Open Access Case Report

ECAST Syndrome (Exercise Collapse Associated with Sickle Cell Trait): First Knock of Sickle Cell in a Young Bodybuilder

Janhavi Mahajan, Dhruv Talwar, Sunil Kumar, Sourya Acharya, Yogesh kakde

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 74-78
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i56A33887

ECAST Or exercise collapse associated with sickle cell trait is a rare phenomenon associated with sickle cell trait and is an important presentation of sickle cell disease in sports medicine. Collapse is seen following vigorous physical activity, which is due to excessive heat, dehydration and other factors associated with physical exercise. This rare syndrome is often missed by the treating physicians as a result of a lack of knowledge about this rare entity leading to massive underreporting. It is important to identify ECAST as a cause of the collapse in young athletes to prevent mortality and morbidity and in order to provide prompt treatment. We report a case of a 25- year-old young male who was a bodybuilder and reported to the gym after a one-year-long break due to lockdown restrictions of COVID19. After a vigorous exercise session, he collapsed in the gym and was brought to the emergency department. After proper history taking and examination, he was suspected to be a case of ECAST due to a history of a similar episode three years back which was treated as a case of exertional syncope with intravenous fluid therapy and a family history of Sickle cell trait with his mother and father both having sickle cell AS Pattern. Ultimately our patient turned out to be a case of Sickle Cell Trait with evidence of AS pattern on Hb electrophoresis and a small-sized spleen visualized on CT Scan of the abdomen. The patient was managed successfully with intravenous fluids and blood transfusion and was discharged in a stable condition. He was counseled about moderating his exercise and is doing well on follow-up.

Open Access Case Report

A Rare Case of Squamous Cell Carcinoma Presented with Multiple Discharging Sinus Over the Posterior Aspect of Left Thigh

K. Senthil Kumar, . Megha, R. Anantharamakrishnan, . Dhanashekar, U. Sandeep

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 100-104
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i56A33890

Squamous cell carcinoma is the second most common cutaneous malignancy. The most important etiological factor is chronic exposure to the ultraviolet rays and hence exposed areas of the body are the most common site of squamous cell carcinoma.  It is very uncommon for SCC to occur at unexposed areas of the body, and it is usually associated with long standing ulcers, sinus or immunosuppression. Here we are reporting a rare of Squamous Cell carcinoma which developed from multiple discharging sinus over the posterior aspect of left thigh in a 67 year old male.

Open Access Case Report

An Alternate Approach in the Management of COVID – 19 in Unvaccinated / Vaccine Allergic Population – A Case Study

Ahamed Basha Abdul Bari, R. Sivashankar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 174-179
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i56A33900

The COVID-19 vaccines offer protection against the severe acute respiratory syndrome Corona virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) by developing an immune response to the same. Further, there are mass vaccination programs being conducted across the globe. India administered COVID – 19 vaccines for more than 90 crores of people as on October 2021. However, there are still a bunch of people yet to receive vaccination. Adding to this, very few are found to be allergic to COVID – 19 vaccines. Hence there is a need for an alternative approach till the whole population of the world gets vaccinated. One such approach is prescribing Nilavembu kudineer and Kabha sura kudineer, a polyherbal Siddha medicine formulation of Traditional Indian system of Medicine. This case study highlights the positive effects and importance of the above mentioned polyherbal formulations in the management of mild to moderate COVID-19 patients. Hence, the same can be advised to the individuals who are yet to receive COVID-19 vaccine and persons who are allergic to COVID -19 vaccines.

Open Access Study Protocol

Efficacy of Bilateral Lower Limb Training over Unilateral to Re-educate Balance and Walking in Post-stroke Survivors: A Protocol for Randomized Clinical Trial

Pallavi Harjpal, Moh'd Irshad Qureshi, Rakesh Krishna Kovela, Moli Jain

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 281-287
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i56A33912

Background: One of the significant causes of morbidity worldwide and an essential contributor to disability is Stroke. As said by the National Stroke Association, nine post-stroke survivors out of 10 experience some degree of weakness post-stroke. The hemiplegic patients with sub-acute stroke, who will undergo training to both the lower limb overtraining to only involved side will have an improvement in balance and walking. The goal of this study is to see how much training to both the lower limb improves functional recovery in patients who have had a subacute stroke compared to unilateral, more insufficient limb training.

Objective: The goal of this study was to see how training to both the lower limb overtraining to the hemiparetic lower limb on balance and walking in subacute stroke patients.

Methods: A randomized clinical study with assessor blinding will be conducted with participants with subacute stroke (n=40). Participants will be randomized to one of two groups after performing baseline assessments: Group A or Group B.1st group will receive training only to the hemiparetic side, i.e., Motor Relearning Programme and Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation, and 2nd group participants will receive bilateral training, i.e., Strengthening to the unaffected side along with Motor Relearning Programme and Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation to the affected side. During the therapy period, we will assess lower limb function through static and dynamic balance, walking, and gait measures.

Results: The purpose of the research is to look into the effect of training to both the lower limb overtraining to the hemiparetic lower limb on balance and walking in subacute stroke patients. The results of this study will be based on the outcome measures that are static and dynamic balance in the stroke patients and walking.

Conclusion: The study's findings will shed more light on the benefits of training to both the lower limb overtraining to only involved side in patients post-stroke. If this trial proves successful, it will help post-stroke patients improve their balance and walking.

Open Access Short Research Article

Assessment of Knowledge, Attitude & Practice of Pedodontists Regarding Disinfection Protocol During COVID 19 Pandemic: A Cross Sectional Study

Dishika Ishwar Bhagwani, Arunkumar Sajjanar, Suryakant Kumar, Niharika Gahlod, Pratima Kolekar, Vaidehi Aawari

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 328-334
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i56A33918

Introduction: The whole world has been closely focusing on an outbreak of respiratory disease caused by a novel coronavirus that was first reported in Wuhan, China, on December 31, 2019, and that continues to spread. This article, based on our experience and relevant guidelines and research, not only gives essential knowledge about COVID-19, but also about disinfection protocols in dental settings.

Aim & Objective: To investigate knowledge, attitude & practice of Pedodontists regarding disinfection protocol during the COVID-19 pandemic.

Materials & Methods: A quick online cross-sectional study was conducted among 335 Pedodontists of India. A 16-point questionnaire was made on Google forms and distributed amongst 420 Pedodontists in India, out of which 335 responded. The collected data was sent for appropriate statistics.

Results: Of the total participants 95.82% of Pedodontists are aware of disinfection protocols to be followed during COVID-19. 57.31% of Pedodontists say that 1% sodium hypochlorite is effective in disinfecting operative surfaces & the best agent to disinfect dental waterlines.

Conclusion: The role of Pedodontists in preventing the transmission of COVID-19 is of paramount importance. The role of Pedodontists in defending covid19 is essential.

Open Access Short Communication

A Short on Ubrogepant

S. Padmaja, J. Mohan

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 79-81
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i56A33888

Migraine is a mysterious disorder characterized by pulsating head ache, which is actually characterized to one side and comes in attacks which will be lasting for about 3-48 hours and can be associated with nausea,vomiting,sensitivity to sound,flashes of light,vertigoand diarrhoea [1]. Most of the drugs which are in current use for actue migraine like triptans, treats the disorder symptomatically. A novel group of drugs has been in research for the migraine which treats the disorder pathologically. Calcitonin gene – related peptide (CGRP) has a major role in the pathophysiology of the disorder and hence CGRP receptor antagonist, known as Gepants are in the research process [2]. Gepants are being studied for the efficacy of treating acute migraine [2]. This article will be a review article about the drug – Ubrogepant, which is approved for treatment of migraine with acute attacks in adults [3].

Open Access Minireview Article

A Review on Traditional Plant Azadirachta indica: Natural Source for Disease Curability and Health Promotion

Preeti Gautam, Payal Mittal

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i56A33880

Neem (Azadirachta indica) is a medicinal plant, mostly found in the Himalayan region. The neem leaf is commonly and historically used in medicine to treat a variety of illnesses such as eye disorders, nose bleeding, loss of appetite and liver problems etc. Because of its various pharmacological and therapeutic effects, it is included in the Ayurvedic pharmacopoeia. As a result, this review provides current information on ethno-medicinal uses, phytochemistry, pharmacological effects, adverse effects of Azadirachta indica with future advancement. Several references were checked for identification, in-depth literature including online databases, documents, and blogs. Around 29% of the compounds in Azadirachta indica have been isolated and characterised. The limonoids in the neem tree have a wide variety of antimicrobial and insecticidal properties. Complex azadirachtin, salanin are active principles extracted from neem seed. These metabolites' biochemical pathways in the neem tree are completely unknown. Citrus sinensis is related to the neem tree phylogenetically. 62 percent of neem genomic was anchored into citrus chromosomes according to comparative study. The azadirachtin, nimbin, salanin and nimbidin from neem tissues were quantified by using LC-MS. This paper shows the various use of neem in different disorder.

Open Access Minireview Article

Biomaterials – Novel Advances in Nasal Medical Implants, 3D Printing Applications

T. M. Amulya, K. G. Siree, T. M. Pramod Kumar, M. B. Bharathi, K. Divith, Gorthi Nihar, M. P. Gowrav

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 52-64
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i56A33885

The scope and applications of biomaterials have spread out throughout a broad spectrum. Particularly in pharmacy, biomaterials are an attractive choice because they can be modified to decrease toxicity, increase the targeting ability among many other aspects of drug delivery. Extensive studies have led to the development of many metal-based, ceramic, biocompatible and biodegradable biomaterials for medical purposes among many others. The utilization of 3D printing in this discipline is a very novel research subject with infinite potential. Personalized and customized nasal implants are a great option to increase patient compliance and 3D printed accurate anatomical structures are rendered to be effective tools of learning. One of the disadvantages of biomaterial-based implants is the formation of a thick fibrous capsule formation around the implant, others being breakage, soft tissue loss and so on. Regulatory aspects are less explored for nasal implants. 3D printing is a unique technique that allows for a high degree of customisation in pharmacy, dentistry and in designing of medical devices. Current research in 3D printing indicates towards reproducing an organ in the form of a chip; paving the way for more studies and opportunities to perfecting the existing technique.

Open Access Original Research Article

High-performance Liquid Chromatography Analysis and Antimicrobial Activities of Libyan Cistus salviifolius Extract

Abdullah Alamami, Fatma Elshibani, Salmin Alshalmani, Mohamed Ali Sharkasi, Naema Elremali, Areej Daboub

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 32-40
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i56A33883

Aims: This research is focused on the in vitro evaluation of Cistus salviifolius L. antimicrobial properties and the determination of the contents of phenols and flavonoids.

Study Design: This research is analytical study aimed to illustrate the antimicrobial properties and to analyze the methanolic extract contents of aerial parts of Cistus salviifolius L. by high-performance liquid chromatography techniques.

Duration: The study was performed within six months in the Faculty of Pharmacy, Benghazy University.

Methodology: Antimicrobial properties was tested against twelve organisms using Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion sensitivity test and the determination of the contents of phenols and flavonoids was evaluated by running high-performance liquid chromatography techniques.

Results: The findings indicated that catechin is the most abundant flavonoid in C. salviifolius, while gallic acid was the major phenol in the methanolic extract of the plant. The results also revealed that the methanol extracts had a significant antimicrobial potential particularly against Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli with MIC (0.98 and 0.49) µg/ml respectivelyfurthermore the extract was effective against Aspergillus fumigatus with MIC 0.98 µg/ml.      

Conclusion: C. salviifolius was highly rich with flavonoids and phenols and has a significant antimicrobial effect.

Open Access Original Research Article

Expression of CD4, CD8 Biomarkers in Invasive Carcinoma of Breast with Clinicopathological Correlation

C. Divyapriya, Aarthi Kannan, Vijayashree Raghavan

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 65-73
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i56A33886

Introduction: Tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) are widely considered a key sign of the immune interaction between host and tumor, and potentially prognostic biomarkers of good or bad outcome in various cancers, including invasive breast cancer (IBC).

Aim and Objectives: To correlate the expression of CD4, CD8 T-lymphocytes in invasive carcinoma breast with established markers of prognosis like tumour size, grade, lymph node status and molecular subtypes mainly ER, PR, Her 2Neu, Ki67 status, mainly the triple negative breast cancers(TNBC).

Methodology: 58 Invasive breast carcinoma proven tissue blocks were subjected to immunohistochemistry and morphometric analysis for positive CD4, CD8 T-lymphocytes were done.

Results:  Triple negative breast cancer subtype shows high TILs than other pathologic subtypes. Tumor interface CD8+ cells very well correlated with the pathological higher nodal stage. Majority CD4, CD8 positive cells were populated more towards the stromal and interface of the tumor microenvironment rather thatintratumoral.

Conclusion: CD4+ and CD8+ counts may be a valuable independent prognostic tool in predicting the outcome in invasive breast cancer.

Open Access Original Research Article

Level of Knowledge of Sports Coaches and Physical Education Teachers in Physical Therapy in Jordan

Riziq Allah Gaowgzeh, Shenbaga Sundaram Subramanian, Mikhled Falah Maayah, Saad S. Alfawaz, Ziyad Neamatallah, Thamer Ahmad Altaim

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 105-112
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i56A33891

Physiotherapy is a profession that helps to restore movement and function following an injury or illness. This study sought to identify the physical therapy knowledge of physical education teachers and sports coaches in Jordan. This study is a cross-sectional study conducted on several sports coaches and physical education teachers in Jordan. Participants were given the questionnaire through google forms, and they were all advised to fill it up. A predetermined selection criterion was used to select the participants. Out of 250 volunteers chosen for the study, only 152 questionnaires were selected for the final analysis. A self-administer questionnaire consisting was developed, which includes two parts. Part I collects the demographical data, and part II contains the questionnaires, including physiotherapy. The consent form is attached with the questionnaire, and those who gave consent to use the data were included in the analysis. Collected data were analyzed using SPSS 20.0. with the alpha set for significance at <0.05. Overall, it identified that 84% of the sports coaches and physical education teachers know physiotherapy services well. This study concluded that a more significant proportion of the sports coaches and physical education teachers have a good understanding of physical therapy services provided to the sports personnel in Jordan. They have good knowledge of physical therapy techniques and services provided, and they also have a good understanding of their role in on-field and off-field management.

Open Access Original Research Article

A Study to Assess Effectiveness of Instructional Teaching Programme on Level of Knowledge and Practices of Prevention of Pneumonia among Mothers of under Five Children in Selected Villages, Kanchipuram District, Tamil Nadu, India

P. Jegin, S. Subbulakshmi, M. Dinesh Kumar, J. Dayana, E. Elakiya

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 113-119
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i56A33892

Back ground: An experimental study was conducted to assess the effects of instructional teaching programme (ITP) on knowledge and practices of mothers regarding prevention of pneumonia in children, Pooncherry, Chengalpattu District, Tamil Nadu, India.Objectives of the study were to assess the effectiveness of ITP on prevention of pneumonia on level of knowledge and practices among mothers of under five children.

Materials and Methods: Non probability purposive technique was adopted for this study. Samples who met inclusion criteria were participated in the study. Self-structured interview schedule for knowledge  and structured rating scale for practices were used to collect the data.

Results: The study results shows that in the pre test 15.13 % of the mothers had adequate knowledge, 24.34 % of the mothers were had moderately adequate knowledge and 60.53 % of the mothers had inadequate knowledge and  and in post test 63.17% of mothers were had adequate knowledge, 28.94% of the mothers had moderately adequate knowledge and very few (8.55% ) mothers had inadequate knowledge. Pre test practices score shows that 63.82 % of the mothers had less desirable practice, 22.37% of the mothers had moderate desirable practices and 13.81% were had highly desirable practices whereas in the post test 63.82% of them had highly desirable practice, 23.03% of them had moderate desirable practices and 13.16% of them had less desirable practices. The mean pretest knowledge score was 5.45 ± 1.47 and the mean posttest knowledge score was 8.49 ± 0.71 and the t value was 15.17, it shows that statistically there was an improvement in the post test knowledge score. The mean pretest practice score was 22.38 ± 2.76, the mean posttest practice score was 43.64 ±1.97 and the t value was 13.35, it shows that statistically there was a significant improvement in the post test practice score. The instructional teaching programme on prevention of pneumonia was statistically effective in promoting the knowledge and desirable practices among mothers.

Open Access Original Research Article

Gestational Anaemia and its Associated Factors in Normal Pregnant Women

Feriha Fatima Khidri, Rubina Amjad, Farah Naz, Abid Hussain, Faiza Kamran Ali

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 120-126
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i56A33893

Objectives: To determine the hemoglobin levels in normal pregnant women and investigate the association of anemia with gestational age, number of antenatal visits, obstetrical complications and mode of delivery.

Methodology: This is a cross-sectional study conducted at the Lady Willingdon Hospital, Khairpur Mirs, Pakistan from May 2021 to August 2021. A total of 139 normal pregnant women were recruited during antenatal visits. Patients were grouped into normal and anemic groups based on serum hemoglobin levels. Gestational age, obstetrical complications, mode of delivery and fetal outcome were recorded to find its association with anemia. Data was analyzed on SPSS 20.0 and p-value < 0.05 was considered as statistically significant.

Results: Out of n=139 normal pregnant women, n=26 women had normal hemoglobin levels, n=49 were mild anemic, n=46 had moderate anemia whereas n=18 had severe anemia. Overall, the prevalence of gestational anemia was 81%. There was significant association between hemoglobin status and number of antenatal visits and complications in previous pregnancies. Hemoglobin status was not significantly associated with gestational age and mode of delivery.

Conclusion: In conclusion, we found that gestational anemia is highly prevalent in Pakistan. Early detection of anemia and its correction via supplementations are recommended.

Open Access Original Research Article

Development and Validation of UPLC-MS / MS Method for Obtaining Favipiravir Tablet Dosage form and Evaluation of its Behavior Under forced Conditions

Süleyman Gökce, Ayşen Höl, Ibrahim Bulduk

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 130-140
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i56A33895

Aims: Favipiravir (FVP) is a drug developed against RNA viruses. It is a drug that is used actively in the treatment of coronavirus. In vitro and in vivo investigations have shown that it inhibits the virus. In this study, a recovery study of tablet formulations was carried out by developing a UPLC-MS/MS method, which is used extensively in pandemic conditions. In addition, stability studies of favipiravir agent under forced conditions were conducted. The validated method is selective, robust, simple and applicable for tablet analysis. C18 (4.6 mm × 50 mm, 2.7 μm) column was used as the stationary phase and water-methanol (80-20 v/v) containing 0.1% formic acid was used as the mobile phase. UPLC optimization; It was conducted at a wavelength of 222 nm and a flow rate of 0.8 mL/min at 40 °C, retention time was 1.155 min. The electrospray jet stream ionization source was analyzed using mass spectrometry in negative ion mode. The molecular peak for Favipiravir was [M-1] 155.9, and the daughter ion determined 112.6. The stability test method was carried out in accordance with the ICH procedure. Reaction and degradation rates of the active substance under various forced conditions (acidic, basic, oxidative, UV light and thermal conditions) were investigated. The products formed by the decomposition of the active substance under stress conditions were determined by mass spectroscopy.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Super Brain Yoga on Concentration and Memory in Children in a Selected Private School, Kelambakkam, Kanchipuram Dt, Tamilnadu, India

V. S. Viji, S. Subbulakshmi, L. Uma Devi

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 141-149
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i56A33896

Background: The Sigmund Freud's psychosexual theory says that the school age is the important stage in the development of self-confidence. Many studies reveals that physical exercise has a positive effect in the cognitive intellectual areas of the children. Regular practice of simple exercise will makes the children more sharp minded and helps to give a better learning outcome

Material & Methods: The main aim of the study was to evaluate the efficacy of super brain yoga by measuring the changes in concentration and memory in children.. A quantitative evaluative approach was used for this study with a one group pretest and posttest design. The purposive sampling technique was used to select 120 students aged between 10 to 12 years who were studying in 6th and 7th standard. The practice of super brain yoga was given 20 times over 10 minutes per day for a period of one month. The Digit Cancellation Test and the Knox Cube Test was used to was used to assess the pretest and posttest level of concentration and memory in children.

Results: The pretest mean and standard deviation of concentration was 33.64±5.43 with a standard error of 0.496. The first posttest (at the end of second week of practice of super brain yoga) mean and standard deviation was 33.55± 5.378 with a standard error of 0.491 and the t-value was 0.749. The second posttest (at the end of fourth week of practice of super brain yoga) mean and standard deviation was 33.67±5.393 with a standard error of 0.492 and the t-value was 0.240. The pretest mean and standard deviation of memory was 33.67±4.696with a standard error of 0.429.The first posttest (at the end of second week of practice of super brain yoga) mean and standard deviation was 33.66±4.654with a standard error of 0.425 and the t-value was 0.080. The second posttest (at the end of fourth week of practice of super brain yoga) mean and standard deviation was 33.68±4.700with a standard error of 0.420and the t-value was 0.074. The present study result shows that statistically there was no significant effect of super brain yoga on concentration and memory of children and no association between posttest level of concentration and memory of children with their selected demographic variables.

Conclusion: Hence the study concludes that the super brain yoga has no significant effect on concentration and memory of children with a duration of four weeks of practice.The study recommended that to bring the desired positive effect on children’s concentration and memory the study can be conducted for a long period of time.

Open Access Original Research Article

Qualitative and Quantitative Study of Phyto-Constituents and Antioxidant Potential of Rhizomes of Kaempferia galanga, Kaempferia parviflora and Kaempferia pulchra

Subhash Chandra Mishra, Neeraj Sharma

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 150-159
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i56A33897

Medicinal plants are the potent source of biologically active compounds and have always been of field of interest for the effective chemotherapeutic agents and offering a broad spectrum of activity with greater emphasis on preventive action. The objective of this study was to screen the phytochemicals, estimate the content of phenolic, flavonoids and alkaloids compounds and determines the antioxidant capacity of the rhizomes of Kaempferia galanga Linn, Kaempferia parviflora and Kaempferia pulchra (K. galanga, K. parviflora and K, pulchra, Zingiberaceae). Qualitative analysis of various phytochemical constituents and quantitative analysis of total phenol, flavonoids and alkaloids were determined by the well-known test protocol available in the literature. The ethanolic extract of rhizomes of K. galanga, K. parviflora and K, pulchra was studied for antioxidant activity on different in vitro models namely 1,1-diphenyl, 2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) assay and Nitric oxide (NO) radical scavenging method. Phytochemical analysis of ethanolic extract of all three plants revealed the presence of flavonoids, alkaloids, saponins, phenolics, carbohydrate, and tannin. The total phenolic, flavonoids and alkaloids content of ethanolic extract of K. galanga, K. parviflora and K, pulchra rhizomes were 0.813, 1.146; 1.047, 1.237, 0.285; 0.755, 0.822, 0.975/100mg respectively. All extracts showed dose dependent free radical scavenging property in the tested models, which was comparable to that of ascorbic acid. The present study concluded that the crude extract of K. galanga, K. parviflora and K, pulchra rhizomes is a rich source of secondary phytoconstituents which impart significant antioxidant potential. It is expected that the important phytochemical properties recognized by our study in the indigenous medicinal plants will be very useful in the curing of various diseases when taken along with our food.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of the Level of Knowledge on Autism among the Mothers of Toddlers in Selected Village, Kanchipuram District, Tamil Nadu, India

M. Nandhini, T. R. Manjula, M. Maria Auxilli Jenifer

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 160-164
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i56A33898

Background: Autism is a developmental disorder characterized by difficulties with social interaction and communication and by restricted and repetitive behavior. Mothers of toddlers should have knowledge on Autism to identify the child in earlier age and to treat the child.

Objectives: The study aimed to assess the level of knowledge on autism among the mothers of toddlers. The objectives were to find out the level of knowledge on autism among the mothers and to find out the association between the level of knowledge on autism and selected demographic variables of the mothers of toddlers.

Materials and Methods: A non-experimental, descriptive study was conducted. The sampling technique was snow ball sampling technique with the sample of 50 mothers of toddlers and questionnaires were formulated, a structured interview schedule was used to assess the level of knowledge on autism among the mothers of toddlers. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used to analyze the collected data. The data collection procedure was done for period of 2 weeks. The study was initiated after obtaining prior permission from the concern authorities.

Results: The findings of this study revealed that 44% of the mothers of toddlers had inadequate knowledge, 44% had moderately adequate knowledge and only 2% had adequate knowledge on autism. There was significant association between level of knowledge and demographic variables such as age, occupation and previous knowledge on Autism of mothers of toddlers.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Health Literacy Levels in Adults: The Case of Ankara Province

Abdullah Alper Ertem, Alper Güzel, Aysu Zekioğlu

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 165-173
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i56A33899

The concept of health literacy, which is related to issues such as health behaviors, use of health services, satisfaction, has increased in national and international level in recent years. This concept refers to the individual's cognitive and social skills in health-related issues. The aim of this study is to determine the health literacy levels of individuals living in Ankara. The study was carried out with 387 volunteers. In the study, Adult Health Literacy Scale (AHLS), which consists of 23 questions developed by Sezer, was used. Mann Whitney U and Kruskal Wallis test were used to analyze the data. The average level of health literacy obtained in the study was formulated in accordance with the European Health Literacy Study and the level of international competence was determined. Accordingly, 50.1% (194) of the participants in the study were found to be inadequate, 42.1% (163) limited and 7.8% (30) sufficient health literacy. The level of perfect health literacy has not been found. In order to increase the level of health literacy, roadmaps developed jointly by policy makers and health professionals are needed. As the impact of culture on health literacy is known, developing local strategies is thought to be an effective way to increase the level of health literacy. It is important for healthcare professionals, public health professionals and health educators working in primary health care services to take roles in targeting the target population, developing strategy and communicating in the health literacy process.

Open Access Original Research Article

A Stability Indicating RP-HPLC Method Validation for Simultaneous estimation of Metformin HCl and Canagliflozin in Pharmaceutical Dosage Form

Darshak Patel, Ujashkumar Shah, Jayvadan Patel, Hirak Joshi, Darshana Patel, Pavan Patel

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 180-192
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i56A33901

Aims: Canagliflozin and Metformin HCl is a new drug combination for the treatment of Diabetes Mellitus which is one of the oldest and lethal diseases of the mankind. Aim of the research work was to develop and validate novel, rapid, sensitive, specific, robust stability indicating analytical method for the simultaneous estimation of Canagliflozin and Metformin HCl in the pharmaceutical dosage form as fixed dose formulation.

Study Design: Method development and validation was performed as recommended in ICH guideline “Validation of analytical procedures: Test and Methodology Q2(R1)”.

Methodology: Method develop with chromatographic parameters as C18 column (250mm×4.6 mm, 5mm particle size), HPLC system with PDA detector and mobile phase contained a mixture of Phosphate Buffer pH 5.0 and Acetonitrile (60:40 v/v). The flow rate was set to 1ml/min with responses measured at 290 nm, injection volume was 20 µl, and run time of 15 mins.

Results: The retention time of Metformin Hydrochloride and Canagliflozin was 5.4 min and 7.6 min respectively with resolution of 7.0. Linearity was established in the range of 10-30 µg/ml for Metformin Hydrochloride and 0.5-1.5 µg/ml for Canagliflozin with correlation coefficients more than 0.999. The percentage recoveries were between (98.62-101.22%) and (98.68-101.27%) for Metformin Hydrochloride and Canagliflozin respectively. Validation parameters were evaluated according to the International Conference on Harmonization (ICH) Q2 R1 guidelines. The forced degradation studies were performed by using HCl, NaOH, H2O2, thermal and UV radiation. The developed method was successfully applied for the quantification and hyphenated instrumental analysis.

Conclusion: Significance of developed method is that it can be utilize for routine or unknown sample analysis of assay of Metformin HCl and Canagliflozin in pharmaceutical dosage form developed by various Pharmaceutical Industry.

Open Access Original Research Article

Saudi Parents' Knowledge and Attitude towards Pediatric Organ Donation in Al-Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

Rheem Almhizai, Samar Zarnoog, Norah Altwijery, Hind Alabdullatif, Shoug Alsubaie, Sultanah Almutairi

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 193-199
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i56A33902

Background: Organ donation is a life-saving process of removing an organ or tissue surgically from one person (the organ donor) and placing it into another person (the recipient). As well as The demand for organ donation is increasing over time Thus, understanding the attitudes and beliefs associated with parental decision making improve the rate of transplantation.

Aims: To Evaluate the perception of Saudi parents towards pediatric organ donation, and to assess the role of cultural and religious beliefs in the parental decision-making regarding organ donation, and to discover the misconceptions leading to the refusal of organ donation.

Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in Riyadh region from 1 July 2020 to 31 August 2020 among all Saudi parents aged 18-60 years in Riyadh at the kingdom of Saudi Arabia via an online questionnaire, the responses were Statistically analysis using R v 3.6.3. The mean ±standard deviation was used to summarize the distribution of continuous variables. Chi-square test of independence was used to assess the association between categorical variables. Linear regression was used to assess factors associated with knowledge regarding organ donation.

Results: Among 588, the majority of responses, female 91.5%, showed that better education was associated with knowing about organ donation in children, with 60.7% of respondents who completed university education reporting so compared to 49.6% of those who completed high school education or more minor. Socio-economic status showed a statistically significant association with knowledge score (B = 0.36, P < 0.05). Moreover, higher education level showed a statistically significant association with accepting organ donation from one’s child (OR = 1.77, P = 0.05), in contrast to age, gender, and the number of children were not associated with organ donation acceptance. Respondents who did not think organ donation was permissible in Islam were less likely to accept organ donation than respondents who believed it was permissible (OR = 0.05, P < 0.001). More than half of the respondents heard about organ donation for children after death. At the same time, less than half of the respondents knew the correct definition for brain death. Only 34.7% of respondents knew that organ donation is allowed starting from birth. Most respondents knew about the possible organs to donate except for the lung. In addition, 45% of the respondents are either agreed or strongly agreed to discuss organ donation with their partner if they faced child loss.

Conclusion: This study found a lack of knowledge regarding organ donation among parents and impressively shows that the parents are willing to discuss organ donation if they face child loss. There was an urgent need to introduce campaigns focussing on awareness of child organ donation, including the protocol used in Saudi Arabia, especially among low socioeconomic status and who do not know Islam permission.

Open Access Original Research Article

Prognostic Value of Thyroid Hormone Dysfunction and Age in Septicemic Post-Surgical Patients

Pallavi Rain, Jyoti Batra, Ankit Batra, Satish Kumar, Shaila Mitra

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 200-212
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i56A33903

Introduction: Critical illness and sepsis are difficult to treat with increasing age because of the poor adaptive physiological system as age progresses. The study tries to identify prognostic markers among thyroid hormones for post-surgical critically ill subjects, who have sepsis, to improve the outcome of patients with increasing age.

Methods: Free triiodothyronine (FT3), free thyroxine (FT4) and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) were estimated by ARCHITECT immunoassay kits in 127 post-surgical critically ill patients with sepsis. Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score was recorded for each patient.

Results: The FT3, FT4 and TSH levels decreased and SOFA score increased with increasing age. Thyroid markers were significantly inversely correlated with age (for FT4 r= -0.616, p<0.0001 and for TSH r= -0.453, p<0.0001), with the strongest correlation between FT3 and age (r=0.674, p<0.0001). A positive correlation was observed between SOFA score and age (r=0.577, p<0.0001). FT3 decreases, SOFA and age increase from improved prognosis to worst prognosis (p<0.0001).

Conclusions: FT3 surfaced as a prominent prognostic marker that may be used in predicting the prognosis of post-surgical critically ill geriatric patients with sepsis.

Open Access Original Research Article

A Realistic Digital Study on Healthcare Practices in Urban Regions

M. Mallika Rao, A. Udaya Shankar, M. Bhaskara Rao, B. Kishore Babu

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 213-226
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i56A33904

By the end of 2015, the global smart connected device market is expected to be worth USD 735.1 billion. PC usage is expected to decline from 28.7% in 2013 to 13% in 2017. Tablets are expected to grow since 11.8% in 2013 To 16.5% in 2017, while smart mobiles are expected to climb from 59.5 percent to 70.5 percent. Tablets and smartphones are expected to account for 87 percent of the global smart connected device market by 2017. Customer engagement is the top objective for businesses throughout the world when it comes to smart device channel strategies. Health care is one of the many verticals where this transition will have significant ramifications. By far the most important aspect of their smart device channel strategy for hospitals will be patient involvement. Advanced knowledge is enhancing devices, facilities, and procedures, influencing the persistent and essential knowledges as well as hospital operations.

The Medical industry has responding to the advanced revolution as well as increasing at a 15% annual-Rate. With the use of technology, much inefficiencies in the delivery of health care services may be removed. Sensors incorporated in a broad series of health modules, such as analytic apparatus, medication distribution schemes, medical robot, essential modules, trickle machineries, and health-fitness devices, are projected to undertake many measures and tests that are presently delivered manually. As a result, health-care delivery will undergo a paradigm shift in comparison to what it is now.

Not just in supermarkets and metropolitan bazaars, but it is in additional markets, the usage of the broadband for pointed and switching strength info & discussing post-analysis treatment is becoming more common. Health-related websites and blogs are becoming more popular, and they represent a delay or novel arrangement of the kind of material that has remained offer by old-style bases of info like magazines and periodicals. The reality of examination trains and social networking positions has opened up at modern opportunities, but it has also raised questions about how users can verify they are obtaining quality, vetted information.

Health-related websites include information on healthy habits as well as diseases, existence, medications, and complements. Effected persons who reach for action with a prospective analysis drawn from a weblinks that had slight to do with an accurate assessment of their ailment are not uncommon these days, according to health care specialists. Abusing the possible of digital technologies to improve the excellence and security of health care has piqued people's curiosity. Globally, the application of transformative tele-Health and mobile-Health knowledges is often at a high expense.

The advent of persistent determined health care advertising, which is changing the method healthiness care facilities are given, is the subject of this empirical study. The use of examples from other industries is used to provide context for marketing accomplishments and to identify relevant characteristics for inclusion in health-care marketing models. The benefits and drawbacks of knowledge allowed health-care marketing is too discussed.

Open Access Original Research Article

Efficacy of Action Observation for Upper Limb Motor Deficit in Acute Stroke Participants

Arulmozhi Devi Anandan, Suresh Kumar Selvaraj, Raja Regan, Shenbaga Sundaram Subramanian, Shazia Neelam, Riziq Allah Mustafa Gaowgeh

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 227-233
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i56A33905

Introduction: Action Observation (AO) is a multisensory approach encompassing motor, somatosensory and cognitive rehabilitation. Several Studies have proved the effects of action observation on recovery of motor functions in chronic stroke survivors. However, the effect of action observation strategy on acute stroke participants remains unclear. The objective of this study was to find out the effectiveness of action observation to improve upper limb function in acute stroke.

Methods: 28 acute stoke participants were selected based on inclusion and exclusion criteria and randomly assigned into two groups based on computer generated randomization. Action observation training group (AO) received action observation training and conventional group received conventional physiotherapy. Both the groups received 45 minutes session per day for the total duration of 10 days.

Results: Upper limb functions were measured using Fugl Myer upper limb component (FMA) and action research arm test (ARAT)at the baseline and after the intervention. Compared with the conventional training group, AO group showed significant improvement in ARAT but no significant difference between the groups in FMA.

Conclusion: In conclusion Action observation treatment may become a useful strategy in rehabilitation of acute stroke participants.

Open Access Original Research Article

An Observational Study on Coping and Quality of Life among Perimenopausal Women

N. Jayamalli, D. Joanie Priya, . Sailatha

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 245-251
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i56A33907

Background: Perimenopause is a natural phenomenon signaling the reduction of ovarian function. Worldwide, the age at which natural menopause occurs is between 45 to55 years. Many women during the premenopausal age group may experience menopausal symptoms such as physiological changes, psychological changes, urogenital changes, sexual changes and vasomotor changes. These changes and symptoms the women may have negative impact on Quality of Life among perimenopausal women. The main aim of the study was to assess the coping and quality of life among perimenopausal women.

Materials and Methods: The researcher has used a quantitative research approach and convenient sampling technique was adapted to select 165 perimenopausal women with the age group of 40 to 55 years. Researcher assessed the perimenopausal symptoms, observed the coping and quality of life among perimenopausal women by Greene climacteric scales, modified cope inventory scale and Utian quality of life scale respectively. The study was conducted in Poonjeri, Kadampadi, and Perumalari villages from Chengalpattu District, for the period of four weeks.

Results: There was a positive correlation between cope and quality of life among perimenopausal women. There is  no association was observed between the monthly income and quality of life of the perimenopausal women, as the Chi-square test was statistically significant at p<0.05.

Conclusion: The study concludes that the perimenopausal women who are participated in this study have moderate symptoms, moderate coping, and moderate quality of life. The monthly income was effective in influencing the perimenopausal women’s quality of life.

Open Access Original Research Article

Estimation of Hemoglobin Levels in Pregnant and Non-pregnant Women in Rafha city, Saudi Arabia

Ishraga Eltayeb M. A-Elbasit, Akbar Ali, Ali Mohammed Ahmed

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 252-258
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i56A33908

Background: Anemia is a global health problem especially affecting pregnant and non-pregnant women. Among many different causes of anemia, iron deficiency anemia is the most common cause. Hemoglobin concentration measurement is among the most commonly performed blood tests, usually as part of a complete blood count.

Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted in Rafha Central Hospital and three associated health centers. Pregnant and none pregnant women (400) were included in the study. The data were collected by using questionnaire prepared by the investigator in Arabic language. Informed consents were taken prior to taking data from each participant.

Results: Out of the 400 women enrolled in this study, 235 were pregnant. Majority of the participants were married (86%), and 45% were university graduates. Most of the participants (77.25%) were in the anemic range. The prevalence of anemia was almost equally distributed among pregnant (75.31%) and non-pregnant (80%) women. The prevalence of anemia was significantly associated with the use of tea, coffee and soft drinks.

Discussion and conclusion: Our results show much higher prevalence of anemia than reported by many other studies done inside and outside of Saudi Arabia. We conclude that anemia prevalence in the region is quite large. People must adopt eating and drinking habits which positively affect the absorption of iron from the food and therefore, increase hemoglobin levels in the body.

Open Access Original Research Article

A Cross-Sectional Study on Peer Pressure on Adolescents of School Going Age in Southern India

Shami R. P. Kumar, Devanand Gulab Chaudhary, Sivaani Udayakumar, Balamma Sujatha, Rajesh Sengodan, Santhosh Kumar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 259-265
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i56A33909

Background: A peer is a person of the same age, status, or ability as another specified person. Peer pressure is the influence of peers on people resulting in change in behaviour which could be positive or negative. As adolescent start exploring their identity towards functional independence, the teen peer relationship plays an important role. This could result in the adolescent giving more importance to the opinions and lifestyle of peer and chances of the adolescent going astray.

Materials and Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted among school going adolescents of 15-18 years age group. The children were administered a pre-designed, semi-structured questionnaire on peer, parents, friends and their influence in studies, self-esteem, negative habits like smoking and alcoholism. The data collected was analysed using descriptive analytic method.

Results: 242 students participated in the study. Adolescents preferred long term friendships (84.3%) and friendship with same gender (82.6%) while making friends. Majority of adolescents admitted to have good quality time spent with parents (96.7%) and considered parents as the most influential persons in their lives (88.2%). Teen peer relationship resulted in improvement of academic performance in 61.2% of the respondents. Negative peer influences were seen in few like alcohol intake (5%) and cigarette smoking (2.5%).

Conclusion: Parents are the people who wield the most influence on Adolescents of school going age group in Southern India. Peer group by and large have a positive impact on the school going adolescent.

Open Access Original Research Article

Frovatriptan Succinate Loaded Lipid Nanoparticles: Formulation, Evaluation, Stability Study and Shelf Life Determination

Mohd Yasir, Iti Chauhan, Madhu Verma, KM Noorulla, Abdurazak J. Tura, Misbahu J. Haji, UVS Sara, Murali Dadi, Wondesen G. Gobena, Debesa D. Dalecha, Goruntla Narayana, Kasturi Vishwanatha Setty Veerabhadrappa

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 266-274
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i56A33910

Aims: The aim of the research work was to prepare and optimize the Frovatriptan Succinate (FVN) loaded solid lipid nanoparticles.

Methods: SLNs were developed by solvent  emulsification diffusion technique and evaluated for particle size, PDI, zeta potential, in-vitro drug release, and finally stability study was conducted for the detection of shelf life.

Results: The optimized formulation exhibited particle size, PDI, and zeta potential 122.85±9.24 nm, 0.129 and -25.85 mV, respectively.  In-vitro drug release study exhibited  biphasic drug release pattern.  Initially (in first two hrs) the drug was release in fast manor i.e. burst release (32.36±7.28 %). It might be due to the presence of drug on the surface of SLNs. After  2 hrs of study, the release pattern became sustained up to 24 hrs. The total amount of drug release in 24 h was found to be 91.29 ± 8.26%.  Various kinetic models were applied to evaluate the release pattern of the drug form the formulation.  Higuchi model was found to be the best fitted with the R2 value of 0.9482. The release mechanism was found to be the Fickian type with the release exponent (n) value of 0.4386. Finally, stability study was conducted. The formulation was found to be the stable under the studied conditions. The shelf life of the formulation was found to be 1.77 years.

Conclusion: Finally, it could be concluded that, the SLNs are the suitable carrier for the delivery of FVN .

Open Access Original Research Article

Gender Difference in Blood Pressure Control and Cardiovascular Risk Factors with Diagnosed Hypertension

Tarique Shahzad Chachar, Ummama Laghari, Ghullam Mustafa Mangrio, Abdul Ghaffar Dars, Ruqayya Farhad, Yar Muhammad Tunio

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 275-280
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i56A33911

Objective: Our study was designed to compare the gender difference in Blood Pressure Control and Cardiovascular Risk Factors in patients of Liaquat University of Medical and Health Sciences Jamshoro Pakistan.

Methodology: This cross-sectional study was conducted in  Liaquat University of Medical and Health Sciences Jamshoro Pakistan from December 2019 to December 2020. Blood pressure was measured twice by trained physicians using aneroid sphygmomanometers after a standardized protocol. Patients were asked to sit with both feet on the floor for ≥5 minutes before the first BP measurement. Both the two BP measurements were taken 60 seconds apart.  For this research we defined hypertension as systolic BP ≥140 mm Hg, diastolic BP ≥90 mm Hg.

Results:  We conducted a comparison between Hypertensive and nonhypertensive participants of the male and female groups. High blood pressure increased the level of uric acid in both male and female groups (351 ± 92 vs 303 ± 75). We observed that the hypertensive male population reported a high prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors due to  increase amount of total cholesterol level, triglyceride and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (5.45 ± 1.01, 1.42 ±  0.85,  2.56 ± 0.70) than females (5.15 ± 0.91, 1.29 ± 0.87, 2.30 ± 0.63).

Conclusion: Our results concluded that the male hypertensive population is more prone to future cardiovascular risk due to increased amount of total cholesterol levels, triglycerides, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and sex hormones (androgens).

Open Access Original Research Article

Pharmaceutical Effects on Placental Morphology in Women with Gestational Diabetes Mellitus

Ansa Mehmood, Sheeza Tahir, Amina Shabbir, Namra Khalid, Amber Salman, Faiza Hanif

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 294-300
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i56A33914

Objective: The purpose of this study was to see how food organization and Metformin affected placental morphology in women with GDM.

Methods: 66 GDMs were registered after providing informed consent permission. 35 patients of GDM through blood sugar levels 140 mg/dl remained allocated Set B (2500-3000Kcal/day and 30-minute walk three times a week). They remained reserved on diet control, while 34 patients of GDM through blood sugar levels >140 mg/dl have been delegated Set C and remained reserved on diet with tablet Metformin (550mg TDS). Lastly, 28 healthy pregnant women remained retained in Set A as controls. Placentas were stored and analyzed for morphology after delivery.

Results: Heavy placentae thru extensive villous immature, charangoists, and syncytial knots were observed in set B, while fibrinoid necrosis and calcification were observed in set C. Placental and cord width were significant in Set B against A, but only cord width was relevant in Set C against A in gross morphology. In light microscopy, charangoists, infarction, and syncytial loops showed detected in sample 2 against with a villous maturity; moreover, charangoists and syncytial knots have been found in appendix B versus C placental width, but C versus A results were negligible.

Conclusion: In comparison to the diet group, metformin exhibited beneficial benefits on placental morphology that were equivalent to normal controls.

Open Access Original Research Article

Association between Endoscopic Findings Vs. Serology Findings of Patients with Suspected Celiac Disease

Anwar Hussain Abbasi, Khawaja Ishfaq Ahmed, Nadeem Yousuf, Mahjabeen Fatima Qureshi, Muhammad Shahzeb Shaikh, Zarmina Dogar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 301-307
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i56A33915

Objective: To determine the association between endoscopic findings vs. serology findings of patients with suspected celiac disease

Methods: All the suspected cases (based on their clinical manifestations) of celiac disease were initially recruited having age >14 years and <40 years of both gender. Patients who did not willing to participate, patients already taking gluten diet for more than 3 months, patients with other causes of chronic diarrhea and alternate diagnosis like thyrotoxicosis, whipple’s disease, giardiasis, patients with drug induced diarrhea, patients in whom we cannot perform endoscopy, pregnant women, and patients already diagnosed cases of celiac disease were excluded from this study. Celiac disease was confirmed based on positive anti-tTG antibodies. Endoscopic evaluation of duodenum was performed in all positive cases.

Results: A total of 50 patients were recruited for final analysis. Diagnostic accuracy of endoscopy was 34.6%. Young population (31.14±6.07 years) with females predominance (72%, n=36) were more common than males. The most common symptoms were presence of chronic diarrhea (74%, n=37) followed by abdominal pain (52%, n=26), nausea & vomiting (34%, n=17), and least common was presence of constipation (2%, n=1). On endoscopic evaluation, out of 50 positive anti-tTG antibodies cases, 24 had normal mucosa while partial villous atrophy observed in 15 (30%) cases and total villous atrophy observed in 11 cases (22%).

Conclusions: Celiac disease was more prevalent in young females and patients usually presents with history of chronic diarrhea. Anti-tTG antibodies have more diagnostic value than duodenal endoscopy. Villous atrophy was found in more than 50% of the patients who were diagnosed with celiac disease.

Open Access Original Research Article

Demographic and Clinical Profile of Oral Submucous Fibrosis: A Retrospective Study

Anita Munde, Pooja Nayak, Sunil Mishra, Ravindra Karle, Anjum Farooqui, Ruchira Sawade, Anuja Deshpande

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 308-317
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i56A33916

Aims: Assessment of risk factors and the role of habit variables such as duration and frequency in the severity of OSMF and to ascertain the association of gender predilection for different habits and severity of OSMF.

Study Design: Descriptive retrospective study.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology, Rural Dental College, Pravara Institute of Medical Sciences (Deemed University), Loni Bk. between January 2012 and December 2019.

Methodology: This descriptive retrospective study of 1790 OSMF patients was carried out at the tertiary level dental hospital in the rural population of Western Maharashtra. The clinicodemographic data including details of habits was collected for a period of 8 years.

Results: The average age of the patient in the study was 32.8 years, with 16.5:1 M:F ratio. Significantly higher proportions of females (69.6%) were illiterate and belonged to low socioeconomic status.There was a statistically significant increase for areca nut chewing (OR=0.135(0.054-0.342), P < 0.0001), gutkha chewing (OR=22.32(10.421-47.817), P < 0.0001),

tobacco chewing (OR= 0.111(0.04-0.308), p<0.0001), smoking habits (OR=30.791(7.472-126.89), P < 0.0001) and alcohol (OR=12.692(3.077-52.347, p < 0.0001) in males when compared with females.The maximum patients were seen in stage II (37%) and stage III (34%), followed by stage I (18.73%) and stage IV (10.3%) and the severity of OSMF was more in subjects who had the habits for longer duration.

Conclusion: There was a definite gender predilection for various habits and their variables (frequency, duration), educational and socioeconomic status, clinical features and disease severity. Significant correlation was also found between habit variables (duration, frequency) and severity of the disease.

Open Access Review Article

Foreign Body Aspiration in Dentistry

Drishti Dixit, Amit Reche, Kumar Gaurav Chabra, Priyanka Paul Madhu, Anura Saher Raza

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 8-14
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i56A33881

Background: The foreign body aspiration is very common while performing a dental procedure. Most of the patients are from lower age group as these group of people have high amount of sugar and starch containing diet which is not good for the oral health. But it is not limited to them and several aged patients are also victim of foreign body aspiration.

Summary: Foreign bodies can be anything from cloth dam, barrier techniques itself to broken tooth. Due to age related delayed gag reflex and impact of anesthesia can be possible reasons behind the foreign body aspiration. Pulmonary aspiration is a serious cause of concern and cannot be neglected. It can go unnoticed which can brought to cognizance after careful study and observation of the radiographs. Endoscopic procedures are used to locate and extract the foreign body from the lungs.

Conclusion: Proper guidelines regarding the extraction of foreign body extraction and identification must be followed as it is life threatening condition. Vulnerable age group must be treated with extra caution and every chance of mistake must be covered. Standard operating procedure must be strictly adhered to in order rot have maximum accuracy.

Open Access Review Article

Phytoconsitutents As Bioenhancers: A Review

Chinnarao Pinisetti, Vimal Arora

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 15-31
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i56A33882

Bio-enhancers are the compounds that enhance the bioavailability of active pharmaceutical ingredients without itself having any pharmacological action. Most of them are of natural origin and do not have any side effects. They enhance the bioavailability by influencing variety of mechanisms involved in the drug action like penetration enhancement, improving metabolism, enzyme inhibition, drug targeting etc. Use of these compounds help to reduce the dose frequency which in turn reduces drug retention in turn causing the toxicity and it also helps in developing cost-effective products. Present days these are widely used to enhance the bioavailability of anti-bacterial, anti-viral, antibiotic, anticancer, anti-inflammatory, cardiovascular drugs etc and effective drug targeting. The present review is designed to emphasize the importance of certain phytoconstituents working as bio-enhancers, their classification and different mechanisms of their activity.

Open Access Review Article

Phytochemical and Therapeutic Potential of Alstonia scholaris R. Br.- A Magical Traditional Plant

Neeraj Bainsal, Pratibha Aggarwal, Kundan Singh Bora

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 41-51
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i56A33884

Alstonia scholaris R.Br. commonly known as devil tree is a potential medicinal plant belongs to the family Apocynaceae. Endemic to the geographical areas like India, China and Bangladesh. From the ancient times it is an important medicinal plant containing medicinal potential viabilities to treat number of health condition such as stomach ache, diarrhea, abdominal disorders etc. using various preparations like decoctions, powders etc. Its parts can be administered for the treatment of various diseases. The morphological, organoleptic and microscopic characteristics are also established. It is reported to be rich source of alkaloids. Also, it contains chemical constituents like irioids, coumarins, sugars, oils, phenolics etc. The phytochemical constituents contained in each part are described in the present review. The plant was investigated by the scientists, researchers while performing the experiments on animals they concluded that the plant have pharmacological properties such as antimicrobial, antidiarreal, antitussive, antiasthmatic, immunostimulatory, antidiabetic etc. which are discussed in the article.

Open Access Review Article

Therapeutic Targets In Breast Cancer Signaling: A Review

Emmanuel Ifeanyi Obeagu, Quratulain Babar, C. C. N. Vincent, Chikwendu Lawrence Udenze, Richard Eze, Chukwuma J. Okafor, Bart I. Ifionu, Augustine Amaeze Amaeze, Florence Ngozi Amaeze

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 82-99
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i56A33889

For women, the most dominant type of cancer is breast cancer and perhaps one of the most recognizedreasons of death. This is a disorder of many distinct traits, many of which are known as positive hormone receptor, human epidermal receptor-2 (HER2+), and three negative breast cancers (TNBC). Drugs that directly target and kill tumors constitute a rapidly-growing form of molecular therapy for cancer patients. Analysis reveals that stable breast tissue cells exhibit receptors which aren't usually present. As a result, it is imperative to cognize the molecular roots of breast cancer and the myriad compromised pathology-related processes and pathways to ensure progresses in early diagnosis and prevention. This study demonstrates essential cellular pathways relevant for breast cancer including improvements in cell proliferation, apoptosis, and hormone balances in breast tissues. On the basis of these notions, we consider how breast cancer is associated to the creation of potentially therapeutic interventions and predictive biomarkers.

Open Access Review Article

A Review on Acotiamide

S. Padmaja, G. Naveen

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 127-129
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i56A33894

Functional dyspepsia (FD) is mainly treated by drugs like H2 receptors antagonists, Proton pump inhibitors, prokinetics. A novel prokinetic drug to treat FD with 2 subtypes: Epigastric pain syndrome (EPS) & postprandial distress syndrome (PDS), has been introduced recently by the approval of Acotiamide, the first in class, muscarinic receptor antagonist & cholinesterase inhibitor. It has shown improvement in gastric motility in rodents & dogs and reduced PDS symptoms in patients in Double- blinded multicentric study.

Open Access Review Article

An Updated Review on Wrightia tinctoria (Roxb). R Br

Sangeetha S, Akhil Hari, Sijo Pattam, P. Nihal, A. Athira

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 234-244
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i56A33906

Since ancient times human utilized the nature to cure various ailments. The knowledge of medicinal plants resulted in the development of various indigenous systems of medicine worldwide. Serendipitous discovery as well as scientific approach on the reason for medicinal properties of plants gave the knowledge of chemical constituents such as secondary metabolites in plants. Wrightia tinctoria which is commonly known as ‘Danthapala’ is a known potential medicinal plant, the leaves of which is traditionally used in the treatment of psoriasis and non-specific dermatitis in Siddha and Ayurvedic systems of medicine and distributed in tropical region belongs to the family Apocynaceae. This plant is beneficial for the treatment of dandruff, various scalp and skin disorders. Phytochemical and pharmacological investigation on the various parts of the plant showed anti-ulcer, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, anthelmintic, anti-cancer, anti-dandruff, wound healing and anti-anxiety activity. The current review focus on providing an update on the recent pharmacological and phytochemical investigations on the plant by researchers around the globe with special emphasis on Antisporiatic, Antifungal, Antibacterial, Antiviral, Cytotoxic, Anti-inflammatory, Anti-diabetic, Analgesic, Hepatoprotective, Anthelmintic, and Wound healing activities.

Open Access Review Article

Causes and Treatment of Tension Headache: A Review

Mounther Mohammed A. Alnaim, Sarah Abdulla A. Bukhamsin, Yasamiyan Ali AlBurayh, Mahmoud Refat S. Alshadly, Khalid Waleed M. Almaslamani, Wejdan Lafi S. Alatawi, Mohannad Abduljaleel A. Saber, Shahad Abdulaziz S. Alzahrani, Ali Hussain I. Alzuwayyid, Heba Homoud H. Alomrani, Amal hamoud Alamrani, Dalal Khalid H. Al Masoud, Alaa Nemer S. Alruwaili, Kholoud Mohammed O. Alghamdi, Lama Mohammed A. Alkhediwi

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 288-293
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i56A33913

Tension-type headache (TTH) is the most prevalent primary headache problem, affecting 46 percent to 78 percent of people at some point in their lives. However, the majority have episodic infrequent TTH (1 day per month or fewer) with no specific need for medical treatment. The diagnosis is made based on the patient's medical history and physical examination. The exact etiology of tension-type headache is unknown. The most likely cause of rare tension-type headaches is activation of hyperexcitable peripheral afferent neurons from head and neck muscles. Nondrug management is commonly utilized and should be considered for all patients with TTH. The scientific evidence for the efficacy of most treatment approaches, on the other hand, is limited. Pharmacological treatment depends on whether the headache is acute or chronic. In this review we will cover the disease epidemiology, etiology, diagnosis, and management.

The aim is to study the Causes and Treatment of Tension Headache method a population-based study in Denmark,  About 24% to 37% of the population experienced TTH several times a month, 10% had it weekly, and 2% to 3% of the population had chronic TTH,

In contrast to migraine, women are only slightly more affected than males (the female-to-male ratio of TTH is 5:4), and onset is delayed (25 to 30 years). Between the ages of 30 and 39.

Open Access Review Article

Scooping Review on the Symptoms of Apana vayu vaigunya in relation with Atiyana

A. K. Anoop, Arun Vaidya

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 318-327
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i56A33917

The science of life which explains the knowledge of various guidelines to be followed to make a healthy living is called Ayurveda. With the expansion of facilities of travel and occupation, man has to undertake extensive journeys, through diverse modes such as rail, road, water, etc. Most of these situations cited have been principally implicated in the vaigunya (state of altered functioning) of Apanavayu. The manifestation of Apana vayu vaigunya varies from mild cases of constipation to severe cases of mental disturbances. One of the prominent factors highlighted as a cause of Apana vaigunya is Atiyana (excessive travel by any modality).

Symptoms of Apana Vayu vaigunya told in major classical books of Ayurveda were gathered to deduce a comprehensive understanding of the context. Apanavata is invariably associated with the component of pathogenesis in 45 diseases starting from Vatavyadi, Arsas(piles), Asmari, Prameha, Sosha, Jwara, Rakthapitta(Bleeding disorders), Vatarakta, Gulma(phatom tumour), Udara, Mutrakrcha(difficulty in urination), etc. Later the symptoms possibly associated with the vitiation of Apanavata present in diseases were listed and 332 symptoms were found to be associated with Apana kopa (vitiation of apana). These symptoms were further tabulated according to the order of frequency of occurrence as most repeatedly occurring symptoms, moderately repeated symptoms and least repeated symptoms. Thus out of 332 symptoms, 28 symptoms which can possibly occur due to atiyana were selected. In the modern era, due to irregular and bad habits of ahara, vihara along with the suppression of natural urges, the percentage of Apanavaigunyajanya vyadhis are increasing, which affects physical as well as psychological factors also. Work related travel is also now increasing, so it is the right time to concentrate this issue from the concepts of Ayurveda, Apana vayu vaigunya and athiyana. Based on these observations, aim of the present study is to explore the hidden concept of Apana vaigunya mentioned in Ayurvedic literature in relation with atiyana.

Open Access Review Article

Embolic Cerebral Infarction in Atrial Fibrillation: A Simple Review Article

Ibrahim Ramdan Mohamed, Saqer Bulayhid H. Albulayhid, Fahad Hammad F. Alrayes, Ahmad Saleh A. Alrwaili, Abdulrahman Rabia A. Aldakhil, Abeer Bakheet Alotaibi, Sultan Faisal W. Alrubayyi

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 335-344
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i56A33919

Stroke is known worldwide as the leading cause of premature death and disability. Developing countries are  most  exposed to the dual burden of infectious and non-communicable diseases. Poor people are increasingly affected by stroke due to changing  risk factors in the population and, most tragically, not being able to afford the high costs of stroke treatment. Despite significant improvements in primary prevention and acute care over the last few decades, stroke remains a catastrophic illness. Unchangeable risk factors for stroke are some established and changeable risk factors for age, gender, race, ethnicity, heredity, and  ischemic stroke.