Open Access Systematic Review Article

Impact of COVID-19 on the Utilization of Dental Services: A Systematic Review

Manal Adnan Barry, Shahad Abdullah Aldawsari, Seham Muslih Alrashidi, Rami Mohammed A. Alshehri, Badr S. Alhussain, Shahzeb Hasan Ansari

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 220-230
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i51A33487

Emergency Department (ED) visits result from urgent conditions and instances caused by disease, disaster, accidents, or injury and require immediate medical attention. Today, emergency dental services are becoming an integral and crucial facet of properly functioning healthcare systems. Dental emergency visits are a risky undertaking when the COVID-19 epidemic is decimating global health systems. Emergencies in dental care are possibly life-threatening occurrences and demand instant attention to curb infection, severe pain, and tissue bleeding. Examples of these conditions include trauma affecting different facial bones, bacterial infection on soft tissues or cellulitis, and uncontrolled bleeding. Today, given the implications of the COVID-19 pandemic, all providers need to use their professional judgment to determine the need for emergency or urgent care for a patient. Consequently, this systematic review of literature reviews the implications of the COVID-19 epidemic on the use of dental services in different care facilities across the nation.

Open Access Case Study

Physiotherapy Rehabilitation in Operated Case of Patellar Fracture and Medial Malleolus Fracture- A Case Report

Sawari Bhagwatkar, Pratik Phansopkar, Neha Chitale

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 266-270
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i51A33492

Introduction: Road traffic accidents (RTA) are responsible for a considerable amount of global death and morbidity, particularly in developing nations. 'Hidden pandemics,' such as mortality from RTA, often go unnoticed over the world.(1) These days traffic road accidents lead to many fractures included patellar fracture. Patellar fractures account for about 1% of all skeletal fractures and are most common in people between the ages of 20 and 50. 1–3 Men have nearly twice as many cases as women.

Clinical Findings: On physical examination respiratory system, cardiovascular system and central nervous system are normal and on local examination of left lower limb demonstrate attitude of limb in hip and knee in extension and foot in external rotation and multiple abrasions are present over the knee and there were abrasion of 10*2cm present over medial aspect of great toe and abrasion of 5*2cm present over the postero-medial aspect of distal 3rd leg, lacerated wound on medial malleolus.In this case patient was on 8 week protocol for physiotherapy management.

Discussion: In this case report we are discussing a case of 36 year old male with fracture of patella and medial malleolus managed with tension band wiring and nailing respectively. The primary goal of physiotherapy management was to prevent secondary complications and make the patient independent for which rehabilitation protocol was planned which included isometric exercises, dynamic quadriceps bed mobility exercises and ambulation.

Conclusion: Physiotherapy plays an important role in rehabilitation of patient with medial malleolus and patella fracture.

Open Access Study Protocol

Povidone Iodine Ointment vs Cadexomer Iodine Ointment in Management of the Chronic Wound: A Study Protocol

Shubham Gupta, Raju Kamalrao Shinde, Sangita Shinde

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 33-37
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i51A33464

Introduction: Chronic wound and its care has always been a health burden for patient, health care professionals and the entire health care system. There have been certain topical preparations available in market today for application in chronic wound management. In our study, we are comparing effects of cadexomer and povidone iodine ointment in context of reduction in bacterial overload, slough reduction, facilitations of granulation tissue formation, reduction in size of the wound and ultimately in percentage of wound healing and its cost of management.

Aim: Comparison of outcome of Povidone Iodine Ointment and Cadexomer iodine Ointment in management of the wound.

Methodology: This cross section observational study has been conducted among 40 patients diagnosed as chronic wound with 20 patients in each group. Student’s paired t-test and Pearson’s Correlation Coefficient is being used as statistical analysis.

Results: The percentage of patient treated with cadexomer iodine ointment shows significantly (p<0.05) higher rate of wound healing along with significant reduction in bacterial overload and promotion of granulation tissue formation.

Conclusion: Cadexomer as a vector with iodine ointment shows higher rate of reduction of biofilm, slough and debris with better rate of promotion of granulation tissue formation, thus leading to increased and effective rate of healing of wound as well as cost effective management of chronic wounds.

Open Access Study Protocol

Efficacy of Buteyko Breathing Technique on Anxiety, Depression, and Self-efficacy in Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Surgery Patients: A Protocol for Randomized Clinical Trial

Moli Jain, Vishnu Vardhan, Vaishnavi Yadav, Pallavi Harjpal

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 107-114
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i51A33473

Background: Annually, more than a lakh CABG procedure is performed in India aiming to restore blood circulation to heart muscles. But psychological factors like anxiety and depression among such patients pre and post-operatively are often overlooked.

Our study aims to incorporate rehabilitation for psychological factors along with Cardiac rehabilitation using the Buteyko breathing technique among such population.

Methods: Total 44 Post CABG patients after enrolment in the study will be divided into 2 groups to evaluate anxiety, depression, and self-efficacy, Conventional group (n=22) which receive in-hospital Cardiac rehabilitation for 2 weeks whereas the other group, the Experimental group (n=22) will receive In-hospital Cardiac rehabilitation along with Buteyko Breathing training.

Discussion: Anchoring rehabilitation for psychological consequences in patients with CABG surgery will play a major role in fostering recovery, decrease the cost of Medicare and ameliorate symptoms. This will pave a path to incorporate the Buteyko breathing technique along with Cardiac rehabilitation as a holistic approach for CABG patients.

Open Access Study Protocol

Broadening the Scope and Utility of Frontal Sinus Morphology for Predicting the Growth Pattern and Skeletal Malocclusion in Cleft Lip and Palate Cases

Vikrant V. Jadhav, Pallavi Daigavane, Ranjit Kamble, Sunita Shrivastav, Meenakshi Tiwari

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 173-179
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i51A33482

Introduction: The three dimensionally affected growth and development of craniofacial structures in CLCP leads to problems dealing with facial appearance, skeletal and dental malocclusion, feeding, airway, hearing, and speech.

Objectives: Evaluation and utilisation of fs morphology as a forecast of future growth for growth pattern and skeletal malocclusion in CLCP cases.

Methodology: A 30 Cases from Skeletal Class I, III and CLCP will be selected from Department of Orthodontics. Dimensions and area of frontal sinus is evaluated using 3DVT. Parameters are evaluated in sagittal and coronal section. The measurement's dependability will be determined using a reliability test (Cronbach alpha test). Chisquare Test, One Way ANOVA, and Multiple Comparison will be used to do descriptive and analytical statistics. The Tukey Test is a statistical test that is used.

Expected Results: Frontal sinus dimensions when observed for Class III will be found greater. Average dimensions will be observed for skeletal Class I cases. Based on the dimensions of frontal sinus observed in cleft lip and palate, we can predict the skeletal malocclusion and growth pattern.

Conclusion: The morphology of the fs is evaluated in cleft cases for the upcoming growth pattern and skeletal malocclusion if is known during formulating a treatment plan for the three dimensionally affected jaw bases and craniofacial structure the requirement for later surgical intervention can be prevented.

Open Access Minireview Article

A Mini-review: Silver Nanoparticles (AgNPs) as Antimicrobial in Magical Socks

Lubna Abdulazeem, Yusor Fadhil Alasadi, Yasir Haider Al-Mawlah, Ameer M. Hadi

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 23-32
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i51A33463

Silver nanoparticles vary in size from 1 to 100 nm. These have unique properties that assists in molecular diagnostics, therapies, and devices used in many medical procedures. The most popular methods for making silver nanoparticles are physical and chemical approaches. Chemical and physical methods are troublesome because synthesis is expensive. The biological approach is a feasible alternative one. The major biological processes involved are bacteria, fungi, and plant extracts. Silver nanoparticles are mainly used in diagnostic and therapeutic applications in medicine. Their medical uses rely on the antimicrobial property, while the anti-inflammatory property has its own range of applications. Silver nanoparticles are used in a number of medical therapies and instruments, as well as in a variety of biological sciences.

This article focuses on chemical and biological techniques for synthesizing AgNPs, which will subsequently be utilized to coat socks materials, testing antimicrobial activity and comparing the ability of these coated fabrics to minimize infections.

Open Access Original Research Article

A Survey of Health Care Professionals’ Knowledge and Practice toward Penicillin Allergy

Mohamed Balaha, Nehad Ahmed, Faisal Alonazi, Saleh Alshehri

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-5
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i51A33460

Aim: The present study aimed to describe health care professionals’ Knowledge and Practice toward Penicillin Allergy.

Methodology: This was a cross sectional study that was conducted in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The data of the present study were collected from the health care professionals using an online survey that was prepared using google forms and was sent to health care specialists through WhatsApp.

Results: About 13% of the respondents don’t take the allergy history, 12% rarely take the allergy history, and 21% of the respondents said that they take the history sometimes. Only 45.07% of the healthcare providers said that they are satisfied with their knowledge of drug hypersensitivity reactions. Moreover, more than 70% of the healthcare workers agreed that penicillin allergy has an adverse impact on patient’s quality of life. More than 44% of them informed that penicillin allergy occurred frequently in their daily practice.

Conclusion: There was a lack in the knowledge of the healthcare providers about penicillin allergy. Educational interventions are needed in order to increase the awareness of the healthcare providers and to improve the wise use of penicillin and other antibiotics.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Use of Innovative Materials in the Organization of Clinical Treatment in Dentistry

Zaurbek Magomedovich Aliev, Marina Karapetovna Nersisyan, Valeriia Vadimovna Denisova, Aleksandr Zazaevich Bigvava, Diana Igorevna Luchkovskaya, Daniil Romanovich Ermilin

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 6-12
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i51A33461

The article examines the features of the use of innovative materials in the organization of clinical treatment in dentistry. In modern conditions, solving the problem of patient safety is one of the main conditions for the functioning of medicine in general and dentistry in particular.  For this reason, the search for innovations in the field of antimicrobial protection and, together with it, the functionality of various materials is one of the main tasks of researchers in the field of dentistry. Nanomaterials, which are made on the basis of graphene, are able to demonstrate excellent antimicrobial properties. These materials have the ability to disrupt the integrity of the bacterial cell membrane and produce reactive oxygen species (ROS).

These materials are widely used in the manufacture of dentures, they are incorporated in the composition of composite resins and luting cements in the organization of restorative treatment, are used for the manufacture of adhesive materials.  Many experts recognize that these materials are the future of dental practice, since they have the ability to provide a high level of functionality and safety.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Antidiabetic Activity of Polyherbal Formulation “Vasant Kusumakar Ras” on Alloxan-induced and Dexamethasone-induced Diabetic Rats

Talha Jawaid, Kumari Nishu, Mehnaz Kamal, Saud M. Alsanad

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 13-22
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i51A33462

Aim: The current study observed the antidiabetic effect of Vasant Kusumakar Ras, an Ayurvedic polyherbal formulation, in alloxan-induced and dexamethasone-induced diabetic rats.

Materials and Methods: Alloxan (120 mg/kg, i.p.) and dexamethasone sodium phosphate (5 mg/kg, i.p.) were used to induce diabetes in rats. The oral antidiabetic activity of Vasant Kusumakar Ras was evaluated by single doses of Vasant Kusumakar Ras (400 and 600 mg/kg, p.o.) in albino rats during a 10-day treatment period, with the effect of the Vasant Kusumakar Ras on blood glucose levels and serum lipid parameters measured on 0, 7th, and 11th day. Glibenclamide (5 mg/kg, p.o.) was used as the reference drug.

Results: In alloxan-induced diabetic rats, the elevated levels of blood glucose significantly (p < 0.05) decreased after oral administration of Vasant Kusumakar Ras (400 mg/kg and 600 mg/kg), and Glibenclamide (5 mg/kg). When compared to the diabetic control group, treatment with Vasant Kusumakar Ras and Glibenclamide for 10 days reduced total cholesterol (TC) significantly (p < 0.001). Treatment with Vasant Kusumakar Ras and Glibenclamide for 10 days, significantly (p < 0.001) decreased low-density lipoprotein (LDL) level when compared to the diabetic control group. In dexamethasone-induced diabetic rats, all rats given with dexamethasone and Vasant Kusumakar Ras (400 mg/kg and 600 mg/kg) showed a significant (p < 0.05) decrease in the level of blood glucose when compared with diabetic control rats. The rats treated with dexamethasone and Glibenclamide showed a significant (p < 0.05) decrease in blood glucose level when compared to diabetic control rats. When compared to the diabetic control group, treatment with Vasant Kusumakar Ras and Glibenclamide (5 mg/kg) for 10 days reduced TC significantly (p < 0.001). Treatment with Vasant Kusumakar Ras and Glibenclamide for 10 days, significantly (p < 0.001) decreased LDL level when compared to the diabetic control group.

Conclusion: Vasant Kusumakar Ras was shown to have significant antidiabetic activity comparable to that of glibenclamide and it also improves the lipid metabolism in both alloxan-induced and dexamethasone-induced diabetic rats.

Open Access Original Research Article

Role of Therapeutic Drug Monitoring in Medication Safety, Physicians Perception, and Practice

Khaled Alhusayni, Ibrahim Dighriri, Abdullah Althomali, Abdulaziz Alkhammash, Faisal Alharthi, Adel Alharthi, Theaar Alotaibi, Saeed Alzahrani, Abdulrahman Hommadi, Fahad Rajab, Majed Alfaifi, Ibrahim Mobarki, Sultan Alrubaiei, Rasha Alqahtani, Shaden Bin Howimel

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 38-46
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i51A33466

Introduction: Patients admitted to the hospital will receive various drugs, each carrying the risk of error. Medication errors concern our healthcare system, especially considering the relatively high number of patients admitted to hospitals. Assuming that each patient receives at least two medications twice a day, the likelihood of a medication error is considerable. Therefore, therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) focuses on measuring blood medication levels and plays a crucial role in medication safety.

Aims: This study aimed to determine the effect of TDM in ensuring the safety of medications in many Taif hospitals. Also, to enhance the safety and quality of drug use and reflect physician perception and practice regarding TDM.

Methodology: A prospective cross-sectional study consisting of questionnaires was conducted to physicians at many of Taif's governmental hospitals between March and May 2021. Questionnaires evaluated three parts: physician demographics, physician perception about TDM, and physician practices regarding TDM. The collected data were processed using the Excel program.

Results: More than 80% of the interviewed physicians agreed that TDM is a tool that can guide the clinician to provide effective and safe drug therapy in the individual patient. Approximately 77% agreed that TDM is a team of decision-making groups. Around 25% of physicians performed TDM weekly, 22% monthly, and 10% daily. The medications that participating physicians ordered TDM were digoxin (30%), carbamazepine (21%), and gentamycin (17%). The participants had a limited understanding of the advantages of TDM in terms of drug safety and welfare.

Conclusion: The number of actual drug errors occurs in the healthcare systems. Therefore, must establishment of TDM in hospitals. Medical administration and physicians must cooperate with the clinical pharmacist. Also, establish workshops for health practitioners to educate them about the role of TDM and pharmacokinetic laboratories in controlling the therapeutic process.

Open Access Original Research Article

Formulation and Evaluation of Tablets Containing Fenugreek Extract Using Sodium Starch Glycolate as Super Disintegrant

Divya Jyothi

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 47-53
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i51A33467

The present work is aimed to formulate the tablets containing fenugreek extract as drug by wet granulation method. Further the effect of Sodium Starch Glycolate as super disintegrant on disintegration and drug release was studied. Fenugreek extract contains mucilage which retards the disintegration of tablets and hence shows slower drug release. Hence in order to improve disintegration and thereby in vitro drug release, Sodium Starch Glycolate was used as super disintegrant.

Tablet formulations were prepared without the SSG (Conventional-F1) and also with sodium starch glycolate (F2-F4) by wet granulation method. Assessment of flow properties of granules, physicochemical characterization of tablet formulations was carried out. Fenugreek is widely used for its antidiabetic activity which is attributed to mainly to the presence of an alkaloid Trigonelline. Hence in vitro release study of trigonelline was carried out which showed that the percentage release from F1 and F2 was found to be 58.12±4.49 and 99.08±0.01 respectively after 6 hrs. This study concludes that tablet formulation of fenugreek seed extracts with super disintegrants will be more desirable, advantageous and therapeutically more beneficial than incorporating the direct plant materials for the treatment of diabetes for faster onset of action.

Open Access Original Research Article

Prediction of COVID-19 New Cases Using Multiple Linear Regression Model Based on May to June 2020 Data in Ethiopia

Alemayehu Siffir Argawu, Gizachew Gobebo, Ketema Bedane, Temesgen Senbeto, Reta Lemessa, Agassa Galdassa

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 54-63
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i51A33468

The aims of this study was to predict COVID-19 new cases using multiple linear regression model based on May to June 2020 data in Ethiopia. The COVID-19 cases data was collected from the Ethiopia Ministry of Health Organization Facebook page. Pearson’s correlation analysis and linear regression model were used in the study. And, the COVID-19 new cases was positively correlated with the number of days, daily laboratory tests, new cases of males, new cases of females, new cases from Addis Ababa city, and new cases from foreign natives. In the multiple linear regression model, COVID-19 new cases was significantly predicted by the number of days at 5%, the number of daily laboratory tests at 10%, and the number of new cases from Addis Ababa city at 1% levels of significance. Then, the researchers recommended that Ethiopian Government, Ministry of Health, and Addis Ababa city administrative should give more awareness and protections for societies, and they should open again more COVID-19 laboratory testing centers. And, this study will help the government and doctors in preparing their plans for the next times.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Knowledge on Lamaze Breathing among Primigravida

Sharda Nagvanshi, C. C. Linson

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 64-69
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i51A33469

Primigravida, particularly women who are pregnant for the first time, are generally unaware of Lamaze breathing and its benefits. The purpose of this study was to analyse Primigravida moms' knowledge of Lamaze breathing in Bhopal's designated hospitals. This study was conducted using a descriptive research approach. The study's target population was primigravida, and the sample method was purposive sampling. A total of 50 people were included in the study. The knowledge of primigravida about Lamaze breathing was assessed using a self-structured questionnaire, and the study findings revealed that knowledge of Lamaze breathing was inadequate. It is therefore important to educate antenatal mothers about simple but useful breathing exercises to reduce pain perception and promote comfort during labour.

Open Access Original Research Article

Enhancement of Drug Dissolution of Erlotinib Tablets by Micronization Technique Using Pharmaceutical Experimental Design

Neeraj Kumar, Harish Dureja, Amrish Chandra

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 70-78
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i51A33470

Lung cancer is the second most frequent cancer and among the top cause of death worldwide. Chemotherapy is the main therapeutic option for non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), which accounts for the majority of all lung malignancies. The aim of the current work was to develop a tablet formulation having increased drug release profile to improve the bioavailability in order to reduce the dose of the drug. In this present study, Erlotinib tablet was prepared using micronization technique which showed increase drug release profile. Film-coated tablets containing Erlotinib hydrochloride (150 mg) were prepared by dry granulation technique and coated using Opadry ready-mix. Tablets were characterized for Hardness, Friability, Potency and Drug release profile. Drug release was checked in 0.1 N HCL containing 0.5 % SLS and biorelevant dissolution media up to 60 minutes. Tablets of the selected batch were subjected to dissolution in biorelevant media and compare with reference product. The improvement in the drug release was observed in the biorelevant media in comparison with reference product. The in-vitrodissolution data demonstrated the potential of micronization technology to prepare tablets with improved bioavailability of the drug.

Open Access Original Research Article

Synergistic Effect of β-Carotene and Metformin on Antihyperglycemic and Antidyslipidemic Activities in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats

Khadiza Khanam, Sultana Rajia, Mim Yeasmin, Munira Morshed, Rashidul Haque

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 79-87
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i51A33471

Purpose: Worldwide prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM) has become an issue of great concern in current decades. To date, a large number of biological properties have been reported from carotenoids, particularly protective effects against cancer, cardiovascular diseases, and DM, including enhancement of insulin sensitivity.In this study, we aimed to evaluate the efficacy of β-carotene as an additive agent with metformin in ameliorating Type2 (T2)DM.

Methods: In this experiment, fasting blood glucose level (BGL), low density lipoprotein (LDL), high density lipoprotein (HDL), total cholesterol (TC) and triglycerides (TG) were measured in serum of Wister albino rats with streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes and after treatment with metformin (850mg/70kg b.w.) and β-carotene (10 mg/70kg b.w.) administered orally once daily for three weeks.

Results: Metformin and β-carotene treatments individually resulted in significant (p<0.001) reversal of the diabetes induced increase in BGL, LDL, TC and TG, whereas significantly increased the STZ-induced decrease in HDL, compared to diabetic control. As compared to the monotherapy, the combination therapy with metformin and β-carotene showed a significant (p<0.001) attenuation of BGL and serum level of LDL, TC, and TG and a slight increase (p<0.05) in serum HDL level, as compared to the treatment with β-carotene, but not with metformin.

Conclusion: The combination therapy of β-carotene and metformin produced a significant antidiabetic and antihyperlipidemic effect than the monotherapy alone and provides a scientific rationale for their use in antidiabetic therapy as a potential antioxidant.

Open Access Original Research Article

Equivalent Method Development and Cross Validation of Pharmacopoeial Method of Montelukast Sodium

. Vaishali, Sudhanshu Ranjan Swain, Santosh Kumar Verma

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 88-106
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i51A33472

The purpose of this exploration research work article is to develop equivalent method and evaluate its equivalency (Cross validation) against pharmacopoeial method of Montelukast sodium for the evaluation and assessment of process related impurities i.e. Methyl MLK impurity in Montelukast sodium by HPLC method and its principles. The method mentioned in European Pharmacopoeia (EP) and United States Pharmacopoeia (USP) does not sufficiently separates impurity C and impurity D , as these impurities elutes under the main peak and the pharmacopoeial methods were also not able to detect the Methyl MLK impurity which is not listed in USP monograph. So our prime design of experiment is to develop of new high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method which eliminates the drawback of two pharmacopoeial methods and this proposed created strategy is fit for recognition and detection of Methyl MLK impurity and separation of all process related impurities of Montelukast sodium mentioned in EP and USP monographs. An efficient strategy screening and scouting in which various C-18 columns were tried and tested. LUNA C-18 column utilized in RP HPLC mode ended up being the phenomenal decision for the technique streamlining. The proportion of acetonitrile and trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) in water and in the mobile phase, column temperature, flow rate and diluents were considered as basic strategy boundary. The method developed equivalency was checked in terms of Specificity, LOD, Quantitation (LOQ), Precision, Linearity, Relative response factor (RRF), and Accuracy.

Open Access Original Research Article

Predictor of Severity of Lung Injury and Oxygen Saturation in COVID- 19 Patients

Fahimeh Shahjooie, Sadrollah Mahmudi, Somayeh Mohammadi, Hassan Goodarzi, Mehrdad Farajy, Mohammadreza Ghanee, Akbar Ghorbani Alvanegh, Amirhossein Ghazale

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 107-114
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i51A33474

Introduction: Wide spectrum of clinical features of COVID-19 was seen from mild to severe. This is very important to determine the severity of disease, early management of severe disorder may increase the chance of survival.

Methods: This cross sectional study perform on 150 patients with mean age of 53 years that refer to from 21 February to 19 April 2020.

Result: The most comorbidity disease HTN, DM and IHD with prevalence of 26.2%, 20%, 11.3% which had higher severity of lung disease. There was a significant relationship between age, lymphopenia, CRP, IHD, DM, shortness of breath and body pain with the severity of lung injury, shortness of breath had higher severity of lung injury but myalgia had a lower severity rather than the others.  level of the LDH was associated with chest CT scan score and so severe disease Further results showed that the mean±SD of LDH in 3 CT group were 576.30±214.82, 641.89± 277.07, 919.92± 382.14 in CT score less than 20, 20-50 and more than 50 respectively (P=0.002).

According this study there was significant relationship between age, BMI, CRP, shortness of breath and fever with blood oxygen saturation. Further results showed that the correlation between LDH and oxygen saturation was r=-0.31 (p=0.002)

Open Access Original Research Article

Microwave Assisted Extraction of Papaya Leaves and Investigation on Antioxidant Activity

. Shobitharai, Divya Jyothi, Swathi Das, C. M. Sumayya, A. Thabsheer

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 115-122
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i51A33475

Microwave assisted extraction (MAE) has gained lot of attention due to its advantages such as less solvent consumption, short time period, higher extraction efficiency, therefore serves as better alternative for conventional extraction methods of plant materials. Plant phenolic compounds are important constituents responsible for reducing the oxidative stress that induces tissue damage which is the one of the major causative factors associated with the chronic disease. Papaya plant is a medicinal plant which became popular for the treatment of dengue fever due to its property. Considering the current medicinal importance of the papaya plant, the present study was aimed at microwave assisted extraction of phenolic content from papaya leaf using ethanol, water as solvent and investigate their antioxidant potential.

In order to compare the extraction efficiency of phenolic compounds, conventional extraction and microwave assisted extraction method was used to prepare the extracts. Then extracts were subjected to preliminary phytochemical analysis followed by the estimation of total phenolic content by using Folin-Ciocalteu method. Antioxidant activity was investigated by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay.

The alcoholic and aqueous extracts of papaya leaf showed the presence of steroids, alkaloids, saponins, carbohydrates, phenolic compounds by preliminary phytochemical analysis. FTIR spectrum of both aqueous and ethanolic extract showed characteristic peak at 3314.62 cm-1, 1635 cm-1 which provide evidence for presence of phenolic compounds. The total phenolic content of the alcoholic and aqueous leaf extracts from MAE was found to be 43.58mg and 80.58 mg/g papaya leaf powder of the Gallic acid equivalent (GAE), respectively. Aqueous solvent was found to be suitable for extraction of phenolic content from papaya leaf and Microwave assisted extracts showed higher phenolic content and therefore potential antioxidant activity. Therefore, papaya leaf is a good candidate to be used as a natural antioxidant for the treatment of various diseases.

Open Access Original Research Article

Green Synthesis and Characterization of Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) from Camellia sinensis Leaf Extract and Its Potential of Antibacterial Activity and Acetyl Cholinesterase Inhibitory Activities

Nandhini Baskaran, Anitha Subash

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 134-147
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i51A33477

Nanoparticles are widely used in the biotechnology and biomedicalfield. Green synthetic methods of nanoparticles are a simple and environmentallybenign process that declines the demerits of conventional chemical andphysical methods. The synthesis of semiconductor and metal nanoparticles is a risingdo research part, due to the possible applications in the progress of new technologies.The present research information the synthesis and characterization of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) using C. Sinensis leaf extract. The findings of these studies show the green synthesized ZnO NPs are effective, safe, and eco-friendly as they arestable and have abundant flower shapes with maximum particles in size ranging from 100 nm indiameter. The synthesized ZnO NPs have been tested against the pathogenic microorganismsand showed an excellent zone of inhibition. DPPH radical scavenging activity of synthesized ZnO NPs expressed DPPH free radicals as a percentage of inhibition andIC50value of 70.37%. Acetylcholine esterase (AChE) inhibitory activity possesses the maximum amount of the synthesized ZnO NPs. Since the results ofthe current work, it was concluded that the synthesized ZnO NPs exhibited significant antibacterial and acetylcholine esterase inhibitory activities. Hence it can beused as a drug with multifunction in treating Alzheimer’s disease (AD).

Open Access Original Research Article

Simple, Accurate and Efficient High Performance Liquid Chromatographic Method for Determination of Vandetanib in Bulk and in Pharmaceutical Forms

M. Murali, P. Venkateswara Rao

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 153-160
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i51A33479

A simple, selective, linear, precise and accurate isocratic RP-HPLC method was developed and validated for rapid assay of Vandetanib, an anticancer drug, in both bulk and tablet dosage form. Elution at a flow rate of 1ml/min was employed on a symmetry C18 column at ambient temperature. The mobile phase consisted of acetonitrile, water and orthophosphoric acid in the ratio of 90:08:02 (v/v/v). Linearity was observed in concentration range of 50-200 ppm. The retention time for Vandetanib was 3.326 min. The method was validated as per the ICH guidelines. The proposed method can be successfully applied for the estimation of Vandetanib in pharmaceutical dosage forms. Moreover the detection alone was also verified through LC-MS of the Vandetanib drug using ESI method which provides future scope for study of this drug using LC-MS method also.

Open Access Original Research Article

Knowledge Regarding Risk Factors and Preventive Measures of Varicose Vein among Intensive Care Unit Staff Nurses

Rose Mary George, Angel Samson Rathod

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 161-168
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i51A33480

Background: Varicose vein has disturbed humans since ancient days as a chronic disorder. According to the current statistics given by the Express health care, approximately 2.7 million people worldwide suffer with varicose veins. If   left untreated and undiagnosed, varicose veins can end up with pooling of blood in the venous system and further complications.

Aim and Objectives: Aim of the study was to assess the knowledge of staff nurses regarding risk factors and preventive measures of varicose vein. The study objectives were to assess the knowledge of staff nurses working in intensive care units regarding risk factors and preventive measures of varicose vein, to develop an evidence-based information booklet for staff nurses regarding prevention of varicose veins and to find out the association between the knowledge scores of staff nurses regarding risk factors and preventive measures of varicose vein with selected demographic variables.

Materials and methods: A quantitative research approach with a non-experimental descriptive survey research design was used to select 60 staff nurses working in the ICUs using convenience sampling method. The data was collected using a structured knowledge questionnaire developed by the researchers. Data was analysed using descriptive and inferential statistics using SPSS.

Results: The study results showed that 53% of the staff nurses had adequate knowledge scores regarding the risk factors and preventive measures of varicose veins whereas 30% had moderate knowledge, and 17 % had inadequate knowledge scores. Significant association was found between demographic variables such as age, experience and education of staff nurses with their knowledge scores.

Conclusion: Approximately only half of the study participants had adequate knowledge regarding risk factors and preventive measures of varicose vein. Hence it is recommended that extensive educational sessions to be conducted for further enhancement of awareness of staff nurses related to prevention and management of varicose veins.

Open Access Original Research Article

Phytochemical and Pharmacological Evaluation of Yellow and Green Variety of Cocus nucifera Water

Anisha Priya Lobo, K. V. Arpitha, Krisha D. Shetty, Shobitha T. Rai, Prashant Nayak, Abhishek Kumar, Pankaj Kumar, Aravinda Pai

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 180-186
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i51A33483

Coconut water widely consumed as a health drink by people around the world. This led to an urge to study various properties of Cocus nucifera. We evaluated anti oxidant and phyto chemical constituents of two variety of coconut the yellow and green variety. Phytochemical assays showed the presence of terpinoids, alkaloids, resin, sugars, steroids, glycosides and tannins in both the dwarfs but yellow variety showed more amount of photochemical constituents. In both the variety of coconut water antioxidants were found. In the assay of DPPH, scavenging of nitric oxide assay and scavenging of hydrogen peroxide the presence of antioxidants were proved against the standard ascorbic acid. Results found yellow variety to be more potent antioxidant.

All assays proved yellow dwarf was healthier than green dwarfs with more health benefits and medicinal properties.

Open Access Original Research Article

Formulation and Evaluation of Orodispersible Tablet for Anti-Asthamatic Drug

Amitkumar M. Lokade, Priya G. Shete, Neha G. Shete, Deepak S. Khobragade, Awdhut D. Pimpale, Rahul W. Gawali, Pranita S. Jirvankar, Shital A. Chandewar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 187-199
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i51A33484

Objective iof ithe ipresent iwork iis ito idevelop iorodispersible itablets iof iSalbutamol i ito iimprove ibioavailability, idisintegration itime, idissolution iefficacy iand ipatient icompliance. iOrodispersible itablets iare ithe ifast igrowing iand ihighly iaccepted idrug idelivery isystem iin inow idays imainly ito iimprove ipatient icompliance. iOrodispersible itablets ihave inumber iof iadvantages iover iconventional idosage iforms, ibecause iof ithat iOrodispersible itablets ihave iemerged ias ian ialternative ito iconventional idosage iforms. Orodispersible itablets idissolve ior idisintegrates iinstantly ion ithe ipatient itongue ior ibuccal imucosa. iOrodispersible itablets iof isolbutamol i iwere iprepared iusing isuperdisintegrants, iCrospovidone,Mannitol (Pearlitol iSD-200), ias idiluents iby idirect icompression imethod. iNine iformulations iwere iprepared iusing ithe isuperdisintegrants iat ilower, iintermediate i& ihigher iconcentration. iMannitol iis iused ito ienhance ithe iorganoleptic iproperties iof itablets. iTablets iwere ievaluated ifor iuniformity iof iweight, ihardness, ifriability, iwater iabsorption iratio, idispersion itime, idisintegration itime iand iin ivitro idrug irelease. iAll ithe iformulations ishowed idisintegration itime iless ithan i33 mins iand idrug irelease iby idissolution i(100% iat ithe iend iof i10 imins).

Open Access Original Research Article

Perception of Dental Aesthetics among Dental Students; a Cross-sectional Study in Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

Mashari Mulayfi Alanazi, Sulaiman Abdullah Alsanie, NawafJazaa Alotaibi, Ahad K. Alenezi, Waleed Abaradie, Badr Soliman M. Alhussain, Shahzeb Hasan Ansari

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 200-209
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i51A33485

Background: Dental aesthectics is now a necessary area in the field of dentistry, and new graduates' perceptions should be investigated. Hence the present cross-sectional study aimed to assess the perception about dental aesthetics among clinical interns, dentistry interns, and pre-clinical interns in dental colleges on Saudi Arabia.

Materials and Methods: The study subjects comprises of all above three (clinical interns, dentistry interns, and pre-clinical interns) groups volunteered from different colleges. Perception about dental aesthetics was measured using a 14 item questionnaire. Chi-square test was performed on SPSS to determine the statistically significant differences (p<0.05) across gender and dentistry level.

Results: Findings revealed 61% of the participants were male while 39% were female. Among them, 26% were pre-clinical interns, 41% were dental interns and 33%were clinical students. All the particiants reported some kind of dissatisfaction with appearance of their teeth and males were more satisfied and confident about their teeth and smile than females.

Conclusion: To conclude, in the present study male participants and clinical students were confident about their smile as compared to female while dental interns thought others have good smile. The study reported the significant gender differences on looking at magazines, having whiter teeth, they way gums look and putting hand over mouth while non-significant differences across dentistry level.

Open Access Original Research Article

Free-radical Scavenging and Quantitative Estimation of Flavonoids from the Polar Extracts of Corchorus depressus Leaves

Khuntia Tapas Kumar, Nanda Upendra Nath, Senapati Aswini Kumar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 210-219
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i51A33486

Background: The investigation of total flavonoids and antioxidant activity of polar extracts of Corchorus depressus is the major aim of this study. As observed from ancient literatures and folkloric claims the plant Corchorus depressus worshipped by the married women of Odisha, India, in the rituals called as “Jama Jutia”, possesses different biological activities including antioxidant property.

Methods: The diphenyl picryl hydrazine, hydroxyl radical and nitric oxide radical scavenging methods were performed for measurement of the antioxidant activity at different extracts. The flavonoid and phenolic content of the extracts were determined by using aluminium chloride and Folin-Ciocalteau’s reagent (FCR) methods respectively.

Results: The results for estimation of total phenolic content (mg/ 100 g) expressed as gallic acid equivalent (GAE) and total flavonoid (mg/ 100 g) in weight of quercetin equivalent (QE) was highest in methanolic extract 78.46 and  21.2 respectively, followed by 18.18 mg/100 g in GAE and 1.80 mg/100 g in QE for aqueous extract.

Conclusion: The methanolic extract of C. depressus at 100µg/ml showed highest DPPH, hydroxyl and nitric oxide radical scavenging activity and this activity may be attributed to the presence of saponins and flavonoids as detected in the extract.

Open Access Original Research Article

Circulating Leptin, Insulin and Thyroid Profile Levels in Different Age Groups of Women Population of Manipur, India

Loushambam Samananda Singh, Laimayum Amarnath Sharma, Y. Govindaraj, K. S. H. Gomti Devi, W. Kanan, R. K. Ranjit

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 231-237
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i51A33488

Background: Age is linked to a number of hormonal disorders. This study was designed to look for changes in leptin, insulin, and thyroid profile concentrations in women of various ages.

Materials and Methods: This study was carried out in the Department of Physiology, Regional Insititute of Medical Sciences, Imphal. Female subjects (350 participants) between the ages of 20 and 65 were recruited. Subjects were grouped as pre-menopause (< 40 age), menopause (≥ 40 to < 50 age) and post-menopause (≥ 50 age). Blood samples were separated serum and estimated levels of leptin, insulin and thyroid profile levels. Statistical calculation was done using SPSS software version 26, at P < 0.05 as significant.

Results: Body mass index (BMI) had significant changes in different age groups (P < 0.05), but the levels were not in the higher range of BMI. Serum levels of leptin, insulin, T4 (thyroxine) and TSH (thyroid stimulating hormone) were found no significant differences among the different age groups.

Conclusion: Study demonstrates that age has no effect on the levels of leptin, insulin, T4, and TSH in this Manipuri women's group.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Dorsomorphin Homolog 1 (DMH1) against Diabetic Dyslipidemia in Streptozotocin-induced Diabetic Rats

Abdulaziz M. Alzahrani, Mai A. Alim A. Sattar Ahmad, Basma T. Alharthy

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 246-256
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i51A33490

Dyslipidemia is usually observed in both types of diabetes and, particularly, “atherogenic dyslipidemic triad” is strongly linked to a higher risk of adverse cardiovascular outcome. On the other hand, bone morphogenetic proteins (BMP) are a group of wide variety of proteins which were found overexpressed and implicated in contribution and acceleration of atherosclerotic calcification. So, the present study aimed to assess effect of DMH1, a selective BMP inhibitor, in a rat model of diabetic-induced dyslipidemia.

Methods: STZ-induced diabetes in Wistar rats was used as a model to assess the

antihyperlipidemic effect of DMH1(5mg/kg) for a period of 8 weeks. Rats were divided intonormal control (C=10), diabetic control (DC=10), diabetic+vehicle (DV=10) and diabetic DMH1-treated rats (DT=10). Fasting blood glucose (FBG) level was measured on weekly bases. Then, at the end of the experiment, rats were anesthetized and blood samples were collected for the determination of total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), LDL and HDL levels using the appropriate ELISA assay.

Results: FBG levels for all diabetic groups were significantly high, during the experiment period, compared to the control (P< 0.001). While dyslipidemia was remarkable in the diabetic non-treated groups, DMH1 treatment showed a significant decrease in TC (P< 0.001), TG (P< 0.05) and LDL levels (P< 0.001) compared to the non-treated groups (DC & DV). Concurrently, HDL levels for DT group were significantly increased compared to DC or DV groups (P< 0.01).

Conclusion: The present experiment showed that DMH1 possessed encouraging activityagainst dyslipidemia in STZ-induced diabetic rats. Our results are promoting for more interest and investigation regarding antihyperlipidemic effect of DMH1 and BMP/Smad pathway in further experimental studies.

Open Access Original Research Article

Histopathological Evaluation of Ficus Capensis Aqueous Extract on Liver, Kidney, Intestine and its Potentials in Treatment of Anaemia

Nnaemeka Okorie, Emmanuel Ifeanyi Obeagu, Kenneth Obinna Ede, Uchechukwu Nelson Agada, Ihuoma A. Obi, Simon Uzor, Nwachi Idume Ogbonna, Bethel Mmesomachi Uche, Onyekachi Ewa Ibe, A.I. Nwovu

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 271-288
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i51A33493

Ficus capensi is a nature of Nigerian multi ethnic group and it is been identified and called differently dy ethnic groups for example, igbo call it akporo, hausa -uwaryara,etc. The aim of the this research titlled; Histopathologica evaluation of ficus capensis ethanol extract on liver, kidney, intestine and it potentials in the treatment of anaemia is to evaluate the effect of leaf and stem back extract of ficus capensis in the treatment potential of anaemia and it’s histopathological effect on liver,  kidney, and large intestine of wister rat. The animals were grouped into 5(A, B, C, D & E) and anaemia induced with cirfuroxime in all the groups except group E which is the negative control whereas other groups were treated with vitamins and leaf & stem bark of Ficuscapensis ethanol extract; group C wasn’t treated and it’s regarded as positive control. The blood sample were collected suing cardiac puncture and liver,kidney and large intestine were all harvested following dissection upon 14 days treatment and experimental termination. All the samples collected were analysed using standard methods. There was significant difference in body weight, same was observed in multiple comparism test on packed cell volume and haemoglobin after treatment with Vitamins, leaf and stem bark of Ficus capensis ethanol extract. It was also observed that there was relative distortion of large intestinal lumen, kidney and hepatocytes. Ficusis capensis leaf and bark has shown antianaemic potentials, however; its toxic effect on the selected organs (liver, Kidney and large intestine) called for caution among users.

Open Access Original Research Article

Lower Incisor Positions in Different Malocclusions and Facial Pattern

Abdul Jabbar, . Saba, Ramesh Lal, Amber Farooq, Uzma Bashir, Nadeem Hussain

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 298-304
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i51A33495

Aims: The position of lower incisor has been of significant concern when seeking orthodontic treatment plan, it has been recognized as one of diagnostic key and play an important in the development of normal occlusion and facial pattern. This study was aimed at the determination of lower incisor position and its possible association with different sagittal malocclusions and facial patterns.

Study Design: Descriptive Cross-sectional Study

Place and Duration of Study:  Department of Orthodontics Institute of Dentistry Liaquat University Medical and Health Sciences (LUMHS) Jamshoro between June 2019 to July 2020.

Methodology: Ninety-seven pre-treatment lateral cephalometric radiographies were taken, and they were classified sagittally into skeletal class I, II and III, and vertically into normodivergent, hyperdivergent and hypodivergent facial pattern using ANB and SNMP, respectively. Lower     incisor position was assessed by means of FMIA and IMPA. One way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was applied to check any association between lower incisor position and sagittal malocclusion and facial pattern.  P value of 0.05 was considered statistically significant.

Results: The study sample consisted of 97 patients. The mean age of the patients was 25.55 SD ±3.93. The mean SNMP value was 28.84 SD ±7.354 and mean ANB value 4.809 SD ±3.85. Mean Incisor position based on IMPA was 98.598 SD ± 9.413 and FMIA 54 SD ±9.995.  Intra and interobserver reliability was assessed with intraclass correlation coefficient values ranging between 0.825 and 0.990 respectively. The ANOVA test results showed significant relationship between the sagittal malocclusion and incisor position with P value .036. The Bonferroni analysis indicated that statistically significant association existed in term of lower incisor position between Class II and Class III malocclusion with P value .047. Test results further indicated that there is no significant difference in the position of lower incisor in relation to facial pattern with P value .355.

Conclusions: Statistically significant association was found between lower incisor position with respect to the sagittal malocclusion. However, no significant association was found between facial pattern and lower incisor position.

Open Access Original Research Article

Predictive Analysis of Real-Time Strategy using Face book’s Prophet Model on Covid-19 Dataset of India

Pankaj Kumar, Renuka Sharma, S. K. Singh

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 305-312
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i51A33496

The global epidemic of the novel coronavirus (COVID-19) called SARS-CoV-2 (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2) has infected millions and killed millions. The prevalence of the virus is of paramount importance in identifying future infections and preparing healthcare facilities to avoid death. Accurately predicting the spread of COVID-19 is a challenging analytical and practical task for the research community. We can learn to use predictive analytics to predict the positive outcomes of these risks. These predictive analytics can look at the risks of past successes and failures.

In this paper, the Facebook prophet model discusses the number of large-scale cases and deaths in India based on daily time-series data from 30 January 2020 to 30 April 2021, for forecasting and visualization. The covid-19 pandemic could end prematurely if social distancing and safety measures are required to stabilize and control is required to achieve treatment in India. This paper suggests that the Prophet Model is more effective in predicting COVID-19 cases. The forecast results will help the government plan strategies to prevent the spread of the coronavirus.

Open Access Original Research Article

Clinical and Radio Graphical Evaluation of Implants Placed in Ridge Preserved Sites versus Naturally Healed Sites

Shruti Dipakkumar Vyas, Divya Batra, Deepinder Hayer

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 313-323
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i51A33497

Introduction: Dental implant has proved to be a pioneer in prosthetic rehabilitation overcoming the disadvantage of a removable or a fixed partial denture. The aim of the study was to clinically and radiographically evaluate and compare changes of hard and soft tissues around the implants which will be placed in ridge preserved sites with implant placed in naturally healed extraction sites.

Materials and Methods: In this study 10 Patients having tooth with hopeless prognosis requiring tooth extraction followed by implant placement were enrolled. These patients were randomly divided in to two groups. Group I: Socket preservation with demineralized bone matrix putty group. Group II: Naturally healed socket after extraction, followed by implant placement in both groups.

Results: The results of the current study indicated that demineralisedbone matrix putty, when used in patients for dental augmentation in either mandibular or maxillary sites, resulted in replacement of the graft material with bone by as early as 4-6 months, there upon enabling implant placement and subsequent prosthetic reconstruction.

Conclusion: Bucco lingual ridge width and width of keratinized gingiva can be preserved by ridge preservation after extraction. Short-term survival rates and clinical outcomes of both groups were similar and were comparable. Further clinical trials with longer duration follow up with larger sample size should be done to get more affirmative and conclusive results.

Open Access Original Research Article

Green synthesis and Characterization of Silver Nanoparticles Synthesized Using Piper longum and its Antioxidant Activity

Taanya Imtiaz, R. Priyadharshini, S. Rajeshkumar, Palati Sinduja

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 342-352
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i51A33501

Background: Piper longum, a traditional plant used for regenerative medicine commonly known as the long pepper, is used to treat many pathological conditions. Piper longum is used as a source for obtaining the production of various nanoparticles and testing their efficacy. Piper longum has many beneficial activities, such as antifungal, anti-amoebic, anti-asthmatic, anti-cancer, anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, antidepressants activities. Silver nanoparticles are widely and commonly used for its antimicrobial activity against various microorganisms. Our study aimed to synthesize Piper longum based silver nanoparticles and to investigate its anti-oxidant property.

Materials and Methods: Piper longum plant extract was prepared and silver nanoparticles extract was synthesized. DPPH assay was then performed to assess the free radical scavenging activity of the Piper longum silver nanoparticle extract. The further analysis was that the formation of brownish-red color observed was evident, resulting in thesynthesization of silver nanoparticles.

Results: Brown discolouration represents formation of silver nanoparticles and the antioxidant activity was noted to be from 60% to 70% from 10 to 50μL. But when compared to standard vitamin C values the Piper longum silver nanoparticles showed less antioxidant activity.

Conclusion: The Piper longum mediated silver nanoparticles showed remarkable and considerable antioxidant activity but when compared with the standard sample values the antioxidant activity was low.

Open Access Original Research Article

A Cross Section Assessment Study on the Awareness of COVID-19 during the Onset of the Pandemic among the Urban Population of Saudi Arabia

Muazzam Sheriff Maqbul, Muaadh Badr Saeed, Solafa Azzouz, Amal Bahafi, Tasneem Mohammed, Aejaz A. Khan, S. M. Shakeel Iqubal, Kayamkani Abedulla Khan, Ibrahim Ahmed Shaikh, Uday M. Muddapur, Moustafa Elsayed Abdelaziz Elsayed Elsaa

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 353-363
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i51A33502

This study was aimed to seek out the awareness and knowledge about the covid-19 during the onset of the pandemic among the urban population of the Saudi arabia. This study was carried out for a period of three months from 01.04.2020 to 31.07.2020 and a sample of 1000 participants. The significant difference of P-value obtained by performing the Pearson Chi-Square test for all he questionnaires to analyse the study of assessment. This study was a small attempt for conducting such valuable studies in preventive medicine. Thus, this study suggests that the community's overall satisfactory report is well aware of the preventive measure procedures and well prepared to tackle the covid-19 pandemic.

Open Access Review Article

Vaginal Mucoadhesive Drug Delivery System

Bhaskar Mohite, Rakesh Patel, Nandu Kayande, Raju Thenge

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 123-133
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i51A33476

Mucoadhesive drug delivery systems are delivery systems which utilize the property of bioadhesion of certain polymers which become adhesive on hydration and hence can be used for targeting a drug to a particular region of the body for extended periods of time. Many of these delivery routes, particularly those through the nasal, ocular, reproductive and gastrointestinal system, involve contact with mucosal surfaces. The gastrointestinal route has been particularly popular among medical staff and patients alike. Although convenient, unfortunately, this route can be very inefficient for a number of reasons, including too rapid transit of the drug-containing delivery system past the optimum site for absorption, which is normally the small intestine and to a lesser degree the stomach and colon. Mucoadhesive formulations use polymers as the adhesive component. Mucoadhesive drug delivery systems are available in the form of tablets, films, patches, and gels for oral, buccal, nasal, ocular, vaginal, rectal and topical routes for both systemic and local effects. This review article represents the various aspects of vaginal drug delivery system, bioadhesion mechanism, Theory of bioadhesion, factors affecting bioadhesion, various types of vaginal formulation etc.

Open Access Review Article

Role of Ayurveda in Pandemic Situation (COVID-19) and Involvement of Pranwah Srotas with Its Treatment: Review Article

Dabral Preeti, Pathak Madhu

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 148-152
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i51A33478

Pandemic disease affects the whole world.COVID-19 is a Pandemic disease which deteriorates an individual's life, not only in a specific country but the whole world is suffering. Individuals health, life, economy affected by this Corona virus. It is proven that corona virus can infect people of all ages, but there are people with high risk of contamination who are elderly, individuals with a compromised immunity system and people with health conditions like diabetes, heart disease, kidney failure, asthma, lung disease etc. It is highly contagious that's why it is more dangerous than other viruses of its family. we can prevent from this viral disease by taking such precautions no antibiotics is beneficial in corona virus infection so we can prevent ourselves from this virus by taking preventive measures. Sushrut has mentioned aupsargik rog (communicable disease) in Ayurveda. Ayurveda is an ancient science, which believe in preventive measures for healthy persons and treat a patient by medicines which is described in ayurvedic textbook and Aachar rasayan.

Open Access Review Article

Angiopoietin-like Protein 3 AND Cardiovascular Disease: A Mini Review

Srinidhi Rai

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 169-172
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i51A33481

Objective of the review is to explore the role of angiopoietin like 3 protein (ANGPTL3) as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. ANGPTL3 (human), one member of the angiopoietin-like protein (ANGPTL) family, has been identified as an important regulator of lipid metabolism. Dyslipidemia, characterized by elevation of plasma low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), triglyceride (TG) and reduction of plasma high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), has been verified as a causal risk factor for cardiovascular diseases (CVD), leading to a high mortality rate in general population. There may be an association between ANGPTL3, dyslipidemia, diabetes and cardiovascular risk.

Open Access Review Article

An Overview on Borderline Personality Disorder

Faisal Awad S. Albalawi, Ahmed Saad A. Albalawi, Ali Abdulrahman A. Alshehri, Abdulaziz Saed A Albalawi, Abdulaziz Muteb F. AlfaqiR, Sultan Makki M Alsharef, Omar Mansour M. Halawani, Njoud Khaled Alkhaldi, Amer Khalaf M. Alharbi, Anwar Jafar Alnass, Ahmad Ibrahim Alhashem, Raghad Fahad Al-Faraj, Ghadah Fahad Al-Faraj, Maria Mahdi Alqadeeb, Meaad Saad Alosaimi

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 238-245
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i51A33489

Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) is a psychiatric disease marked by unstable interpersonal relationships, fear of abandonment, difficulty regulating emotions, feelings of emptiness, persistent dysphoria or sadness, impulsivity, and increased risk-taking behaviors. The prevalence of borderline personality disorder has been reported at 11 percent in the psychiatric outpatient community and as high as 20% in the psychiatric inpatient population. Patients with BPD have a high rate of morbidity, which makes medical treatment more difficult. Although the role of genetics in BPD is unclear, inheritance of BPD appears to be considerable. Life events are also found to play a role in the development of BPD. The most important risk factor for the development of BP is childhood trauma. Symptoms that have been present since adolescence or early adulthood and manifest in a variety of settings are used to make the diagnosis. There are no lab or imaging tests available to aid in the diagnosis. Patients with borderline personality disorder benefit from three evidence-based treatments. Mentalizing-based therapy (MBT). Dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) and transference-focused psychotherapy (TFP). In this review we will be discussing epidemiology, etiology, clinical features diagnosis and treatment of BPD.

Open Access Review Article

Overview on Complex Regional Pain Syndrome: A Review

Hani Mohammed Alabdaly, Shahd Ali H. Alramadhan, Abdulrahman Jaser F. Almutairi, Tariq Hamad H Alotaibi, Ahmed Abdulrahman A. Ammar, Hind Khalid Albahli, Nouf Zayed O. AL-Mutairi, Samirah Nawaf Alrashidi, Turki Fahad O. Alotaibi, Shumukh Fahad Ayesh Alshammari, Abdullah Saad M. Alahmari, Khaled Ali K. Alkhudhairi, Daliah Abdulrahman Alharbi

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 257-265
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i51A33491

Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is a neuropathic pain disease characterized by the presence of allodynia, hyperalgesia, sudomotor and vasomotor abnormalities, and trophic alterations. CRPS can be caused by a variety of degrees or types of tissue damage, but it has also been reported in the absence of injury or after lengthy periods of immobility. A fracture is the most prevalent injury linked to the development of CRPS. CRPS is thought to be caused by a complex process involving both the peripheral and central nerve systems, according to a recent acceptance. Patients with CRPS are said to have all of the symptoms of inflammation, including heat, discomfort, redness, and swelling. CRPS symptoms have been greatly reduced by corticosteroids in several clinical studies. The diagnosis of CRPS is mostly dependent on a patient's medical history and clinical examination, which includes a variety of tests that can help rule out other diseases. Given the syndrome's complexity, it's doubtful that focusing on a single mechanism will be successful. Combination therapy, like with other chronic conditions, may be the future of CRPS treatment. In this review we will be looking at disease definition, pathophysiology, and treatment.

Open Access Review Article

Netra Tarpana - An Efficacious Rejuvenate Local Medication of Eye and Standardizing Samayak Tarpita lakshana of Netra with the Help of Questionnaire

Yamini M. Nayak, Manjiri Keskar, Praveen Pandey, Abhishek Shukla

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 289-297
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i51A33494

Ayurved is one of the great gifts of the sages of ancient India to mankind. It is not only a system of medicine in the conventional sense of curing disease but also a way of life that teaches us how to maintain & protect health. Kriyakalp is the main therapeutic process for Netra rogas. Kriyakalp means the procedures in which various drugs are applied in & around the eye ball as a treatment modality. the importance of Ayurvedic treatment in the diseases of eyes cannot be ignored. There is a great need to find out an ocular procedure for prevention and treatment of eye diseases having no or least adverse effect. Tarpan karma is one of the local therapeutic procedures which if promptly used shows objective evidences of excellent responses. In this  Article there is a review on Netra Tarpana Karma, their indications, contraindications and possible mode of action , Standardiging Samayak Tarpita Lakshan with the help of Questionnaire.

Questionnaire is discussed with expert, we discussed action and we have finalized the Questionnaire with the Stalwarts of Shalakya Tantra.

Open Access Review Article

Complications in Fracture Healing-A Review

Sushma Gopalakrishnan, R. Priyadharshini, Palati Sinduja

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 324-331
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i51A33499

Complications are a reality in healing fractures. Most can be stopped or reduced by being aware of their pathophysiology. Others, though, are inevitable, but their Early diagnosis and effective treatment can help recovery. Significant complications Are Osteomyelitis, delayed union, non-union, malunion, premature union, which were a result of fracture repair. Keeping these complications into consideration Presurgical patient assessment as well as postoperative treatment should be taken into account. The goal of fracture repair is to ascertain rigid fixation and perfect alignment of the bone to permit each timely and maximized come to perform in the affected space. The particular injury, species and breed conformation, age, general health, concomitant malady processes, nutrition, and medications all play a job in healing and, therefore, response to the repair. However, these factors don't seem to be the sole determinants of outcome. the strategy of repair and surgical technique each play a vital role within the outcome of fracture management. For this reason, it's vitally necessary that the practitioner be aware of potential complications of fracture repair and take steps to stop them. This review centers on how these complications can be prevented, understood and handled.

Open Access Review Article

Pharmacokinetic Considerations in Geriatric Medication

Priyanka Joshi, Naveen Sharma, Megha Jain, Harsha Matoli, Vinay Jain

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 332-341
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i51A33500

Aging have an impact on the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic characteristics of drugs, resulting in clinically relevant safety and efficacy consequences. There appear to be a rise in gastrointestinal (GI) problems with age, and certain slight variations in the GI tract have been noted. Nevertheless, insufficient studies have been done on the impact of aging on the expression and activity of these GI transporters. Aging is associated with some reduction in first-pass metabolism that might be due to a decrease in liver mass and perfusion. Some medications with considerable first-pass metabolism, can have markedly enhanced bioavailability and, as a consequence bioavailability. Other high clearance (CL) medications have identical bioavailability in both young and old individuals. However, at the other hand, the first-pass activation of some prodrugs, may be slowed or decreased, leading to a reduction in bioavailability. Some drugs may have a low bioavailability when taken orally, benefitted from transdermal administration. There are still no specific age-related liver ailments, routine clinical tests of liver function do not vary substantially with age, the course, and outcome of some liver diseases can be affected by age. The characteristic of high or low extraction of a drug by the liver has been attributed to whether the metabolic clearance (CL) of a drug falls or remains unchanged with age. Reduction in renal function in elderly subjects, particularly glomerular filtration rate, affects the clearance of many drugs such as water-soluble antibiotics and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. The therapeutic significance of these declines in renal excretion is governed by the drug's expected toxicity. Many drugs show their effects specially in old age patients in different manner and depend on age related factors. It must take appropriate precautions for administering of different drugs to the old age patients.