Open Access Systematic Review Article

Relationship between Headache and Myofascial Pain: Systematic Review

May Wathiq Alkhudhairy, Ashwag Saleem Aldafiri, Yara Hamed Alsayegh, Wesam Saad Bin Saeed, Nadia Kamal Albather

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 37-52
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i52B33596

Aims: To systematically investigate the relationship between headache and myofascial.

Study design: Systematic Review.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Oral and Maxillofacial surgery, Riyadh Elm University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Between June 2020 and November 2021.

Methodology: A systematic search of the literature was conducted between 2006 and 2019 in seven electronic databases (Brain, Pub Med, ScienceDirect database, NCBI, Web of Science Core Collection, Google Scholar, Scopus, and Saudi digital library). The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) statement was followed and the clinical question in PICO format was the relationship between headache and myofascial pain. The initial search resulted in 663 articles. Only 9 studies were selected for qualitative synthesis after fulfilling the eligibility criteria (three double blind Randomized Controlled Trials RCTs and one retrospective cohort study). The results showed that there is a consistent trend in the literature supporting the relationship between headache and MFP.

Results: The first search showed 663 articles. A total of 110 duplicates were eliminated. After filtering by reading titles and abstracts and discarding any extraneous topics or goals that are not directly connected to this systematic review, the first phase comprised 49 publications. There were 14 papers that needed to be reviewed and evaluated for eligibility. Nine articles were chosen for the final evaluation after full text screening.

Conclusion: The findings point to a significant association between headache disability and musculoskeletal disorders of the head and neck. The absence of an agreement in Orofacial Pain research methodology, unified approaches, has an impact on the optimal collecting requirements for a systematic review.

Open Access Case Study

Physiotherapy Rehabilitation in Subject with Scapular Osteochondroma: A Case Report

Vaishnavi Thakare, Pratik Phansopkar, Neha Chitale

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 160-164
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i52B33612

Introduction: The most prevalent benign tumour affecting the metaphysis of long bone is osteochondroma, a form of cartilaginous tumour. Solitary or multiple osteochondromas can prevail.Hereditary multiple exostosis (HME) or familial osteochondromatosis is the multiple variant, which is an autosomal dominant syndrome.

Case Presentation: A 35-year old female with right-hand dominance was referred todepartment of physiotherapy. On palpation small nodular swelling of marble size was present in left axilla. X-rays findings showed increased scapular mass and ribs were compressed laterally.

Discussion: The most widespread benign tumour is osteochondroma. In 3.0-6.4 percent of all instances, the scapula is implicated. The osteochondroma normally develops on the scapula's anterior aspect. The scapula osteochondroma induces pain and a grating sound when the scapula is moved. Mechanic irritation of muscle, tendon, or soft tissue, emergence of a pseudoaneurysm or bursa, fracture, or malignant transformation are all causes of symptoms.

Conclusion: Osteochondroma is a common benign tumor. Management of osteochondroma is important to improve the quality of life. Physiotherapy plays an important role in managing Scapular osteochondroma.

Open Access Case Study

A Rare Case Report- An Incidental Finding of Isolated Unilocular Splenic Hydatid Cyst

Shubham Satyaprakash Gupta, Sangita Jogdand Shinde, Raju K. Shinde, Shweta Pandey

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 259-265
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i52B33625

Splenic Hydatid Cyst is a very rare presentation with less than 5% of total incidences of Cystic Echinococcosis. It is usually due to spread of cysts from other regions leading to secondaries. Primary isolated splenic hydatid cyst without involvement of any other organs is even rarer. We report an unusual case of a female who presented as Abnormal Uterine Bleeding (AUB) with an incidental finding of Isolated Splenic Hydatid Cyst with absence of involvement of any other organ. Patient underwent laparotomy and total splenectomy was done. This case report targets to report a rare case of incidental finding of isolated unilocular hydatid cyst of spleen and describes its management.

Open Access Study Protocol

Evaluation of Comparative Efficacy of Jyotishmati (Celastrus paniculatus Wild) and Yastimadhu (Glycyrrhiza glabra Linn) in Enhancing IQ and Memory of Different Prakriti School Going Children-A Study Protocol of Double Blind Randomized Clinical Trial

Ibamedabha Japang, Renu Rathi, Bharat Rathi, Jitesh Verma, V. B. Pandey

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 236-244
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i52B33622

Background: Education plays a major role in life, whereas lack of intelligence, learning, and memory will lead to failure in school performance and school dropout. Medhya drugs are used frequently to enhance the memory and IQ in children. Jyotishmati and Yashtimadhu are medhya (IQ-enhancing & memory-booster) drugs, described in numerous classical texts of Ayurveda. However, comparative efficacy and randomized trials on various prakriti types have not been studied. Thus, to assess the comparative efficacy of Jyotishmati in enhancing IQ and memory in relation to Yastimadhu as standard control, this research has been planned.

Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of Jyotishmati on IQ and memory, and compare the efficacy with that of Yastimadhu in children with different prakriti types.

Methodology: It will be conducted on healthy school-age children of 8-13 years, recruited from CBSE schools near Mahatma Gandhi Ayurved College, Hospital and Research Centre, Salod, Wardha. The study will be a randomized, standard-controlled, double-blind, parallel group clinical study. All participants will be randomly divided into two groups, each of 30 individuals; each group is subdivided into three subgroups of 10 individuals each. One group will be given Jyotishmati while the other will be given Yastimadhu, both in granule form. IQ assessment will be done by using the Draw a Man test and the PGI memory scale for memory assessment.

Expected Results: This study will validate the efficacy of Jyotishmati and Yastimadhuin enhancing IQ and memory, and it will give detailed information about their efficacy in different Prakriti dominantchildren.

Conclusion: This study will provide unique information to increase awareness of the administration of Medhya drugs according to Prakriti, as well as knowledge about which drug is best for improving either IQ or memory, or both.

Open Access Study Protocol

Efficacy of Ayurveda Interventions Specifically on Weight Gain in the Management of Protein Energy Malnutrition in Children: A Systematic Review Protocol

Sumod Khedekar, Renu Rathi, Bharat Rathi, Heramb Hattikar, Suraj Patlekar, Avinash Karambhe

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 252-258
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i52B33624

Background: In India, Protein Energy Malnutrition (PEM)remains a significant and challenging public health issue despite implementing different nutritional policies over the period. It is also accompanying with aggravated risk of all-cause morbidity, as well as fatality Ayurveda mentions about various nutritional disorders such as karshya, balashosha, phakka, yakshma which are having similar symptomatology and treatment approach as that of the PEM. Several clinical studies have been conducted and some are under trial but systematic review is still pending to explore an effective treatment modality to combat PEM in Children.

Aim: A systematic review to evaluate the efficacy of Ayurveda Interventions specifically on weight gain in the Management of Protein Energy Malnutrition in Children.

Materials and Methods: A systematic review which will evaluate published clinical work of Ayurveda treatment modalities specifically for weight gain in the management of PEM in children that will involve “The randomized controlled trials (RCTs), multiple-arms clinical trials, quasi-experimental trials, observational studies (case series and case reports) through databases like PubMed, COCHRANE, AYUSH Research Portal, DHARA; Google Scholar; etc. and Ayurveda compendia to fetch complete available literature.”

Observations and Discussion: The work of selection of the studies, data extraction, and synthesis will be taken up. Established guidelines for study selection, quality assessment, and narrative synthesis will be followed. Risk of bias assessment will be performed. A protocol will be designed that will ensure transparency for the completed review. Results of the study will be elaborately synthesized. The data will be presented in percentage, count and frequency; and if we find the data to be sufficiently homogeneous then meta-analysis will be carried out.

Conclusion: The results obtained from this systematic review will be useful in identifying the evidence-based efficacy of Ayurveda interventions on weight gain in the Management of PEM. It will also provide substratum for future research studies for generating good-quality evidence that can be helpful to design new health policy to combat PEM effectively.

Open Access Short Research Article

Correlation of Anthropometry of Hand with Wrist Extensor Strength in Normal Asymptomatic Individuals

Sana Afreen Shaikh, Mohammed Irshad Qureshi, Rakesh Krishna Kovela

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 316-320
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i52B33631

Introduction: Measurement of hand grip strength is the basic criteria for the evaluation of hand structure and function. The human hand serves various dynamic purposes in day to day activities of an individual. Infact, the entire upper limb is functional because of the hand. This study was carried out to find out if there is any relation between the anthropometric measurements of the hand and the wrist extensor strength of Indian adults.

Methodology: A data was collected of 75 individuals with no pathological abnormalities from Acharya Vinoba Bhave Rural Hospital, Sawangi Meghe, Wardha. The consent of all the individuals was taken and they were informed about the procedure. The individuals were evaluated for wrist extensor strength by using a hand-held dynamometer. Also, the hand measurements such as hand length and width using a measuring tape.

Results: The average wrist extensor strength of the right hand of the individuals was found to be more than that of the left hand. The length of both the hands was almost equal while the width of the left hand was greater than the right hand.

Conclusion: There is a slight positive Correlation between the average wrist extensor strength and the length and width of the hand which can play a vital role in the rehabilitation process.

Open Access Minireview Article

Mechanism of Common Systemic Immunodeficiency Disorders and its Literature Comparison

Pinky Ruskin, R. Priyadharshini, Palati Sindhuja

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 105-110
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i52B33605

Systemic immunodeficiency disorders are heterogenous groups ofImmunodeficiency disorders could experience an assortment of clinical signs, including intermittent, extreme, or irregular diseases, autoimmunity, and lymphoproliferative/malignancies. Immunodeficiency involves an enormous amount of sicknesses, influencing the advancement of the immune system, its function, or both. There is a increase in percentage of immunodeficiency disorders among population. However, numerous patients are diagnosed late; numerous cases experience the ill effects of difficulties by chronic infections, end-organ damage, or even demise before the diagnosis is made. Ideal determination and suitable treatment remain key to the successful management of patients. The objective of this review is to overview the various systemic immunodeficiency disorders and their mechanism of occurrence of immunodeficiency.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Cytokine (α-TNF) with Erythropoietin and their Correlation in Pulmonary Tuberculosis with Anaemia

Priti Yadav, V. S. S Ramavataram Divvi, Tejas Shah

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i52B33592

Globally tuberculosis is the 9th leading cause of death worldwide. As pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) is a chronic disease, anaemia of inflammation due to bacterial burden play a vital role in pathophysiology of anaemia. Inflammation interferes with erythropoietin (EPO) function.

Methods: The present study was an analytical type of case control study. The study included 100 newly diagnosed anaemic PTB cases and 50 newly diagnosed non anaemic PTB controls. The PTB was confirmed by microscopic examination of sputum specimen for the detection of Acid-Fast Bacilli (AFB). Both cases and controls were subjected to hematological analysis by automated cell counter and serum α-TNF and EPO by ELISA method.

Results: Statistically significant difference was observed in levels of both α-TNF and EPO in anemic and non-anemic PTB groups (p<0.001). α-TNF (214.56±82.30) levels were found to be significantly higher in anaemic PTB group while EPO level (58.44 ±14.97) were found to be significantly higher in non anaemic PTB group. Significant inverse correlation (r1=cases, r2=controls) was observed between α-TNF and EPO (r=-0.257, p<0.05) and α-TNF and Hb (r=-0.202, p<0.05) in both the groups.

Conclusion: Increased α-TNF with decreased EPO and hemoglobin infers that inflammation interferes with normal functioning of EPO and probably contributes in induction of anemia in tuberculosis patients.

Open Access Original Research Article

Facilitators and Barriers to Retention in HIV Care among HIV Infected MSM Attending Community Health Center Yaba, Lagos Nigeria

Daniel Chinenyeike Offie, Emmanuel Ifeanyi Obeagu, Chiedozi Akueshi, Jean E. Njab, Ekanem E. Ekanem, Paul Nnoaharam Dike, Daniel Nnaoma Oguh

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 10-19
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i52B33593

Background: The burden of HIV infection among men who have sex with men (MSM) has posed a huge public health threat to the developing country like Nigeria. Identification of effective strategies to improve their retention in HIV care especially for young HIV infected MSM is critical for overall success in scaling down the national burden of HIV/AIDS. The aim of this study was to assess the facilitators and barriers to retention in HIV care among HIV infected MSM attending community health center, Yaba Lagos Nigeria.

Methods: A two months (May –June,2016) exploratory qualitative research study was conducted among 181 respondents enrolled into HIV care within 12 months that attend community health center, Yaba Lagos Nigeria. A pretested and semi-structured questionnaire was used to collect information on the specific facilitators and barriers to retention in HIV care among respondents. Data entries and analysis were done using SPSS package version 20. Descriptive statistics was used to summarize quantitative variables, and frequency tables were generated for the relevant variables.

Results: The median age (in years) of the participants sampled was 24. The study identified friendly clinic service 44%, having positive relationship with clinic staff 16%, friendly and secured environment 20% as the major facilitators to retention in HIV care while implicating distance 36% and self -denial 21% as major barriers to retention in HIV care among the respondents.

Conclusion: Majority of the respondents were retained in HIV care services due to the available friendly clinic services and conducive environment instituted at the service provision site.

Open Access Original Research Article

Correlate the Level of Internet Dependence and Associated Behavioral Problems among the Preschooler Children in the Selected Urban Area of Wardha District

Raju Ikhar, Khushbu Meshram, Tanuja Tembhare, Poonam Dani, Pratiksha Dabhekar, Prawartan Bhujade

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 29-36
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i52B33595

India is seeing an increase in internet usage, particularly among young and children, as a result of the low cost and easy availability to touch screen mobile phones, tablet devices, and Wi-Fi. Since the previous decade, Internet use in India has grown at an exponential rate, resulting in a generation of gloomy anxiety about it, which has progressed to the point of becoming a hazardous addiction. Behavioral problems are arising due to internet dependence such as temper tantrum, aggression, thought problems, attention problems and rule breaking behaviors in the children and youth people too.

Aim: To correlate the level of internet dependence and level of associated behavioral problems among the preschooler children.

Materials and Methods: Descriptive correlation research design was used to conduct this study. A non-probability Convenience sampling was used to select the samples.  This research study included 100 preschooler children from the Gajanan nagar (Arvi Naka) selected area of wardha district. Samples must select according to the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Young's Internet Addiction Test and behavioral scale was used to assess the level of internet dependence and also the level of associated behavioral problems of internet dependence.

Results: The level of internet dependence: 3% of the preschooler children were disagree that they had internet dependence 4% had not sure, 80% had agree and 13% of them had strongly agree. Minimum Internet dependence score was 28 and maximum internet dependence score was 64. Mean Internet dependence score was 54.70±6.84 and mean percentage of Internet dependence score was 72.93±9.12. and associated Behavioural problems are 2% of the preschooler children were disagree that they had behavioral problem, 3% had not sure, 77% had agree and 18% of them had strongly agree. Minimum associated behavioral problem score was 37 and maximum associated behavioral problem score was 87. Mean associated behavioral problem score was 75.26±8.07 and mean percentage of associated behavioral problem score was 75.26±8.7. The hypothesis is tested statistically with association between internet dependence and behavioral problem.

Conclusion: Parents and schools should educate their children on how to use the internet responsibly and how to balance time between online surfing, schoolwork, and outside physical activity. This study shows that there is a correlation-ship between the levels of internet dependency and associated behavioral issues in preschoolers. The situation is serious, and it will soon develop to an addicted state. Interventions such as setting limits and identifying early warning indications of underlying psychopathology are necessary.

Open Access Original Research Article

An Emergency Department Management on Acute Asthma Exacerbations in Children Younger than 12 Years

Waqas Latif, Rehan Zahoor, Maiera Khalid

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 68-71
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i52B33600

Objectives: The main objective of the study is to clinically audit and analyse the acute asthma exacerbations in children younger than 12 years regarding management of emergency department.

Methods: This clinical audit was done in Bahawal Victoria Hospital, Bahawalpur during January 2020 till June 2020. We retrospectively revised all the files of children aged 0–12 years who were visited for acute asthma in the Paediatric ED of Hospital. All the patients with a diagnosis of “acute asthma,” “wheezing bronchitis,” and “bronchospasm” were included.

Results: A total of 864 patients were seen in the Emergency Department during the study. Of these, a total of 293 patients were seen for a presentation of acute asthma. As some patients had multiple visits, the 293 records represented 278 unique patients. For assessing age and gender distribution of the patients, only data from the first visit were used. Otherwise, each record was treated independently for the purpose of analyses.

Conclusion: It is concluded that acute asthma management still remains an area of medical practice that continues to have long-standing difficulties.

Open Access Original Research Article

Formulation, Development and Characterization of Floating Microspheres of Selected Calcium Channel Blocker

Rajeev Kumar, Sushant Kumar Shrivastava

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 80-90
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i52B33602

The main aim of the present investigation is to study of formulation, development and characterization of floating mcrospheres of verapamil hydrochloride. Floating microspheres with a central hollow cavity were prepared by using a modified Quasi-emulsion diffusion technique. Weighed quantities of verapamil hydrochloride, ethyl cellulose, polyethylene oxide and hydroxy propylmethyl cellulose (HPMC K15M) were dissolved in a mixture of ethanol and dichloromethane (1:1 solvent ratio) at room temperature in a magnetic stirrer at 50 rpm for 50 min. The samples were assayed for drug content using UV spectrophotometer at 228 nm after suitable dilution. No interference was found due to the other components of floating microspheres at 228 nm. The yield was determined by weighing the microspheres and then the percentage yield was calculated with respect to the weight of the input materials, i.e., weight of verapamil and polymers used. The polymers like ethyl cellulose, eudragit L 100, polyethylene oxide and HPMC were selected for hollow microspheres preparation. These formulations contained ethyl cellulose (2%) and Polyethylene oxide (1%), HPMC K15M (1%) & eudragit L100 (1%) respectively. The encapsulation efficiency ranged between 53 ± 2.2 to 89 ± 1.9%, and was observed that the encapsulation efficiency increased with increasing amount of polymers in the hollow microspheres. The sphericity factors for all formulations were in the range of 1.01 ± 0.2 to 1.29  ±  0.6  and  the  sphericity  values  of  best  formulations  F3,  F7  and  F9  were 1.05±0.2, 1.07 ± 0.1 and 1.16 ± 0.1 respectively. Quassi emulsion method used for preparation of hollow microspheres was suitable for poor water soluble drugs, because the drug was soluble in the internal organic phase.

Open Access Original Research Article

Factors Associated with Surgical Treatment Outcome of Psoas Muscle Abscess

Shahida Khatoon, Shiraz Shaikh, Abdul Salam Memon, Shahnawaz Khatti, Aijaz Ahmed Shaikh, Riaz Ahmed Memon

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 91-95
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i52B33603

Background: Psoas abscess is a rare condition but one with potential for severe morbidity. Many factors may be implicated in the treatment outcome of the condition and efforts must be directed to identify, understand and control the factors for a better prognosis.

Objective: To identify the factors associated with surgical treatment outcome of psoas muscle abscess.

Methodology: This descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted upon a sample of 58 patients (chosen via non-probability, consecutive sampling) scheduled for surgical treatment for psoas muscle abscess (aged 18 to 60 years) at department of General Surgery at Liaquat University Hospital, Hyderabad & Jamshoro. All the patients underwent surgical treatment. The data was recorded via pre-structured questionnaire comprising of inquiries pertaining to socio-demographic details, presenting complaints, and factors association with surgical treatment outcome (in terms of resolution of abscess cavity). Data was analyzed via SPSS version 20.

Results: Mean age of study subjects was 37.6 ± 12.5 years. Out of all 72.4% were males and 27.5% were females. Most common presentation of patients was pain in flanks, followed by fever. The commonest etiological factor was tuberculosis (TB) and consequently spinal (TB) was the most common. Resolution of abscess cavity was noted among 77.5% of the cases with a greater proportion of recovery falling in line non- tuberculous etiology.

Conclusions: After careful consideration, it can be concluded that secondary psoas muscle and that with tuberculous etiology have a poorer surgical outcome, thus greater care and more effective surgical techniques may be employed to achieve complete resolution of abscess.

Open Access Original Research Article

Knowledge and Attitude towards Antibiotics Prescription and Antimicrobial Resistance among Dental Surgeons in Saudi Arabia

Samira M. Osailan, Adel Alenazi, Jasem A. Alburaih, Aseel F. Almuqbil, Nada N. Almansour, Nahla I. Barnawi, Alhanouf K. Alkahtani, Ayad B. Almutairi, Khames T. Alzahrani

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 96-104
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i52B33604

Aims: To assess knowledge and attitude towards antibiotics prescription and antimicrobial resistance among dentist in Saudi Arabia.

Study Design:  Cross-sectional, survey-based study.

Place and Duration of Study: Sample: Saudi Arabia, between June 2020 and October 2021.

Methodology: This is was a cross-sectional, survey-based study in Saudi Arabia. Data was collected using a predesigned self-administered online questionnaire. The survey was distributed to dentist and dental surgeons in Saudi Arabia. It included demographic data, Knowledge about antibiotics, Attitude towards antibiotics, prescription of antibiotics based on the clinical situation. Data were analyzed by the SPSS program, version 25 at a level of significance of 0.05. 

Results: A total of 208 study participants completed the survey questionnaire. The results showed that the half of study participants females. Moreover, more than half of the study participants were bachelor’s degree. Additionally, 21.2% of the study participants earned dental internship. However, the least proportion had the master’s degree or higher (4.3%).91.8% of the study respondents were general dentist compared to 2.9% were oral surgeon and the least portion 1% was endodontist.

Conclusion: The use of antibiotics inappropriately was common, and the drivers of inappropriate practices were found as young age, male sex, higher education, and a negative attitude regarding antibiotic use.

Open Access Original Research Article

Public Attitude and Knowledge in the Makkah Region Regarding Providing First Aid before and after the COVID-19 Pandemic

Yasser H. Alnofaiey, Anoud M. Alhamyani, Meshal M. Alhamyani, Nwarah A. Basha, Lama T. Althobaiti, Amal A. Aljuaid, Khames T. Alzahrani

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 111-119
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i52B33606

Aims: To evaluate attitude toward and knowledge of first aid of the public in Makkah region, Saudi Arabia, considering the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on changing perceptions.

Study Design:  A descriptive cross-sectional study.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Medicine, between June 2020 and November 2021.

Methodology: A descriptive cross-sectional study targeted the whole accessible population in Makkah region. All those aged 18 or older living in the region were invited to participate in the survey. Data collection was through an online pre-structured questionnaire from July 15th to August 12th, 2021. It covered sociodemographic data, knowledge, and attitude regarding first aid, and the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic.

Results: A total of 1,368 participants met the inclusion criteria. Ages ranged from 18 to 70 years. A total of 1,132 (82.7%) participants had poor knowledge, and 1,028 (75.1%) reported they would help in providing first aid.

Conclusion: Despite high motivation and readiness to attain knowledge of first aid, public knowledge was very low. Attitudes were very good, but practice was restricted by some barriers.

Open Access Original Research Article

Perception and Behavioural Outcome towards COVID-19 Vaccine among Students and Faculties of Nursing Colleges at Gujarat

Christian Selina, Parmar Anushka, Patel Devanshi, Bhatt Dhruti, Dalwadi Jinal, Brahmbhatt Manjari, Vasava Hiral, Patel Janki, Kailash Nagar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 120-128
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i52B33607

Introduction: Perception and behaviour towards corona vaccine among peoples in India was poor due to some side effects and negative media publicity in primary phases of vaccination.  India has developed two types of vaccine (Covaxin and Covishield). During primary phase of corona vaccine we don’t have appropriate research and literature, about side effects and how far vaccine is reliable that why due so some minor side effect and negative media publicity peoples are very scared to take vaccine. So few peoples were started denial get vaccinated. The researcher wan to explore the positivity through the research result to reduce the negative mindset of the peoples toward corona vaccine, Because in India few peoples has fear to take vaccine against corona due to negative media publicity and scared of side effect.

Objective: To assess the existing level of perception and behaviour toward COVID-19 vaccine and to find out the association between selected socio-demographic variables.

Methods: Descriptive cross sectional survey research design was used and non-probability (snowball) sampling method was used to drawn samples through online Google form, all questions were plots on Google form and inform consent form also has been taken online prior to data collection from the samples.

Prior to data collection written setting permission obtain from nursing colleges principals, for the data collection researcher were selected total 03 nursing institutes. The total sample size was 254 nursing college students and faculties.

The tool consist of  following Section-01 Demographic variables, section-02 Nursing students and faculties information related to COVID-19 vaccination during 1st and 2nd dose and Section-3 Questions related to perception and behaviour towards COVID-19 vaccine.

Descriptive statistics applied where, data were analyzed by using SPSS software, and Frequency, percentage, tables etc. were used to represent the statistical data in the tables. Chi-square test was used to assess the significant association between the demographic and level of perception to test the hypothesis.

Results: Out of 254, 245(96.45%) were belong age 18-25 years, 8(3.14%)  were belong to 26-35, 1 (0.34%) was belong to 46-60 age group. 219(86.22%) were females, 53(20.87%) were study Diploma course and 178(70.08%) were study degree course,  regarding religion 223(87.79%) were Hindu, 5(1.97%) were Muslim and 26(10.24%) were Christian,  Marital status 227(89.37%) were Unmarried and 24(9.47%) were Married, 134(52.75%) were from urban area, and rest 120 (47.24%) belongs to Rural area. Sources of information about COVID 19 vaccine 109(42.92%) got from online media, 44(17.32%) from television, 243(95.67%) received free of cost corona vaccine, 199(78.35%) mindset was not influenced by negative media publicity about vaccine, 248(97.63%) do not have any co-morbidities. 219(86.22%) taken Covid-19 vaccine empty stomach. 221(87%) of samples were taken willingly vaccine, 205(80.71%) of samples were received Covishield vaccine and others 49(19.29%) were taken Covaxin, 109(42.91%) samples noticed mild fever, 53(20.87%) samples noticed moderate fever, 18(7.08%) noticed severe fever and rest 74(29.13%) didn’t noticed fever.

Conclusions Regarding perception and behaviour towards COVID-19 vaccine, the majority of samples has good perception and behaviour, 74% has good perception and only 23% had moderate to poor perception, majority of participant were willingly taken vaccine and agree to recommend to others, not evidence any serious side effect due to vaccination.

Open Access Original Research Article

Antiphospholipid Antibodies and Acquired Thrombophilia: A Biological Marker for Recurrent Miscarriage

Rania Khogli ELsidig Khogli, Abdel Rahim Mahmoud Muddathir, Alaa Eltayeb Omer, Lienda Bashier Eltayeb

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 137-143
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i52B33609

Background: Repeated miscarriage can cause tissue injury can lead to the formation of antibodies to the phospholipids. Recurrent miscarriage (RM) is considering the one of the most common cause of sterility. Which has received more attention in recent years as a result of an increase in the number of reproductive-aged women.

Materials and Methods: Plasma samples were tested for antiphospholipid antibodies using ELISA, and platelet count using Sysmex (KX21) Heamatology analyzer and Activated Partial Thromboplastin Time using semi-automated machine (STAGO PT31039352 (for coagulation).

Results: The prevalence of Anti phospholipid antibodies (APL) was 30.5% in Sudanese patients with recurrent miscarriage, the prevalence of (Anti phospholipid Antibodies-IgM and IgG) was found to be 23.6% in patients with recurrent miscarriage compared to (Anti phospholipid Antibodies-IgG) was found to be 11.1% ((P value≤0.001), low platelets count (<50×109/l) observed in 10 (13.5%), as well as prolongation of activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) among studied group were detected among 19 (26.1%).

Conclusion: Higher prevalence of antiphospolidids antibodies, and acquired thrombophilia was detected among Sudanese women with recurrent abortion; The findings are concerning because they link an increased risk of thrombosis and a hypercoagulable state lead to recurrent miscarriage in pregnant women.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessing the Molecular Interaction between Poly Lactic-co-glycolic Acid (PLGA) 50:50 and Poly Ethylene Glycol in Presence of Diethyl Phthalate Using in silico Study - A Novel Approach of Pre-Formulation Study

V. Senthil Kumar, Navabshan Irfan, T. V. Ajay Kumar, V. Parthasarathy

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 144-150
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i52B33610

The efficacy of a drug relies on drug formulation and targeting. Imatinib is an anti-cancer drug identified to be effective in the treatment of cancers like myeloid leukemia and lymphoblastic leukemia, and gastrointestinal tumors. The prediction of mixing energy and identification of docking interactions and scores can help identify the most efficient drug carrier/plasticizer molecule that could exert maximum pharmaceutical efficiency. The results of a preliminary study explicitly showed the potent carrier molecule before conducting formulation studies. Hence, the present study was designed to screen the interaction energies between different combinations of Poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PGLA) or Poly Ethylene Glycol (PEG) or diethyl phthalate with Imatinib using in silico computational methods. The study results suggested that the binding energy and the score obtained for docking interactions for Imatinib versus diethyl phthalate was better when compared to the other combinations. Therefore, Diethyl phthalate might be a signature candidate to act as Imatinib-carrier/plasticizer. More formulation studies are warranted further to demonstrate the desired continuous drug release and maximum efficacy with Imatinib chemotherapy.

Open Access Original Research Article

Efficacy of Lactobacillus reuteri Supplementation in Eradication of H. pylori: A Comparison Study with Triple Drug Therapy

Kumar Parth, Ramakrishna Prudhivi, Sujatha Palatheeya, Syed Kamran Abbas, K. Varsha, B. V. Niharika, Banaijingkmen Lyngkhoi

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 151-159
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i52B33611

Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infections affect roughly one-half of the world’s population. Although many standard regimens, including triple-drug therapy, eradicate H. pylori, the success rate and efficacy have been declining due to associated side effects and symptom severity. The addition of probiotics to a standard regimen can considerably increase eradication rates. The objective is to find the efficacy of a probiotic Lactobacillus reuteri (L. reuteri) in eradicating human H. pylori infection and effect on symptoms regression and side effects associated with triple therapy. This prospective interventional study was conducted in 90 H. pylori-positive patients. 45 patients received standard triple treatment (group-I) for 14 days. Another 45 patients received a combination of standard triple therapy and L. reuteri (group-II) for 14 days. After the completion of treatment, H. pylori status was evaluated using a 13-C Urea-Breath Test (UBT). Each subject is interviewed with a validated Gastrointestinal Symptoms Rating Scale (GSRS) questionnaire to record symptoms and symptom severity before and after the therapy. Group-II patients showed a significantly higher eradication rate (86.67%) than group-I patients (66.67%). The absolute values of 13C-UBT (group-I: 14.02± 5.4, group-II: 11.9±3.73) revealed that a more substantial reduction in H. Pylori load was observed in group II. Statistical analysis proved that group II patients had a significant reduction in GSRS mean scores (baseline score: 15.39±4.52 to end score: 5.33±2.34) compared to group-I patients (baseline score: 14.47±3.67 to end score: 9.86±4.78). Addition of L. reuteri has reduced side effects associated with triple drug therapy except bloating. In conclusion,  supplementation of  L. reuteri to standard triple drug therapy significantly  improved the eradication rate of H. pylori, reduced intensity of gastrointestinal symptoms and also treatment related side effects.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Pelvic Incidence Angle in Normal Indian Population and Spondylolisthesis

J. S. Raj Kumar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 165-168
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i52B33613

There is increasing emphasis on the sagittal spino-pelvic alignment and its interpretation is of critical importance in the management of spinal disorders. The vertebral column shows a vital role in the funding and locomotion of the human body. The judgment of normality can be made possible by analyzing the normal patterns of sagittal curvature and characteristics of each pattern of sagittal curvatures. In our study the control group which comprised of 50 healthy volunteers exhibited a minimum pelvic incidence of 33° and a maximum of 60° with an average of 50.12°. The minimum pelvic incidence in the study group was 42° and the maximum was 75°.The average pelvic incidence in the low grade listhesis group was 57.78° and in the high grade listhesis group it was 64.75°.The combined average of pelvic incidence angle in the study group was 58.34°and only one patient had a Pelvic incidence Angle of 75 degrees and the remaining three were only one patient had a Pelvic incidence Angle of 75 degrees and the remaining three were below 65 degrees. The objective of this study is to observe the parameters of sagittal and spino-pelvic balance in a sample of the Indian population consisting of volunteer asymptomatic individuals.

Open Access Original Research Article

Platelet Indices as Indicator of Diabetic Nephropathy among Patients Attending a Tertiary Care Centre in South-India

Jainulavudeen Mohamed Rabeek, B. Shanthi, Mary Chandrika Anton

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 169-173
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i52B33614

Introduction: Diabetes mellitus, a chronic metabolic disease affects various organs of the body on a long-term basis. Studies have been conducted on different aspects of the disease, to understand its complications and to detect them earlier to avoid irreversible damage like nephropathy.

Aim: The study aims at comparing platelet indices like Plateletcrit (PCT), Platelet Distribution Width (PDW) and Mean Platelet Volume (MPV), with serum creatinine among diabetes, prediabetes patients and non-diabetes controls, to understand the association of the platelet indices and creatinine, an indicator of renal damage.

Materials and Methods: The cross-sectional study conducted over a period of three months involved 30 non-diabetic controls with normal HbA1c, 30 diabetics and 30 prediabetic subjects, of age group 18-35 years. The groups were classified based on their HbA1c concentration. The blood samples were analyzed for parameters PCT, PDW, MPV, creatinine and HbA1c by their respective methods. The study will guide in understanding the role of platelets in pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy.

Results: Platelet indices like Plateletcrit (PCT), Platelet Distribution Width (PDW) and Mean Platelet Volume (MPV) were found to be increased in diabetics and 30 prediabetic subjects than the non-diabetics. The Platelet indices were also correlating with the serum creatinine levels of the three study groups.

Conclusion: There is a positive association between the Platelet indices and creatinine, in patients with pre-diabetes and diabetes who have the risk of progression to diabetic nephropathy. Hence, the Platelet indices shall be included as early and cost-effective biomarkers of diabetic nephropathy.

Open Access Original Research Article

Comparison on Awareness of Radiation Hazards among Females of Different Age Group

A. Aldrin Joshua, R. Priyadharshini, Palati Sinduja

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 174-185
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i52B33615

Background: Radiation is a source of energy which travels through materials. The ionising radiation produce free radicals from an atom with the electron removal. X-ray is the most common ionizing radiation helping in diagnosis. There is an increase in the use of radiation in diagnosis, procedural along with surgical treatment where radiologists and the patients should be aware of the radiation hazards and its ill effects. The aim of our study is to analyse the radiation hazards awareness among females of various age groups.

Materials and Methods: The study was done as an online setting; the responses were obtained from 103 female participants from the Chennai sub population. A self-structured questionnaire comprising about 18 yes or no types of questions were prepared in google forms and circulated as a link to the participants. The responses were exported to google sheets and data was retrieved and analysed in SPSS software version 26. The results were obtained from SPSS software.

Results: From the results analysed, 74.76% have undergone X ray or any procedures but only few (25.24%) did not undergo any diagnostic procedures. 71.84% of them were aware that all radiation is hazardous whereas the rest (28.16%) were not aware. 88.35% of them accepted that bone marrow and child’s thyroid tissue are more sensitive to radiation but few (11.65%) did not accept it. 71.84% of the participants of females of age group 20-40 years were more aware than females of 40-60 years age group (16.50%) that bone marrow, the child's thyroid is the sensitive tissue affected by radiation. Chi square test was done and the association was found to be not statistically significant with P-value .236 (P = .05). Chi square test was done to check awareness of thyroid cancer caused mainly through radiations between the two age groups of females and the association was found to be not statistically significant with p-value is .703 (P = .05).

Conclusion: Within the limits of the study, the females of age group 20-40 years have higher levels of awareness than females of age group 40-60 years.

Open Access Original Research Article

Predictive Risk Factors for Mild and Severe Germinal Matrix Hemorrhage and Associated Neurodevelopmental Prognosis: A Retrospective Study

Wejdan Alhakeem, Afnan Almuhana, Haya Alshahrani, Moneerah Alkhateeb, Zahra Alsaihati

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 186-194
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i52B33616

Aims: To compare commonly mentioned risk factors between mild germinal matrix hemorrhage-Intraventricular hemorrhage (GMH-IVH) (grade I & II) and severe GMH-IVH (grade III & IV) and to study the long-term neurodevelopmental outcomes in relation to severe GMH-IVH.

Study Design: Retrospective cohort study.

Place and Duration of Study: Neonatal intensive care unit, King Fahad University Hospital, between 2000 and 2020.

Methodology: We included 54 premature infants at ≤36 weeks of gestation and with birth weight <2500g admitted to our neonatal intensive care unit. Premature neonates were divided into two subgroups: mild GMH-IVH (grade I and II) and severe (grade III and IV). We investigated the risk factors and neurodevelopmental outcomes in association with GMH-IVH.

Results: Amnionitis (OR: 1.190, 95% CI 0.515-2.749), lower genital tract infection (OR: 1.190, 95% CI 0.515-2.749), antenatal infection (OR: 1.406, 95% CI 0.866-2.283), gestational diabetes mellitus (OR: 1.815, 95% CI 1.410-2.337), usage of inotropes (OR: 1.731, 95% CI 1.348-2.222), APGAR score <7 (OR: 0.806, 95% CI 0.493-1.316), birth trauma (OR: 1.767, 95% CI 1.396-2.236), catecholamines (OR: 1.470, 95% CI 0.903-2.393), intubation (OR: 1.300, 95% CI 0.686-2.464), asphyxia (OR: 1.135, 95% CI 0.718-1.794), Abnormal coagulation (OR: 1.197, 95% CI 0.756-1.896), congenital heart disease (OR: 1.727, 95% CI 1.124-2.653), low hematocrit (OR: 1.140, 95% CI 0.688-1.889), resuscitation (OR: 1,193, 95% CI 0.748- 1.904) and ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt as a prognosis of hydrocephalus (P-value: 0.005) all showed a higher incidence with severe GMH-IVH

Conclusion: Amnionitis, lower genital tract infection, antenatal infections, GDM, usage of inotropes, APGAR score <7, birth trauma, catecholamines, intubation, asphyxia, resuscitation, abnormal coagulation parameters, congenital heart disease, low hematocrit and hydrocephalus with VP shunt were higher in severe GMH-IVH.

Open Access Original Research Article

Response Surface Methodology Driven Systematic Development of a Stability- indicating RP-UPLC Method for the Quantification of Aliskiren: A Renin Inhibitor

Bikash Ranjan Jena, G. S. N. Koteswara Rao, Rajasekhar Reddy Alavala, Prasanna Kumar Desu, G. Chakravarthi, Suryakanta Swain, Debi Prasad Pradhan, P. Niharika

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 195-211
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i52B33617

Aims: The current study envisages experimental design enabled rapid, sensitive, and stability-indicating RP-UPLC method to quantify Aliskiren in its pharmaceutical formulations.

Study Design: Box-Benkhen experimental Design using Response surface methodology.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Analytical Research and Development, Brawn laboratories ltd., Gurugram, India, and Department of Pharmacy KL College Pharmacy, KL Deemed to be University, Vaddesearam, Guntur, Andhra Pradesh, between May 2021 and September 2021.

Methodology: The chromatographic partitioning was achieved on a Waters Acuity H class UPLC system, with BEH 130οA, C18 column (100 x 2.1 mm,1.7 μm) having isocratic elution containing (50:50 %v/v) of 0.2% Glacial acetic acid (GAA) : acetonitrile, at constant flow rate using PDA detection. The optimum conditions were delineated, selecting three influential factors (CMPs), i.e., mobile phase composition, flow rate, and injection volume. Systematic optimization was accomplished by 32 Box-Benkhen design using response surface methodology (RSM).

Results: The selected variables are evaluated for obtained responses (CAAs), i.e., peak area, retention time (Rt), USP Plate count. The final optimized method employed, organic phase composition 0.2 % GAA (pH 3.0) and acetonitrile 50:50 (% v/v) with 0.3 mL min-1 flow rate. The injection volume was maintained as 2μL with 2 minutes run time and λmax 280 nm.

Conclusion: The method was linear for 5-300 ppm, with regression co-efficient (R2) 0.9995. As per ICH guidelines, forced degradation studies were carried out to analyse the stability profile of drug. The short Rt 1.214, minute implies superior robustness, sensitivity, and cost-effectiveness for routine analysis. The results exhibited that RSM approach of QbD will be competently used to optimize the RP-UPLC method with fewer experimental trials and error-free investigation.

Open Access Original Research Article

Comparison of Ketamine Nebulisation with Ketamine Gargle in Attenuating Post Operative Sore Throat Following General Anaesthesia with Endotracheal Intubation

Anjali Modak, Eshana Rasheed, Nikhil Bhalerao, Pallavi Devulkar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 129-136
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i52B33608

Background & Objective: In the post operative period, Sore throat is a common morbidity following tracheal intubation. The aim was to compare ketamine nebulisation with ketamine gargle to see the effectiveness of nebulisation over gargle in reducing the incidence and severity of post operative sore throat (POST).

Methods: In this prospective, randomized study 80 patients between 18-64 year, of either sex belonging to ASA I/II, scheduled for elective surgery under general anaesthesia, were assigned into two groups of 40 patients each. Group GK received preservative free ketamine 50mg in 29 ml of saline, gargled for 30 seconds and Group NK received ketamine 50 mg in 4ml of normal saline via nebulisation for 15 min. General anaesthesia was induced 5 min later in both the groups. Postoperatively sore throat was assessed at 0, 2, 4, 24 hrs using four point scale (0-3).

Results: The incidence of POST at 0, 2, 4, 24 hrs was 27%, 25%, 20% and 17% respectively in GK group and 20%, 17.5%, 12.5% and 7.5% in NK group respectively with no statistical difference between the two.. None of the patients in either group experienced severe sore throat.

Conclusion: Ketamine nebulisation seemed to represent an effective alternative to ketamine gargle for reliving Post Operative sore throat.

Open Access Original Research Article

Maternal Serum 25-Hydroxy Vitamin D Concentrations and Calcium Levels in Preeclamptic Women, Sindh, Pakistan

Khalil Ahmed Memon, Hazoora Shaikh, Rukhsana Soomoro, Yasmeen Joyo, Saira Parveen, Farheen Shaikh, Arslan Ahmer

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 216-221
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i52B33619

Objectives: To analyse the levels of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D 25(OH) Dand calcium concentrations in patients with pre-eclampsia, Hyderabad, Sindh, Pakistan.

Methodology: Cross sectional study was conducted at the Gynaecology and Obstetrics Department, LUHS, Hyderabad during the period of January 2020 to June 2020. Total 150 pregnant women were selected according to predesign Proforma and divided into two groups. 50 females were normal normotensive pregnant women as a control group, 100 were pre-eclamptic patients as case group. Obstetric history, clinical data was gathered and then 5ml of blood sample was collected from each patient. The blood samples were taken for the analysis of 25-hydroxyvitamin D or 25(OH)D and calcium levels. 25(OH)D were performed on chemiluminescence, While calcium concentration of Microlab 300. Data was analysed by using SPSS version 23. Student t-test was used for analysed of continuous variables.

Results: The maternal serum vitamin D and calcium levels were significantly decreased as compared to patient with preeclampsia and normotensive healthy pregnant ladies. The blood pressure also declined in case group with P<0.001.Multinomial logistic regression showed significant odd ratio of Vitamin-D and Calcium deficiency in preeclampsia.

Conclusion: The present study reveals that 25-hydroxyvitamin D, and Calcium levels declined significantly in preeclamptic women, and mighty be biomarker of this life threating disease.

Open Access Original Research Article

Improving the Effectiveness of Therapeutic Measures for Generalized Periodontitis in Patients with Hypertension

Alina Alexandrovna Serekova, Madina Georgievna Dzgoeva, Zalina Georgievna Dzgoeva, Azamat Borisovich Kokoev, Larisa Stanisla vovna Kanukova, Olga Alexandrovna Farnieva

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 245-251
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i52B33623

The program of standard therapeutic measures in 45 patients with Generalized Chronic Periodontitis (GCP) and background hypertension, group I(a), included hirudotherapy, for comparison, the effectiveness of traditional treatment was evaluated in 40 patients, group I(b), who refused to use medical leeches. In the second comparison group (35 patients), patients with GCP, but normal blood pressure, also received only a set of traditional methods of treatment. The inclusion of hirudotherapy in the program of therapeutic measures in patients with GCP and hypertension makes it possible to optimize the onset of a persistent therapeutic effect, lengthen the period of remission of the pathological process in periodontal disease and significantly improves the quality of life of patients.

Open Access Original Research Article

Anti-Parkinsonian Activity of Ganoderma Lucidum in Experimentally Induced Parkinson’s Disease

Sana Aslam, Muhammad Aslam, Hania Kauser, Sara Naqvi

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 266-275
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i52B33626

Background: Parkinson's illness has been proclaimed as the second most neurodegenerative problem on the planet. Ganoderma lucidum is considered as a genuine restorative mushroom.

Aim: Our study was directed to assess the antiparkinsonian action of Ganoderma lucidum in rotenone-incited Parkinson’s disease in male Wistar rodents.

Methods: The impacts of Ganoderma lucidum were concentrated on catalepsy, muscle rigidity.

Results: Ganoderma lucidum fundamentally decreased the expanded length of catalepsy. Rotenone essentially initiated the disturbance of motor neurons as demonstrated by muscle rigidity of muscles and decreased locomotion. Ganoderma lucidum alleviated the disturbance of motor neurons by rotarod execution and locomotor action of the creatures. The exercises of cell reinforcement proteins catalase and superoxide dismutase, and the level of tripeptide glutathione were essentially diminished by rotenone. Besides, rotenone extended the level of lipid peroxidation thing malondialdehyde. Notwithstanding, Ganoderma lucidum supplementation to rotenone-infused rats essentially extended the degrees of superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione, and diminished the level of malondialdehyde

Conclusion: Our study firmly supports the notion that Ganoderma lucidum has neuroprotective and antiparkinsonian action.

Open Access Original Research Article

Synthesis, Characterization and Evaluation of Antidiabetic Activity of Novel Pyrazoline Fused Indole Derivatives

Nagesh Vaddiraju, M. Ajitha, K. Rajnarayana

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 276-292
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i52B33627

The primary purpose of this research work is to synthesize, characterize and biological evaluation of novel pyrazoline fused indole derivatives lead to creating a new molecular frame work.

Methodology: In the present study, the new series of novel pyrazoline fused indole derivatives were synthesized from from indole and substituted acetophenone by the 4 step process. In the first step indole and dimethyl formamide were coupled by using phosphorous oxychloride and NaOH to prepare the compound 1 Indole-3-aldehyde. In the second step compound 1 was condensed with substituted aetophenone to synthesis the compound 2 chalcones (a-h). In the third step chalcones 2(a-h) were coupled with semicarbazide or thiosemicarbazide to synthesis the compound 3(a-p). In the final step compound 3(a-p) were coupled with indole-3-aldehyde to prepare the final product of R-substitutedN-((1H-indol-3-yl)methylene)-5-(1H-indol-3-yl)-3-phenyl-4,5-dihydro-1H-pyrazole-1-carboxamide and R-substitutedN-((1H-indol-3-yl)methylene)-5-(1H-indol-3-yl)-3-phenyl-4,5-dihydro-1H-pyrazole-1-carbothioamide 4(a-p).

Results: The chemical structures of the synthesized compounds were characterized by means of IR, Mass and NMR spectroscopy. The compounds were screened for anti-diabetic activity by In-vitro and In-vivo methods. In In-vivo method 4a, 4m have exhibited moderate anti-diabetic activity as that of standard drug, glibenclamide. In In-vitro method 4a, 4e & 4m have shows moderate anti-diabetic activity as that of reference standard, acarbose.

Conclusion: The synthesized novel pyrazoline fused indole derivatives have moderate antidiabetic activity as that of standard drug by In-vitro and In-vivo methods. These compounds can be further exploited to get the potent lead compound.

Open Access Original Research Article

Correlation of Chronic Back Pain and Hyperuricemia, Our Hospital Experience

Atif Ahmed, Muhammad Amjad Kalhoro, Nasrullah Aamer, Kuldeep Kumar, Sant Das, Niaz Hussain Keerio, Syed Shahid Noor

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 293-298
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i52B33628

Objective: This study aimed to analyze the prevalence of hyperuricemia in individuals with chronic low back pain.

Methodology: It was a descriptive cross-sectional study performed between January 2021 to June 2021 in Medicine department of Bilawal Medical College LUMHS Jamshoro Pakistan. Patients between the age of 18 to 65 years have been investigated. Data was collected using a designed questionnaire. X-rays and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) of the lumbosacral spine were used to evaluate any discrepancies associated with low back pain. The levels of uric acid in the blood were measured and documented.

Results: Out of 88 patients with chronic low back pain, 22 (25%) reported hyperuricemia. There was no significant difference in uric acid levels between men and women (P>0.05). We observed that 86.36 %t (n=19) patients with elevated serum uric acid levels also experienced joint pain. Further radiological examination revealed lumbar disc prolapse in 72.7 % (n=16). We found that in 95.45% of the patients, disc space narrowing was present.

Conclusion: Regardless of gender, one in four people with low back pain had hyperuricemia. Patients with low back pain have varying occupational and co-morbidities. Hypouricemia appears to be associated with lumbar disc prolapse and lumbar vertebral joint space constriction. This reveals that hyperuricemia aggravates degenerative spondylolisthesis.

Open Access Original Research Article

Relationship between Anaemia during Pregnancy and Postpartum Haemorrhage: A Case from Saudi Arabia

Hoda Jehad Abousada, Hanyah Abdulhadi Al-Khify, Manal Abdulaziz Murad, Hala Hashem Alshareef, Layan Hammam Banaja, Feras Fahad Aljehani, Rahaf Mohammed Alsoliman, Amani Fouad Bardi, Roaa Ibrahim Albishi, Ola Hassan Alsharif, Nashwa Nasser Alsaeedi, Jamilah sulaiman alsaiari, Mohammed Hassan Alshehri, Mohammed Ahmed Asiri, Sanaa Hussein Sulimani

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 321-327
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i52B33632

Background: Anemia during pregnancy is an important cause of morbidity and mortality among postpartum women. The main reason for the condition is dietary Iron deficiency and the most common type of anemia found in women during pregnancy is iron deficiency anemia. Among many complications, postpartum hemorrhage is a problem linked with anemia during pregnancy. In Saudi Arabia, pregnancy and postpartum haemorrhage (PPH) is not common but still, cases are reported. The present study aimed to determine its prevalence in population and to see its relationship with anemia during pregnancy.

Methods: It was an analytical cross-sectional study in which the data was collected from women using properly designed questionnaires. The study population was women who got pregnant and delivered in main hospitals of the kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The data of respondents for demographical and clinical variables were collected and analyzed using SPSS using appropriate statistical tests.

Results: 600 participants responded to the questionnaire. The mean age was 26.32 years. The prevalence of PPH among studied population was 11.9%. Anemia during pregnancy was found to be positively associated with PPH with the p value of 0.0039. Smoking history was also correlated with PPH. There was no strong association between age and increase risk of PPH.

Conclusion: This study concluded that PPH is not common in Saudi Arabia. There is a moderate association of anemia during pregnancy and PPH. Smoking is also a positive predictor for PPH. There are some limitations in the study so there is a need of large-scale study to confirm the findings in the population.

Open Access Review Article

Causes of Acute Abdominal Pain in Geriatrics: A Review

Abdullah Saed Albalawi, Mohammed Omar Amer, Mohammed Ghannam Alharbi, Etizaz Ayed Alshaleikhi

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 20-28
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i52B33594

Background: Aging affects all functions of the gastrointestinal system (GIS). The elderly commonly has atypical presentation of a disease with more subtle symptoms; hence physicians who are not familiar with these might miss the opportunity to make a diagnosis of abdominal pain in timely manner. The main objective of our study is to summarize the current evidence regarding causes and management of acute abdominal pain in elderly.                     

Methodology: MEDLINE, Embolic, CINAHL, PsycInfo, and ASSIA were searched from 2000 until April 2021, and reference lists of included studies were searched. Studies were included that described causes and management of abdominal pain in elderly. No software has been utilized to analyze the data. The data was extracted based on specific form that contains (Author’s name, publication year, country, methodology and results).

Results: The study included 7 papers. 2 cross sectional, 2 prospective and 3 retrospective studies all reporting causes and management of acute abdominal pain in elderly.

Conclusion: The most common causes of abdominal pain in elderly population were biliary disease, appendicitis and bowel obstruction. Renal colic, hernia and ischemia were also reported in different rates. Diagnosis and management of abdominal pain especially in elderly should be immediate to avoid potential complications.

Open Access Review Article

Overview on Fluid, Electrolyte and Nutrition Management of the Newborn and Pre-term Newborns

Abdulwahab Ahmed Alzahrani, Jumanah Azzam Altaf, Amal Mahmoud Alharbi, Razan Mohammed M. Alqarni, Bander Yahya Otayf, Salem R. J. M. J. Aldhafiri, Dhuha Abdulaziz Alhawsawi, Khulood Abdulrahman Abdulmanea, Maryam Jafar Alhashim, Abdullah Mohammad Abaalkhail, Mohammed Ibrahim Saleh Alsaeed

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 53-60
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i52B33597

Often in extremely preterm newborns in the early postnatal daysproblems in fluid and electrolyte balance occur Due to excessive insensible water loss and renal immaturity. The dietary care of newborn newborns is challenged by the demands of growth and organ development. The stress of a serious disease makes it much more difficult to get enough nourishment. Newborns andespecially premature newborns must be assessed thoroughly for fluid and electrolytes balance. Calculating the fluid and electrolyte demand for sustaining metabolic activities, replacing losses (evaporative, third space, external), and considering pre-existing fluid imbalance are all part of effective fluid and electrolyte management. When a neonate's size or condition prevents them from receiving enteral nutrition, parenteral nutrition can help them grow and thrive. Although eating through the gastrointestinal tract is the recommended method of nutritional management, some situations necessitate the use of PN as an adjuvant or sole treatment. In this article we discuss fluid electrolytes and Nutritional management using parenteral nutrition.

Open Access Review Article

Acute Hypoglycemia in Emergency Room: A Review

Hisham Mohammed Sonbul, Faris Ali Hakami, Ibrahim Ahmed Almathami, Ahmad Yousef Basalamah, Riyad Khalid Almasaud, Hasan Mohssen Alabbadi, Mohammed Ali Alrehaily, Wesam Mostafa Edrees, Hatem Mohammed AlDhalea, Siddiqa Mohamed Ali, Mohammed Aboud Abdullah Alqahtani

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 61-67
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i52B33598

Hypoglycemia is frequently encountered in the emergency department (ED) and has potential for serious morbidity. The incidence and causes of iatrogenic hypoglycemia are not known. We aim to describe how often the cause of ED hypoglycemia is iatrogenic and to identify its specific causes. Adult patients with a chief complaint or ED diagnosis of hypoglycemia, or an ED glucose value of ≤70 milligrams per deciliter (mg/dL) between 2009–2014. Two independent abstractors each reviewed charts of patients with an initial glucose ≤ 50 mg/dL, or initial glucose ≥ 70 mg/dL with a subsequent glucose ≤ 50 mg/dL, to determine if the hypoglycemia was caused by iatrogenesis.

In ED patients with hypoglycemia, iatrogenic causes are relatively common. The most frequent cause was insulin administration for hyperkalemia and uncomplicated hyperglycemia. Additionally, patients at risk of hypoglycemia in the absence of insulin, including those with alcohol intoxication or poor nutritional status, should be monitored closely in the ED.

Open Access Review Article

Updated Treatment of Fibromyalgia Syndrome: A Review

Ahmed Abdulaziz G. Ibrahim, Mazyad Hamed M. AlMutairi, Abeer Fahad M. ALMutairi, Wejdan Alhumaidi A. Alharbi, Ebtesam Ali S. Almadi, Shoog Abdullah O. Alwabisi, Nashwa Zead A. Albalawi, Hamdah Hnef S. Alanazi, Alanoud Abdullah H. Althobaiti, Amirah Ali M. Alkhathami, Amani Salem K. Alamrani, Omniah Salem D. Altemani, Maani Mahmoud A. Mohammedsaleh, Arwa Mohammed Alrefai Aljuhani, Rinad Rasheed M Alrashidi

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 72-79
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i52B33601

Fibromyalgia is a debilitating condition that is frequently misdiagnosed. It affects 2% of the population, with middle-aged women having the highest frequency. Fibromyalgia affects more women than men, and It becomes worse as you get older. Because medical treatment for fibromyalgia is typically only partial, health professionals must provide patients with ongoing assistance in order for them to become effective, active self-managers. There is no one-size-fits-all drug for fibromyalgia, but you do have a lot of options for treating your symptoms. However, Antidepressants in general such as “duloxetine” and Gabapentinoids drugs such as “pregabline” are the most used drugs. There is some evidence that NSAIDs may have a synergistic effect when combined with centrally active agents such as tricyclic antidepressants and anticonvulsants. Among non-pharmacological therapy, exercise and psychoeducational techniques have the most evidence of efficacy, but they must be personalized to the individual. In this review we will be looking at diagnosis and treatment of fibromyalgia.

Open Access Review Article

Role of Organic Growth Supplement In vitro Multiplication of Orchid Species- A Review

Sohana Momtaj, . Sushma, Saranjeet Kaur

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 212-215
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i52B33618

The main purpose of this article is to review role of several organic growth additives such Apple juice, coconut water (CW), maize extract, banana homogenate (BH), peptone and protocorms etc which stimulate the multiplication rate of various orchid species in in vitro multiplication. These organic growth supplements help to increase the number of shoots, root and leaf in culture medium. In many orchid tissue culture, organic growth supplements, which are the most essential medium aspect to stimulate tissue growth, production and facilitate the regeneration of shoot. The banana homogenate (BH) had the highest rate of regeneration and root developments. The use of organic growth supplements resulted in increased regeneration, the creation of more shoots and the development of fresh plantlets. Amino acids, proteins, vitamins, carbohydrates and various types of organic compounds are present in these growth supplements. These components have the potential to play a significant role in the development and creation of culture. Now more research is needed to figure out which factors are responsible for the organic additives’ promoter effect.

Open Access Review Article

Current Approaches for the Management of Multiple Sclerosis – A Review

Lakhwinder Singh, Sabina Yasmin, Rajiv Sharma

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 222-228
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i52B33620

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune, neuroinflammatory disease which interfere with the central nervous system and damage the myelin sheath and axons. It is mediated by auto-reactive lymphocytes that cross the blood brain barrier cause inflammation, demyelination and axonal loss disturb the communications between the neurons. The exact cause of the MS is not known but it is reported that it may be due to the genetic, environmental factors, viral infections (Epstein Barr virus). There are various approaches for the management of Multiple sclerosis like disease modifying agents are mainly used. Some of the monoclonal antibodies (Ocrelizumab) are approved recently for the management of MS. Due to various unwanted side effects with conventional medicines people are eager to use cost effective medicines with no or less side effects; therefore herbal medicines are best choice for them, they works by different pharmacological actions like reduce oxidative stress, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant effects and others. Mainly used herbal plants like Ginkgobiloba, Salvia officinalis, Nigella sativa.

Open Access Review Article

Prevalence and Management of Anemia in Adolescents in Primary Care Settings

Faisal Suliman Algaows, Jazi Abdullah Aloseimi, Fatima Mohammed Almahmoudi, Abdulaziz Ali Mohammed Alzawani, A. Alzahrani Omar Abdulaziz, Abdulelah Aref Alismail, Ohoud Hassan Assiri, Marwa Abdulla Aldosseri, Fatimah Mohammad Hausawi, Bandar Alhumaidi Alanazi, Abdullah Mohammed Obaid Bin Namshah, Mohammed Ibrahim Saleh Alsaeed

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 229-235
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i52B33621

Anemia is defined as a drop in haemoglobin (Hb), hematocrit (HCT), or red blood cell (RBC) count. Anemia is a widespread issue in primary care, and primary care physicians are generally the first to notice its symptoms. Anaemia is a prevalent clinical concern among the adolescents.  It is widely known that haemoglobin levels drop with age increase. Anemia has been linked to a variety of negative effects, including higher mortality, hospitalisation, and a worse quality of life. epidemiological reporting of anaemia is fragmented. Anemia is diagnosed in part by symptoms reported in general practice/family medicine (GP/FM). Management of anemia relies on the type of anemia and underlying cause, in this review we will be looking at Prevalence, etiology, classification and management of Anemia.

Open Access Review Article

Corn (Zea mays) as a Nutrient Source and Diet: A Review

Mansi Mishra, . Sushma, Reena Sharma

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 299-303
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i52B33629

Maize is also known as corn; it is a cereal. It is a member of Poaceae family which is a grass family. Maize originated 55 to 70 million year ago in central America. By seeing phylogenetic tree of grass species related to maize, it can be conclude that there is no direct ancestor of maize. The closest ancestor of maize are teosintes. Maize contains many phytochemical-like phystosterols, carotenoids and many other phenolic compounds. Maize also helps while reliving anti-HIV activity; this takes place due to the presence of Galanthus Nivalis Agglutinin (GNA) lectin. Maize is the great source of essential fatty assets. The maize cob and the root leaves of it are used to treat problem related to bladder, Nausea, vomiting. The endosperm of maize contains an alcohol solution prolamine called Zein, Which has a great role in pharmaceutical industry. Maize also contains resistant starch which reduces cancer-cecal, atherosclerosis and obesity related issues.

Open Access Review Article

Coagulase Negative Staphylococci (CoNS): A Review

Suvarna Sande

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 304-315
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i52B33630

Coagulase-negative staphylococcus (CoNS) has gained more importance as pathogenic organism for infections in both human and animals. CoNS are especially prevalent in immunocompromised patients, critically ill patients, patients having invasive medical devices.

The incidence of CoNS varied across different geographic locations in humans and animals. Also, there are varying antibiotic resistance patterns observed in CoNS species, with high methicillin resistance and cross resistance against many antibiotics. Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus haemolyticus, Staphylococcus xylosus are the most commonly reported species in various studies. Various virulence factors in CoNS are responsible for enhanced pathogenicity. Because of advancement in diagnostic techniques understanding of molecular mechanisms of CoNS pathogenicity is possible.  Recent advances in identification and typing methods, virulence screening methods will help to assess true pathogenic potential of CoNS species.

This review focuses on various CoNS species, their identification and virulence factors and clinical importance.