Open Access Study Pre-Protocol

Sub Occipital Muscle Inhibition Technique Verses Cranial Cervical Flexion Exercise for Increasing Hamstring Flexibility in Physiotherapy Students

Sakshi K. Kariya, Waqar M. Naqvi, Om Wadhokar, Pratik Phansopkar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 8-13
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i49A33295

Background: Variation in flexibility can put an unusual amount of annoyance on the framework of the musculoskeletal system. The hamstring muscles are restricted when they are short, which can interfere with everyday activities and is usually a cause for concern. The flexibility of the hamstrings increases as the suboccipital muscles' tone deteriorates,, which are is single neuronal pathway that goes through the dura mater and connects them and which is called as the superficial back line (SBL). Hence as an intervention suboccipital muscle inhibition technique and cranial cervical technique is less time and energy consuming with efficient amount of results.

Aim and Objective: The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of suboccipital muscle inhibition technique verses cranial cervical technique for increasing hamstring flexibility.

Methods: Here we will evaluate hamstring tightness and impact of suboccipital muscle inhibition technique verses cranial cervical technique as an intervention with duration of 2 weeks. As an outcome measure Sit and reach test is given to desired population .This study will be conducted in Ravi Nair Physiotherapy College, Sawangi, Meghe, Wardha. The duration of study will be two week. The study design is pre and post interventional study.

Results: The data will be analysed using Student paired t test.

Conclusion: The expected outcome includes detection of hamstring tightness and improvement in hamstring tightness using sit and reach test. Data analysis will be done using students paired t test and conclusion of the study will be published after the results are analysed.

Open Access Case Report

Subarachnoid Hemorrhage: A Case Report

. Huldani, Herlina Uinarni, . Fauziah, San Gunma, Muhammad Zaini

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i49A33294

We reported a case report of a 50-year-old woman with stroke hemorrhage due to subarachnoid hemorrhage with hypertensive urgency, left ventricular hypertrophy, and dyslipidemia. Subarachnoid hemorrhage indicates the presence of blood in the subarachnoid space between the pia mater and arachnoid mater which usually results from a ruptured cerebral aneurysm or arteriovenous malformation. The patient presents with decreased consciousness preceded by severe headache and projectile vomiting. In physical examination, we found hypertensive emergencies and positive meningeal signs, neck stiffness, and positive Brudzinski. CT scan shows bleeding in the pontocerebellar cistern and ventricular system. The patient was diagnosed with subarachnoid hemorrhage, intraventricular hemorrhage, and emergency hypertensive. The patient was hospitalized in the neurology ward of Ulin Hospital for 20 days with the management of antihypertensive, neuroprotectant, other symptomatic medications, and ventriculoperitoneal shunt surgery. The patient was then discharged home in a stable condition.

Open Access Systematic Review Article

Updates in Health Care of Adolescents: A Simple Review Article

Hassan Tag Elkhatim Mohamed, Rawan Dubas Alanazi, Nawal Saud B. Alanazi, Itizaz Hatim R. Alanazi, Razan Ahmed Muaythif Alanazi

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 91-99
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i49A33307

The purpose of this study was to identify what topics adolescents would like to have discussed or addressed when visiting family physicians and to assess the extent to which such discussion is taking place. The main health issues in adolescents are; injuries as intentional injuries are the leading cause of death and disability among adolescents. Violence, mental health, alcohol and drug use, tobacco use, HIV/AIDS, other infectious diseases and early pregnancy and childbirth. There seems to be a need for more comprehensive health education in schools and for health professionals, particularly general practitioners, to opportunistically address these problems in their adolescent patients. Also parents should take their teens to their GP for treatment for these problems, hoped their doctor would be comfortable with such treatment, and wanted their doctor to discuss these problems with their teens.

Open Access Case Study

Grade IV Utero Vaginal Prolapse (Procidentia): A Case Report

A. Lalawmpuii, Vaishali Taksande, Manjusha Mahakarkar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 187-191
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i49A33319

Introduction: The uterus is normally held in place inside the pelvis with various muscles, tissue, and ligaments. But because of pregnancy, childbirth or difficult labor and delivery, in some women the muscles become weaken. And also, as the woman ages and also with a natural loss of the hormone oestrogen, the uterus can drop into the vaginal canal, this cause the condition which is known as prolapsed uterus. There are different degrees, in which the fourth degree the entire uterus is outside the vagina and this condition is also called procidentia, which is caused by weakness in all of the supporting muscles [1].

Case Presentation: A female patient of 70 years was admitted to Gynae Ward, AVBRH on 2nd June 2021 with a known case of Grade IV Utero Vaginal Prolapse (procidentia) for further management and known case of hypertension and type II diabetes melitus for 22 years. Patient came with a complain of something coming out of vagina for 5 years, increased frequency of micturition for 5 years and also complain of white discharge for 1.5 months.

Open Access Study Protocol

Clinical Evaluation and Comparison of Stainless Steel Crowns and Zirconia Crowns in Primary Molars- A Study Protocol

Monika M. Khubchandani, Nilima Thosar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 64-69
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i49A33303

Aim: The present study will be undertaken to evaluate and compare the clinical success of stainless steel crowns and zirconia crowns in carious primary molars.

Study Design: Randomized controlled trial.

Place and Duration of the Study: Department of Pedodontics & Preventive Dentistry, Sharad Pawar Dental College & Hospital, Duration- One year

Methodology: In this Split-mouth, 12 months study, set of primary molars in 4-9 years old children will be restored with stainless steel crown and zirconia crown. The primary objective is the assessment of clinical success by evaluating pain, swelling and pathologic mobility at baseline, 1, 3, 6 and 12 months interval. The secondary objectives are to assess the level of parental satisfaction by applying fivepoint likert scale and evaluate the gingival condition by recording Sillness and Loe Plaque index (PI) and Loe and Silness Gingival Index (GI) of study groups at periodic interval of 1, 3, 6 and 12 months.

Results: The results of the present study will investigate the effectiveness of two types of pediatric full coverage restorations for management of extensive caries in primary molars.

Conclusion: The findings of the present research would help the patient and practitioners to select appropriate therapeutic option.

Open Access Study Protocol

Serum Vitamin D Status its Associated Health Problem in Children with PEM

Pallavi S. Dhulse, Archana Mourya

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 215-218
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i49A33323

Background: Vitamin D insufficiency is an overall scourge with late gauges showing that more prominent than 50 % of the worldwide populace is in danger. Protein-energy malnutrition is probably going to be related with nutrient D admission insufficiency. The point of this review was survey serum vitamin D and its related medical issue in youngsters with protein energy ailing health Vitamin D deficiency is on the rise as a major public health problem in India. Majority of the population in India resides in areas receiving ample sunlight throughout the year; still vitamin D deficiency is a problem of growing concern 1, 2, 3. Skin complexion, poor sun exposure, vegetarian food habits and lower intake of vitamin D fortified foods could be attributing to the high prevalence of VDD in India.

Objective: To assess serum vitamin D status its associated health problem among children with protein energy malnutrition.

Methods: Evaluatory study cross sectional research design used to assess serum vitamin D status its associated health problem in children with Protein energy malnutrition in selected hospital of Wardha. 40 sample size taken who fulfils the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Non probability convenience sampling is used.

Expected Results: This study is planned to assess serum vitamin D its health problem in children with Protein energy malnutrition. Hence, it expected that significant association between serum  vitamin D level and its  health problem (Weakness, lethargy, pain, developmental delay, fracture).

Open Access Study Protocol

Comparative Evaluation of Efficacy of Jasminum grandiflorum with Honey and Corticosteroids in Management of Recurrent Aphthous Stomatitis- A Study Protocol

Suwarna Dangore Khasbage, Dhanashri R. Tijare, Monika Khubchandani, Surbhi Juneja

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 259-263
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i49A33328

Aim: To determine the efficacy of J grandiflorum in the treatment of aphthous ulcer on the basis of reduction in size of the ulcer, erythema and pain.

Study Design: Prospective, Observational.

Place and Duration: Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology, Sharad Pawar Dental College and Hospital, Datta Meghe Institute of Medical Sciences, Deemed to be University, Sawangi (Meghe), Wardha.  

Duration: One year.

Methodology: One Hundred and Twenty patients visiting to the dental OPD and diagnosed to have aphthous ulcer will be selected. The patients will be divided in three groups and the formulated gel will be prescribed to one group of patient and other will be given corticosteroid and monitoring will be done.

Expected Results: With all the studies performed till now it is expected that the j. grandiflorum and honey together will have good synergistic effect over aphthous ulcer and will help in reduction of size, pain and erythema level of aphthous ulcer.

Conclusion: J grandiflorum and honey may be effective in management of recurrent aphthous stomatitis.

Open Access Short Research Article

Assess the Knowledge of Family Care Givers Regarding Haemodialysis

Abha Adlina Oriel, C. C. Linson

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 100-104
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i49A33308

Chronic kidney disease is a slow and progressive loss of kidney function over a period of several years. Eventually, a person will develop permanent kidney failure. The aim of the present study was to assess the knowledge of family care givers regarding hemodialysis of chronic renal failure patients in selected hospitals of Jabalpur. The research design selected for this study was descriptive in nature. The target population for this study was family care givers and the method of sampling was purposive sampling. The sample size was 50.A self-structured questionnaire was used to assess the knowledge and the study findings revealed that knowledge of family care givers regarding hemodialysis of chronic renal failure patients was inadequate.

Open Access Short Research Article

Features and Ways to Ensure the Availability of Vital Pharmaceuticals for Pharmacy Organizations in the Context of the Covid-19 Pandemic

Nikolai Gennadevich Durnov, Alexander Vladimirovich Grigoriev, Maria Nikolaevna Сhernikova, Maria Sergeevna Halimzyanova, Marina Mikhailovna Krekova, Nadezhda Volyanskaya

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 201-207
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i49A33321

The article describes the features and ways of ensuring the availability of vital pharmaceuticals to pharmacy organizations in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic. It was noted that during the pandemic, pharmacists from all over the world made maximum efforts to ensure an uninterrupted and safe supply of medicines to patients, despite the unprecedented situation. The social distancing policy has been widely implemented to maintain the personal safety of patients and reduce the number of personal visits. Also, vital strategies and practices have been implemented in some foreign countries, including the supply of conventional medicines at state-subsidized prices, the maximum monthly supply of some prescription drugs has been provided and limits on the purchase of over-the-counter medicines have been set, home delivery of medicines to people at risk and people in isolation has been organized.

The experience of pharmaceutical organizations during the pandemic has shown that it is necessary to monitor the predicted shortage of medicines, especially in regional pharmacies, as well as to control the workload in pharmacies and timely control of online orders of medicines to eliminate frustration and anxiety in patients who need life-saving medicines.

Open Access Short Communication

Monitoring the Safety of Herbal Medicines in Yemen: A Call for Action

Mohammed Alshakka, Wafa F. S. Badulla, Sara Alshagga, Nasser A. Awadh, Nisha Jha, Mohamed Izham Mohamed Ibrahim

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 59-63
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i49A33302

Consuming modern medicines with traditional herbs to treat and prevent diseases or even maintain health and well-being is common in different countries. Despite the high prevalence of this activity in Yemen, there is neither proper regulation that controls the production, standardization, quality control and use nor an appropriate system for herbal pharmacovigilance in Yemen. Yemenis prefer to use herbs before resorting to allopathic medicines, sometimes in concomitant or alternative to the allopathic medication. Most people believe that herbs are safe, though there are many side effects associated with herbal medicines. For the safe and effective use of traditional herbal medication, there should be a regulation from the official authorities that controls their preparation, selling, quality control, production, and monitoring of the side effects. The World Health Organization (WHO) stated a guideline for monitoring herbal safety within the current pharmacovigilance framework. However, monitoring and reporting the adverse effects of allopathic medicines in Yemen are limited, and the situation is more complicated and challenging for herbal medicines. The present article highlighted the challenges and provided recommendations for the application of effective herbal pharmacovigilance.

Open Access Minireview Article

A Mini-Review on Chitosan Microsphere Drug Delivery

Cinnayyagari Mahesh Reddy, S. Parimala Krishnan, Challa Balashekar Reddy

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 179-186
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i49A33318

The study aims to determine the drug therapy of any disease to attain the desired therapeutic concentration of the drug in plasma or at the site of action and maintain it for the entire duration of treatment. A drug on being used in conventional dosage forms leads to unavoidable fluctuations in the drug concentration leading to under medication or overmedication and increased frequency of dose administration as well as poor patient compliance. To minimize drug degradation and loss, to prevent harmful side effects and to increase drug bioavailability various drug delivery and targeting systems are currently under development. Handling the treatment of severe disease conditions has necessitated the development of innovative ideas to modify drug delivery techniques. Drug carrier systems include polymers, micelles, microcapsules, Liposomes and lipoproteins etc. Different polymer carriers exert different effects on drug delivery. Synthetic polymers are usually no biocompatible, non-biodegradable and expensive. Natural polymers such as chitin and chitosan are devoid of such problems. Chitosan is a biocompatible, biodegradable, and nontoxic natural polymer with excellent film-forming ability. Being of cationic character, chitosan is able to react with polyamines giving rise to polyelectrolyte complexes. Hence chitosan has become a promising natural polymer for the preparation of microspheres or nanospheres and microcapsules. This review focuses on the preparation, characterization of chitosan microspheres and their role in novel drug delivery systems. This review also aims to include the process variables factors that affect the release of drugs from the microspheres.

Open Access Original Research Article

Magnitude and Associated Factors of Antenatal Care Utilization in Western Regions of Ethiopia: A study Based on Demographic and Health Survey Data

Mekonin Abera Negeri

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 23-29
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i49A33297

Antenatal care (ANC) service is used to ensure the best health conditions for both mother and baby during pregnancy. There are marked disparities in the utilization of ANC utilization among regions of Ethiopia. Hence, this study was intended to analyze the magnitude and associated factors of ANC utilization in Western Regions of Ethiopia. The study was conducted based on 2019 Ethiopian Mini Demographic and Health Survey data. A total of 1200 women representing the three regions (Oromiya, Benishangul Gumuz and Gambela), who gave birth two years preceding the survey were included and the analysis was done by SPSS version 20. Multiple logistic regression was used to assess the net effect of associated factors of ANC utilization. Among the studied participants, 39.9%, 51.0% and 27.8%of women in Oromiya, Benishangul Gumuz and Gambela regions, respectively, received a minimum of four ANC visits from the skilled health personnel. The result from multiple logistic regression depicted that age in 5- year group, region, place of residence, maternal education and wealth index were significantly associated with the utilization of ANC service. The utilization of ANC service was higher among young women than old women while women in Benishangul Gumuz were more likely to receive ANC service than women in Gambela region. Better education attainment increases the likelihood of receiving ANC service from the skilled personnel. Urban women as well as rich women were more likely to receive ANC service than their respective rural and poor counterparts in the studied regions. Providing awareness creation on ANC utilization for women of fertile age is a best instrument to minimize maternal and child mortality.

Open Access Original Research Article

Public’s Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices Related to Hypertension

Nehad J. Ahmed, Abdulrahman S. Alrawili, Faisal Z. Alkhawaja, Othman S. Alanazi

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 30-34
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i49A33298

Aim: The present study aimed to describe the public’s knowledge and beliefs on hypertension and its treatment in Saudi Arabia.

Methodology: This cross-sectional study included a survey was used to collect demographic data of the respondents and the response to the main questions of the survey that were close-ended questions.

Results: Most of the respondents agreed that aging (81.17), family history (74.06%), smoking (69.46%), eating fatty foods (80.33), and overweight (83.26%) are risk factors of developing hypertension. Additionally, more than 90% agreed that regular physical exercise reduces hypertension and 89.54% of them agreed that more salt consumption increases blood pressure.    

Conclusion: The respondents had a good knowledge about hypertension and how to prevent it. But still more health education about hypertension prevention and blood pressure control was needed.

Open Access Original Research Article

A Cohort Study to Determine the Prevalence of Pulmonary Manifestations in Rheumatoid Arthritis

Shahtaj Adil shah, Atif Ahmed, Sant Das, Maesh Kumar, Naresh Kumar, Niaz Hussain Keerio, Syed Salman Adil, Syed Shahid Noor

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 35-41
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i49A33299

Background: Rheumatoid arthritis is an ailment that has an effect on the lungs in cases of pleural inflammation; it affects the lower as well as upper lung airways. Other effects of the disease can be seen in interstitial lung problems (parenchyma) and pulmonary vasculature.

Aim: Evaluating the occurrence of pulmonary manifestations in RA patients was the objective of this study.

Methods: An observatory method that was cross-section in nature was employed in this study which was held in the Rheumatology and Medicine department, Jinnah Medical and Dental College Karachi Pakistan for the one-year duration from June 2020 to June 2021. Eighty subjects were included in this study, and all of them underwent a general examination, their medical history was taken into account. Several lab tests were performed on the patients, ESR, BUN, CRP, HRCT, ALT, radiological investigations, and chest X-rays were included.

Results: In this study42 percent of patients presented with pulmonary manifestations. About 45.70 percent of the patients presented with abnormalities in the spirometry test, 42.85 percent showed HRCT abnormalities. The HRCT scores vary with age, TJC (Tender Joint Count), ESR, and SJC.FEV, 1 HRCT, and FCV showed a negative correlation among each other. However other variables did not show any statistically significant correlation.

Conclusion: RA showed the prevalence of pulmonary affection, and this can be observed in pulmonary and radiological functions. There was an associationof age, pulmonary functions, and ESR.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of the Total Flavonoid, Phenol, Alkaloid Content and Sun Protection Factor in Grewia abutilifolia Leaf Extract

Dolly Rani, Harsha Kharkwal, Megha Jha, Nitin Rai

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 42-51
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i49A33300

A variety of secondary metabolites provide a valuable source of treatment for various pharmacological ailments. Grewia abutilifolia is a shrub found in the family Tiliaceae that is also investigated for its nutritional and medicinal benefits. Grewia is reported for its good antioxidant potential, which is applied to protect skin from UV rays. The main goal of this study is to determine the in-vitro sunscreen effect of Grewia abutilifolia based on phytochemical evidence of UV protection. Chemical treatments used to protect skin from the sun have several drawbacks, including numerous hazardous side effects on humans and the environment. The hydroalcoholic, ethyl acetate, and methanolic extracts were studied for their phytochemical, physicochemical, and sun protection activities. Total phenolic content, total alkaloid content, total flavonoid content, and SPF value were all highest in the methanolic leaf extract, with values of 99.20 0.12, 47.661.527, 96.02, and 14.50.01 for total phenolic content, total alkaloid content, total flavonoid content, and SPF value, respectively.

Open Access Original Research Article

A Cross Sectional Study on Impact of Diabetes Mellitus on Lung function Parameters

Nasrullah Aamer, Waseem Raja Memon, Shahzad Memon, Muhammad Amjad Kalhoro, Yar Muhammad Tunio, Sant Das, Niaz Hussain keerio

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 52-58
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i49A33301

Chronic hyperglycemia in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2 DM) is associated with ongoing damage, dysfunction, and failure of many organs, particularly the eyes, kidneys, nerves, heart, lungs, blood vessels and the diabetic patients may have considerable reductions in lung functioning. Diabetes Mellitus, Peak Expiratory Flow, and Fasting Blood Sugar are some of the terms used in this study. One hundred T2 DM patients, ranging in age from 30-70 years old and of either gender, were submitted to spirometry, vital parameters were recorded, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) and fasting blood sugar (FBS) were evaluated, and healthy controls were a matched. Diabetics forced vital capacity (FVC) ranged from 1.51 to 4 (Liters) with a mean of 2.4 ±0.6SD, whereas controls' FVC ranged from 2.2 to 4.74 with a mean of 3.14 ±0.7SD and a significant P value. (P<0.001) diabetics peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) ranged from 188 to 459 (liters per minute) with a mean of 288 ±70SD, whereas controls PEFR ranged from 243 to 571 with a mean of 373±74 and a significant P-value. When compared to male diabetics, the PEFR in female diabetics was 239 ±38SD with a significant P-value. Spirometric parameters in male diabetics were found to be insignificant when compared to healthy controls (P <0.001). In both sexes, HbA1c and FBS were shown to be extremely significant when compared to controls. Variable PEFR in healthy controls and in the lung function was found to be impaired in female diabetics, but male diabetics had a normal PEFR.

Open Access Original Research Article

Estimation of Maxillary Anterior Teeth Width with Golden Proportion in Undergraduate Students

Irfan Khatri, Jamshed Ahmed Shaik, Uzma Bashir, Abdul Jabbar, Usman Bashir Shaikh, Muhmmad Mustafa, Abdul Bari Memon

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 70-75
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i49A33304

Aim: To estimate the frequency of coinciding width of maxillary front teeth and golden proportion ratio in undergraduate students.

Study design: Descriptive Cross Sectional

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Prosthodontics, Liaquat Medical University Hospital from June 2019 to January2020.

Methodology: Total numbers of 96 students with maxillary anterior teeth were selected in this study. Appropriate size of upper maxillary impression of maxillary arch was made using alginate impression material with manufacturer prescribed instructions. The cast was retrieved between one and three hours of pouring. Digital caliper was used to measure for the spaces in the. The final recordings were entered in proforma. The data was analyzed by SPSS version-20.

Results: Among the participants 65% were males and 35% females. The mean age of the participants was 21.02±1.88 years. Rate of coinciding was significantly high in 18 to 20 years of age (p=0.032).Coinciding width of maxillary anterior teeth and golden proportion ratio was significantly high in 1st year student (p=0.038)

Conclusion: It was concluded that esthetics in dentistry cannot be justified mathematically and individuals should not be standardized. Whereas the dentists should follow few fundamental guidelines in the planning for esthetic treatment, it should be acknowledged that esthetics alters from person to person. That’s why it is important to consider the dento-facial specificities of every person and the inconstant natural tooth proportion during restoration or replacement of the maxillary front teeth.

Open Access Original Research Article

Interference of Antioxidant Flavonoids with MTT Tetrazolium Assay in a Cell Free System

Ashwini Somayaji, C. S. Shastry

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 76-83
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i49A33305

Introduction: The tetrazolium salt 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) used extensively to measure the quantitative survival and proliferation of mammalian cells. The analysis is based upon the reduction of MTT by metabolically active cells to insoluble formazan crystals. Flavonoids are a large group of natural compounds found in plants with variable phenolic structures.  Flavonoids, as they are potential reducing agents, they act as a free radical scavenger. The aim of the study is to assess the reducing effect of some of the flavonoids on tetrazolium salt and their interference with the colorimetric analysis of MTT. The cell viability obtained from the MTT assay was compared with that of SRB assay in the determination of flavonoids cytotoxicity. 

Materials and Methods: The present study examined the effect of few bio-flavonoids like Quercetin, EGCG, Rutin and Resveratrol to reduce MTT in the absence of cells under different experimental conditions such as concentration of flavonoids, incubation time and results were compared with SRB assay findings. The study also involves the analysis of flavonoid cytotoxicity on lung cancer cells NCIH-460 and NCIH-522 by MTT and SRB assay to establish the suitable cell viability assay for  flavonoids.

Results: All the flavonoids showed the instant formation of the dark blue formazan salt in the absence of the cells with MTT assay. Whereas SRB assay of flavonoids in the absence of cells, results showed the absorbance similar to that of the blank, indicating that SRB did not interfere with flavonoids in a cell-free system.

Conclusion: From the results, it is evident that MTT is not a suitable method to determine the effect of flavonoids on cell viability and proliferation as flavonoids itself reduces the MTT to formazan crystals. Study also suggests that SRB assay is more suitable method to determine the effect of flavonoids on cell viability.

Open Access Original Research Article

Antioxidant and Anti-Cancer Effect of Ethanolic Extract of Citrus Fruits on Hep G2 and MCF-7 Cell Lines

Shahid Rasool, Hammad Ahmed, Mehreen Malik Uttra, Ambreen Malik Uttra, Muhammad Rizwan Khan, Khawaja Ali Zakir, Awais Ali Zaidi, Saeed Ul Hassan, Farooq Saleem

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 84-90
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i49A33306

Background/objective: Cancer is a complex genetic disease that occurs due to mutation in genes that control apoptosis and cell growth. Uncontrolled cell growth leads to the formation of tumors. Free radical causes mutation in genes and DNA sequence, however antioxidants can stabilize these harmful effects. Citrus fruits are the rich source of antioxidants. owing to this property this study was planned to evaluate the potential of the citrus fruits for the treatment of the cancer.

Aim: This study aimed to evaluate antioxidant as well anticancer potential of five different citrus strains (Citrus deliciosa, Citrus maxima, Citrus limetta, Citrus sinensis and Citrus reticulata).

Methods: Peel of all the citrus fruits were collected, grinded and ethanolic extracts were prepared separately, to evaluate radical scavenging ability by employing DPPH method followed by MTT assay of the cancer cell lines to explore the anticancer potential of the extracts.

Results: It was observed that citrus peels exhibited good radical scavenging activity and inhibited tumor growth. Maximum effect was produced by Citrus reticulata, and least results were obtained with Citrus sinensis.

Conclusion: It was concluded that antioxidant and anti-cancer effects of citrus peels may be due to be owing to the presence of antioxidants (ascorbic acid, flavonoids, phenols, limonene). This research might open new horizon in the treatment of cancer chemotherapy.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assess the Knowledge Regarding Selected Non-Pharmacological Interventions among Pregnant Women

Sharda Nagvanshi, C. C. Linson

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 105-109
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i49A33309

During labour and childbirth, comfort techniques that give natural pain relief can be quite beneficial. The purpose of this study was to analyse pregnant women's awareness about non-pharmacological therapies in Bhopal's designated hospitals. This study was conducted using a descriptive research approach. The study's target population was pregnant women, and the sample method was purposive sampling. A total of 50 people were included in the study. The knowledge of pregnant women on non-pharmacological therapies was assessed using a self-structured questionnaire, and the study findings indicated that their understanding was insufficient.

Open Access Original Research Article

Flexural Strength and Depth of Cure of Single Shade Dental Composites

Fatin A. Hasanain

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 110-118
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i49A33310

Aims: This work aims to assess the flexural strength and depth of cure of Optishade, Omnichroma and Z350 dental resin composites.

Study Design: Experimental Laboratory Study.

Methods: To assess flexural strength as per ISO standards, 15 samples of each of the three materials were made (n=5) with the dimensions 25x2x2 mm. They were then subjected to 3 point bending testing on a universal testing machine. To assess depth of cure as per ISO standard, 15 cylindrical samples 4 mm in diameter and 6 mm in height were created (n=5) and scraping test was performed.

Results: There was a significant difference between the 3 materials in both flexural strength and depth of cure. Z350 had the lowest depth of cure and the highest flexural strength.

Conclusion: Within the limitations of this study, all three tested materials fell within the ISO requirementsfor dental resin compositesfor both flexural strength and depth of cure.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assess the Knowledge of Women on Zinc Supplementation with ORS in the Management of Diarrhea

Rakhi Patel, C. C. Linson

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 119-123
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i49A33311

The assessment is utilized to evaluate and to get a proper information from the mothers or ladies with regard to the utilization of the zinc supplementation with the Oral rehydration salts for the great approach and to see the future aspects of management of diarrhea. With a purpose of inspecting the study was carried out to investigate the 100 mothers. The survey approach was carried out to gather maximum information regarding the advantages of adding zinc with the ORS in the management of diarrhea. This was carried out through the information poll. The data was analysed and visualised using graphs, tables, and descriptive and inferential statistics. The key findings of the current study indicate that the majority of 63 percent of moms received an average score of 41 to 60 percent, while the lowest score was in the 1% of women who had a very excellent score of 81 to 100 percent. Only 2% of moms received a poor mean knowledge score in the range of 21 to 40%, and not a single mother received a score of less than 0%. The overall mean knowledge score of mothers regarding the benefits of supplementing the zinc with the ORS in the management of diarrhea was 17.24 %. According to the study's findings, the mother is the most important factor in enhancing the child's health. Mothers are an important element of the health-care sector because they have the power to change a child's health. She has the potential to make a significant difference in the family's overall health. Mothers need to be well-informed so that they can strive to apply various preventative measures to avoid infections like diarrhoea, for the sake of their children's safety. As a result, the nation's health is dependent on the mother's wisdom. Mother's knowledge of various health-related services needs to be updated and upgraded.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Plant-Products Fumigation on Air-Borne Microbes

Shaista Mahfooz, Malik Itrat, . Hamiduddin

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 124-132
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i49A33312

Background and Objective: Purity of the ambient air is essential for our health and well-being. One of the main factors influencing air quality is the presence of microbes. Fumigation of herbs has been recommended in Unani medicine to purify the air. Hence, the present study was aimed to evaluate the effect of selected Unani herbs fumigation on air-borne microbes.

Methods: In this study, the effect of fumigation with Unani Medicinal herbs powder on air-borne microbes was assessed using differences in total colony counts of microbes in pre and post fumigation samples. Microbial load in the air was quantified using the passive open-air petri plate method. Formalin and potassium permanganate served as positive control, while tamarind wood charcoal fumigation served as negative control.

Results: Fumigation with Unani medicinal herbs powder at a dose of 45 grams was found to be the most effective in reducing the microbial load of the air. Significant reduction in aerial microbial colonies was observed with fumigation at 30 and 45 gms in the fumigated areas (P<0.05).

Conclusion: It can be inferred from the findings of the present study that the test drugs fumigation efficiently reduces the air-borne microbes, hence may be recomanded for air disnfectant. However, various factors that were not considered in this study, such as the effect of temperature and humidity on disinfection efficiency of fumigants should be addressed in further studies.

Open Access Original Research Article

Surveillance of Biomedical Waste Practices in a Multi Speciality Hospital, its Evaluation and Audit

Ketaki V. Kulkarni, Niranjan P. Pathak

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 133-140
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i49A33313

Aims: To assess the knowledge of Biomedical waste (BMW) categories, colour coding, transport, storage & disposal of Biomedical waste among the healthcare workers.

Study Design: Cross sectional.

Place and Duration of Study: Multi speciality Hospital, Pune, over the duration of 1 month.

Methodology: A predesigned questionnaire containing closed-ended questions was used to conduct this cross sectional study on HCWs. The data related to awareness & knowledge about various aspects of Biomedical waste amongst the Healthcare workers was collected.

Results: Out of total 100 Healthcare workers (HCWs), 40 doctors were correctly knowing all the categories of Biomedical waste. 45 doctors & 40 nursing staff (total 85 out of 100 HCWs) could answer correctly the questions on colour coding of BMW. Only 30 doctors & 21 nursing staff could answer correctly about BMW transport. 25 doctors &18 nurses could answer correctly the questions related to BMW storage & disposal.

Conclusion: The vigorous & repeated training & evaluation is needed to bridge the observed knowledge gaps amongst the HCWs.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Dental Education on Dental Phobia; A Cross-Sectional Study among the Dental Students of Riyadh, KSA

Rama Mahmoud AlYamany, Najla Haif Alqahtani, Luluh Mohammed Alrumi, Yara Yousef Alhabeeb, Nouf Ali Alshamrani, Shahzeb Hasan Ansari

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 141-149
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i49A33314

Introduction: Dental anxiety among dental students is an important issue that needs to be examined more thoroughly by the research community. Dental anxiety among dental students could have implications for their future practice, as it may adversely affect their ability to render quality dental care.

Materials and Methods: This was a cross sectional study conducted among the dental students in Riyadh using an online survey. Dental universities in Riyadh were contacted and participants were requested to fill up the survey. 500 students from all six years of dentistry were utilized in this study.

Results: overall 21.6% of clinical students reported that dental education did not reduce their dental phobia at all, whereas 40.4% reported definitely yes. Among various dental procedures that may cause anxiety among patients, root canal treatment (RCT) was accounted for the greatest number of responses (28.6%) in ‘high anxiety’.

Conclusion: There is a need to intervene and use certain measures to reduce the dental phobia or anxiety among pre-clinical dental students and not wait until they reach clinical levels.

Open Access Original Research Article

Mapping of Celiac Disease Research Literature: A Scientometric Approach

M. Mercy Clarance, S. Raja

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 150-160
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i49A33315

The study aims to evaluate the celiac disease research publications in the Web of Science database from the years 2015 to 2018. The keyword used the term "Celiac Disease" from the Web of Science database collects the records. A total of 4147 records were collected from this study of Celiac disease. The highest productive year is 2017 with 1062 records (25.61%) and the last position of papers was published 1016(24.50%) in the year is 2016. The table provides the value of the average RGR of publications, which decreased from 6.93537 in 2015 to -0.01997 in 2018. At the same time, the value of doubling time (DT) of publications increased from 0.099923 (2015) to -34.6983 (2018). It has shown that the degree of collaboration range from zero to 0.95. The most prolific author Lebwohl B occupied in first position 107(2.58%) records. The most productive country USA placed in the topmost position with 1149(27.71%) records. The authorship pattern of celiac disease research this table notes that the majority of the articles were contributed by four authors 549(13.24%). These three authors were contributed 538(12.97%) second position of papers in this study. The first position of the journal is Gastroenterology published records with 260(6.27%). The language-wise distributions of published records in Celiac disease research in this present study. The most productive language is English with 4032(97.23%), and the last productivity language is Icelandic with 1(0.02%) publications. The Study concludes that Celiac Disease Research lags in this research, so come forward with financial institutions to encourage researchers and scientists to develop celiac research.

Open Access Original Research Article

Sensitivity of Plasma Micro RNAs as a Probable Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Biomarker and its Significance

Zarmeen Sultan, Zuby Tufail, Muazzma Siddiqa

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 161-169
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i49A33316

Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is the chief origin of death due to cancer. The development of a less invasive diagnostic technique for NSCLC, especially at the beginning, can improve outcomes. By means of microarray platforms, we formerly diagnosed 12 microRNAs (miRNAs) abnormally expressed in primary cancer cells associated with early NSCLC.

Objective: In this study, we will extend previous studies to determine if miRNAs may be beneficial as a NSCLC potential plasma biomarker.

Methods: We primarily confirmed miRNA expression from PCR of 32 stage one NSCLC patients with lung tumor and plasma specimens were assessed, then assessed the investigative value of plasma miRNAs in 61 patients of NSCLC and 30 normal subjects. It was confirmed that the alteration of MiRNA expression influences the regeneration of neoplastic tumors. MiRNAs were steady and reliable in plasma measurements. The cohort consisted of 21 men and 11 women. Their age ranges from 47 to 80 years. AC tumors were classified in 17 and SCC in 15 patients. smoking packets use in these patients were 39 ± 28. In addition, IV blood were taken from healthy subjects with matched data distribution to studied group as age, race, sex and smoking, and aided as a control to evaluate fluctuations in plasma in cancer patients.

Results: Five out of 12 miRNAs showed a significant change of level in plasma and the corresponding tumor tissue (all r40850, all P< 0.05). Four genes (miRNA-126, 21, 486-5 and 210p) set the best logistic regression pattern, with 87% sensitivity and 97% of specificity of at the time of NSCLC in differentiating from healthy patients. Moreover, the miRNA genes generated a sensitivity of 79.41% and 92.59% of specificity in patients diagnosed with SCC and AC. Moreover, genes have specificity of 96.67% in the analysis of lung adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma. (P less than 0.05). A change in square miRNA expression may offer potential NSCLC blood-derived biomarker.

Conclusion: Finally, we show that miRNA expression identified from surgical tumor tissue can be easily and correctly determined in plasma. Though, prominently, a plasma miRNA recognition panel would be cast-off as a less invasive analytic method for NSCLC, including long-term adenocarcinoma. However, the presence of an independent potential biomarker requires further verification.

Open Access Original Research Article

Cemented Bipolar Hemiarthroplasty for Fracture

P. Sharajdeen, A. Sivakumar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 170-178
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i49A33317

Ashley Cooper recognized fractures in the proximal femur distal to the insertion of capsule. He noted that they invariably united without difficulty often with external rotation and shortening leading to coxa vara. Till the 1940s the standard treatment was reduction of the fracture and immobilization in plaster spica or in traction. The long period of immobility required for this treatment carried considerable morbidity, particularly in elderly patients. In addition to problems of prolonged bed rest, reports about various management strategies were not satisfactory. The justification for early rehabilitation in this group was accurately summed up by this quotation by Evans. '' The very old patients who sustain this injury tolerate pain and immobility badly; their mental state is often precarious and is quick to develop bed sores or pulmonary complications. We believe that they should be treated as surgical emergency and the older and more feebler the patient the more urgent is the need for the operation" The aim of this prospective and retrospective study is to analyse the short term follow up results of cemented bipolar hemi arthroplasty in neck of femur fracture and unstable intetrochanteric fractures of the elderly done in our institution.

Open Access Original Research Article

Comparison of Clinical Success between Three Different Materials- Direct Pulp Capping of Carious Molars- An In-vivo Study

K. E. Selvendran, A. Shafie Ahamed, Madhuram Krishnamurthy, V. Naveen Kumar, Vignesh Guptha Raju

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 192-200
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i49A33320

Aim: To evaluate the clinical success of Calcium Hydroxide (CH), Mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) and Biodentine as pulp capping materials for Direct pulp capping in carious molars.

Materials and Methods: Thirty-six molars of thirty-six patients with deep caries lesions, diagnosed with reversible pulpitis were subjected to direct pulp capping treatment. They were randomly divided into three groups, Biodentine (12 teeth) or MTA group (12 teeth) or CH group (12teeth). Simple randomization of three was employed to allocate the treatment materials. Patients were recalled at one, three and six months to evaluate the clinical success of the treatment outcome.

Results: In clinical trial/study, the pulp capping materials gave different success rate, 91.67% success in the Biodentine group, 75% success in the MTA group and 41.67% success in Calcium Hydroxide group.

Conclusion: In our study the materials tested at 1 month, 3 month and 6-month follow-up, Calcium Silicate materials are better than calcium hydroxide and comparably Biodentine is better than MTA for Direct pulp capping.

Clinical Significance: The findings of this clinical trial could promote the reliability of pulp capping materials for treatment of deep carious lesions by conservative approach rather than opting endodontic management.

Open Access Original Research Article

Knowledge, Experience and Confidence of Saudi Dental Practitioners towards Treating Patients on the Autism Spectrum; A Cross-Sectional Study

Aziza Jamaan Alalmaie, Hind Khalaf Alkhalaf, Reema Mashhour Aldakheel, Roa’a Rafa Al Shehri, Shahzeb Hasan Ansari

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 219-227
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i49A33324

Introduction: Children with ASD face various obstacles to professional dental care that are prominent causes to stop seeking dental care. The main barriers are behavioral problems and trouble finding a dentist who treats ASD children.

Materials and Methods: This is a cross sectional study conducted among the dental practitioners of Saudi Arabia using an online survey. Online questionnaire was constructed consisting of questions related to personal, professional, and demographic data followed by questions including knowledge, experience and confidence in managing patients with ASD.

Results: Only 18% had previously treated an autistic child, 14% had treated autistic adults and 16% having treated both with 52% with no past exposure. Maximum score of 3.86 was attained when inquired about knowing where to find further information and guidance for treating autistic patients.

Conclusion: Overall knowledge and confidence level of participants is low regarding autistic patients.

Open Access Original Research Article

Knowledge, Attitude and Preventive Practice towards Breast Cancer among Women Visiting Public Health Facility, Saudi Arabia

Muzammil Mehmood, Mubashir Zafar, Amal Abdullah Albuqaisi, Lamia Mohammed Alshammari, Syed Muhammad Ozair Ilyas, Khawaja Ghulam Moinuddiin

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 228-236
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i49A33325

Background: Breast cancer is the highest burden of disease in high and low income countries and it is the leading cause of disability and death. Knowledge is important predictor of breast cancer. The objective of this study is to determine the knowledge, attitude and practice regarding breast cancer among women visiting public health facilities in Hail, Saudi Arabia.

Method: It’s was a cross-sectional study in the leading public sector hospital and 127 study participants were selected through stratified random sampling technique. Validated and structured questionnaire used. Study participants who scored greater than or equal to mean valued were considered good knowledge, positive attitude and safe practice. Chi square test was used to cross tabulation between socio-demographic characteristics and knowledge, attitude and practice score.

Results: Over all 18.1%, 47.2% and 52% of study participants had good knowledge, positive attitude and safe practice for prevention of breast cancer respectively. More than two third (89%) of participants were stated that breast cancer was not curable disease, more than half (67.7%) of were heard about mammogram. Only 10.2% were belief that screening was essential to breast cancer for early diagnosis. More than two third (69,9%) were not practice self breast examination and 69% were stated that fear of disease was major barrier to mammogram test.

Conclusion: The knowledge level among communities member of female regarding breast cancer was in-appropriate. Majority of them were not practicing self breast examination. Health education programme through workshops and seminars will be needed to increase the awareness toward breast cancer among females.

Open Access Original Research Article

Hepatoprotective Effect of Leaves of Morinda tinctoria Roxb. Against Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Rats

Anil K. Yadav, Anoop Singh

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 237-249
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i49A33326

Aim: To study the hepatoprotective and antioxidant activity of 50% aqueous-alcoholic leaves extract of Morinda tinctoria (Rubiaceae) against non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

Study Design: All experiments involving animals complies with the ethical standards of animal handling and approved by institutional animal ethical and welfare committee of the Institute of Pharmacy, PSIT (1273/AC/09/ CPCSEA) and plant were collected from Ranan Nagar, Madurai, Tamil Nadu, India and was authenticated by Dr. Navin K. Ambasht, Head and Associate Professor, Botany Department, Christ Church College, Kanpur, Uttar Pradesh, India.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was carried out at Institute of Pharmacy, PSIT, Kanpur, Uttar Pradesh, India, during 2018-21.

Methodology: The hepatoprotective potential of Morinda tinctoria leaves extract (MTLE) 150 and 300 mg/kg body weight was studied on Methionine and Choline deficient diet, High Fat Diet, Cholesterol and Cholate diet, and Streptozotocin + HFD induced non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. At the end of the treatment blood sample was collected from direct cardiac puncture and analysed for various parameter like alanine aminotransferase, aspartate transaminase, low density lipoprotein, high density lipoprotein, triglycerides, total cholesterol, free fatty acid and malondialdehyde.

Results: The phytochemical investigation of extract showed presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, amino acid, saponin, tannins, phenols, carbohydrate and for the first time the present study showed that Morinda tinctoria leaves extract reduced level of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate transaminase, triglycerides, total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein, free fatty acid, malondialdehyde and enhance the level of Superoxide dismutase, High Density Lipoprotein and it also returned hepatic damage towards normal which further supports hepatoprotective and antioxidant activity of M. tinctoria. leaves extracts.

Conclusions: M. tinctoria leaves extract showed maximum curation in the dose 300 mg/kg body weight against non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

Open Access Original Research Article

Severity of Extrinsic Black Stain and prevalence of Dental Caries

Mishary B. Almotairy, Abdulrahman M. Albukhitan, Yousif O. Abduldaiem, Tariq A. Alsemrani, Moayed A. Alhameed, Ihsan S. Alqeshtaini

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 250-258
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i49A33327

Background: Teeth discoloration is one of the most common problems among individuals nowadays. It can be caused by a variety of circumstances and can result in cosmetic problems as well as low self-esteem and dental caries. Hence the present was conducted to investigate the correlation between the severity of Black stains and the prevalence of caries, number of missing teeth, crowns, restorations, and Endodontically-treated teeth in adult patients at Riyadh Elm University Dental Clinics.

Materials and Methods: The study consisted of 84 participants with age ranging from 18 to 60 years, with no gender preference. The subjects included in the study had not received any professional teeth scaling and polishing at least 6 months prior to the examination. Participants with an anterior fixed partial denture or any kind of restoration anteriorly with more than two incisors crowns or more than two missing incisors for each quadrant were excluded. Clinical examination was done by the single investigator who was calibrated by practicing it on 5 patients.

Results: In the present study majority 64 (76.2%) of the participants aged between   18-32yrs, more than half 50 (59.5%) of them were male and the rest of them were female 34 (40.5%). A high percentage of subjects 34 (40.5%) were having a university level of education. Age, gender showed significant association with Intensity, extensity and composite scores of stains (p<0.05). Income was associated statistically significantly with extensity of stains (p<0.05). A correlation was found between the patient decayed teeth number and stains; however, this relation wasn’t statistically significant. The study found that endodontically treated teeth had a statistically significant link between its number increase and the extent and intensity of stains.

Conclusion: From the present study it was concluded that age and gender was statistically associated with intensity, extensity and composite scores and income also had an impact on extensity of stains. More investigation is recommended to gain more understanding of the correlations of dark stains.

Open Access Original Research Article

A Prospective Randomised Case Control Study on the Role of Probiotics in Controlling Chronic Kidney Disease Progression

A. Sai Keshava Reddy, P. Dhana Lakshmi, N. Hima Bindu, R. E. Ugandar, Y. Sai Vani

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 264-271
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i49A33329

Aim:  To study the role of probiotics in controlling chronic kidney disease progression.

Sample: To correlate renal parameters like creatinine, urea, uric acid, PCR in patients with chronic kidney disease.

Study Design: It is a Prospective case control study

Place and Duration of the Study: Department of Nephrology, Santhiram Medical college and General Hospital, between December 2020 – May 2021.

Methodology: We included 150 patients with chronic kidney disease from in and out patient departments. In this study patients are divided into two groups; case and control group. Control group is treated with normal conventional therapy whereas the case group is treated with conventional therapy along with probiotics. The lab parameters like creatinine, PCR, urea, uric acid were analyzed before and after the therapy in both groups.

Results: The lab parameters were analyzed by paired student`s t- test and the p value of these parameters were found to be in control group creatinine ranges from (4.42+/- 2.84 to 3.54+/- 2.73) and in case/ interventional group creatinine ranges from (5.13+/-2.43 to 2.29+/-1.57) shows <0.001. It shows significant improvement in these parameters in both control and case group. CKD stages were analyzed by Chi- square test, the p value of CKD stages in case group was found to be <0.0001 and in control group it was found to be 0.03.

Conclusion: It shows that there is significant improvement is found in both interventional (case) and non-interventional (control) groups. But more betterment is observed in case group than in control group. Hence probiotics are used as a natural bio-treatment to control the progression of CKD and improves the quality of life.

Open Access Original Research Article

Chromatographic Method for Quantification of Tenofovir in Pharmaceutical Formulations: Comparison with Spectrophotometric Method

Erten Akbel, Ibrahim Bulduk

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 272-280
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i49A33330

Aims: An efficient therapeutic drug or antiviral agent to treat Covid-19 is still not available. But, previously licensed pharmaceuticals to treat other virus infections are usedon an off-label basis either alone or in combination. Tenofovir emerged as a promising treatment for Covid-19 in September 2020. It is an antiretroviral drug that is active against many viruses. This study explains the development and asessment of liquid chromatographic and UV spectrophotometric methods to quantify tenofovir in raw materials and tablets.

Methods: HPLC analyzes were performed using a C18 column and a mobile phase composed of 20 mM KH2PO4, with a flow rate of 0.8 mLmin-1 and UV detection at 260 nm. For the spectrophotometric analyzes, ultra-pure water was used as a solvent. UV spectrum of standard and sample solution were recorded between 200 and400 nm and Tenofovir was detected using a wavelength of 260 nm. Both methods have been validated according to the procedures described in ICH guidelines Q2(R1) for the validation of analytical methods.

Results: The results showed that both spectrophotometric and liquid chromatographic methods were linear, precise, accurate, rugged and robust with relative standard deviation R.S.D.% values less than 1%, and the recovery percentage was within standard limits (98-102%). Then a statistical comparison of these two analytical methods was performed, and the results of both methods showed no significant difference. It was found that both methods were not statistically significant with respect to each other in the 95% confidence interval (p<0.05). As a result, the proposed methods were found to be highly effective and could be used for routine analysis of tenofovir in pharmaceutical formulations.

Open Access Original Research Article

Determination of Ballistic Six Exercises and Theraband Exercises on Physical Performance in Badminton Players: A Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial

Simran Narang, Deepali Patil

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 281-291
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i49A33331

Aims: During regular training, players sustain injuries on a regular basis. Based on the fact that badminton isn't seem at all a contact sport the majority of ailments are caused by overuse. A participant must perform a variety of quick yet repeated shoulder actions and repetitive motions put tension mostly on tissues with time, putting them at risk of damage. Current study was done to compare the effects of Ballistic Six training and Theraband exercises on shoulder strength, agility, speed and function in novice badminton player.

Study Design: Randomized Controlled Trial.

Place and Duration of Study: Sport clubs were selected according to feasibility in Wardha, from July 2020 to June 2021.

Methodology: 40 subjects of both gender aged between 18 to 25 years were selected who have being playing badminton for more than a year. Subjects were randomized into two groups, Group A (Ballistic Six Exercise group) and Group B (Theraband exercise group). Assessments done were sitting medicine ball throw test (SMBT) for shoulder strength, closed kinetic chain upper extremity stability test (CKUCEST) for agility, plate tapping test (PTT) for speed and Kerlan Jobe Orthopaedic Clinical Score (KJOC) for shoulder function. Assessments were done at baseline, post 8 weeks of training and at the end of 6 months.

Results: Significant increase in mean sitting medicine ball throw test SMBT, CKUCEST, PTT and KJOC score in both group but Group A showed more improvement than Group B.

Conclusion: Study concluded that adding of Ballisitic Six plyometric training for novice badminton players would increase the shoulder strength, agility, speed and function than the theraband exercises.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Movement Control Spinal Exercise Programme on Pain and Mobility in Individual with Non-Specific Low Back Pain

Celina Elias D’souza, Sandeep Shinde, Prachiti Bhore

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 292-298
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i49A33332

Background: Low back pain is the most common condition that affects the majority of the population with up to 84% lifetime prevalence. A specific diagnosis of low back pain is only possible in 15% of patients and the majority of cases the pain is non – specific low back pain (NSLBP). The main objectives were to assess the effect of movement control spinal exercises (MVCSE) on NSLBP and to examine the effect of MCSE on mobility.

Methods: The study was conducted in the physiotherapy out-patient department. After screening of the inclusion and exclusion criteria, 35 individuals with NSLBP were selected. A pre-test assessment was done, the protocol included warmup sessions, exercise protocol and cool down sessions. Exercises were demonstrated to the patients according to the spinal movements control impairment, the total duration of the protocol was of 6 weeks with one session of 1 hour per day. Later the post- test assessment was done and further statistical analysis was done.

Results: After 6 weeks post evaluation, patients with flexion movement control impairment (MVCI) had improvement in their movement control; extension, lateral and rotational movement control impairments were the same as before.

Conclusion: The patient- specific functional complaints and disabilities improved significantly after implementation of the individual based specific exercise programme, along with the regular physiotherapeutic interventions. Movement Control Spinal Exercise treatment has shown results in improving mobility and disability in the short term and long term for individuals with NSLBP and MVCI to than other interventions.

Open Access Review Article

Causes and Management of Acute Abdominal Pain in Children: A Review Article

May Abdullah S. Alanazi, Abdulaziz Muslih Muhaylan Alsharari, Ibrahim Awadh R. Alanazi, Abdulaziz Mashan R. Alanazi

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 14-22
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i49A33296

Acute abdominal pain is one of the commonest prevalent grievances in children, and it frequently requires emergency room diagnosis and management. Abdominal pain in children differs with age, concomitant symptoms, and pain site. While most cases of acute abdominal embarrassment are self-limiting and benevolent, there are certain diseases that can be life-threatening and necessitate instant care, such as appendicitis, intussusception, or intestinal obstruction. To decide the cause of acute abdominal pain and recognize children with surgical conditions, scrupulous history taking and numerous physical checkups are mandatory.The most important and realistic first goal in the evaluation of acute AP is to distinguish between surgical and nonsurgical situations, which are further divided into urgent and non-urgent categories. A thorough history and physical examination, laboratory investigations to evaluate comorbidity, and imaging scans are usually used for these purposes. Management decisions should necessitate teamwork between the emergency room physician, a surgeon, and a radiologist. Consecutivereassessment and symptomatic treatment with hardworking follow-up are necessary for management as soon aspossible in urgent disorder.

Open Access Review Article

Pharmacognostic and Pharmacological Study of Helicteres isora. Linn. - A Review

Swapnali S. Mankar, Muh. Younas, Awadhut Pimpale, Devyani Awari

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 208-214
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i49A33322

Aim: In this article we compiled the whole plant of Helicteres.isora Linn showed excellent medicinal merits from ancient time belonging to the family Sterculiacea, which commonly known as murud sheng.

Study Design: The Pharmacognostic study i.e. microscopic and macroscopic study with preliminary phytochemical test on different parts of plant performed in a Datta Meghe college of pharmacy,Datta meghe Institute of Medical sciences, Wardha, in collaboration with Balkh university,Mazar-e-Sharif during the period of January 2021 to Septmber 2021.

Methodology: In the preliminary study focus on all pharmacognostic, by microscopic identification,by TLC, HPTLC by fingerprint application and phytochemical test of root extract, stem, leaf and fruit powder from different researchers study,  which showed the presence of carbohydrates, protein, alkaloids, cardiac glycoside, flavonoids, tannins, essential oil etc which shows number of medicinal merits

Results: During the study all investigators investigate, different region shows minute change in organoleptic charecteristics as well as phytochemical constituents and pharmacological study exhibits activities like Fruit showed Antioxidant, Antidiabetic and Antihyperlipidemic activity, Bark extract showed Antihelmintic activity  , Root extract as  Anticancer.

Conclusion: According to study we conclude that  Helicteres Isora Linn whole plant parts as well chemical constituents in every part is effective and used medicinally so further investigations are necessary to find out the active bio active molecules responsible to cure different disorders

Open Access Review Article

A Comparative Study to Assess the Knowledge of Anemia among School Children in Selected Urban and Rural Schools of Bilaspur, Chhattisgarh

Shailvina D. Masih, C. C. Linson

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 299-311
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i49A33333

The aim of the research was to assess the knowledge and prevalence of anemia among rural and urban school children. A quantitative approach was used for the present study. The study population wasthe school children, 9-14 years of age studying in 6th to 9th standard of rural and urban schools of Bilaspur, Chhattisgarh. The sample size consisted of 50 children from urban and 50 children from rural school. The objectives of the study were to assess the knowledge of anemia among children in urban and rural school. Compare the knowledge of anemia among children in urban and rural school. To find out the association between knowledge and selected demographic variables. Among the urban school children 14(28%) had inadequate knowledge, 26(52%) had moderately adequate knowledge, and, 10(20%) were having adequate knowledge. Among the rural school children 35(70%) had inadequate knowledge, 12(24%) had moderately adequate knowledge, and 3(6%) had adequate knowledge. There is significant difference in the level of knowledge regarding Anemia among urban and rural school children. There is significant association between knowledge of urban school children and occupation of mother.

There is significant association between knowledge of rural school children and educational qualification of father.