Open Access Case Report

Psoriasiform Mycosis Fungoides Involving the Face- A Rare Case Report

N. R. Vignesh, Shreya Srinivasan, G. Sukanya, S. Arun Karthikeyan

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 94-99
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i53A33643

Mycosis fungoides is represented as the most common epidermotropic cutaneous T-cell lymphoma, which is mainly characterized by the proliferation of atypical cells within the epidermis. We report a rare presentation of mycosis fungoides in a 60-year-old male presenting with chronic psoriasiform plaque involving the face. Punch biopsy of the lesion from the forehead was taken for routine histological examination and immunohistochemical stains. Results of biopsy and immunohistochemical findings were consistent with mycosis fungoides and diagnosed as psoriasiform presentation of mycosis fungoides involving the face.

Open Access Systematic Review Article

Urtica dioica (Stinging Nettle) – Properties, Uses and Applications

Anjali, Sushma, Reena Sharma

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 154-159
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i53A33647

Utricaceae is a family of herbs and shrubs that can be found in a variety of habitats around the world. A lot of research has been carried out till date targeted for close understanding of this medicinal plant. The botanical distribution, Ethnomedicinal applications, Traditional uses as well as Pharmacological properties of the Urtica genus, are discussed in this study. The composition such as flavonoids and array of phenolic compounds which includes alcohols, Diocanol, Diol glucosides, Terpenes diols, and sugars as well are an inclusion in the genus Urtica. A wide range of research reports have been published representing its biological and pharmacological potential against cancer, tumors, bacterial, viral or fungal infections significantly. The information about the Urtica genus has been extracted using electronic database search such as Google Scholar and Pubmed as well as a library search for peer-reviewed journal publications.

Open Access Systematic Review Article

Does Toxoplasma gondii Related to Schizophrenic Symptoms? A Narrative Systematic Review

Shatha Abdulgader, Richard Prince

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 187-198
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i53A33651

Background: Accumulating evidence associated infectious agents with schizophrenia. Majority of these studies analyzed Toxoplasma. gondii association with schizophrenia.

Aims and Objectives: the present study aimed to perform systematic search on studies conducted on investigating association between T. gondii and schizophrenia using IgG antibodies against T. gondii. Secondary objective was to discuss possible mechanisms by which T. gondii linked to schizophrenia.

Methods: Systematic search performed using Google Scholar, PubMed, Web of Science and University of Manchester databases. Key words Schizo* AND Toxoplasm* used to find articles published from years 2010-2020, used IgG antibodies against T. gondii, and patients participated in these studies definitively diagnosed with schizophrenia using DSM-IV or ICD- 10.

Results: Total of 122 articles was identified after duplicated were removed, of these 24 were included in review. Two-third of studies found that schizophrenic patients had significantly higher IgG antibodies versus controls.

Conclusion: These findings suggest that T. gondii is associated with schizophrenia and that T. gondii might be risk factor for schizophrenia development. If causative link is ascertained, then it would be possible to treat and prevent schizophrenia.

Open Access Case Study

A Rare Case of Renal Squamous Cell Carcinoma with Underlying Staghorn Calculus as Confounding Factor

Shubham Pratap Durge, Anurag Anupkumar Bhattacharjee, Harshal Ramteke, Abhishek Gupta, Varun Kulkarni, Shyamal Shaha, Roshani Mannek

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i53A33633

Renal cell carcinoma is one of the most common kidney pathologies in adults, responsible for approximately 90-95% of cases. The most common variant is clear cell accounting for 60-70% of cases, while papillary accounts for 10-15% of the cases.

Diagnosis of carcinoma in the presence of staghorn calculus is seen in less than 1% of patients in recorded data. However, squamous cell carcinoma of the kidney is a rare condition usually associated with chronic irritation by a foreign body, most likely due to staghorn calculus. Here we present a case report of a 65 year old male who came with complaint of pain in the abdomen since two months associated with malaise, weight loss and fever.

CT KUB was suggestive of a non-excreting enlarged left kidney with multiple calculi with abnormal cortical and periureteric lesions with encasement of adjacent vessels. Histopathological report revealed a rare case of primary squamous cell carcinoma, most probably originating from the pelvis and secondarily infiltrating the renal parenchyma and associated with nephrolithiasis and hydronephrosis. Initially the patient was managed conservatively. Later the patient underwent nephrectomy.

Open Access Case Study

Hyperacute Gullain Barre Syndrome (GBS); The Catastrophic Variant- A Rare Case Report

Sourya Acharya, Amol andhale, Samarth Shukla, V. V. S. S. Sagar, Sunil Kumar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 45-52
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i53A33637

Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) also known as acute demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (AIDP) is an immunologically mediated  rare neurological disorder.  The  basic pathogenic mechanism is regulated by molecular mimicry. Usually there is a history of preceding infection which occurs some weeks before the attack. The infections are gastroenteritis or upper respiratory. The clinical spectrum of ranges from  mild weakness to devastating paralysis including respiratory failure. Majority of the cases recover but a few continue to have residual neurodeficit. The usual clinical course of GBS from the starting of weakness to development of maximum neurologic progression usually progresses over 4 weeks. Hyperacute GBS is a term used when the progression of weakness occurs within hours to days to maximum neurologic impairment. In this case report we present a 28 year old female who developed rapidly progressive, areflexic quadriparesis with respiratory muscle involvement requiring mechanical ventilatory support within nine hours. Clinical , laboratory and nerve conduction studies suggested a diagnosis of GBS.

Open Access Case Study

Prosthetic Management of Segmentally Resected Mandible and Partial Glossectomy: A Case Report

Pooja Kakade, Mahesh Ghadage, Gunjan Daphale, Dipooja Patil, Satish Pawar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 286-295
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i53A33661

The balance and symmetry of mandibular function gets destroyed by the loss of continuity of the mandible, which deviates the residual fragment towards the resected side thereby altering the mandibular movements. Physical therapy in combination with prosthodontic treatment can be used to reduce the mandibular deviation and hence it improves the masticatory efficiency. Many prosthetic methods are discovered to minimize deviation and provide masticatory efficiency. Some of these methods are mandibular guide flange prosthesis, implant supported prosthesis and palatal guidance restoration. Contact of Tongue with palate is important for the production of normal speech, also the proper place of the tongue during certain sounds is important. In partial glossectomy conditions, tongue to palate articulation gets affected during speech and patient faces difficulty to pronounce certain sounds. For the rehabilitation of such patient thorough knowledge of the production of different sounds can be useful for diagnosis and treatment planning.

Open Access Case Study

Rehabilitating Case of Tetralogy of Fallot Undergone Surgical Repair with Comprehensive Exercise Program: A Case Report

Sidra Ahmad Siraj, Vaishnavi Dilip Yadav, Moli Jai Jain, Om C. Wadhokar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 332-336
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i53A33667

Tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) is one of the most common cyanotic congenital heart disorders (CHDs). The children with CHD lead relatively sedentary lifestyles, on account of the restriction imposed by treating doctors, parents, and society and by themselves due to fear. The disability related to CHD results in an additional adverse impact on quality of life and physical activity level due to deconditioning. The cardiovascular effects of deconditioning are a decrease in cardiac output, increase resting heart rate with activity, decreased blood pressure in upright positions (orthostatic hypotension), and decreased exercise capacity. These effects would be more pronounced and disabling in an already compromised heart. The operative procedure for the correction of TOF is not curative rather a palliative one. After the correction of the TOF defects, the patient has reduced activity level and exercise capacity. Cardiac rehabilitation including Interval and continuous exercise training modalities were proven to be safe and efficient in improving exercise capacity and functioning of the heart.

Open Access Case Study

Braided Glass Fiber Reinforced Composite Resin Bridge - An Alternative Treatment for Management of Missing Anterior Tooth: A Case Report

Minal Soni, Jayashree Sajjanar, Jaykumar Gade, Anil Ingole, Karan Jaiswal, Arunkumar Sajjanar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 337-342
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i53A33668

Missing anterior teeth is of great concern during a patient's lifetime in many communities. A variety of treatment options, from implants to traditional bridges are often used in order to replace missing anterior tooth. However, it is often accompanied by variety of barriers such as an increased number of chairside visits and better costs. Fibre-reinforced composites (FRCs) have gained increasing and great acceptance in mainstream prosthodontics as viable alternatives to alloy-based restorations recently. In compaison to other restorative systems this is often a conservative approach that carries a minimum risk of pulp exposure or sensitivity and periodontal inflammation, which maintains the health of supporting tissues. Therefore the aim of this case report was to present a clinical case of a congenitally missing mandibular central incisors bilaterally which were replaced by means of a FRC bridge wherein, we employed a semi-direct (direct and indirect) technique. This technique provides a conservative, esthetic, and noninvasive treatment, economically more acceptable, nonirritating, and noniatrogenic. FRC bridges can therefore be considered as a permanent treatment modality.

Open Access Case Study

Effective Treatment of a Post-renal Transplantation Patient with Early Recurrent Focal Segmental Glomerulosclerosis and Concomitant Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome, a Case Report

Abdullah Alsawadi, Majed Aloufi, Ahmed Fatta, Sahar Almowaina, Mugahid Elamin, Hamad Albahili, Rafat Zahid, Ali Alyami

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 363-371
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i53A33671

While recurrence of primary Focal Segmental Glomerular Sclerosis (FSGS) is common post renal transplantation (30%-80%), a concomitant presentation of hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) and recurrent FSGS has never been reported. In addition, treatment of recurrent FSGS and HUS post-renal transplantation is challenging; and usually individualized based on center's experience. Here, we reported a case of a pediatric patient with early recurrence of FSGS and concomitant HUS post-renal transplantation. This patient had a complete hematological and renal response following the administration of Eculizumab and Rituximab, respectively. Withdrawal of Tacrolimus as well as plasmapheresis did not improve kidney function. Therefore, we concluded that both Eculizumab and Rituximab could achieve remission in comparable cases when administered at fixed intervals.

Open Access Short Research Article

Endodontics: Dental Undergraduate Students’ Perception of the Speciality

J. Rajan, V. Sadananda, M. N. Hegde

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 221-225
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i53A33654

Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the dental undergraduate students’ perception of the dental speciality Endodontics

Material and Methods: Multiple-choice questionnaire was distributed to 82 final year dental undergraduate students and 88 interns. The analysis of data was performed using methods of descriptive analysis.

Results: 79.27% of the final year students and 79.55% of interns preferred to pursue Endodontics as a future speciality course. An increase in the understanding of the speciality overall was observed among the interns.

Conclusion: The undergraduate dental students were reasonably informed the speciality Endodontics.

Open Access Original Research Article

Design, Synthesis and Biological Assessment of Thiazole Derivatives as Possible Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Agents

. Isha, Neetu Sachan

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 24-32
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i53A33635

Aims: To synthesize thiazole derivatives and evaluate their therapeutic potential to continue our quest for new antibacterial and antioxidant drugs.

Place and Duration of Study: Institute of Pharmaceutical Research, GLA University, Mathura, Uttar Pradesh, between January 2021 and July 2021.

Methodology: The target compounds in this investigation were synthesized in the search for new molecules having antioxidant and antimicrobial activity. Physicochemical and spectroanalytical studies validated the derivatives molecular structures. Antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of the synthesized molecules were evaluated in vitro using the DPPH and tube dilution methods, respectively.

Results: The majority of the synthesized derivatives displayed antioxidant and antimicrobial activity. The efficacy of the derivatives varied based upon the substituent. Compound 7c exhibited significant antioxidant and antibacterial activity, according to the results of the study.

Conclusion: Our results showed the antioxidant and antibacterial properties of novel thiazole compounds, implying the probability of their utilization in the development of new therapeutics.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessing the Chemosensitizing Effect of Neferine on Cisplatin-Resistant Colorectal Cancer Cells through Molecular Docking Studies

S. Bharath, S. Gopinath, S. Surovi, V. Vijaya Padma

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 33-44
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i53A33636

Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the second deadliest diseases next to lung cancer. Cisplatin is the first generation platinum based alkylating agent using for treatment of advance CRC patients. Continuous usages of cisplatin lead to resistance which limits its therapeutic efficacy. Recent research is focused on studying the chemotherapeutic efficacy of the phytochemicals as they are less toxic compared to the conventional chemotherapeutic drugs. Neferine is a bisbenzylisoquinoline alkaloid extracted from the embryo of Nelumbo nucifera. The anticancer and chemosensitizing effect of neferine has been well reported in several cancer cells. However, there are no reports on the chemosensitizing effect of neferine on cisplatin-resistant colorectal cancer cells (CRCs). Hence, the present study aims at identification of target proteins responsible for cisplatin-resistance in colorectal cancer cells. The present investigation elucidates the specific interaction of neferine with various cell surface receptor proteins related to cisplatin-resistance, multi-drug resistance (MDR) proteins, signal transduction protein and transcription factors via molecular docking approach. The interaction between neferine and the target proteins of cisplatin-resistant colorectal cancer was analyzed through Schrodinger Maestro 11.9 module. From our docking studies we could suggest that neferine is most active for insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF1R), fibroblast growth factor receptor-2 (FGFR2), zinc finger protein SNAI1 (SNAIL1), signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (STAT3) and transforming growth factor beta receptor-1 (TGFβR1) when sorted according to their docking score.

Open Access Original Research Article

A Comparative Evaluation between the Efficacy of Scaling & Root Planing (SRP) with Local Delivery of Chlorhexidine Gluconate and SRP Alone in Periodontal Pocket Reduction Therapy

Dhirendra Kumar Singh, Gunjan Kumar, Jugajyoti Pathi, Md Jalaluddin, Samikshya Jena

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 67-78
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i53A33640

Aim: The aim of the present study was to compare the efficacy of locally delivered chlorhexidine as an adjunct to scaling and root planning (SRP) & SRP alone in bringing reduction of pocket depth in the treatment of moderate to severe periodontitis patients. 

Materials and Methods: A total number of 15 patients both males and females in the age group of 30-55 years were selected with total number of 30 sites with periodontal probing  pocket depth measuring 5-8mm in different quadrant of the mouth. A randomized, double blind, controlled clinical trial design was followed for the study. On one side scaling and root planning was done and on the other side scaling and root planning was done along with local delivery of chlorhexidine glugocate then the patient was examined after 0, 45, and 60 days using The clinical parameters the Plaque Index (PI), gingival index (GI), Bleeding on probing (BOP), Clinical attachment level (CAL) and Probing pocket depth (PPD).

Statistical Analysis: Student paired T-test has been carried out for this present study.

Results: The mean reduction of Plaque Index score between 0-45 day between control site and test site was 1.58±0.11 and the mean reduction of Plaque Index score between 0-60 day between control site and test site was 2.42±0.34 which is found not significant. At the Control site the mean plaque index score on 0 day was 2.2, on 45th day was 1.88 and on 60th day was 1.82. At the test site the mean plaque index score on 0 day was 2.6, on 45th day was 1.82 and on 60thday was 1.59. There was change from the base line values of mean plaque index between the control sites and test sites but was not significant.

Conclusion: There was improvement in all the clinical parameters of the test sites in comparison to the control sites from base line to 60 days, but the adjunctive use of chlorhexidine showed a significant improvement only on the clinical attachment level.

Open Access Original Research Article

A Structured Teaching Programme on the Knowledge and Levels of Nomophobia and its Prevention among the Selected Colleges of Surendernagar District of Gujarat

Binu Joe, C. C. Linson

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 79-84
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i53A33641

The prevalence of nomophobia is very high among adolescents. Adolescents need to be aware of the new disease which have come across through the over usage of mobile phone. Nowadays it is very easy to convey our feelings and messages in the remote corners of the world through the use of mobile phone technology. The communication through the mobile phone is very simple and is basics of all relations. Mobile technology helps the people to transfer the message form one person to another within short period of time. Based on this the present study was carried to assess the effectiveness of structured teaching programme on the knowledge and prevalence level of nomophobia among the selected colleges of Surendernagar district of Gujarat. Pre-experimental study was carried out among college students with one group pre test and post test was used to find out the findings of the study. The purposive sampling technique was used to carry out this study. 50 College students were selected from different college of C.U. Shah University. Data was collected with the help of structured demographic questionnaire and the structured knowledge questionnaire. Pre test was conducted on the first day and on the same day teaching programme was given to the students and the effectiveness of the teaching programme was checked on the eighth day. The overall test knowledge score was to be 43.4% where the overall post test knowledge score was found to be 85.5% which was to be very significant. An association was also carried to find out the significance of the socio demographic characteristics on the knowledge score.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Hypolipidemic and Hepatoprotective Effects of Linum usitatissimum L. Seeds on Hypercholesterolemic Rats

Chaitali Pattanayak, Jyotirmayee Bahinipati, Vartika Srivastava, Sougata Sarkar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 85-93
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i53A33642

Background: Hyperlipidaemia is a chronic progressive disease, which encompasses various genetic and acquired conditions resulting in inappropriately elevated lipid levels in humans.  Several preclinical and clinical studies have demonstrated that dietary supplementation with Linum Usitatissimum have beneficial cardiovascular effects like antihypertensive action, antiatherogenic effects, lowering of cholesterol, anti-inflammatory action and inhibition of arrhythmia. There are few studies on hepatoprotective effects of flax seeds in hyperlipidemic animal models. Aim and objectives: Hence, this study was undertaken to evaluate the hypolipidemic and hepatoprotective effect of Linum seeds.

Methods: The study was conducted for the period of two months in Department of Pharmacology KIMS, Bhubaneswar. Total 36 Albino wistar rats were taken and divided into 6 groups containing 6 rats each. Group II was hypercholesterolemic (HC) control, Group III was treatment control and Group IV to VI rats were given different doses of extract. Blood samples were taken at the end of two months.

Results: All the values are expressed as Mean±SD (standard deviation). Significant decrease in lipid parameters and liver enzymes is seen at the end of two months in all 3 groups receiving the extract, where the highest dose of extract used, is near to the standard drug.

Conclusion: From this study, it can be concluded that the addition of the flaxseeds to the diet may alleviate the rise in circulating cholesterol levels induced by the high cholesterol diet through its content of alfa-linolenic acid (ALA) and lignins. The hepatoprotective role of flaxseed in hypercholesterolaemia has also been demonstrated in this this study.

Open Access Original Research Article

Preparation, Analysis and Antibacterial Evaluation of Some New 1,3,5-Trisubstituted Pyrazole Derivatives

Anupam Sharma, Alok Pal Jain, Mayank Gangwar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 100-116
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i53A33644

The goal of this study was to develop, synthesise, and characterise a novel 1,3,5-trisubstituted-2-pyrazoline derivative, as well as test its antibacterial activity. The reaction of chalcone derivatives with succinic hydrazide in the presence of pyridine yielded the 1,3,5-tri-substituted-2-pyrazolines derivatives. The IR, 1HNMR, and mass spectral analyses were used to characterise a total of 20 substances. Antibacterial activity of the compounds was tested on five Gm+Ve bacterial strains (Staphylococcus aureus, S. Faecalis, Bacillus Substilis, P. Vulgaris, and B. Pumilus) and two Gm-Ve bacterial strains (Staphylococcus aureus, S. Faecalis, Bacillus Substilis, P. Vulgaris, and B. Pumilus) and two Gm-Ve i.e. Escherichia Coli, Klebsiella Penumoniae in two different concentration i.e. 50 and 100 µg/ml by Agar-diffusion method using Cup-plate method. Standard antimicrobial drugs were Norfloxacin and Ciprofloxacin. The antibacterial activity of substances against Gm+Ve bacterial strains (Staphylococcus Aureus, Staphylococcus Faecalis, Bacillus Substilis, Pseudomonas Vulgaris, and B. Pumilus) suggested the following order of action: BR-3 >BR-2>BR-1>CL-4>BR-4>CL-3> CL-2>CL-5>CL-6>ME-3>ME-2>ME-4>ME-5>ME-6>ME-7>CL-7>CL-8>CL-1>ME-8>ME-1>ME-8>ME-1>ME-8>ME-1>ME-8>ME-1>ME-8>ME-1>ME-8>ME-1>ME-8>ME-1>ME-8>ME-1>ME-8>ME-1>ME-8>ME The chemicals of the BR-1 to BR-4 series have the most action. ME-8, CL-8, CL-7, CL-1, ME-5, ME-6, and ME-1 have light activity, whereas CL-2, CL-5, ME-4, CL-6, ME-3, ME-2, and ME-7 have moderate activity. The compounds BR-3, BR-2, BR-1, CL-4, BR-4, and CL-3 have been shown to have excellent action. The result data of antibacterial activity suggested that Cl, Br, F, and Nitro substitution at third and Fifth position may enhance the antbacterial activity of the compounds but the methyl and methoxy substitution may resulted in reduction of the activity.

Open Access Original Research Article

In vivo Evaluation of Nanostructured Lipid Carrier System in Rats Bearing Breast Tumor

Priti Tagde, Kalpana Nagpal, Giriraj T. Kulkarni

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 117-137
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i53A33645

The aim of this work is to study the anti-proliferative potential of two anticancer drugs loaded in nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs).The maximal inhibition of cell growth by Raloxifene (RLX) & Curcumin (CUM) nanostructured lipid carriers (RLX-CUM-NLCs) was determined by assessing the viability of MDA-MB 231 cells. As far as we know, this is the first research to look at the effects of RLX-CUM-NLCs on DMBA-induced breast carcinogenesis in a rat model. RLX-CUM-NLCs reduced the number of tumors in an in-vivo investigation. After 14 weeks of induction, we discovered a tumor with a 100% incidence rate. The incidence of experimental breast cancer was decreased to 83.33% in the RLX-treated group. In contrast, RLX-CUM-NLCs demonstrated a significant anticancer effect with a 50% incidence in the RLX-CUM-NLCs group. Compared to controls, the RLX-CUM-NLCs therapy did not cause any toxicity in the animals in terms of food intake, body weight, or activity levels until 300 mg/kg BW. The current research shows that the RLX-CUM-NLCs has a chemopreventive impact on DMBA-induced breast cancer in rats by decreasing tumor burden and restoring marker enzymes activity.

Open Access Original Research Article

Synthesis and Characterization of Copper Oxide Nanoparticles from Aqueous Extract of Cyanotis tuberosa (Roxb.) Schult. & Schult. F. and Analysis of Antioxidant, Antimicrobial and Anticancer Activity

Gorantla Ramakrishna, Mulla Kaja Peer, Kavitha Bommana, Yasodamma Nimmanapalli

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 138-153
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i53A33646

Cyanotis tuberosa (Roxb.) Schult. & Schult.f family Commelinaceae is traditionally used as ethnomedicine for curing several health problems in India. In this study copper oxide CuONPs were synthesized using C. tuberosa tubers aqueous extract. The biosynthesized CuONPs were characterized using an Ultra violet–visible spectroscopy, Fourier-Transform Infra Red spectroscopy, X-RAY Diffraction Analysis, Scanning electron microscopy. The results obtained from SEM showed that the copper oxide nanoparticles were a face-centered cubic crystal structure. The characterization of the biosynthesized CuONPs through EDS also indicated that the reaction product was composed of highly pure CuO NPs. The invitro antimicrobial activity of different concentrations of green synthesized copper oxide nanoparticles of C. tuberosa showed that the highest inhibition zone was observed on Klebsiella pneumonia (15.25 mm). Furthermore, the antioxidant activity of green synthesized CuONPs of C. tuberosa tubers aqueous extract was also tested the highest percentage activity was exhibited at 100 μg/ml CuONPs (56.32). The human cancer cell line was used for cytotoxicity analysis at 48 hrs of incubation period, a significant abatement in cell viability was observed against the treated cell lines. The study concludes that the C. tuberosa tubers aqueous extract can be successfully used for the synthesis of CuONPs that exhibit effective in vitro anti-bacterial, antioxidant and anticancer activity.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Effect of Public Health Measures during the COVID-19 Pandemic on Smoking Dependence & Passive Smoking

Mohammed Mater Aljohani, Abdullah Yussef Alluqmani, Eyas Abdulqader Alrehaili, Mohammed Naji Almohammadi, Hisham Abdullah Alahmadi, Khalid Gaffer Mohamed

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 167-180
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i53A33649

Background: According to increasing concern about the COVID-19 pandemic and the risk of smoking this study was conducted to find the effect of health measures during the COVID-19 pandemic on smoking dependence & passive smoking.

Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in September 2020, by using a valid and reliable questionnaire, the data were analyzed by using SPSS, version 20 software.

Results: The study showed 16.9% of participants increased their nicotine use and 12.4% decreased their nicotine use. Despite no significant change in smoking dependence, we found that smokers who used to smoke more than 30 cigarettes per day before the quarantine increased by two folds. In addition, we found that smokers who awaken at night sometimes to have cigarettes before quarantine had increased markedly by 50% during quarantine. Furthermore, smokers who had an extreme urge to smoke over the week before the quarantine have elevated markedly during the quarantine from 31 smokers to 60. Also, over 35.2 % of surveyed individuals experienced a rise in smoking desire during the quarantine.

Regarding passive smoking, the surveyed individuals reported a generally slight decline in exposure to secondhand smoking. However, the number of exposed individuals to smoking for more than 8 hours increased by 27%.

Conclusion: During the lockdown, individuals smoked marginally more cigarettes compared to the periods before the lockdown with no significant change in smoking dependence. There was a slight decline in exposure to secondhand smoking. However, the number of exposed individuals to household smoking for more than 8 hours had been increased.

Open Access Original Research Article

Impact of Four Plant Extracts on Bactrocera dorsalis a Pest on Fruits

Seema Ramniwas, Divya Singh

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 181-186
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i53A33650

Menthol extracts of four local plants (Ocimum tenuiflorum, Hibiscus, Mentha longifolia and Bougainvillea glabra) were analysed to check their toxicity on third instar larvae of B. dorsalis by estimating the larval mortality for four plant extracts and different times exposure (1-5 hr) and measured LT50 value for each plant extract. Larval mortality varies for extract of each studied plant as Ocimum tenuiflorum showed its highest value of 56.68% at 4.57hr, for hibiscus it was 72% at 3.5 hr., for Mentha longifolia it was 95.23% at 4 hr., while for Bougainvillea glabra it was 100% at 2 hr. exposure. The LT50 values for B. dorsalis varying from 1.011 for Bougainvillea glabra to 2.946 for Ocimum tenuiflorum whereas LT50 values were 1.402 and 1.123, forHibiscus and Mentha longifolia respectively. Present study results showed that Bougainvillea glabra was highly toxic whereas Ocimum tenuiflorum shows least toxicity.

Open Access Original Research Article

Identification of Keratinophilic Fungi in Urban Waste and Cattle Field Soil of Kanpur, India for Environmental Pollution Management

Jitendra Kumar, R. K. S. Kushwaha

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 199-206
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i53A33652

Kanpur is a city which has huge number of leather product units and leather processing plants. These units are one of major contributors of keratinous waste and produces keratinous material as waste in the form of hairs, hides, dermis. During the present study 83 keratinophilic fungi were isolated from 40 soil samples of urban waste and cattle field habitat of various localities. From 20 samples of urban waste, 44 keratinophilic fungi were isolated, 39 fungi recorded from Cattle field. The frequency of genera Chrysosporium was recorded in urban waste (29.54%) and cattle field soil (20.51%). Maximum (13.83%) frequency was recorded in the case of Chrysosporium indicum in urban waste.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Use and Potential Interactions of Herbal Medicines among Diabetic Patients in Saudi Arabia: A Cross-sectional Study

Saleh Alghamdi

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 226-234
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i53A33655

Objectives: The use of herbal medicines as non-conventional treatment is popular, especially in developing countries where people suffering from chronic diseases as diabetes mellitus are more likely to use herbal medicines along with conventional medicines. However, their simultaneous use may concur serious drug interactions and may therefore result in a serious outcome. The present study was designed to identify the most commonly used herbal medicines and conventional anti-diabetic medications among Saudi population.

Methods: A cross-sectional survey was developed and piloted.Data were retrieved and manually entered in Excel 2016. Frequencies and percentages were utilized to perform descriptive analysis. The study was approved by the Scientific and Research Committee of the main hospital taking part in the study.

Results: A total of 347 responses were recorded (69.4% response rate). 54% of participants were male, 53% were between the age of 41 and 64 years, and 35.5% had no formal education. Black tea, Peppermint, ginger, green tea, olive oil, and black seed were among the frequently mentioned herbal medicines. Black tea was used by the majority of patients (80%) while peppermint and ginger were used by more than half of patients, i.e., (56.5%) and (52.7%) respectively. Least common herb used by patients was Artemisia species (2.8%). A majority of patients (53.4%) used traditional medicine at least once daily, and 83% used traditional medicine without their physician's prescription.

Conclusion: Concomitant use of herbal and conventional anti-diabetic medication was a common practice among patients in Saudi Arabia, therefore, pharmacists-led educational programs should target both prescribers and general public about the possible interactions/risks of herbal medicines.

Open Access Original Research Article

Glibenclamide-Loaded Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) Nanoparticles and Glibenclamide-Loaded Soluplus® Nanomicelles Intended for Parenteral Administration: Effect of Solvents Mixtures on the Electrosprayed Nanoparticles and In vitro Characterization

Maryam Al-Ghezi, Raghad F. Almilly, Wedad K. Ali

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 241-260
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i53A33657

Background and Objective: Glibenclamide (GB) is showing promising results in central nervous system (CNS) injuries treatment where intravenous administration of GB could overcome the oral limitations and assure maximum bioavailability. Dry powder of GB nanoparticles reconstituted for parenteral administration was prepared through electrospraying.

Methods: The drug was incorporated with two polymers, polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) and Soluplus® (SP), at ratios 1:4 and 1:2 (GB/polymer). Different solvent mixtures were used to formulate the particles. Physicochemical characteristics were investigated.

Results: The size of the GB-PVP nanoparticle ranged between (409-775) nm with a spherical, disk, fractured and, agglomerated morphology, while those of the GB-SP nanomicelles were of (447-785) nm with mostly irregular morphology, in consequence to the used solvents mixtures. The high encapsulation efficiency ≥ 98% reflects the well dispersed drug molecules within the polymer matrix, further confirmed by X-ray diffraction and infrared spectroscopy. GB-SP colloidal dispersions showed neutral zeta potentials with a cloud point of 36 ˚C, indicating prolonged circulation time and stability after parenteral administration. GB/SP nanomicelles at ratio 1:4 showed a sustained drug release reaching ≥ 94% in 36 hours.

Conclusion: The GB-SP nanomicelles with extended drug release and regarding physicochemical properties represent a remarkable drug delivery system for parenteral administration.

Open Access Original Research Article

Clinical Presentation of the Epileptic Patients at People Medical College Hospital, Nawabshah, Pakistan

Jeando Khan Daidano, Haresh Kumar Makheja, Moti Ram Bhatia, Waseem Raja Memon, Anwar Ali Jamali, Safdar Ali Pervez Tunio, Arslan Ahmer

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 267-273
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i53A33659

Objective: study will determine clinical presentation, risk, and type of seizures in epileptic patients.  Methodology: This observational study was conducted in Medicine department People Medical College Hospital (PMCH) Nawabshah from January 2020 to December 2020. 110 patients were included for study after informed permission of the patient or their relative. Male and female were selected. Known epileptic patients were included in the study, patients with false seizures were excluded from the study. Statically analysis was done by software SSPS 22 version.

Results: Age ranged 18 to 60 years. All the patients included in the study epilepsy was noted. The mean age of patients was 37.40 SD 8.71 years. The minimum age was 28 years while maximum 60 years. Pearson Chi-Square Value 105.000a  Asymp. Sig. (2-sided) .000, Likelihood Ratio Value 135.012  Asymp. Sig. (2-sided) .000, Linear-by-Linear Association Value 16.297 Asymp. Sig. (2-sided) .000 which were statistically significant.

Conclusion: Epilepsy is treatable common neurological disease in Pakistan. quality of life can be improved by Education of the patients and their relatives, without socioeconomically  burden.

Open Access Original Research Article

Report of Antibiotic Resistance in Urban and Rural Wastewaters from West Bengal, India

Meesha Singh, Rupsha Karmakar, Sayak Ganguli, Mahashweta Mitra Ghosh

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 274-285
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i53A33660

Aims: This study aims at comparative identification of antibiotic resistance patterns in bacteria isolated from samples collected from rural environment (LS) and urban environments (SS). Metagenomic profiling gave us insights into the microbial abundance of the two samples. This study focused on culture-based methods for complete identification of antibiotic resistant isolates and estimation of comparative antibiotic resistance among the two samples.

Study Design: Untreated medical waste and anthropogenic waste disposal can lead to the propagation of different antibiotic resistant strains in wastewater environments both in urban and rural set ups which provide an insight towards this study approach mentioned in the methodology segment.

Place and Duration of Study: Sewer system of a medical facility located in Purulia, India was the collection site for liquid sludge. Solid sludge and associated wastewater were collected in vicinity of a large urban medical facility from central Kolkata, India.

Methodology: Physico-chemical properties were analyzed followed by microbiological and biochemical characterization. The antibiotic resistance patterns were determined by Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion assay. Potent multidrug resistant isolates were identified using 16srRNA gene amplification followed by Phylogenetic profiling, using CLC Genomics workbench.

Results: We observed maximum resistance in an E. coli isolate which was resistant up to 22 antibiotics. Combined data for resistance from urban and rural samples were found to exhibit 83.9% resistance to beta lactams, 85.7% to macrolides, 44.2% to fluoroquinolones, 50% to glycopeptides and cephalosporins, 35.7 % to carbapenems and sulfonamides, 28.5 % to tetracycline, and 23.8 % to aminoglycosides.

Conclusion: The high prevalence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria harbouring diverse resistance traits across samples indicated towards probable horizontal gene transfer across environmental niches. This study can prove to be useful to understand and map the patterns of resistance and stringently apply the counter measures related to public health practices.

Open Access Original Research Article

Wound healing and Metabolite Profiling in Collagen-Chitosan Biomaterial-treated Chronic Wounds of Hansen’s Disease Patients

Pombala Suresh Babu, Harini Srinivasan, B. Sai Dhandapani, C. Rose

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 296-303
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i53A33662

Aims: Impaired wound healing causes chronic ulcers in Hansen’s disease (HD) patients which are an unrecognized clinical manifestation and requires utmost care and attention for wound management. Collagen and chitosan biopolymers when synergistically combined produce a biologically active biomaterial for wound dressings. Hence, the aim was to prepare a collagen/chitosan (COL/CS) composite and characterize for wound healing potential in HD patients.

Place and Duration of Study: CSIR-Central Leather Research Institute, Sardar Patel Road, Adyar, Chennai 600021, Southern Railway Headquarters Hospital, Constable Road, Ayanavaram, Chennai 600023, and Gremaltes Hospital, India between June 2013 and July 2020.

Methodology: The HD wounds were measured by Planimetry in square cm and were also assessed for morphological structure of epidermis and collagen fiber arrangement by High Resolution- Scanning electron microscopy (HR-SEM).  Proton Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-NMR) for metabolite identification was studied in blood plasma samples of unwounded, untreated and treated HD patients

Results: Size D (wound size on day of discharge) of the wounds were appreciably lower than Size 0 (wound size before biomaterial treatment) demonstrating efficient wound healing by the biomaterial. The morphological structure of the HD wounds showed healthy epidermal layer and thick fibers of collagen matrix in the treated wounds when compared to the controls. Key metabolites of metabolic pathways such as TCA cycle, creatine cycle and protein metabolism were identified by 1H-NMR spectroscopy

Conclusion: The COL/CS wound dressing is a promising biomaterial for management of chronic wounds in Hansen’s disease.

Open Access Original Research Article

A Randomized Controlled Trial to Evaluate the Effects of Different Forms of Orange Juice on Dental Plaque Ph

Bellamkonda Pavani, D. S. Monica Dev, Mirnalini Selvakumar, Tejaswi Mali, M. Madhumidha, R. Logeswari

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 304-309
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i53A33663

Aim: To study the acidogenic response in human dental plaque in vivo with fresh orange juice compared to orange fruit drink with no added sugar and regular orange fruit drink that were currently available in the market.

Materials and Methods: Ninety subjects aged 18-30 years were allocated randomly into 3 groups. 10 ml of each experimental drink was given to the subjects in each group and instructed to keep in mouth for 2 minutes before swallowing. Intrinsic pH of the test drinks was measured by the Digital pH meter. Plaque pH was measured at the baseline, immediately after consumption and at 1,15 and 30minutes post consumption.

Result: Inter group comparison by ANOVA showed significant difference among mean pH values and time intervals. There was significant drop in plaque pH in all the three groups after 1minute. Tropicana group showed drop in pH even after 30 minutes while in other two groups, pH returned to initial levels at the end of 30minutes.

Conclusion: The results of our study showed that, plaque pH dropped rapidly after 1 minute of consumption of all the three fruit juices. Plaque pH returned to initial levels in two groups while in tropicana group, it declined.

Open Access Original Research Article

Prevalence of Anemia, Iron Deficiency during the Second Trimester of Gestation in Pregnant Women: A Comparative Study of Walled and New Lahore City Population

Shafia Arshad, Amina Arif, Nessar Ahmed, Javed Iqbal Wattoo

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 310-318
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i53A33664

Background: Anemia during pregnancy is common worldwide, and it is also reported in Lahore, Pakistan, but it is not well documented in women residing in the Walled City of Lahore (WC). The study was designed to compare the pregnant female population of walled and new Lahore (NC) city for the prevalence of anemia and iron deficiency.

Methods: All the females were within the second trimester of pregnancy with World Health Organization (WHO) criteria of age between 18-45 years. 446 venous blood samples were drawn, out of which 180 belong to WC and 266 to NC. After informed consent, demographic information, including age, gravidity, education, and socioeconomic status, was collected. A complete blood count test was performed to get results for hemoglobin, MCV, and MCH. Total iron-binding capacity, ferritin, and hepcidin levels were checked on ELISA 96-wells plates.

Results: The prevalence of anemia in WC samples is 58.3%, and in NC samples, it is 42.4%. A decrease in hepcidin is significantly (p < 0.05) associated with age and gravidity in both populations.

Conclusion: It is concluded that anemia control programs should focus on WC women with extra efforts as anemia and iron deficiency are more prevalent. Making intelligent and focused efforts about this public health worry, Pakistan may succeed in achieving Sustainable Development Goals 2025 about eradicating anemia.

Open Access Original Research Article

Qualitative and Quantitative Determination of Secondary Metabolites and Antioxidant Potential of Plumbago indica Root Extracts

Kavita Mane, Rajendra Patil, Aditya Nath Pandey

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 319-325
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i53A33665

Due to their well-known attribute of having minimal side effects as compared to medicines, natural items with medical potential are progressively gaining prominence in clinical research. The roots of Plumbago indica (P. indica, Plumbaginaceae) are commercially significant since they are the primary source of plumbagin and its derivatives. Plumbagin is well-known for its many pharmacological properties. P. indica roots yielded three naphthoquinones: plumbagin, 3, 30-biplumbagin, and elliptinone, which were employed as standard markers for quantitative HPLC analysis. The goal of this research was to screen phytochemicals, assess alkaloids, phenolic and flavonoid content, and measure the antioxidant potential of P. indica roots. The well-known test methodology was used to determine qualitative analysis of several phytochemical ingredients as well as quantitative analysis of total alkaloids, phenol, and flavonoids. The antioxidant activity of an ethanolic extract of P. indica roots was investigated in vitro using the 1,1-diphenyl, 2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) test technique. Alkaloids, glycosides, flavonoids, saponins, phenolics, proteins, and glucose were found in the ethanol and aqueous extracts, according to phytochemical study. P. indica roots ethanolic extract had 5.55, 0.930, and 3.940 mg of total phenolic, flavonoids, and alkaloids respectively. For comparative purposes, ascorbic acid was employed as a benchmark. In the investigated models, the extract showed dose-dependent free radical scavenging properties. For the DPPH technique, P. indica roots extract had an IC50 value of 23.02 µg/ml, which was equivalent to that of ascorbic acid (IC50=17.68 µg/ml). These researches contributed to the accurate identification of this plant material. The plant's broad variety of phytochemicals implies that it has medicinal potential, which might be investigated in the pharmaceutical sector as well as in traditional medicine.

Open Access Original Research Article

A Prospective Observational Study on Diabetic Induced Complications and their Prone towards Surgery

C. Madhusudhana Chetty, K. Mabichan, H. Raga Sandhya, K. Mallikarjuna

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 343-353
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i53A33669

Background: This study was mainly aimed to find out the diabetic complications that had been lead to surgey. The Diabetes mellitus describes a metabolic disorder of multiple aetiology characterized by chronic hyperglycaemia with disturbances of carbohydrate,fat and protein metabolism resulting from defects in insulin secretion,insulin action, or both.The effects of diabetes mellitus include long-term damage,dysfunction and failure of various organs.

Materials and Methods: A prospective observational study was conducted in the Santhiram college & general hospital for 6 months (December 2020 – May 2021)to assess the macro vascular and micro vascular complications of diabetes mellitus and prone to surgery of diabetic complications by using case sheets, prescriptions in tertiary care teaching hospital.

Results: A total of 150 patients are included in this study.In patients with diabetic complications we have observed: Diabetic ulcer with cellulitis in 19, gangrene in 19, peripheral vascular disease in 6, gangrene with cellulitis in 11,Non healing diabetes foot ulcer in 35, Coronary artery disease 24, diabetic retinopathy 25, MI in 11 patients.Among all complications, non healing diabetic foot was observed to be more when compared to other diabetic complications.In the study performed in diabetic induced complications of patients, debridement was performed in 30% patients, Amputation were performed in 13%, skin grating was performed in 13% patients, Angioplasty were performed in 23% patients and lasix surgery performed in 13% patients.

Conclusion: In our study we conclude that out of 150 cases, male patients are more prone to diabetic complications than females.The patient counselling should involve in minimizing the incidence and prevalence of diabetes by conducting the continuing health education and other health programms.

Open Access Original Research Article

A Novel Synchronic Estimstion of Metronidazole, Ciprofloxacin and Doxycycline by RP-HPLC in Bulk and Pharmaceutical Formulation

Rama Rao Nadendla, Siva Prasad Morla, Abhinandana Patchala, Prachet Pinnamaneni

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 354-362
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i53A33670

Aim: To design simple, rapid, new analytical method for estimation of Metronidazole, Ciprofloxacin Doxycycline by using RP-HPLC in bulk and pharmaceutical dosage form.

Study Design: Estimation of Metronidazole, Ciprofloxacin Doxycycline by using RP-HPLC in bulk and pharmaceutical dosage form was planned and executed.

Place and Duration of Study: Chalapathi Drug Testing Laboratory, Chalapathi Institute Of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Lam, Guntur-522034, Andhra Pradesh, India during the period of November 2019 to February 2020.

Methodology: Metronidazole is an antibiotic and antiprotozoal medication. It is used either alone or with other antibiotics to treat pelvic inflammatory disease, endocarditis and bacterial vaginosis. Ciprofloxacin is an antibiotic used to treat a number of bacterial infections. Doxycycline is a tetracycline antibiotic that fights bacteria in the body. The study was carried out on SHIMADZU Prominance-i, LC-2030C system equipped with Shim-pack Gist (250 x 4.6 mm, 5μm) column and mobile phase was optimized by using mixture of methanol and 0.25mM potassium phosphate buffer in the ration of 60:40 v/v at a flow rate of 0.8 ml/min. The wavelength was set as 282nm at ambient temperature by injecting 20µl of solution and the run time was fixed for 10 min.

Results: Linearity plot was constructed for concentration range of 5-15µg/ml for Metronidazole,5-15µg/ml for Ciprofloxacin and 1-8µg/ml for Doxycycline standard solutions. It shows best regression coefficient and y/s values. The accuracy of the proposed method was determined by performing recovery studies and was found between 98-102%. The repeatability testing for both sample and standard solutions the %RSD was found as <2.0% which is within the acceptable limits showing that the method is precise as well. The LOD and LOQ were found to be 0.33 and 0.99 µg/ml for Metronidazole, 0.33 and 0.99 µg/ml for Ciprofloxacin, 0.08 and 0.25 µg/ml for Doxycycline respectively. The proposed method was successfully applied for the pharmaceutical dosage form of Metronidazole, Ciprofloxacin Doxycycline and it was as economic, eco-friendly with less retention time around 10.0 min.

Conclusion: The proposed method was validated in terms of linearity, range, Accuracy, precision, Specificity, Robustness. Method was successfully applied to the estimation of Metronidazole, Ciprofloxacin Doxycycline in combined marketed pharmaceutical dosage form.

Open Access Original Research Article

Barringtonia asiatica Seed Extract Induces G1 Cell Cycle Arrest in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Exhibits Cytotoxicity in A2780 Human Ovarian Cancer Cells

Nilita Sirikit P. Villanueva, Carmela Vannette B. Vicera, Sheeny Fane L. Leonida, Melissa June Paderog, Edna M. Sabido, Jonel P. Saludes, Doralyn S. Dalisay

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 372-387
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i53A33672

Barringtonia asiatica, is traditionally used as a medicinal plant in the Philippines; unfortunately, there is limited evidence supporting its anticancer capability. Thus, our study investigated the cytotoxic effect of B. asiatica seed extract against ovarian carcinoma A2780 (ECACC 93112519) and Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a cancer model organism. Seeds of B. asiatica were freeze-dried and extracted with methanol. The seed extract was investigated for its effect on the cell cycle in S. cerevisiae by utilizing yeast budding experiment and imaging flow cytometry. Its cytotoxicity activity was also tested as well as a live/dead assay was conducted against ovarian cancer cells. Findings revealed the anticancer activity of B. asiatica and its capability to induce G1 cell cycle arrest in S. cerevisiae. Thus, B. asiatica seeds may serve as a potential source of natural compounds towards anticancer drug discovery.

Open Access Review Article

Comparison of Medical Device Regulations in India, Japan and South Korea

Chandan B. V., M. P. Venkatesh, Arjun M., Pasupuleti Dheeraj Krishna, Indraprasad S.

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 8-23
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i53A33634

Increased health awareness, a growing middle class, and government health efforts are projected to propel India's medical equipment market forward in the next years. With the publication of the Medical Device Rules in 2017, Indian authorities revised the medical device regulatory process. The devices included in the link are currently regulated medical devices and in vitro diagnostic devices, as well as their classifications. CLA (Central Licensing Authority) is in charge of all import device licencing, as well as manufacturing, loan, and wholesale licences for Class C and Class D medical devices.

Because of its complicated registration process and linguistic obstacles, Japan is regarded one of the most difficult markets for overseas medical device producers. The Pharmaceutical and Medical Device Agency, which works in tandem with the MHLW (Ministry of Health and Labour Welfare), is in charge of reviewing drug and medical device applications in Japan. The Pharmaceuticals and Medical Devices Act is a federal law that regulates the sale of pharmaceuticals and medical devices. The Pharmaceuticals and Medical Devices Act, also known as the Act on Securing Quality, Efficacy, and Safety of Pharmaceuticals, Medical Devices, Regenerative and Cellular Therapy Products, Gene Therapy Products, and Cosmetics, lays out the current PMDA (Pharmaceuticals and Medical devices Agency) laws in Japan.

South Korea is one of the largest health-care markets in the Asia-Pacific region. Medical Devices in South Korea are regulated by the Ministry of Food and Drug Safety (MFDS), formerly known as the Korea Food and Drug Administration (KFDA). Medical Devices in South Korea are regulated by the Ministry of Food and Drug Safety, formerly known as the Korea Food and Drug Administration. The Medical Device Act of 2015 governs current medical device laws in Korea. To access the South Korean Medical-Device-Market, you must first obtain marketing approval from the local Medical Device Authority, the Medical Device Information & Technology Centre, which is part of the Ministry of Food and Drug Safety. With the MFDS notification No. 2020-29, the South Korean Ministry of Food and Drug Safety launched UDI (Unique Device Identification System) operations in 2018. Article 20 of the Medical Device Act and Article 54-2 of the Medical Device Act Enforcement Regulations make UDI compliance mandatory.

Open Access Review Article

Fixed-Dose Combination of Dipeptidyl Peptidase-4 Inhibitors Plus Metformin in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes: A Review on Safety and Efficacy

Sultan M. Alshahrani, Hamed Ali Alshahrani, Saud Dhafer Alshahrani, Noura Mohammed Alabdulla, Yazeed Fahad Alshahrani, Abdulmohsen Nasser Alshahrani, Ali Mohammed Alshahrani

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 53-59
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i53A33638

There is a significant increase noted in the incidence and prevalence of Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The global number of diabetic patients is projected by the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) to reach 552 million. T2DM disease has chronic and progressive nature. More than fifty percent of patients do not attain adequate glycemic control despite initial sufficient monotherapy. To maintain target glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels (<7%), dose adjustment and adoption of several diabetes therapies become necessary in many cases. Compared to monotherapy, a fixed drug combination of oral agents and metformin has proven to be more efficacious to maintain levels of blood glucose and HbA1c. The combination of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors (DDPIs) and metformin has been explicated to effectively decrease HbA1c to a relatively higher degree compared to the use of either agent individually. This combination addresses various pathophysiological processes involved in T2DM pathogenesis. Additionally, the concerned combination is safe and associated with a lower risk of hypoglycemia. Moreover, it is well-tolerated and prescribed as an easy-to-use single pill to improve patient compliance. This review provides an overview of the pharmacology, efficacy, and safety of fixed drug combinations of DDPIs and metformin according to current practice.

Open Access Review Article

Emerging Echinocandin Resistance – A Review

P. Sneka, Mahalakshmi Krishnan, V. Sangamithra

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 60-66
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i53A33639

Worldwide there is a steady increase in the number of fungal infections each year. Simultaneously, there is a high rise of antifungal resistance among the Candida isolates. This has now become a major concern in hospitalized patients resulting in poor treatment outcome. Echinocandins, a new group of antifungals has given promising results inspite of its increasing rate of resistance exhibited by some Candida species.

Open Access Review Article

A Review on Some Indigenous Medicinal Plants and their Key Applications

Rhydum Sharma, Ashutosh Tripathi

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 160-166
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i53A33648

In India, 7,500 plant species out of 17,000 are officially integrated in ayurvedic pharmacopeia for over a millennium. There are many industrial uses of medicinal plants which include traditional medicines, phytopharmaceuticals, herbal teas, health food etc. Now days, in silico approaches have been developed which is used in virtual screening and analysis of medicinal plants to be used pharmacologically. It is a cost effective and efficient way for the production of new drugs which is done in three basic steps i.e. molecular docking, developing pharmacophores and determining molecular similarity in shape. WHO has also acknowledged the importance of medicinal plants and has created various guidelines and strategies to encourage its use. Agro industrial technologies also encourage the use of medicinal plants. India has wide variety of plant species in its ecosystem. Out of 17,000 species of plants 7,500 species are used as medicinal plants by the tribal groups, villagers and in traditional medicinal systems like Ayurveda. The aim of the review is to summarize the information on the recent development in the field of medicinal plants and their key applications.

Open Access Review Article

Computer Engineering Complete Dentures Workflow: Systematic Techniques Review

Mohammed M. Al Moaleem, Omaima A. Al-layl, Manar A. Alhomood, Walaa A. Ageeli, Alzhouor A. Qsadi, Tahani I. M. Mohammed, Emtinan S. Baraqt, Bashayr M. A. Zubayni, Nada I. Alalmaie, Ahmed H. M. Huraysi

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 207-220
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i53A33653

Background: The progress in the use of computer-aided design/computer aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) to fabricat removable prosthodontic prostheses in dental clinics has been exponential. Commercially existing CAD/CAM denture techniques grow every year with increasing benefits to dentists and patients.

Study Design: Systematic review.

Aims: This review assessed and evaluated the different clinical production protocols of presently accessible CAD/CAM denture systems that offer decision support for dental practitioners.

Methodology: Data   for the current object were collected by surveys from different companies manufacturing the Computer Engineering Complete Denture (CECDs). All related subjects published at the last 10 years were collected and included in this review. Techniques were arranged in alphabetical order, as follows. AvaDent Digital Dentures (Global Dental Science), Baltic Denture Creator System (Merz Dental GmbH), and Ceramill Full Denture System (Amann Girrbach AG) can manufacture denture fabrication in three visits, including a try-in step. DENTCA Digital Dentures (Whole You Nexteeth, Inc) can also perform this in three visits. The Wieland Digital Denture (Ivoclar Vivadent, Inc) can manufacture in four dental appointments. Recently developed VITA VIONIC Digital System (VITA Zahnfabrik, Bad Säckingen, Germany) can perform two-step CECD manufacturing.

Results: Most of the systems involved subtractive manufacturing for the fabrication of their dentures and only closed systems. However, Baltic Denture System and VITA VIONIC material types are an open structure that allow users to choose among different handling protocols. It can be shared with several unclosed digital scanner, CAD software options, and milling machines.

Conclusions: The six existing CECD fabrication systems offer many advantages. The decision on which technique to use may be contingent on the dentist’s prosthodontic expertise, patient output amount, and requirements concerning denture individualization.

Open Access Review Article

Success of Immediate Manual Detorsion of Testicular Torsion

Fahad Ahmed Alzahrani, Faris Abdulhamid Alsulami, Faisal Ali Alghamdi, Mohammad Hamzah Yassen, Abdullah Ghunaim Almtotah, Yaqoub Abdullah AlYousef, Muhannad Mohammed Alzahrani, Majed Abdullah Basodan, Moaid Adel Alyousef, Abdullah Omar Alhazmi, Faris Abdullah Aljafar, Nawaf Salman Alsefri

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 235-240
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i53A33656

Evidence shows that patients having testicular torsion usually present to the emergency department to apply immediate interventions. Immediate manual detorsion has been validated among different investigations as a productive technique for the initial management of testicular torsion. In the present literature review, we have elaborated on the success of manual detorsion for patients with torsion according to findings from previous relevant studies. Our findings indicate the favorable events that can be obtained after using manual detorsion. However, some studies reported that the success rate for the modality is not very high. In addition, it has been reported to reduce the time of ischemia as a temporary measure until surgery is prepared. Evidence also shows that the approach's efficacy is superior to that of surgical exploration and should be used since the time of diagnosis to prevent further deterioration of the affected case and enhance perfusion. However, the current evidence is based on a limited number of investigations that validated the efficacy of manual detorsion among a small population. Accordingly, we encourage further studies to be conducted in this context further to validate the current evidence with more adequate sample sizes.

Open Access Review Article

Local and Systemic Complications of Local Testosterone Patches and Gels

Fahad Ahmed Alzahrani, Areej Ibrahim Aziaby, Mohammed Abdulaziz Alkhalifah, Abdalkarim Ahmed Alalsheikhahmed, Rawa Mohammed Aldosari, Mohammed Khamis Albalawi, Mohammad Mabrook Almohammadi, Alaa Bakheet Alzahrani, Ghassan Mohammedzaki Damanhori, Eman Abdulaziz Alaswami, Mohammed Khaled Almutairy

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 261-266
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i53A33658

In recent decades, testosterone therapy has gained the attention of many researchers due to the increased demand for this modality worldwide, the increased average age of the different populations, and increased awareness of the potential uses of the modality in clinical settings. Using testosterone therapy aims to treat erectile dysfunction, libido disorders, and potentially enhance physical strength and general body functions. It should be noted that the administration of this treatment modality has been reported with various adverse outcomes despite the remarkable efficacy and wide rates of administration among the different populations. In the present literature review, we have discussed the potential local and systemic complications of applying local testosterone patches and gel. The main advesre events that were reported for both formulas have been skin reactions at the site of application. However, these reactions are not usually serious, and only a few patients discontinued the therapy due to these reactions. In general, evidence indicates that the exogenous administration of testosterone has been associated with many systemic complications as cardiovascular diseases, prostate cancer, obstructive sleep apnea, and elevated hematocrite value. However, evidence regarding this association is still controversial, and additional studies are needed for verfication.

Open Access Review Article

Alteration in the Efficacy of in Vitro Vancomycin and Ceftazidime Prepared in Normal Saline Versus Balanced Salt Solution in the Management of Ocular Infections

Hussain Ahmad Khaqan, Laraib Hassan, Sabah Eric, Hasnain Muhammad Buksh, Raheela Naz, Muhammad Ali Haider

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 326-331
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i53A33666

Objective: The purpose of this review article is to highlight the efficacy of Vancomycin and Ceftazidime formulated in different solutions for ocular use in the management of microbiological Ocular infections varies.

Methodology: To locate and assess all relevant literature, we employed systematic review as a search approach, utilizing punctilious and unambiguous methodologies. We initiated by stipulating key terms and selecting appropriate databases for your literature search. To find replicable and reportable publications from high-quality peer-reviewed journals, we used Google Scholar, PubMed, and Research Gate.

Results: Ceftazidime precipitated at 37 degree Celsius, but not at room temperature, however it did not show any effect on the pH of the medium. In both the media of Normal Saline and Balanced Salt Solution, it precipitated on its own or when coupled with vancomycin. Ceftazidime was initially prepared in Balanced Salt Solution rather than Normal Saline, which resulted in further precipitation. Ceftazidime prepared in Normal Saline precipitated to 54% after 168 hours in the dialysis chambers, compared to 88% in Balanced Salt Solution. Ceftazidime synthesized in Normal Saline declined from an initial concentration of 137.5 to 73.4 µg/ml  after 48 hours, while ceftazidime prepared in Balanced Salt Solution decreased to 6.3µg/ml. Vancomycin precipitation was inappreciable.

Conclusion: Vancomycin did not precipitate in Normal Saline or Balanced Salt Solution, according to this systemic study. Regardless of the presence of vancomycin, ceftazidime precipitated, and it precipitated more expeditiously if it was produced in Balanced Salt Solution rather than Normal Saline.