic lesions of the skin and soft tissue over a one year period extending between January 2019 and December 2019. The records were examined for the following data : age, sex, type of lesion, clinical and histopathological diagnosis.

Results: In all 109 cases with skin and soft tissue swellings were analyzed. Among these 53 were males and 56 were more females reported (51 %) of cystic swellings as compared to males (48%). Cystic lesions were most commonly encountered in the age group of 18 to 40 years, which suggests that there may be a role for trauma or occupation related occurrence. A variety of cysts were encountered such as epidermoid cysts (70%), Trichilemmal cyst (7%), and Ganglion (7%).Phaeohyphomycotic cyst, mucous retention cyst, hemangioma and pilomatrixoma. Epidermal cysts were more frequently encountered in males (54%) than females (46%).Most lesions occurred in the back.

Conclusion: Epidermal cysts may frequently be associated certain syndromes, hence it is important to evaluate these cysts. In addition phaeohyphomycotic cysts may be mistaken for Ganglion, so histopathological examination is necessary to initiate appropriate therapy.

Open Access Original Research Article

Impact of Online Classes on the Mental Health of School Students during COVID-19 in Chennai

Snigdha Bharadwaz, Preetha S., G. Sridevi, Lavanya Prathap

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 20-27
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i57B34024

Background: The pandemic Covid-19 has affected the whole world drastically. Social distancing measures were implemented by all the countries. In order to practice social distancing, most governments had temporarily closed all the educational institutions. Traditional face to face learning was switched to online learning not to compromise on a student’s academic progress. The aim of this study is to observe the impact of online classes on the mental health of school students during covid-19 in Chennai.

Materials and Methods: A survey was conducted which was cross sectional. A self administered questionnaire was distributed among school students using an online platform google forms and 120 students participated in the survey. Data was collected and analysed by using SPSS software. Pearson Chi square was done to correlate the gender and mental illness of the participants.

Results: 43.33% felt that online classes were stressful. 54.17% of the participants were satisfied with this mode of learning. Female students were more stressed than male students which were not significant. Nearly 45% of female students were not satisfied with this mode of learning which was not significant. It was found that female students were more depressed than male students. However, statistically it is not significant (p = 0.06).

Conclusion: Based on this study, about 49.16% of the participants were impacted mentally and are stressed because of online learning and it has also affected their academic performance during this pandemic situation. This study may help them to know stress levels and be aware to take steps to overcome the stress and increase their academic performance.

Open Access Original Research Article

An In vitro Evaluation of Antidiabetic Activity of Alpinia galangal and Alpinia calcarata

V. Miss Revathi, G. Anuradha, S. Sumathy

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 28-35
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i57B34025

Background: The herbs, genus Alpinia calcarata and Alpinia galanga that underneath the family Zingiberaceae are rhizomatous and extremely aromatic. The study is to investigate the anti-diabetic activity of Alpinia galanga and Alpinia calcarata in-vitro.

Material and Methods: The inhibitory effect of Alpinia galanga and Alpinia calcarata on α-amylase and α-glucosidase activities were evaluated.

Results: The results revealed that both Alpinia galanga and Alpinia calcarata inhibited α-amylase and α-glucosidase activities in a dose-dependent manner (200–1000 μg/mL). However, Alpinia calcarata possess better antidiabetic activity than Alpinia galangal.

Conclusion: The presence of phenolic and other phytochemical content in the herbs might be the reason for their ability to inhibit α-amylase and α-glucosidase activities. Thus, the drug formulating from the herbs, Alpinia galanga and Alpinia calcarata could be part of the potential alternative for synthetic anti-diabetic drug.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Knowledge and Attitude towards Radiation Hazards among Nursing Students

Ankita Watmode, Pratiksha Yenkar, Pornima Zade, Pratiksha Bhalerao, Shalini Lokhande

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 40-45
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i57B34027

Background: Radiation is the transmission of energy in the form of light or tiny particles that are too small to see. The impact of ionising radiation on nursing students is increasing as a result of diverse professionals' lack of awareness and attitude. Regardless, little study has been completed on the awareness and attitudes of nursing students toward radiation safety and practise. Despite their lack of education and understanding radiation and its effects impacts, nursing students are observed to have an optimistic mind set toward ionising radiation.

Objectives of the Study: 1) to assess the knowledge of nursing students towards radiation hazards. 2) To assess the attitude of nursing students towards radiation hazards. 3) Correlate the knowledge and attitude of nursing students towards radiation hazards. 4) Associate the knowledge of nursing students towards radiation hazards with their demographic variables.5) Associate the attitude of nursing students towards radiation hazards with their demographic variables.

Materials and Methods: The purpose of this descriptive the goal of the research was to find out how much nursing students' knowledge and attitudes about radiation hazards. Based on inclusion criteria and purposive sample approaches, 180 students were chosen. The information was gathered in an organized way.

Results: Finding of according to the research, Mean knowledge score was 9.47±2.81and mean percentage of knowledge score was 47.38±14.07 and Mean attitude score was 42.62±10.55 and mean percentage of attitude score was 71.04±17.58 which shows positive attitude.

Conclusion: The study show that there is a good knowledge of nursing students towards radiation hazards and the level of attitude is positive as per the analysis. The researchers did a descriptive survey investigation on the topic as part of their undergraduate curriculum to examine nursing students' knowledge and attitudes concerning radiation threats.

Open Access Original Research Article

Color Changes of Ceramic Materials Used for Inlay and Veneers Restorations after Staining with Different Time Intervals

Mohammed M. Al Moaleem, Mohammed Saleh M. Alamoudi, Ghith Fayez Aldhahri, Ahmad Ramzi Alzaylaei, Ola Ziad M. Daoud, Abdulkreem M. Hummadi, Hanan Ibrahim Hakami, Khalil Mohammed Marran, Huda Ali Omair, Areej Meshari Hakami

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 46-56
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i57B34028

Background: Stain color of CAD/CAM prosthetic materials is important for the long-term of these materials without affecting daily beverage consumption habits.

Aims: To assess the influence of aging with Coca-Cola drinks on the color of the CAD/CAM materials used for inlay and veneer restoration over different time intervals.

Methods: 48 specimens were fabricated from Vitablocs Mark II and zirconia CAD/CAM ceramic materials. Each group comprised 24 specimens with eight samples for every background (white [W], black [B], and gray). Baseline readings were taken by a spectrophotometer before staining (Baseline T0). After Coca-Cola staining and aging, the color measurement was repeated after 15 and 30 days (T1 and T2), while T3 was the difference between T2-T0. The data were analyzed with descriptive statistics, one-way ANOVA, and post hoc tests.

Results: The ΔE00 color parameters of Mark II and zirconia materials were higher against the W background than other backgrounds. However, the zirconia materials recorded higher values than Mark II for the same parameters (L, a, and b) against the gray background during 15 and 30 days of immersion in Coca-Cola. Translucency parameters (TP) exhibited significant differences between ceramic types and immersion periods, with the TP values of zirconia being slightly higher than those of Mark II. The ΔE00 values for the three-time intervals were within clinically acceptable ranges. The ΔE00 values of both ceramic types at T3 were within 1.38–1.53 and 3.11–3.62 and lacked significant differences.

Conclusions: Coca-Cola staining was obvious after 15 and 30 days of immersion and had a marked effect on the TP and ΔE00 of the tested CAD/CAM materials. Increasing the staining time resulted in a reduction in TP values at all time intervals. Zirconia samples had higher ΔE00 values than Mark II materials at different time periods. All of the colors of the tested materials had changed from B1 to different light colors in accordance with the Vita classical shade guide.

Open Access Original Research Article

Selective SGLT2 Inhibitor’s Estimation and Validation from Galenical Form by RP-HPLC Method

Swapnali Suresh Mankar, Muhammad Younas, Vaishavi Kalode, Pranita Jirvankar, Prasanna Phutane, Shital Chandewar, Ashwini Armarkar, Anil Pethe

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 57-68
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i57B34029

Aim: The recent analysis is required to do novel and simple, sensitive, precise, efficient, instant and reproducible reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) method for estimation of antidiabetic drug in the unit dosage form. Validation of this method is also planned to make it suitable for the actual use.

Study Design: Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Datta Meghe Institute of Medical Sciences deemed to be university, Wardha in collaboration with Balkh university, Mazar-e-sharif, Afghanistan between August 2021 and December 2021.

Methodology: In that article develop the method and validate it by estimation of antidiabetic drugs in solid dosage form by RP-HPLC, by using System suitability test, Repeatability, Precision studies (Intra-day and Interday/Intermediate), Linearity/Calibration studies, Robustness, Force degradation, Specificity, Drug recovery/accuracy studies.

Results: as per ICH guidelines, the performance if system suitability in remogliflozin were achieved all guidelines; in that, tailing factor (T),separation factors(α),theoretical plates(N),capacity  factor (k’), resolution (R) and RSD (%). The validated stress degradation studies under thermal, oxidative, alkali and acid, in few degradation products for remogliflozin (REM).

Conclusion: From the results we conclude that, this novel technique which validated for exploration by reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) should be used for routine quality control of remogliflozin (REM) prediction from developed formulation.

Open Access Original Research Article

Using Herbal Medicine for Dental Pain in Saudi Arabia: Prevalence and Knowledge Assessment

Ayman Mandorah, Othman Wali, Malak Alqais, Layla Alsaegh, Buthaina Fatani, Ziyad Alomar, Razan Kabli, Rawan BinSalman, Maha alqubali, Alanoud Albalawi, Abeer Abdullah, Faten Alshahrani, Abeer Alqahtani, Rahaf Alqahtani, Khames T. Alzahrani

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 69-77
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i57B34030

Background: The dental community has started to use natural plant properties to relieve dental pain. Besides their significant serious side effect, Herb’s ingredients should be chosen wisely. However, many studies are conducted to find out the herb’s information due to the lack of randomized controlled clinical trials. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and the knowledge of the effect of using herbal medicine for dental pain among Saudi population.

Methodology: An observational cross-sectional study was conducted in Saudi Arabia between September 2020 and October 2021. based on a structured questionnaire among Saudi populations. Structured self-administrated questionnaires in English and Arabic languages were used as a study tool. Authors collected the information using social media channels through google forms. SPSS 26 was used for data entry and data analysis.

Results: The study included 4213 participants. 25% of study sample were males and 75% were females. 51.6% aged between 20- 30 years old. 61.8% of all participants use herbs to relieve toothache (82% of them use clove or clove oil and 36% use thyme). Think herbs are safe and free from side effects in treating toothache. 8% noticed side effects or damage while using herbs to relieve dental pain (27% of them swelling, 21% sharp stomach pain, 21% hypersensitive and 17% bleeding).

Conclusion: The Saudi population show relatively good knowledge level and practice towards herbs use in dentistry. The use of herbs to relieve toothache was significantly associated with female gender, age, residence area in western region and average monthly income.

Open Access Original Research Article

Views and Perceptions on Telemedicine by Consumers in Delhi

Divas Sharma, Monika Mittal, Manoj Pareek

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 78-88
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i57B34031

Telemedicine, also known as telehealth, has been around for decades, but despite its many perceived benefits, its adoption has remained low. The objective our study was to know how consumers felt about telemedicine service during COVID -19 and to find out factors influencing consumers' perceptions of telemedicine services, a survey was done using a questionnaire. Social media and e-mail were used to inform people about the research due to onset of pandemic. An e online survey was done from the period of April 1st to June 30th, 2021 in India’s capital Delhi and adjoining areas, 122 service users were sampled for the survey. A 10-item scale was used to assess telemedicine satisfaction, revealing that all participants were satisfied with their telemedicine experience(s) in general. The elements of perception were studied using factor analysis. The results of the analysis revealed that an individual's intention to utilize a system or technology may be influenced not only by factors affecting the user's direct encounter with the system or technology but also by factors affecting the service provider. Patients place a high value on these qualities, thus service providers can design their interface, appointment procedure, and consultation process around them.

Open Access Original Research Article

Cytotoxic Effect of Hydroethanolic Extract of Citrullus colocynth (L) Fruit against Human Lung Cancer Cell Line

K. P. Sowmya, Preetha S, J. Selvaraj, Lavanya Prathap

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 98-106
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i57B34033

Citrullus colocynthis is a traditional medicinal plant that belongs to the cucurbitaceae family. The extract of the fruit is rich in therapeutic phytochemicals. Lung cancer is a disease with high mortality and morbidity rates. Recently the research has been focused on herbal medicine as a treatment approach for cancer because of its no or less side effects. The aim of the study is to know about the anticancer effect of hydroethanolic extract of Citrullus colocynthis fruit against human lung cancer cell line through apoptosis pathway. Cell viability test was done by MTT assay. The mRNA expression of Bcl2 and Bcl-xL was done using the  real-time PCR. The obtained data was analysed statistically by one way analysis of variance and Duncan multiple range test with graph prism version 5 to analyse the significance. The significance was considered at p<0.05 level in Duncan’s test. Citrullus colocynthis fruit extract increased the inhibition of growth of lung cancer cells. The activity of Bcl2 and Bcl xL was significantly down regulated at 400μg. The study concludes that Citrullus colocynthis fruit extract has anticancer activity on A549 human lung cancer cell line through apoptosis pathway.

Open Access Original Research Article

Prevalence and Predictors of Depression, Anxiety and Stress among Pharmacy Students from Umm Al-Qura University, Saudi Arabia

Rahaf Nabil Alaaddin, Nahla Khamis Ibrahim, Mai Kadi

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 118-134
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i57B34036

Introduction: There is an increasing concern about the effect of mental diseases on academic performance, especially among students from the health specialties. However, very limited studies were done on depression, anxiety, and stress among pharmacy students in Makkah. The current study aimed to determine the prevalence and predictors of depression, anxiety, and stress among pharmacy students from Umm Al-Qura University, Makkah, Saudi Arabia.

Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among pharmacy students from both genders in 2018/2019. A standardized self-administered data collection sheet was used. It contained information about the personal, socio-demographic data, the Depression Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS-21), and Schutte Self-Report Emotional Intelligence (SSREI) scale. Descriptive and inferential statistics were done. Stepwise multiple logistic regression analyses were done. Adjusted odds ratios (aORs) and 95% confidence intervals were calculated.

Results: The prevalence of depression, anxiety, and stress among pharmacy students was high; 62.8%, 59.0%, and 49.2%, respectively. Younger students suffered more from stress compared to older students. In regression analysis, academic stress was associated with the increased risk of depression, anxiety, and stress. However, good general life satisfaction is a predictor of decreasing depression, anxiety, and stress. Better emotional intelligence is also a predictor of decreased depression (aOR = 0.195; 95% CI: 0.09-0.42) and stress (aOR = 0.4; 95% CI: 0.21-0.72). A longer duration of physical exercise is another predictor for lowering stress.

Conclusion:  The prevalence of depression, anxiety, and stress was high among pharmacy students. Academic stress was a predictor for depression, anxiety, and stress. General life satisfaction and high EI were protective from the three mental illnesses. A longer duration of physical exercise is a predictor for decreasing stress. Screening programs are needed for the detection and management of depression, anxiety, and stress among pharmacy students. Psychosocial and academic support services are needed for the management of academic stress. Training courses and educational programs are needed for improving the EI of pharmacy students. Encourage the practicing a longer duration of physical activities is needed.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effectiveness of the Video-Assisted Teaching on Anorexia Nervosa among Adolescent Girls in Selected Colleges

Kanchan Bokade, Mayur Wanjari, Bibin Kurian, Switi Besekar, Pranali Wagh, Sonali Waware, Samruddhi Gujar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 135-142
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i57B34037

Background: Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a debilitating psychiatric disorder associated with many adverse health complications and psychiatric comorbidity. Literature review suggests that existing evidence for AN treatment in adults is weak, and no empirically supported treatment has been reliably established. The primary objective of this study is to gain knowledge about the effectiveness of enhanced cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT-E) for anorexia nervosa delivered in a public hospital setting. Baseline predictors of treatment outcome and dropout are studied. Furthermore, blood and stool samples for a general biobank to be able to initiate research on possible pathophysiological mechanisms underlying anorexia nervosa.

Methods: This study was based on a Quasi-experimental one-group pre-test and post-test research design. In this study, 60 adolescent girls were included. The sampling technique used in this study was the nonprobability convenience method of sampling. Data was collected by using questionnaires.

Results: In the pre-test, 14(28%) of the adolescent girl had poor knowledge, 68% of them had average, and 4% of them had a good level of knowledge score. The minimum score in pre-test was three, and the maximum score was 11; the mean score for the pre-test was 6.88 ± 2.04with a mean percentage score of 34.40 ±10.23, whereas in post-test, 8(16%) of the adolescent girl had average knowledge, 70% of them had good, and 14% of them had an excellent level of knowledge score.

Conclusion: Thus, it is concluded that the planned teaching on the prevention of anorexia nervosa among adolescent girls effectively improved the knowledge.

Open Access Original Research Article

Forced Degradation Study for Simultaneous Quantification of Aspirin and Omeprazole in Pharmaceutical Dosage form by RP-HPLC

Chandni Chandarana, Pankaj Kapupara, Parixit Prajapati

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 143-150
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i57B34038

Aims: To study force degradation of aspirin and omeprazole simultaneously by RP-HPLC method

Study design: RP-HPLC method was used to measure % degradation.

Place and Duration of Study: Study was carried out at center of excellence, G.I.D.C., vapi-396195, Gujarat, India between June 2019 to march 2020.

Methodology: A force degradation study of aspirin and omeprazole was carried out simultaneously. The drugs were subjected to various degradation conditions like hydrolysis by acid and base, Oxidative degradation, and thermal degradation study.

Results: For acidic condition, the degradation was found to be 32.63 % for aspirin and 61.64 % for omeprazole. For basic condition, the degradation was found to be 10.17 % for aspirin and 4.29 % for omeprazole. By oxidative hydrolysis, the aspirin was degraded by 15.48 % and omeprazole was degraded by 26.38 %. By thermal degradation, 0.37 % degradation was observed for aspirin and 4.32 % degradation for omeprazole.

Conclusion: In this proposed method the retention time for drug is less than 8 min, which is less then available method. For omeprazole, strong degradation was observed in acidic conditions and mild in basic hydrolysis conditions. For aspirin, more degradation was observed in basic conditions than acidic hydrolysis. Both drugs were degraded in oxidative conditions using 3% H2O2. Omeprazole degraded more than aspirin by dry heat degradation. The method was successfully applied for the quantitative determination of both Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients.

Open Access Original Research Article

Attentive Evaluation of Trace Elements in Patients with Breast Cancer-A Cross Sectional Study of Nawabshah, Sindh, Pakistan

Hazooran Lakhan, Ambreen Qureshi, Khalil Ahmed Memon, Masood Ahmed, Maimoona Khushk, Farheen Shaikh, Arslan Ahmer

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 156-160
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i57B34040

Background: Breast cancer has recently become one of the most obsessing and life threatening issues in the world. Globally, females suffered mostly by breast cancer. Breast cancer is multifactorial etiological disorder. Trace elements are acts as cofactors and biological catalyst. They play a very essential role in the metabolic pathways.

Methods: A cross sectional study with two hundred (200) subjects and divided into two groups. 50 females were normal healthy as a control while 150 females were patient with breast cancer. Blood was collected from all participant after taking history, clinical data, mammographic and histopathological findings. Consent and predesign porforma were filled by all participants of study. The trace elements (Na, K, Zn, Fe, Ca) were determined through atomic absorption spectrophotometer (ASS) and other biochemical analysis such as Total Protein, serum albumin and Total cholesterol were analyzed on Micro Lab.300. Data was entered on SPSS 22.0 version, and applied student t-test for continuous variables. Results were analyzed as Mean and standard deviation.

Results: The results of serum Na+, K+, Ca++, Zn++, Cu++ and Fe in breast cancer patient were observed and found significantly fluctuated in breast cancer patients as compared to normal healthy subjects. Serum Total Protein significantly increased whereas serum Albumin decreased in patient with breast cancer.

Conclusions: in Present study we found significantly abnormal concentration of Na+, K+, Ca++, Zn++, Cu++ and Fe in breast cancer these elements may contribute in early diagnosis of breast cancer. Increased body weight and total cholesterol are also risk factors of Ca breast.

Open Access Original Research Article

Antioxidant and Xanthine Oxidase Inhibitory Potential of Aqueous Extract of Ferula Asafoetida

G. G. Gopika, R. Gayathri, V. Vishnu Priya, J. Selvaraj, S. Kavitha

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 166-173
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i57B34042

Background: Ferula asafoetida is a dried latex that is exuded from rhizome or taproot species. Organosulfides are primarily responsible for flavour and odour of asafoetida.Ferula asafoetida is a natural medicine good for asthma and bronchitis. is also used to relieve stomach gas, digestive issues. It is usually added while cooking to  hormonise the sweet, sour, salty, spicy taste of the food. Increased activity of xanthine oxidase is involved in the medical condition known as gout, which is characterized by hyperuricemia that leads to deposition of uric acid in the joints resulting in painful inflammation.

Aim: To analyse the anti-oxidant and xanthine oxidase inhibitory potential of aqueous extract of Ferula asafoetida.

Materials and Methods: Preparation of the aqueous seed extract of Ferula asafoetida  done by hot percolation method. Phytochemical screening, in vitro antioxidant activity and xanthine oxidase inhibitory potential was done by standard procedures. The data were analyzed statistically by a one - way analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Duncan’s multiple range test was used to see the statistical significance among the groups. The results with the p<0.05 level were considered to be statistically significant.

Results: The phytochemical screening revealed that the extract is rich in phytoconstituents. DPPH radical scavenging activity established the potent in vitro antioxidant activity (p<0.05) of Ferula asafoetida extract. The extract was also efficient in inhibiting the activity of xanthine oxidase enzyme (p<0.05) in a concentration dependent manner.

Discussion: The extract has potent antioxidant and xanthine oxidase inhibitory potential, although the activities are less compared to the standard drug.

Conclusion: The Ferula asafoetida extract can be used to treat gout and to combat various other disorders associated with xanthine oxidase activity.

Open Access Original Research Article

Exercise as an Emerging Factor Effecting Cardiovascular Health (An Experimental Approach)

Alamgir Khan, Muhammad Zafar Iqbal Butt, Shahzaman Khan, Abdul Jabbar Tanweer, Abdul Manan Tanweer, Samiullah Khan, Muhammad Jamil, Muhammad Roman Al-Ala Duranni, Zeliha Selamoglu

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 193-205
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i57B34046

This resaerch study was basically carried out for the purpose to assess the effect of moderate intensity exercise on cardiovascular health. Ten (10) participants were voluntarily selected and thus they were randomly divided into two (02) groups i.e. (Experimental Group (EG)=05+ Control Group (CG)=05.A self-made eight weeks’ self-made moderate intensity exercise protocol was applied on all the subjects. Pre and post test data were collected through Harvard Step Test. A written informed consent was taken from each subject before participation in the study. All participants were informed about the benefits and risk factors of the study. After fulfilling all the ethical protocols, eight weeks self-made moderate intensity exercise protocol was applied on all the subjects. Pre and post test data were collected through Harvard Step Test. The collected data were tabulated and analyzed by using various statistical tools. On the basis of analysis the researcher arrived at conclusion that exercise has a significant effect on cardiovascular health.

Open Access Original Research Article

Synthesis, Characterization of Some New 1,3,5-Trisubstituted Pyrazole Derivatives for Their Antifungal Potential

Anupam Sharma, Alok Pal Jain, Mayank Gangwar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 211-223
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i57B34048

The aim of the study was to develop, synthesis, and characterise a novel 1,3,5-trisubstituted-2-pyrazolines derivative, as well as to evaluate its antifungal activity. The reaction of chalcone derivatives with succinic hydrazide in the presence of pyridine yielded the 1,3,5-tri-substituted-2-pyrazolines derivatives. Total 20 compounds has been synthesized and characterized by the IR, 1HNMR and mass spectral analysis. Antifungal activity of the compounds carried out onfour fungal strains i.e. Saccharomyces cerevisiae, A. Niger, C. Albicans and R. Oryzae in two different concentration i.e. 50 and 100 µg/ml by Agar-diffusion method using Cup-plate method. The usual antifungal medicine was ketoconazole. All of the synthesized 1,3,5-trisubstituted pyrazole compounds (ME1-ME8, CL1-CL8, BR1-BR4) showed medium to best action against examined organisms, according to antifungal activity data. The antifungal activity of compounds against fungal strains (Saccharomyces cerevisiae, A. Niger, Candida albicans, and R. Oryzae) revealed the following order of action: CL-4 > BR-4 > CL-3 > CL-2 > ME-3> ME-2> CL-5 > CL-6 > ME-4 > ME-5 > ME-6 > ME-7 > CL-7 > CL-8>ME-8 >CL-1 >ME-1 > CL-5 > CL-6 > ME-4 > ME-5 > ME-6 > ME-7 > CL-7 > CL-8>ME-8 >CL-1 >ME-1. Electronegative groups (Br, Cl, F, and NO2) must be present at the third and fifth positions of the 1,3,5-pyrazoline ring for significant antifungal action. The presence of an electronegative group at the third and fifth positions may be required for the best action against bacterial and fungal strains, however the addition of F, NO2 has demonstrated moderate activity, while the substitution of methyl and methoxy  groups may reduce the activity. The synthesized compounds in the BR-1 through BR-4 class are the most active.

Open Access Original Research Article

Neuroimaging Assessment of Aggressive Pituitary Adenomas

Khalimova Zamira Yusupovna, Azimova Ozoda Talatovna

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 276-283
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i57B34056

Aggressive pituitary adenomas (APA) are adenomas that show rapid growth, invasiveness, frequent or multiple relapses, or are resistant to conventional therapies. Clinical-imaging assessment of aggressive pituitary adenomas with the aid of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) plays an important role in early prediction, further disease outcomes and aggressive behavior of adenomas.

Purpose of the Study: was to assess the correlation of neuroimaging data with the hormonal activity of APA.

Materials and Methods: The study included 74 patients with aggressive pituitary adenomas. The average age of the patients was from 12 to 69. The patients underwent a basal assessment of the level of pituitary hormones: prolactin (PRL), GH (growth hormone), insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and blood cortisol by the RIA method, as well as an MRI study. Knop's classification was used to assess the invasion.

Results: The hormonal workup showed prevalence of inactive pituitary adenomas among aggressive adenomas. No correlation was found between the hormonal activity of aggressive adenomas and the volume of pituitary adenomas. Moreover, MRI data indicated that invasion into the cavernous sinus of the III degree and heterogeneity of the adenoma may be considered equivalents of aggressiveness.

Conclusion: The established patterns support the need for visualization assessment of aggressive pituitary adenomas and strongly suggest the evaluation of the degree of aggression based on tumor heterogenecity, chiasm compression, hypo- and iso-intensity in T1 mode and hyperintensity in T2 modes.

Open Access Original Research Article

Spectrum of Lesions in the Fallopian Tubes – A Histopathogical Study

Maanasa Palani, Volga Harikrishnan

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 297-301
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i57B34059

Introduction: The Fallopian tubes are a pair of narrow tubular structures connecting the ovary and the uterus. It is usually the site of fertilization and plays a very important role in the fusion of the sperm and ovary and helps in movement of the fertilized zygote to the uterus. Even though being an organ of very small size the importance of the variety of lesions occurring in the fallopian tubes is often not considered. Biopsies of the fallopian tubes are taken to show the different lesions found in the tubes.

Aim: The main aim of the study is to study the spectrum of lesions occurring in the fallopian tubes and correlation of these findings with its clinical parameters.

Study Design: This is a retrospective descriptive study

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Pathology, Saveetha Medical College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Thandalam, Chennai between June 2019- December 2019.

Methodology: A retrospective study of all the fallopian tube specimens sent for routine histopathological analysis over a period of 6 months was carried out. The different pathological lesions were observed from the relevant clinical data and the correlation with its clinical parameters was done.

Results: A sample size of 77 specimens was collected among which the commonest age group which was found to have the highest number of lesions was between 26-30 years. This was found to be in correlation to the reproductive age group of women. The most common form of pathological lesion observed was ectopic pregnancy (about 46% of total pathological lesions), followed by Paratubal cysts (23%), Hydrosalpinx (15%) and Hematosalpinx (8%). Cystadenoma was the only benign tumor observed in this study and constituted 8% of the total pathological lesions.

Conclusion: This study shows the importance of histopathological examination of all fallopian tube specimens with or without abnormal findings.

Open Access Original Research Article

Comparison of Random Blood Sugar and pH of Blood- A Clinicopathological Study

P. Titus Lalith Antony, Palati Sinduja, R. Priyadharshini

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 302-309
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i57B34060

Aim: This study aims to compare the random blood sugar pH of the blood.

Introduction: Hyperglycemia is a risk factor for the impairment of periodontal health while periodontal disease, in turn, is responsible for the adverse effects on glycemic control and the pathophysiology of diabetes-related complications. An increase in blood sugar levels has a direct effect on pH with respect to age. Hence this study deals with the association of random blood sugar levels and pH with age, gender, and dental complaints.

Materials and Methods: 20 random blood samples were collected from the patients in Saveetha Dental College. The random blood sugar level was analyzed by the semi-quantitative method and the pH was analyzed by using a multi reagent strip. And the results were statistically analyzed using SPSS software and represented as pie charts and bar graphs.

Results and Discussion: The overall mean value of RBS and blood pH was found to be 138.4 mg/dl and 7.06 respectively. The mean RBS value is higher in the 41-50 years age group of people than in other age categories and the mean pH value is same for all age categories. In the present study, samples with periodontic complaints have higher mean value of RBS values (193) than other dental complaints and the mean pH value is same for all dental complaints.

Conclusion: Within the limits of the study, it can be observed that there is a significant association between the age group, gender, and dental complaints with RBS and pH of the patients. However, further studies must be conducted to have more accurate results and elicit the association between pH and RBS with age and gender.

Open Access Original Research Article

Histopathological Spectrum of Breast Carcinoma in a Tertiary Care Centre and its Association with ABO Blood Grouping and Rh Typing

T. Mitila, P. S. Muthu Subramanian, Chitra Srinivasan, Vimal Chander

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 310-316
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i57B34061

Background: Globally, breast cancer contributes to 27.7% of the newly diagnosed cases of cancer among women. Early screening and timely diagnosis of the lesions of breast help in alleviating the anxiety among patients. Histopathology is the gold standard in diagnosing the lesions, assessing the adequacy of treatment, and in disease prognosis. Studies have shown that ABO blood type has been associated with risk and survival for several malignancies. However, data for an association with breast cancer are inconsistent.

Aim: To study the histopathological spectrum breast carcinomas and to investigate the presence of a possible association between breast cancer in women and ABO blood group and Rh factor.

Materials and Methods: This retrospective descriptive study was done for a period of 4 years on 110 mastectomy specimens histopathologically diagnosed as breast cancers, and clinico-pathological data collected and analysed with records from the Department of Pathology, Saveetha Medical College. Association of breast cancer with ABO blood grouping and Rh typing was studied.

 Results: Left breast was involved in most cases (96.4%). The mean age was 50.86 years, with 41-50 years age group showing peak incidence. Infiltrating breast carcinoma, no special type (89.6%) was the most common histological type. ER and PR positivity was seen in 46.4% and 41.8% of cases respectively. A statistically significant association was seen between hormone receptor status and histological grade. 39.1% cases belonged to O blood group, and Rh positivity was seen in 96.4% of the cases. No association was found between breast cancer and ABO/Rh blood grouping.

Open Access Original Research Article

Distribution of Four Biofilm Associated Gene among A. baumannii by in Silico-PCR

J. D. Monesh Babu, A. S. Smiline Girija, P. Sankar Ganesh, J. Vijayashree Priyadharsini

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 317-324
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i57B34062

Background: A.baumannii is an opportunistic pathogen known for its efficient biofilm formation that is attributed for its virulence. Acinetobacter baumannii is an inhabitant of oral biofilms as well. Many gene operons are involved in the biofilm formation that need to be monitored frequently.

Aim: The aim of the present study was to detect the distribution of four biofilm associated genes among A.baumannii.

Materials and Methods: Four biofilm forming genes viz., bfms, ptk, pgaB, and fimH of A.baumannii were selected. Forward and reverse primers of those four genes were used for in-silico PCR amplification. 19 strains of A.baumannii set as default on the server were chosen and the amplicon bands were observed

Results: The present investigation documents the distribution of four vital biofilm associated gene among 19 different strains of A.baumannii among which bfms was distributed at a higher frequency followed by pgaB and ptk

Conclusion: The finding of the study suggests the presence of pgaB, bfms, ptk among the 19 different strains of A.baumannii. However further experimental validation must be done to frequently monitor the presence of the genes among the clinical strains of A.baumannii.

Open Access Original Research Article

An Efficient Synthesis of Anti-spasmodic Drug Mebeverine Hydrochloride

V. S. R. N. Phanikumar, G. Veera Raghava Sharma

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 325-331
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i57B34063

An efficient synthetic process for an antispasmodic drug and active pharmaceutical ingredient of Mebeverine hydrochloride 1 is reported in this communication. It is used for stomach cramps and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). The treatment for irritable bowel syndrome involves lot of drugs like (Dicyclomine hydrochloride, Linaclotide.etc) available in market, but Mebeverine hydrochloride (1) is most effective than any other drug. Earlier manufacturing 1 process reported yield < 46% and used high volumes of reagents and expensive catalyst. We developed new commercial process for 1 with economically, environmentally favored conditions. Proposed synthetic route contains three stages with overall yield of 77% and Purity by HPLC NLT 99.7%.

Open Access Original Research Article

Synthesis, Docking and Antimicrobial Activity of Some New Coumarin Incorporated Thiazole Derivatives

Abhishek Kumar, Pankaj Kumar, Aravinda Pai

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 332-340
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i57B34064

Synthesis and screening of a series of new coumarin derivatives coupled with thiazole are performed for their antimicrobial properties. A series of new thiazolyl coumarin derivatives were synthesized upon refluxing 3-bromoaceytl coumarin, substituted benzaldehyde and thiosemicarbazide in the presence of glacial acetic acid. Substituted 3-acetyl coumarin undergoes bromination in the presence of bromine and chloroform to form 3-Bromoaceytl coumarin. The thiazolyl coumarin derivatives were characterized based on IR, 1H NMR, and Mass spectral data. The docking studies have been carried out against the enzyme DNA gyrase (1KZN). Compound SCT 2 showed the highest docking score -5.662 compared to other compounds. The final synthesized compounds were screened for their antibacterial activity by tube dilution method. Compound SCT 1 and SCT 2 showed significant antibacterial activity with minimum inhibitory concentration of 12.5µg/ml and 6.25µg/ml, respectively, compared to standard Cephalosporin. The MIC results suggest that compounds SCT 1 and SCT 2 showed promising antibacterial activity. So these compounds are interesting lead molecules for further synthesis as antimicrobial agents. 

Open Access Original Research Article

The Psychology behind Luxury Consumption

Shradha Thani, Arpita Sharma

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 341-349
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i57B34065

This paper will talk about the psychology of consumption of luxury products and experiences and how individuals get emotionally connected to them. This paper discussed new drivers, forms, and consequences of luxury spending. Also, the belief that the psychology of luxury consumption is driven by a series of conflicts between what luxury is to oneself and the external factors that drive luxury consumption. These tensions influence consumer behavior and the post-purchase feelings of consumption of luxurious products or experiences. Since some individuals regard non-luxury items as inferior merely because they are non-luxury, they also conclude that more expensive goods are of more outstanding quality, without any evidence about their absolute level of quality or longevity. Another angle that we discuss in detail is how self-esteem plays a role in impacting a person's choice of purchases and instilling a sense of belonging. This paper is going to be based on an amalgamation of primary and secondary research and will contribute to self-awareness of people who do and do not indulge in luxury buying and what goes behind the mindset of both categories. This will also help brands decide on their unique selling propositions to appeal to their respective target groups.

Open Access Original Research Article

Measurement of Plasma Fibrinogen Levels, PT and APTT among HIV Infected Patients: A Critical Bio-Marker for Coagulation Dysfunctions

Allageya Yousif Khailfa Ahmed, Nasr Eldeen Ali Mohammed Gaufri, Sara Abdelgani, Lienda Bashier Eltayeb

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 350-357
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i57B34066

Background: The literature stated that Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection led to activation of coagulation, and habitually linked with an augmented risk of venous and arterial thrombosis. So the purpose of the study was to determine the plasma fibrinogen level in Sudanese HIV-infected patients.

Materials and Methods: A total of one hundred participants were recruited, and classified into two groups; the case group include (50) HIV patients, and the control group enrolled (50) healthy individuals. Three ml of blood was collected. Fresh Poor Plasma was prepared from citrated venous blood by centrifuged for 15 minutes at 3000 pm. Fibrinogen levels were measured by an automated coagulation analyzer (Thrombolyzer XRC Germany). Data were collected using a directly structured questionnaire. Data were analyzed using SPSS Version 21. 

Results: The present study showed that the mean of plasma fibrinogen levels was statistically significantly higher in HIV infection in comparison with those normal healthy control (470.50 ±67.75 vs 214.75±21.25 with P-value 0.00). There was a significantly decreased level of PT, and PTT among the HIV group comparing with the control (9.575±0.64, and 22.39±4.94) VS (12.483±0.72, and 30.78±3.55) consequently, (P-value ≤0.001). Fibrinogen levels were significantly increased with the progression of HIV disease (469.84 ±67.15, 472.74 ±87.75, 478.47 ±61.92) in stage I, stage II, and stage III respectively.

Conclusions: An HIV-infected patient had elevated plasma fibrinogen levels, as well as other coagulation dysfunctions.

Open Access Original Research Article

Anti-bacterial Efficacy of Probiotics used in Provisional Polymethyl Methacrylate Crowns against Porphyromonos gingivalis – an In vitro Study

Hemamalini Balaji, R. Kirupa Shankar, N. Shanmuganathan, N. Parthasarathy, I. Athiban

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 368-377
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i57B34068

Aim: To evaluate the effect of Probiotic used in PMMA Temporary restorations on gingival inflammatory response by its action on the marginal gingival epithelial cells.

Materials and Methods:  This is an in vitro Interventional pilot study using discs of  PMMA ( Group A ) and PMMA  incorporated with Probiotics (Group B . The effect of probiotics incorporated PMMA on strains of Porphyromonos gingivalis  grown on culture plates will  be assessed using zone of inhibition test and minimum inhibitory concentration was assessed . Data was recorded, tabulated and statistically evaluated using SPSS software.

Results: The zone of Inhibition in the Group B was (Mean = 16.30mm) is comparatively higher than that of Group A with mean value 12.92mm. Results states that among the various concentration of Probiotic Lozenges (2.5, 5, 10, 15 and 20 µg/ml) used to determine the antibacterial activity , Highest mean zone of inhibition was observed with 20 µg/ml with 16 mm, followed by 15 µg/ml  with 14mm , 10 µg/ml  with 9mm, 5 µg/ml  with 11 mm & with the lowest inhibition observed in 2.5 µg/ml  with 8mm. There is significant correlation between concentration of probiotics and its antibacterial efficacy. The increase in concentration of probiotics in the PMMA discs is directly proportional to its antibacterial efficacy against P. gingivalis.

Conclusion: Thus the study proved a significant correlation between Probiotic used in PMMA Temporary crowns and reduction in gingival Inflammation at the margins of the restoration which will be beneficial when used in crowns used in patients undergoing Orthodontic treatment or Immediate Implant Loading with acrylic crowns.

Open Access Original Research Article

Comparison of NS1 Antigen Detection by Rapid Immunochromatography Test and ELISA for Early Diagnosis of Dengue at a Government General Hospital, Ananthapuramu

Adireddi Paradesi Naidu, Chitralekha Saikumar, G. Sumathi, Kalavathy Victor, N. S. Muthiah

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 378-381
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i57B34069

Background: The incidence of Dengue hemorrhagic fever, Dengue shock syndrome associated with Dengue can be reduced by diagnosing Dengue early and by initiating early treatment to Dengue patients. This study was conducted to compare results of NS1 antigen rapid test and ELISA in clinically suspected dengue patients.

Materials and Methods: Present study was a comparative study conducted on 100 Patients presented with clinical history of Dengue. At Microbiology Laboratory, serum of all samples was assessed for NS1 detection using antigen Rapid test and ELISA.  Sensitivity & specificity values were calculated for NS1 antigen rapid test, compared with ELISA.

Results: Out of 100 serum samples collected from suspected cases of Dengue in and around Anantapuramu, 30 (30%) were positive for ELISA and 28 (28%) were positive for Rapid diagnostic test. Sensitivity & specificity when only NS1 was considered on rapid test kits when compared with ELISA were 93.33%, 98.57%,

Conclusion: It is concluded that ELISA test was superior in the diagnosis of Dengue and recommended on improvement in sensitivity of RDTs.

Open Access Original Research Article

Use of Chlorhexidine on Umbilicus in Prevention of Neonatal Sepsis

Rimsha Mohsin, Palwasha Khan, Maryum Naveed

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 434-438
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i57B34077

Objectives: The main objective of the study is to analyse the use of chlorhexidine on umbilicus in prevention of neonatal sepsis.

Materials and Methods: This cross sectional study was conducted in Sheikh Zaid hospital Rahim Yaar Khan during March 2020 till September 2020. The data was collected through non-probability consecutive sampling technique. The data was collected from 100 infants. Arrangements with a grouping of 4.0% free chlorhexidine were set up by weakening 20% chlorhexidine digluconate to the proper fixation with cleaned water.

Results: The data was collected from 100 neonates. All the demographic values which include age, gender, gestational age and mode of delivery were calculated. According to baseline values the birth weight of chlorhexidine group was 1.87 ± 0.463 kg and dry cord group was 1.69 ± 0.421 kg. Umbilical sepsis is observed in only 1 patient in group I and in 3 patients in group II. Only single mortality was observed in group I and in 6 neonates in group II.  

Conclusion: It is concluded that chlorhexidine umbilical cord care is more appropriate than the currently WHO recommended dry cord care.

Open Access Original Research Article

Safety of Weekly Primaquine in Glucose 6 Phosphatase Dehydrogenase (G6PD) Deficient Children

Salma Shaikh, Muhammad Nadeem Chohan, Muhammad Touseef, Hafiz Wajid Ali Buriro, Mushtaque Ali Shah, Sehrish Muzaffar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 452-458
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i57B34080

Aim: To assess the Safety of weekly Primaquine in Glucose 6 Phosphatase Dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficient children, for radical treatment of Plasmodium vivax malaria

Study Design: cross sectional study

Place and Duration: Pediatrics Out Patient Department, Liaquat University of Medical and Health Sciences Hyderabad from 11 January 2018 to 31st August 2019 (total 20 months’ duration)

Methodology: A sample of 40 patients was studied during study period. Male children between 4 years to 12 years of age having confirmed vivax malaria were included in the study. If G6PD result showed decreased level of G6PD level then, they were enrolled for study. MP was checked by thick and thin slide method. 5 ml blood was taken in anticoagulant bottle for G6PD, liver function test, creatinine, complete blood count, and reticulocyte count tests.  Haemoglobin  < 7 g/dL, reticulocyte count > 4, SGPT > 80, G6PD Level < 60% of normal and creatinine > 1.2 was considered significant. Treatment was given with Artemether and Lumefantrine for 3 days while Primaquine, 0 .75 mg base/kg body weights once a week was given for 8 weeks. Patients were followed at OPD initially on 3rd day of therapy then every week for 8 weeks for any hemolysis. 

Results: There was no hemolysis during the first week and 8 weeks after therapy. Most common side effect was abdominal pain 4 (10%). Mean hemoglobin was 11.8mg/dl. Plasmodium vivax was negative on 3rd day of therapy, it was also negative on 8 week of therapy. Reticulocyte count, Liver function test, creatinine were also normal on 8 weeks of therapy.

Conclusion: Primaquine 0.75mg//kg/week for total eight weeks is highly effective for the radical cure of Plasmodium vivax in G6PD deficient children. There is no recurrence of Plasmodium vivax after 8 weeks of therapy. We found this regimen safe as there was no hemolysis demonstrated in children.

Open Access Original Research Article

Stem Cell Management is a Novel Innovation in the Health Care Sector. The Study Based on Research Conducted by Professionals in the Field

Swati Chaudhary, Supriti Agrawal

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 253-262
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i57B34378

Background: A physician offers treatments to prevent, treat, and manage sickness and to maintain mental and physical well-being. According to the World Health Organization, health care includes all raw materials and services aimed to enhance health, including "preventative health, therapeutic, and supportive interventions, either aimed to people either to nations." Stem cell is one of the innovations of health care industry. Stem cells are used to treat over 130 diseases throughout the world, and more than 500 clinical trials are ongoing to develop stem cell treatments. Henceforth, this paper aim is to enhance the stem cell role in health care industry and to find the health professional attitude towards stem cell management.

Methods: For the study purpose both primary and secondary data are used. The cross sectional study conducted among 140 doctors of the Delhi-NCR for the primary data. The secondary data collected from records of the WHO, various journals, scientific study and clinical trials. The data were analysis by the using the correlation and t-test by SPSS 21 software to find the attitude of doctors towards stem cell management.

Results: The study found that 97% of doctors are aware about the stem cell and 86% doctors have knowledge about the sources of stem cell and only 25% doctors collect the stem cell from umbilical cord. The study determine that the attitude of the health professional are positive towards stem cell management in India and they need government takes necessary action to developed the stem cell management for better health sector in India.

Conclusions: Thus it can be concluded that with the increases of the cases the scientists try to find the use of stem cell in the treatment of various diseases. It does clearly indicate that stem cell boost the immune system. The data analysis of the study confirms that doctors in India have a positive view toward stem cell management. As a result, if sufficient initiative is made by healthcare professionals and the government, stem cell management has a wide range of adoption and acceptance opportunities.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Antioxidant and Protease-inhibitory Potential of Ethanolic Extract of Myristica fragrans (Nutmeg)

S. Prateek Veerendrakumar, R. Gayathri, V. Vishnu Priya, J. Selvaraj, S. Kavitha

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 263-270
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i57B34379

Introduction: Myristica fragrans is an important commercial plant used for spices. The plant has been traditionally used as an anticancer, anti inflammatory, antioxidant, sedative hypnotics and antimicrobial agent. Plants have played an important role in maintaining human health & improving the quality of human life for thousands of years and have served humans well as valuable components of medicines.

Methods: Ethanolic extract of myristica fragrans was obtained by hot percolation method. Preliminary Phytochemical screening of the extract was done .Antioxidant and anti inflammatory potential of ethanolic extract of myristica fragrans was analysed. The data were analysed statistically using two – way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey’s multiple range test to assess the significance of individual variations between the groups. In Tukey’s test, significance was considered at the level of p<0.05.

Results: Ethanolic extract of Myristica fragrans (Nutmeg) was rich in the phytoconstituents such as alkaloids, flavonoids, terpenoids and saponins. IC50 of antioxidant activity of ethanolic extract of Myristica fragrans was found to be 300 µg/ml. IC50 of anti-inflammatory potential of the ethanolic extract of Myristica fragrans was found to be 360 µg/ml.

Conclusion: From the study, it was evident that the ethanolic extract of myristica fragrans has significant antioxidant and anti-inflammatory potential. In future, the extract can be validated as a drug formulation.

Open Access Review Article

Self-Monitoring Blood Glucose Method and Outcome: A Review

Mohammed Saleh D. Albalawi, Zainab Ali H. Alamer, Fatimah Sameer H. Alkhars, Bayan Salman A. Alshuhayb, Alzahraa Jawad A. Alqasim, Norah Omar S. Alomar, Jumana Abdulrahman S. Alessa, Fatima Abdulaziz S. Alhamad, Lina Mohammed R. Aljohani, Mohammed Abdulhafith R. Alotaibi

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 8-14
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i57B34022

Self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) is a valuable technique for diabetes mellitus treatment. Patients with diabetes frequently monitor their blood glucose levels in order to identify hypoglycemia and modify their insulin dosage as necessary. In many large-scale outcome studies, self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) in the management of diabetes plays a vital role, contributing significantly to the outcomes. It is recommended that the patient keep track of their SMBG readings in a log book. For interpreting the SMBG findings, information regarding food intake, medication, and activity may be useful. An explanation of the practical components of the process is required to assess a patient's grasp of SMBG knowledge. For SMBG lancing treatments to be effective, the patient must have a thorough understanding of the stages involved. With many studies suggesting the benefits of SMBG other studies say that SMBG has little clinical effectiveness in improving glycemic control in patients with T2DM who are taking oral medications or eating a low-carbohydrate diet alone, and is thus unlikely to be cost-effective. However, if patients have the ability to modify their treatment dosage then it can be much more effective. In this review we will be looking at the SMBG techniques, outcomes and the relationship with glucose management.

Open Access Review Article

A Review on In-vitro Haploid Production in Orchids

Teena Jaswal, Saranjeet Kaur

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 15-19
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i57B34023

The aim of writing this paper is to review production of haploids in orchids in vitro. Haploids possess half number of chromosomes and do not undergo fertilization. In vitro conditions provide necessary nutrients and conditions that are required for growth of haploid plantlets. The natural breeding cycle of orchids is very slow as well as unpredictable. To reduce this time, the technique of in vitro haploid production is used. In vitro conditions can decrease or shorten the time required for juvenile period in Orchids. Haploid plants are produced from in vitro haploid culture. This technique is useful to produce homozygous pure lines and to increase the yield of a plant.

Open Access Review Article

A Review on the Histological Types of Hemangioma

M. Nagameenalochini

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 36-39
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i57B34026

Even after the approved classification of congenital vascular tumours/malformations which was first published by Mulliken and Glowacki, in the year 1982, there is still a significant amount of confusion to categorize hemangiomas and vascular malformations. Hemangiomas are considered to be true, benign neoplasms arising from endothelial cells and must be clearly differentiated from localized defects of vascular morphogenesis, i.e., vascular malformations.

Open Access Review Article

COVID-19: The Pediatric Perspective

Batoul Basalom, Ahmed Ismail, Fares Sindi, Feras Mansouri, Abdullah Kattan, Elaf Balkhy, Eyad Alamri, Atheer Alsurayhi, Fatoma Alhnaidi, Nusaybah Morya, Raghad Alwagdani, Nermeen Alrajhi

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 89-97
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i57B34032

Since the appearance of the novel corona virus disease 19 (COVID-19) from Wuhan in China, there have been a lot of researches to uncover the hidden clues that may help in eliminating the outbreak. In a short period of time, the disease has infected millions of people around the globe and was declared as a pandemic by the world health organization (WHO). Different subgroups of the community have been studied and reports have described the course of the disease among pregnant ladies, elders, immunodeficient patients and patients with chronic diseases. However, this review aimed at describing the novel COVID-19 among children and adolescents. The review discusses the prevalence, symptoms, diagnostic investigations, management, and the role of pharmacotherapy of COVID-19. In general, children have a milder course of diseases compared to adults. The symptoms include fever, diarrhea, abdominal pain, cough, fatigue, and other non-specific symptoms. The diagnosis is usually made with a serological test of a body fluid sample from saliva or nose. The role of radiography in the forms of chest X-ray and computed tomography (CT) is not of great benefit to the children. For mild presentations of the disease among children, the management is mainly supportive and there is no indication for antiviral therapy or specific pharmacotherapy except for fever lowering agents like Paracetamol. In terms of prevention, children aged 12 or more can be vaccinated for the objective of preventing the spread of infection, inducing antibody release, and shortening the recovery period.

Open Access Review Article

Epidemiology and Management of Acquired Angioedema Due to C1 Inhibitor Deficiency

Mohammed Olaythah Alraddadi, Yousef Hussain J. Alharthi, Rayyan Fahad H. Altemani, Wejdan Mohammed S. Alshehri, Amal Nafea J. Alharbi, Raghad Saud A. Albalawi, Khawla Abdulrahman S. Alzahrani, Shuruq Mousa D. Albalawi, Sultan Suliman Q. Al-Ruwaili, Sultan Faraj Alruwaili, Mousa Amer M. Alshehri, Asma Saleh S. Alruwaili, Sarah Mohammad M. Ali, Ahmad Arafat A. Abualaz, Marah Saud Alenezi

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 107-113
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i57B34034

AAE-C1-INH (acquired angioedema owing to C1-inhibitor (C1-INH) deficiency) is a dangerous illness that can lead to asphyxiation due to laryngeal edoema. Only around 1% to 2% of angioedema cases are classified as HAE or AAE, with HAE being 10 times more prevalent than AAE. The sole clinical distinction between HAE and AAE is the age at which symptoms appea, AAE-C1-INH is usually diagnosed after 40 years of age. There is no licensed therapy for AAE-C1-INH at this time. AAE-C1-INH attacks are treated with HAE-C1-INH medicines such plasma-derived C1-INH concentrate (pdC1-INH) and the bradykinin B2 receptor antagonist, icatibant. These on-demand medications are thought to be most helpful when provided early in the attack. However, there is a scarcity of published data on the efficacy and safety of AAE-C1-INH therapies.

Open Access Review Article

Nursing Skill and Responsibility in Administration of Injection Actilyse

Mayur B. Wanjari, Deeplata Mendhe, Pratibha Wankhede

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 151-155
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i57B34039

Actilyse can break blood clots that form in the heart, blood arteries, or lungs during a heart attack. This medication is also given to stroke patients to improve recovery and reduce the likelihood of impairment. Recombinant DNA technology was used to create Activase, a tissue plasminogen activator. It is a sterile, purified glycoprotein of 527 amino acids. It is made by combining complementary DNA (cDNA) from a human melanoma cell line with the natural human tissue-type plasminogen activator. After reconstitution with Sterile Water for Injection, USP, Activase is a sterile, white to off-white lyophilized powder for intravenous injection.

Open Access Review Article

Black Fungus an Add on Epidemic to COVID-19 Pandemic

Shilpi Tiwari, Parimala Kulkarni, Shikha Mali, Sanjana Bhargava, Nandini Jaiswal, Arathi Menon

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 178-188
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i57B34044

COVID-19 patients have lower immunosuppressive CD4+ T and CD8+ T cells and henceforth patients in intensive care units (ICU) need mechanical ventilation, henceforward they stay in hospitals. These patients have been exposed to advances in fungal co-infections. COVID-19 patients progress towards mucormycosis a black fungal infection that is deadly leading to loss of sight and hearing and eventually death. This article discusses the clinical manifestations, risk factors and emphases on virulence traits and management of black fungus.

Open Access Review Article

Intra-Hepatic Cholestasis of Pregnancy and Its Consequences: A Review

Yugandhara Hingankar, Vaishali Taksande

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 224-230
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i57B34049

Background: The most common cause of liver illness in pregnancy is intrahepatic cholestasis (IHCP). It has a varying incidence due to geographic variance; factors such as advanced age, multiple pregnancy, family history, and previous pregnancy cholestasis have demonstrated a higher prevalence in these patients. Cholestasis in pregnancy has an aetiology that is currently unknown. It usually occurs after ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome in early pregnancy and coincides with growing oestrogen levels in the second half of pregnancy [1]. The ABCB4 gene mutation is largely associated in a subtype of progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis, where disease clustering in first-degree relatives increases hereditary predisposition. Itchy palms and soles with elevated liver enzymes and bile acids are the most common symptoms. Some of the reported maternal problems in these patients include preterm labour, HELLP syndrome, acute fatty liver of pregnancy, and postpartum haemorrhage [2]. There are no precise antenatal foetal monitoring tests that can predict foetal fatalities in the womb. To reduce perinatal death with expectant treatment beyond this gestation, it is recommended that a pregnancy be terminated near 36–37 weeks of pregnancy.

Open Access Review Article

Acne Vulgaris Burden, Risk Factors, Lifestyle Modification Influence and Treatment Options – A Review

Moteab Alotaybi, Bashaer Almahdi, Abdulaziz Bokhari, Mohammed Altaf, Faisal Alagbari, Abdulaziz Sharkar, Duaa Aldhubiani, Dinah Alasmari, Eiman Saleh, Abdulrahman Al Zhrani, Abdulaziz Almahdi, Sarah Halabi

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 284-291
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i57B34057

Acne vulgaris is a widespread health issue affecting teenagers, young adults, and adults. The prevalence of this unpleasant condition varies between populations. A thorough literature review was carried out to discuss this underestimated issue through multiple perspectives. The search found that acne vulgaris has a substantial negative psychological impact on individuals leading to low quality of life and less productivity, yet it is usually neglected. Various factors, modifiable and non-modifiable) were associated with the progression of acne, such as family history, genetics, and diet, yet others were controversial. Lifestyle modifications are of high importance since they may contribute to the development of acne. Numerous anti-acne drugs are available in the form of topical and systemic, however, topical treatment options in general are preferred thanks to their effectiveness and less severe side effects.

Open Access Review Article

Recent Advances in Insulin Delivery Devices and Modes of Insulin Therapy

Ishita Rai, Anil Wanjari, Sourya Acharya

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 358-367
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i57B34067

The discovery of insulin was 100 years old till 2021. Insulin, the first diabetic medication, is now the safest and most effective glucose-lowering medication available. Despite its efficacy, the most significant challenge with insulin has been the prevalence of hypoglycemia, which has resulted in the majority of patients being prescribed optimum dosages. Insulin delivery devices include syringes, pens, and pumps. Soon, artificial pancreas (AP) by using a very closed-loop delivery method will be a big step towards the advancement of insulin delivery devices. This article looks at the invention of syringes, disposable, long-lasting pens, and smart connected pens, continuous intraperitoneal insulin infusion (CIPII) and patch insulin pumps, artificial pancreas and other medical devices. Hence, insulin administration that is both minimally invasive and non-invasive towards the advancement is required. We review the available information on the evolution of insulin delivery systems, focusing on the advantages and disadvantages of technology as well as anticipated advances. Due to the wide variety of technological solutions accessible via the international platform, only the most common methods essential to the patient’s care are detailed here in the article.

Open Access Review Article

Mangrove’s Plant: An updated Review on Ethnobotanical, Phytochemical and Pharmacological Potential of Barringtonia racemosa

Suchita Gupta, Reena Gupta

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 418-427
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i57B34075

The conventional usages and traditions of people in Barringtonia racemosa (L.) (B. racemosa) mangrove plant species in their day-to-day life and therapeutic techniques. B. racemosa (L.) belongs to family Barringtoniaceae, with single-seeded, oval-shaped fruit and a tall tree dispersed in India's east and west coasts. B. racemosa (L.), titled as putat, a fish poison tree or powder puff tree, is a precious plant species due to its medicinal values. Its fruit pulp is used in fish poison and diarrhea, asthma, coughs, analgesic and antipyretic, and has significant antitumor activity. Flavonoids and phenolic acids are the primary metabolites of the leaves and are used to reduce hypertension and purgative. In addition, the pulverized leafage, barks, and roots are used to lessen the inflammation and chickenpox. Among the phenolic compounds specified in the leaves of B. racemosa (L.) include ferulic acid, naringin, gallic acid, rutin, luteolin, protocatechuic acid, kaempferol, quercetin, and ellagic acid. Conventional remedial practices have the whole plant as a therapy for itch; the antimalarial activity is reported in roots. The bark or leaf are used in abscesses, sores, serpent bites, rat poisonings, gastric ulcers, hypertension, chickenpox. In contrast, the kernels or seeds are sourced for carcinogenic disorders and eye inflammation. The current review emphasized the ethnobotanical, phytochemistry and pharmacological activities of B. racemosa (L.) proved through various scientific facts.

Open Access Review Article

Overview on Diagnosis and Management of Polymyositis

Mohammed Salah Hussein, Atyaf Khalid Almandeil, Sarah Shujaa Alsulami, Amaal Abdulrahman Alwayli, Amal Abdulrahman Alwayli, Ataa Salem Mubarak, Nawaf Talal AlEnazi, Abdulaziz Mansour H. alrashidi, Sarh abdulhameed Alomran, Habeeb Abdullah Al Haddad, Turki Mohammed Alshehri

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 445-451
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i57B34079

Polymyositis (PM) is an autoimmune disorder; result from abnormal activation of cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CD8 cells) and macrophages against muscular antigens as well as the strong extrafusal muscular expression of major histocompatibility complex class 1 causing damage to the endomysium of the skeletal muscles.  Polymyositis develops over the months as compared to inclusion body myositis (IBM), which is a slowly progressive chronic myopathy developing in older individuals over a period of months to years with more severe symptoms.  Many patients require treatment for many years. Polymyositis affects the distal musculature of the esophagus in the late stage of disease in up to 70% of the patients leading to the inability to swallow, as well as regurgitation problems that can cause aspiration pneumonia. The principal goals of therapy are to improve strength and improve physical functioning. Many patients require treatment for several years. The 5-year survival rate for treated patients is in the order of 95%. Up to one-third of PM patients may be left with some degree of residual muscle weakness.