Open Access Case Report

A Case Report of Comminuted Patella Fracture with Open Reduction

Tejal K. Babar, Ashish W. Bele, Nivedita Chandrapal Singh, Mohd. Irshad Qureshi, Rakesh Krishna Kovela, Chaitanya A. Kulkarni

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-5
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i45B32770

Introduction: Patellar injuries are usually caused while a person slips or falls on a flexed knee and when the forces from the extensors surpass the inherent strength of patella. As the bony failure advances, it concurs or follows injury to medial and lateral extensions of quadriceps mechanism. This happens by pulling mechanism of the muscles. The patient is unable to extend the affected knee actively. This is indicative of disruption of the extensor mechanism and a torn retinaculum. This requires repair or reconstruction through operative means.

Case Presentation: To find out complications of comminuted fracture of patella and open reduction after 15 years of surgery. Case Report: A 32-year-old man had a history of fall on ground due to slipping of the wheelchair over wet floor while taking a patient on wheelchair which led to comminuted fracture of left patella with shift knee and had undergone Open reduction and Tension band Osteosynthesis. After this surgical intervention, the patient presented with knee stiffness and pain (rated 6 on numerical pain rating scale) and was referred to physiotherapy.

Conclusion: This case study concluded that there is evident stiffness and muscle wasting observed after 15 years of post-fracture surgery of patella, which was managed with the physiotherapeutic rehabilitations.

Open Access Systematic Review Article

Epidemiology and Prevalence of Preterm Births: A Systematic Review

Zarmeen Sultan, Zuby Tufail, Muazzma Siddiqa

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 438-446
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i45B32825

Objective: The aim of this study was to explore dispersion of effect sizes regarding reported preterm births and to find out pooled prevalence estimate of preterm birth using meta-analysis.

Methods: For meta-analysis a total of 1106 published studies were initially found related to the preterm births, after careful screening 41methodologically sound studies were selected for meta analysis.

Results: In this study 41 published studies were taken with overall sample size of 6781976. Using meta-analysis the overall prevalence of preterm birth was found as 11.3% with significant erogenous results. Rosenthal method showed there exist significant publication bias in pre-term prevalence studies.

Conclusions: Based on meta-analysis results it can be evidently concluded that there exists enormous heterogeneity in pre-term prevalence reporting and the overall pooled prevalence is too high. The health care providers must focus on preventive measures and early screening of high-risk pregnancy.

Open Access Case Study

Case Report on Acute Transient Psychotic Disorder

Achita Sawarkar, Rasika Shambharkar, Madhuri Shambharkar, Jaya Khandar, Prerna Sakharwade, Pooja Kasturkar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 86-91
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i45B32783

Introduction: Acute and Transient Psychotic disorder (ATPD) is defined by the ICD-10 as hallucinations, delusions, and/or senseless or nonsensical speech having an acute [1]. The distinguishing characteristic of ATPD is its abrupt onset. Second, there are characteristic symptoms present, and third, there is related acute stress [2].

Clinical Findings: Sleep disturbance, aggressiveness, muttering to self, irritability, irrelevant talks and loss of appétit, hearing of voices not heard by others, suspiciousness, increased talkativeness, increased energy and fearfulness.

Mental Status Examination: Conscious, dressed appropriately, well groomed, standing, eye to eye contact initiated, non cooperative, activity normal, and the mood is exhausted, frustrated, the affect is irritable, guarded, and the flow of speech rate is rapid with moderate volume and responsive quality, Thought-flight of thoughts is evident, as are perceptual abnormalities- auditory hallucination, impaired social judgment, and full denial of sickness.

Outcome: After treatment, the patient shows improvement. Irritability has reduced, sleeping pattern is improved, self muttering has stopped, irrelevant talks are less, and aggressiveness is reduced.

Conclusion:  Patient  was  admitted  to  Psychiatric  Ward  with  a  known  case of Bipolar Affective Disorder and after Mental Status Examination he is diagnosed as Acute Transient Psychotic Disorder with complain of Sleep disturbance, aggressiveness, muttering to self, irritability, irrelevant talks. He improved after receiving adequate treatment, and the treatment was continuously ongoing until my last date of care.

Open Access Case Study

Carcinoma of Tail of Pancreas: A Case Report

Pratiksha Thakare, Ruchira Ankar, Ranjana Sharma, Samruddhi Gujar, Shakib Sheikh

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 100-104
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i45B32785

Background: A typical manifestation of pancreatic tail cancer is large intestinal obstruction with perforation. Clinically the cancer of pancreas is usually complicated to diagnose. Most cancer patients are not having symptoms throughout during the initial stages of the cancer, which often leads to a delay in diagnosis. Treatment choices include surgery, chemotherapy, and palliative care. It is more common in African-Americans, slightly more common in men.

Case Presentation: A female patient of 40 years from Wardha was admitted to Female surgery Ward, Unit-3, AVBRH on 18th December with a chief complaint of pain in epigastric region since 2weeks. Patient was apparently all right 2 months back then she was complaining of pain in the epigastric region which was insidious in onset, gradually progressive in nature, burning type of pain with radiating to left upper back. No history of fever, nausea vomiting, clay-coloured stools. After that patient was undergone on routine investigation in that total WBC count was increased i.e., 13000/cu mm and haemoglobin level were decreased i.e., 9.7gm%, liver biopsy revealed that metastasis of Adenocarcinoma probably of pancreatic origin, Computed tomography and ultrasound and it revealed that heterogenous iso-echoic mass in the tail of pancreas based on investigation she was diagnosed as a case of Carcinoma tail of pancreas and she was undergone on treatment of antibiotic before  chemotherapy .after that chemotherapy treatment was done for management of pain.

Conclusion: Pancreatic adenocarcinoma presents differently from large intestinal cancer and should be explored in the differential diagnosis of large intestinal obstruction.

Open Access Case Study

A Case Report on Alzheimers Dementia

Dharti Meshram, Jaya Gawai, Pooja Kasturkar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 147-152
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i45B32791

Background: Dementia is one of the most difficult medical and economic concerns that our society faces today. There are currently very few treatments available for those suffering with dementia. There are no medications available that can stop or reverse brain tissue deterioration. This is primarily due to a lack of understanding of how dementia develops.

Aim: To improve the individual with dementias quality of life, followed by caregiver support. To minimize burden of this disease on caregivers.

Presentation of Case: The authors present case of a 65-year-old female got admitted                              in female psychiatric ward AVBR Hospital Sawangi Meghe Wardha Maharashtra with chief complaint of forgetfulness, interest in environment decline, unable to communicate, poor performance at work, muttering to self, sleep disturbance, seeing people which are not seen              other, fearfulness. all necessary investigation done, in mental status examination founded impairment in memory, disorientation cognitive function impairment, RBC count 3.82, WBC count 5300, Hb% 12, calcium 8.1, urea 26, creatinine 0.6, sodium 142, potassium 4.0. Alkaline phosphate 89. HIV, HBSAG non-reactive, Positron emission tomography finding that atrophy in the left temporal lobe or posterior region of the partial lobes. Positron emission tomography (PET) is a widely used imaging technique in many clinical applications including tumor detection and neurological disorder diagnosis. In particular, amyloid PET plays a significant role in dementia diagnosis.  

Results: The patient was received symptomatic treatment antidepressant, antianxiety, antipsychotic drug alleviates hallucinations and delusion. severity of Symptoms was minimized.  

Discussion: patient received treatment such antipsychotic drug according to symptom, not only antipsychotic drug is important but also other therapy are important to minimized symptoms such reorientation training, daily routine, occupation therapy, Nutrition and Body Weight, Mood changes are best controlled by keeping a calm environment with fixed daily routine. It is advisable to have some identification bracelet or card always in their possession. The doors of the house should be securely locked so that the patients cannot leave unnoticed.

Conclusion: Patient received symptomatically treatment benzodiazepine antidepressant, antipsychotic to alleviate hallucinations and delusions, anticonvulsant to control seizures. Donepezil, galantamine, Memantine. Patient condition improved through reorientation training, therapy other and severity of symptoms was minimized.

Open Access Study Protocol

To Evaluate the Effectiveness of Awareness Program on Self Care Management among Patients Undergoing Radiotherapy

Pratiksha Thakare, Ruchira Ankar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 24-29
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i45B32774

Background: Cancer is one of the main life-threatening disease among all diseases. Besides a large number of care efforts dedicated to this disease in the health system, cancer also imposes high costs on society.

Aim of the Study: To evaluate the effectiveness of awareness program on self care management among patients undergoing radiotherapy.

Methods: In this, study participants are a head and neck cancer patient, Interventional approach, The one group pre-test and post-test design. The head and neck cancer patient having an age group of more than 20 years will be included as per inclusion/exclusion criteria. The efficacy of the awareness program on management of self care in undergoing radiotherapy patients will be assessed by a structured knowledge questionnaire and perception questionnaire on radiotherapy. Each test having 20 items and the duration of the test will be 20 min. The pre-test will be assessed first day then the informational booklet on self care management undergoing radiotherapy will be provided to each patient and after seven days post-test will be assessed.

Expected Outcome: Primary outcomes include evaluation of the efficacy of awareness on self care management in patients undergoing radiotherapy. Secondary outcomes involve Association of  Knowledge and perception score related to management of self care among radiotherapy receiving patients related to their demographic variable.

Conclusion: The study will be drawn from the results and after that article will be published in the peer-review journal.

Open Access Study Protocol

Assess the Relationship between Personality Traits (Neuroticism, Extraversion and Self-Efficacy) with Anxiety and Depression among Aging Population

Trupti Uke, Jaya Gawai, Pooja Kasturkar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 112-119
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i45B32787

Background: Many people experience and deal with anxiety very efficiently at home, work place and every walk of their life. The beneficial outcomes of high level of anxiety are usually the effects and achievements you and others experience. On the outward, you should appear to be very effective in proper work and routinely lifestyle and this may be objectively perfect if you judge yourself on what you are accomplishing.

Aim: The aim is to assess the relationship between personality traits (neuroticism and extraversion and self-efficacy) with anxiety and depression among aging population.

Objectives: 1. To assess the relationship between personality traits of neuroticism with anxiety among aging population. 2. To assess the relationship between personality traits of neuroticism with depression among aging population. 3. To assess the relationship between personality traits of extraversion with anxiety among aging population. 4. To assess the relationship between personality traits of extraversion with depression among aging population.5. To assess the relationship between personality traits self-efficacy with anxiety among aging population.6. To assess the relationship between personality traits self-efficacy with depression among aging population.7.To compare the relationship between personality traits (neuroticism, extraversion and self-efficacy) with anxiety and depression among aging population.8.To correlate relationship between personality traits (neuroticism, extraversion and self-efficacy) with anxiety and depression among aging population.9.To associate score of personality traits (neuroticism extraversion and self-efficacy) with their selected demographic variables.

Methodology: The research design is cross-sectional study, and participants are, the aging populations. Sampling technique will be non-probability convenience sampling. Data will be obtained from the participants with the use of standardized scale personality five big inventory scale, self-efficacy scale, Hamilton-depression and Hamilton anxiety scale.

Results: There may be relationships between neuroticism, extraversion and self-efficacy with anxiety and depression among aging population and this relationship will be tested with demographic variables by regression analysis.

Conclusion: Findings will be drawn from the statistical analysis.

Open Access Study Protocol

Pharmaceutical Standardization and Drug Dosage Modification of Laghu Sudarshan Churna with Comparative Assessment of its Antipyretic and Analgesic Activities in Albino Rats

Manasi D. Chunchuwar, Bharat Rathi, Anita Wanjari, Renu Rathi

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 130-137
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i45B32789

Introduction: Laghu Sudarshan Churna is a Churna mentioned by Yogratnakar indicated in the treatment of all types of Jwara and its action is Tridoshanashak. Fever is bodys natural defense mechanism against infectious agents which can damage the tissue. Some studies have suggested that raising temperature may be harmful. Therefore, in clinical practices in which fever associated risk benefits, antipyretic treatment is necessary.

Aim and Objective: Drug dosage modification and pharmaceutical standardization of Laghu Sudarshana Churna to Laghu Sudarshana Vati with comparative Assessment of its Antipyretic & Analgesic activities in albino rats.

Materials and Methods: To evaluate antipyretic & analgesic activities of test drugs the most commonly employed method to induce fever in animals is brewers yeast induced pyrexia, Tail flick test & Hot plate test for analgesic in animal models.

Observation and Results: Observation will be done on the basis of Physicochemical & Organoleptic characteristics of Laghu Sudarshan churna & Laghu Sudarshan vati. Results will be drawn on the basis of observations & applying suitable test. It will be noted & presented in the form of table, charts & graphs etc.

Conclusion: If this Antipyretic & Analgesic study is successful then this data will be used in another clinical study for intervention of Antipyretic & Analgesic studies, as it is Herbal medicine so it will show no any toxic effect in animal models. Hence, it will be easily used in humans also.

Open Access Study Protocol

Early Identification and Prevention of Postnatal Complications among the Postnatal Mothers by Using the ‘Postnatal Care Bundle’

Vaishali Taksande, Deepti S. Shrivastava, Sr. Tessy Sebastian

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 175-181
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i45B32794

Background: Postnatal period initiates immediately after the birth of a baby. The terms puerperium period is commonly used to refer to the first 6 weeks after delivery of baby. A postnatal care bundle used during this period and it will help to significantly improve patient outcomes.

Objective: To develop, test and pilot of Postnatal Care Bundle (PNCB) and to assess conventional postnatal care among the postnatal mothers and to evaluate the effectivity of Postnatal Care Bundle (PNCB) for early identification and prevention of postpartum complications among the postnatal mothers and to assess the satisfaction level of staff nurses after implementation of Postnatal Care Bundle and conventional postnatal care for early identification and prevention of postnatal complications among the postnatal mothers.

Methodology: The interventional analytical and true experimental research design approach will be used and the sample use for the postnatal mothers including the full term normal delivery, caesarean section will be and the random sampling use and sample size is 185 in each group i.e. control and experimental group. One group will be received conventional postnatal care and other group will be on postnatal care bundle. The outcome includes that postnatal care bundle help to early identification and prevention of postnatal complications among the postnatal mothers.

Conclusion: PNCB will be effective in quality care of postnatal period.

Open Access Study Protocol

A Study to Assess the Effectiveness of Video Assisted Teaching Program on Knowledge Regarding the Side Effects of Antipsychotics among Primary Care Givers of Clients With Mental Illness in Selected Mental Health Hospital, Chennai

A. R. Bharathi

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 182-188
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i45B32795

Background: The main aim of this study is to create an awareness regarding the side effects. The primary care givers and the patients should understand that if side effects are there also they do not stop the medicines. The psychotic medicines are very essential for the treatment and it should be effectively managed and given only after the consultation with the physician. So a basic knowledge regarding drugs, side effects and the immediate management of these side effects are essential.

Methodology: Present study was conducted on quantitative approach for analyzing knowledge management of the psychotic drugs among the care takers based on the conceptual frame work, Imogene King's Goal attainment theory. The research design selected for the present study was one group pretest and posttest design (01 - X - 02). The sample of the study comprised of 40 primary care givers who are staying with the mentally ill clients in the selected mental health centers.

Results and Discussion: Among the total 40 sample of primary care givers out of 14 (35%) in 29-38 years of age and 60% were females. 50% having secondary education. Hindu (65%).  52.5% of people worked in private job.  Only 55% informed that their income was higher than 10000, 55% from urban area.  While in the post -test, 1(2.5%) of the subject had average knowledge, 19(47.5%) subject had good knowledge and 20(50%) subject had excellent knowledge regarding the side effects of antipsychotics. The comparison between the mean difference in pre-test and post test score was 8.2. The calculated ' value was 13.71, whereas the tabulated’t’ value was 2.02, shows that the calculated ’t’ value was much higher than the tabulated ’t’ value.

Conclusion: It shows that the planned teaching was effective in significant improving the knowledge of primary care givers of psychiatric patient regarding side effects of typical antipsychotics, so the null hypothesis His rejected and the research hypothesis H1 is accepted.

Open Access Study Protocol

To Assess the Effectiveness of Self-Instructional Module on Knowledge Regarding Obstetric Danger Signs, Birth Preparedness and Complications Readiness among the Primigravida Mothers

A. Lalawmpuii, Vaishali Taksande

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 202-206
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i45B32797

Background: Every pregnant woman faces the possibility of unforeseeable pregnancy problems, which can result in morbidity or fatality for herself or her infant. As a result, the concept of birth preparedness and complication readiness was developed, in which the family and community should plan ahead of time to protect the safety and well-being of the women and their new-borns throughout pregnancy, delivery, and after delivery. In the event of pregnancy and delivery problems, delivery intrapartum, and after postpartum, good plans and preparations will enhance usage of professional care and reduce delays in receiving care. Good plans and preparations will increase the usage of expert care and reduce the time it takes to seek care in the case of pregnancy and delivery complications [1].

Objectives: 1. To assess the existing knowledge on obstetric danger signs, birth preparedness and complications readiness among primigravida mothers. 2. To evaluate the effectiveness of self- instructional module on knowledge regarding obstetric dangers signs, birth preparedness and complications readiness among the primigravida mothers. 3. To find out the association between the knowledge regarding obstetric danger signs, birth preparedness and complications readiness with selected demographic variables.

Materials and Methods: It is a quantitative research approach, in which one group pre-test post-test design will be used. Purposive sampling technique will be used to collect the data. Self-instructional module and structured questionnaire will be used to assess the effectiveness of self-instructional module on knowledge regarding obstetric danger signs, birth preparedness and complication readiness among the primigravida mothers.

Open Access Study Protocol

To Assess the Effectiveness of Patterned Breathing Technique in Reduction of Pain during First Stage of Labour among Primigravida Mothers

. Lalhriatpuii, Manjusha Mahakarkar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 221-224
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i45B32799

Background: The pain of labour is intense, but his memory decreases over time, despite this. Labour is an emotional phenomenon that encompasses both psychological and physiological processes. The active method of delivering a foetus is labour, which is characterized by frequent, painful uterine contractions that increase in frequency and intensity [5]. There are many ways, both pharmacological and non-pharmacological, to relieve work pain and help to relax. During labour and childbirth, comfort measures that offer natural pain relief can be very effective.

Methods and Materials: Quantitative Research Approach and Non-randomized control group design will be used, 56 subjects (28 in experimental group and 28 in control group) will be randomly allotted. The experimental group received breathing exercise during contraction at a rate of 45 mins interval 3 times during the active phase of labour whereas routine care will be provided to the subjects in the control group. Pain level will be assessed after each contraction with Wong weber’s facial pain scale.

Expected Outcome: This study is planned to assess the effectiveness of patterned breathing technique during first stafe of labour among primigravida mothers to reduce their pain and their pain perception. Hence, it is expected to reduce their pain perception among primigravida mothers and it will make it easy to bear the labour pain.

Open Access Study Protocol

Evaluation of Dental Hygiene and Para-functional Habits in Oro-facial Pain among Patients Visiting Sharad Pawar Dental College & Hospital: A Questionnaire Based Cross Sectional Study

Raksha Tijare, Kumar Gaurav Chhabra, Amit Reche, Priyanka Paul Madhu, Sakshi Agrawal, Vaishnavi Chandak

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 302-307
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i45B32808

Background: It is important for dental care providers to make the correct diagnosis and treatment of the oro-facial region. For treatment planning, it is very crucial to eliminate the risk factors. In this study, we will evaluate dental hygiene and para-functional habits in oro-facial pain among patients visiting Sharad Pawar Dental College and Hospital.

Objectives: To assess the prevalence of oro-facial pain associated with oral hygiene practices and para-functional habits among patients visiting Sharad Pawar Dental College and Hospital. Also, explore the co-relation of dental hygiene, para-functional habits, and oro-facial pain.

Methodology:  Patients from Sharad Pawar Dental College and Hospital are sorted for study. The current study will randomly recruit male and female participants of Sharad Pawar Dental College and Hospital encountered with oro-facial pain and unfamiliar oro-facial pain contributors. That will be sorted out via the convenient sampling method. Procedures in the contemporary study will be overseen in full accordance with the Public Health Department at SPDC and former the wince data collection, each contributor will be required to sign a written informed consent. Three interviewers will interview the contributors using a validated questionnaire at SPDC.

Expected Results: The expected result of this study will evaluate dental hygiene and para-functional habits of oro-facial pain among patients visiting Sharad Pawar Dental College and Hospital.  In this study, we will evaluate the co-relation of dental hygiene, para-functional habits, and orofacial pain to find any significant association between these three factors.

Conclusion: This study will be conducted to assess the prevalence of orofacial pain associated with oral hygiene practices and para-functional habits among patients visiting Sharad Pawar Dental College and Hospital. Also we will evaluate the co-relation of dental hygiene, para-functional habits, and orofacial pain to find any significant association between these three factors.

Open Access Study Protocol

Evaluation of Problems Comforted by Dental Professionals, Post Graduate and Interns Owing to use to the use of Personal Protective Equipments in Vidarbha Region

Vaishnav Kalbhut, Kumar Gaurav Chhabra, Amit Reche, Priyanka Paul Madhu, Nakul Arora, Malaika Varma

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 335-339
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i45B32812

Background: Dentist and dental students are facing problems while and after using the PPE Objectives: To analyse and provide a qualitative and quantitative evaluation of the problems facing dentist and dental students while and after using the PPE.

Methodology: It is a descriptive study which includes demographic details of the individuals and 25 questions regarding the problems faced by dental professionals, Post Graduates and Interns due to the use of PPE while performing the procedure and after achieving the procedure. Those who will acknowledge being part of the study will be sent an interface to the survey, either through e-mail or whatsapp mobile application. The submission shape will be kept open for a period of 30 days.

Expected Results: The expected results of this study will determine the difficulties encountered by Dentist, Postgraduates and Interns while and after using the PPE kits.

Conclusion: An observational based study in which we have to identify problems while and after using the PPE.

Open Access Study Protocol

A Research Protocol to Evaluate the Efficacy of Powerball versus Mulligan Mobilization with Movement on Pain and Function in Patients with Lateral Epicondylitis

Shivani Uttamchandani, Pratik Phansopkar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 491-500
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i45B32831

Background: Amongst the most frequently repeated stress conditions within the elbow joint includes lateral epicondylitis (LE). The extensor carpi radialis brevis muscle attachment is affected mostly. The management of an individual with LE that manifests itself in repetitive upper extremity motions is the purpose of this research. There seems to be no study on the effects of PowerBall device training on the pain and function in individuals with Lateral Epicondylitis. “PowerBall device” practice is a type of strength training.

Methods / Design: After conducting initial evaluations and allocation, the subjects (n=50) with LE will be involved in a randomized controlled study and classified either in an intervention group or a conventional group. The interventional group will do “PowerBall device” exercises, while others in the control group, doing MMWM. These groups will receive basic movements and ultrasound in accordance with the procedures.

Discussion: The PRTEE scale measured the intervention's impact on pain and function in patients with LE, and a Hand-held Dynamometer was utilized to quantify grip strength. The findings will give considerable support for the use of the "PowerBall device" exercise and MMWM on LE patients.

Conclusion: Conclusion will be drawn post study so as to see whether PowerBall device is more helpful or Mulligan Mobilization with Movement on pain and function in patients with LE. This study will give better approach to the therapist in managing the condition.

Open Access Short Research Article

Antibacterial, Antifungal Chalcone Derivatives as EGFR Inhibitors-Molecular Docking and ADMET Studies

Hemalatha Sattu, Indira rani Nerella, Saritha Jyostna Tangeda

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 387-396
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i45B32819

Aim: In our earlier research, we have synthesized series of substituted 1-(2, 5-dimethyl thiophene-3yl)-(4-substituted phenyl)-2-propene-1-one derivatives and evaluated them for their anti-bacterial and antifungal activity. In recent years, chalcone derivatives are proved for their varied pharmacological effects ranging from antimicrobial activity to anti-cancer effects. In this study, we have hypothesized the efficiency of our earlier synthesized anti-bacterial and antifungal chalcone derivatives for their potential inhibition of epidermal growth factor receptor protein (EGFR), through molecular docking studies.

Methodology: Molecular docking simulation studies are performed using the Glide XP module of Schrodinger Suite and ligand binding energies are also calculated.

Results: Molecular docking studies of the selected compounds against EGFR revealed docking scores ranging from -6.746 (compound 5) to -5.681 (compound 3) and also provided insight into binding conformations of the ligands in the EGFR protein environment. Additionally, molecular property and Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism, and Excretion (ADME) predictor analysis is also performed for the dataset ligands, which further provided the probable explanation for the binding potentials.

Conclusion: Among all the tested dataset ligands, compound 5 has shown the highest dock score (-6.746) with better ADME profiles. Binding energies in the protein-ligand interactions explain how fit the ligand binds with the target protein. Molecular docking studies of these anti-bacterial, antifungal chalcone derivatives provided deeper insights in understanding the probable conformations of these tested ligands in the EGFR protein environment.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effectiveness of Planned Teaching on Knowledge Regarding Cadverdonation among Adults in Rural Area

Archana Maurya, Karishma Wanjari, David Wanmali, Atul Warutkar, Snehal Wasekar, Bhagyashri Watmode

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 6-11
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i45B32771

Introduction: The donation of organs from a brain dead or dead person is known as Cadaver donation. Many adults are unaware of cadaver donation in the rural areas; hence the researcher had to impart awareness about cadaver donation among the adult population so that their attitude will gradually diversify in the future.

Aims: The study aims to evaluate the effectiveness of planned teaching regarding cadaver donation among adult in the rural area and find out the association of knowledge score with selected demographic variables.

Materials and Methods: In this Evaluatory approach was used. Pre-test and post test design was used. The study held among adults between the age group of 19years to 30years and the data was collected in the rural area of Seloo taluka at Wardha district from 2nd January to 28th January 2019. The researcher collected one sample from an individual family. Non- probability convenience sampling technique used in this study. The total sample size was 60 samples.

Results: In the study, 50% of sample belonged to the age group of (19 t0 21 years) 51.6% of sample were males, 40% of samples were graduate 5% of the sample had knowledge about cadaver donation out of which 15% of samples had knowledge from newspaper and mass media. The mean post-test knowledge scores 13.53 were higher than mean pre-test knowledge score 4.15 and the obtained mean difference of 9.38 was found to be statistically significant.

Conclusion: It is concluded that there was an evidence to increase the knowledge score after administration of the planned teaching. The actual gain score was significantly higher, improving in the knowledge regarding cadaver donation among adults in the rural area. Thus the planned teaching was effective.

Open Access Original Research Article

Awareness of Mosquito Bite and Preventive Methods Adopted against their Bites

S. Rajini, K. Kannan, Tamil selvi

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 12-16
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i45B32772

Mosquitoes are the utmost common disease vectors worldwide. Newly in India mosquito borne diseases have revealed as a big threat to public health specially disease like Dengue, Malaria and Chikungunya. Puducherry is said to be endemic zone for malarial spreading and other such kinds of diseases. Anopheles, Aedes and Culex are commonly seen in Puducherry. Therefore, considerable effects are taken to create the awareness against such kinds of insect- borne particularly, on mosquito bites made together for local citizens. The present study aimed to spread such kind of awareness and related practices on disposing mosquitoes’ supporting places, their eggs for maximum prevention in Puducherry rural areas. A pilot study was conducted among the small group of people and based on it, the study questioner was prepared. The objective of the survey was to study the awareness, attributes and practices about mosquito borne diseases in urban areas and it explore various myths about mosquito borne diseases.

Open Access Original Research Article

Online Teaching in an Un-prepared Country during COVID-19: An Interview Study on Final Year Medical and Dental Students

Adeel Abbas Dhahri, Ayesha Majeed Memon, Fazila Hashmi, Maria Dhahri, Samar Ghufran, Muhammad Amer Mian, Abdul Sattar Memon, Medical Education Pakistan (MEP) Collabo

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 30-39
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i45B32775

Aims: To assess medical students’ perception of online teaching to suggest transforming the future curriculum in low-economic countries.

Study Design:  Cross-sectional online interview study.

Place and Duration of Study: A team of collaborators interviewed final year medical and dental students of Pakistan from 07/08/2020 till 17/09/2020.

Methodology: A questionnaire was developed based on open and close-ended questions in Google forms; focusing on institutional preparedness, views on online education, the institute’s closure and COVID-19, and long-term effects of closure of the institute. Independent fellow researchers systematically analyzed the unaltered transcripts of the responses, and themes were then identified and coded to conclude the results. SPSS version 23 used for analysis. As this study was based on final year students.

Results: In response to an invitation email, 2442/2661 (91.77%) students voluntarily participate in this qualitative study. Most participants were females (1614, 66.10%). Closing down institutes was directly linked to a lack of motivation and feel of helplessness. As most showed dissatisfaction with online teaching compounded by psychological effects, students feared losing clinical skills and life during the pandemic.

Conclusion: The psychological impact of the crisis led to resistance to accepting the change for a better outcome. Incorporating telemedicine, different interactive learning style to online teaching, and resilience training would result in fruitful outcomes. Developed countries may also guide build infrastructure in developing countries to develop a more robust online teaching methodology in the long-run.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Association of Initial Viral Load among COVID-19 Patients with Sociodemographic Characteristics and Travel History in Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, 2020

Mohammed Abdul-Aziz Kareem, Amal Hassan Al Ghamdi

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 49-56
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i45B32777

Background: Since declaration of COVID-19 as a pandemic; researchers are trying to find out the clues for determining spread and transmission of the disease. Although viral load had been used for assessing severity, progress and transmissibility of the disease, yet, little is known about all factors associated with its changes. This study aims to explore the association of initial viral load among COVID-19 patients with sociodemographic characteristics and travel history.

Subjects and Methods: Through a record based retrospective study, laboratory confirmed cases in the period from 7th March to 31st May 2020 were included in the study (n=381); The dependent variable was the recorded viral load measured in Ct count; while the dependent variables included socio-demographic characteristics of the patients and travel history. Data were analyzed using Statistical Package for Social sciences (SPSS) version 21. Student t test and ANOVA test were used and P value less <0.05 was considered as a level of significance.

Results: Out of all respondents (n=381), there was dominance of male cases (74.0%) over females (26.0%). The great majority (83.5%) were primarily classified as being cases, while the rest were contacts (16.5%). Most of them were symptomatic (82.9%); mainly cough (44.4%), fever (41.2%), sore throat (22.0%) and runny nose (13.1%). Fifteen percent of the respondents reported that they had travelled abroad before coming back to the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and discovered as positive for COVID-19.The mean vial load was higher in males (26.2±5.55), older cases (26.5±5.39), Saudis (26.4±5.58) and health care workers (26.9±6.32), nevertheless, these differences are not statistically significant p>0.05.There was no statistically significant difference in the viral load between symptomatic and asymptomatic cases (26.0±5.48 vs 26.6±5.63) p>0.5. Nevertheless, viral load was significantly lower among those who had fever (25.2±5.70) and dyspnea (26.4±5.46) and those who reported that they did not travel abroad (29.1±4.97) p<0.05.

Conclusion and Recommendations: The current findings add more evidence to the assumption that it is likely that asymptomatic pre-symptomatic and symptomatic transmission is occurring and there is no difference between them in viral load whether they present as cases or contacts; therefore, the repeated assessment of viral load could be more valuable and informative for assessing progress of the COVID-19 on individual level rather than comparison between positive cases. Therefore, it is highly recommended to conduct further researches based on the changes of viral load along the course of the disease and find out the role of the demographic and clinical determinants on these changes. 

Open Access Original Research Article

Assess the Effectiveness of Video-assisted Teaching on Knowledge Regarding Non-scalpel Vasectomy among Married Men in Selected Area in Rural Community

Pratibha Wankhede, Shrutika Gode, Achal Gulghane, Vaibhav Hatwar, Subodh Itkalwar, Mayur Wanjari

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 57-63
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i45B32778

Introduction: Vasectomy is a surgical procedure in which the two tubes that carry sperm from the two testicles to the urinary tract are surgically altered, preventing sperm from passing through and fertilizing a woman's egg during sexual intercourse.

Objective: To determine the level of awareness of non-scalpel vasectomy and the impact of a video-assisted training programme among married males in a rural region. Community. To determine the relationship between the effectiveness of a video-assisted training programme on non-scalpel vasectomy knowledge and a set of demographic variables.

Methods: A descriptive survey method design. We conducted the descriptive research design study in the Wardha district of Maharashtra. We search for the rural area in Wardha district and men in the area. A total number of 100 men were taken inside this study. The study uses a non-probability convenient sampling technique.

Results: Findings from the study reveal that assess the effectiveness of video-assisted teaching on knowledge regarding non-scalpel among married men in selected area of Wardha district. There was an increase in the knowledge about non-scalpel vasectomy. The educational program is most important for enhancing the knowledge of the community men regarding non-scalpel vasectomy.

Conclusion: Our study draws the following conclusions to assess the effectiveness of video-assisted teaching on knowledge regarding non-scalpel vasectomy among married men are the very poor level of knowledge and accompanied by a lot of misconceptions.

Open Access Original Research Article

Antioxidant and Antibacterial Activities of Essential Oils from Three Moroccan Species (Lavandula mairei Humbert, Lavandula dentata L. and, Lavandula stoechas L.)

Ridwane Ghanimi, Ahmed Ouhammou, Yassine El Atki, Mohamed Cherkaoui

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 64-71
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i45B32779

This study aimed to evaluate the antioxidant and the antibacterial activities of the essential oils from three Moroccan species of the genus Lavandula (Lavandula dentata L., Lavandula mairei Humbert and, Lavandula stoechas L.). The antibacterial activities were evaluated by the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and the disc diffusion method, against Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Citrobacter koseri) and Gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus). The antioxidant potential was evaluated using free radical Scavenging against 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrzyl (DPPH), ferric reducing activity power (FRAP), and total antioxidant capacity (TAC). The antibacterial activity of the essential oils showed higher activity against tested nosocomial bacteria especially against Klebsiella pneumoniae, Citrobacter koseri, and Staphylococcus aureus. The essential oil of Lavandula stoechas L. revealed the higher antioxidant activity as measured by DPPH (IC50 = 3,11 ± 0,13 mg/ml), FRAP (EC50 = 6,88 ± 0,8 mg/ml) and TAC (443,2 ± 38 mg AAE/g EO) assays. The essential oil of Moroccan Lavandula stoechas L. could have potential as antimicrobial compounds for the treatment of many infectious bacterial diseases, including multi-resistant bacterial strains of nosocomial origin.

Open Access Original Research Article

Development and Validation of Estimation of Genotoxic Impurity (Benzimidamidecontent) in Leflunomide by Using RP-HPLC Technique

Mohan Bhatale, Neelakandan Kaliyaperumal, Gopalakrishnan Mannathusamy, Gurunathan Ramalingam

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 78-85
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i45B32782

The measurement of Genotoxic contaminant, a simple, selective, linear, accurate, and specific reverse phase high-performance liquid chromatographic (RP-HPLC) process was proposed. A Benzimidamide impurity in the medication Leflunomide has been discovered. Separation and analysis were carried out on Zorbax SB phenyl (4.6 mm x 250 mm) with a particle size of 5.0 μm. with 0.1 % Triethylamine in purified water with a pH of 7.0 and a buffer of phosphoric acid (20% in water). The mobile phase is a 40:60 mixture of buffer and Acetonitrile with degassing. Isocratic program mode was used. The elution was carried out at a rate of 1.0 mL/min with UV detection at a wavelength of 289 nm. The temperature of the selected column oven is 25°C. The linearity and accuracy of Benzimidamide are covered in this approach, with a LOQ limit of 150 percent (i.e.0.03 to 0.45 ppm). The observed correlation coefficient is 0.99994, with a range of 100.01 to 104.8 for recovery. The measured percent RSD of six spiked test preparation is below 5.0 percent in procedure precision (i.e. repeatability) and intermediate precision (IP). When maintained at room temperature, the standard and sample remained stable for three days. System appropriateness characteristics such as tailing factor and percent RSD do not exhibit significant changes in robustness experiments. For the detection of Benzimidamide the present RP-HPLC method is act as selective, robust, linear and precise.

Open Access Original Research Article

Frequency of Hypoglycemia in Severe Acute Malnutrition

Mohammad Sedique Zahirzay, Haqiqullah Chardiwal, Mohammad Azim Azimee

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 92-99
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i45B32784

Malnutrition is a major health problem throughout the world and contributes to at least one third of all children deaths worldwide. Hypoglycemia is a basic metabolic complication in pediatric patients which can be easily prevented by proper care and management. Objective of this study was to determine the frequency of hypoglycemia in sever acute Malnurished children (SAM). The study was conducted in nutritional division of Nangarhar University Teaching Hospital pediatric department. For 8 months, all the patients were subjected for measurement of blood glucose level by glucose oxidase method .Hypoglycemia was labeled according to value mentioned in operational definition. The study included a total of 252 patients with SAM. 137 (54.4%) were Males and 115 (45.6%) females with no significant difference in the number of gender and with an average age of (Mean± SD) 16.20±11.74 (6 months to 60 months). Out of 252 patients 54.80% (138) were hypoglycemic, and 85.70% (216) suffering from Marasmus. 38.9% of children’s caregivers were illiterate and 86.5% poor and middle-level of socioeconomic status. 12.7%( 32) of the SAM children with hypoglycemia were dying, most of the patient from Nangarhar province.

Sever acute malnutrition (SAM) constitutes a significant health problem and important cause of mortality and morbidity in children, in marasmus patients the hypoglycemia is more common than kwashiorkor children; early diagnosis and treatment can prevent and decrease the morbidity and mortality of Sever acute malnutrition (SAM) in children significantly, education, socioecnomic status of caregivers are important in prevention of sever acute malnutrition (SAM) and their complications.

Open Access Original Research Article

Development of Some Novel Coumarin-Chalcone Compounds as Anti-proliferative Agents

Kuldeep Patel, Jagdish Chandra Rathi, Neerupma Dhiman

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 105-111
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i45B32786

Introduction: Cancer is the world's second leading cause of death and morbidity, behind only heart failure, which claimed the lives of 18.2 million people in 2020. While massive initiatives to establish newer leads and innovative chemotherapeutic methods for combating different types of cancer, continues to be a major concern around the world. As a result, identifying cell-cycle inhibitors and apoptotic triggers to fight cancer cells is an appealing method for finding and developing new anti-tumor drugs.

Materials and Methods: The present study involves the rational development and characterization (both physicochemical and spectroscopy) of coumarin-chalcone compounds (A1–A10) and their anti-proliferative potentials against cancer lines of breast cancer origin (MDA-MB468, MDA-MB231, and MCF-7) and non-cancer breast epithelial cell (184B5).

Results: The compound A2 exhibited the highest anti-proliferative activity against the cell line MDA-MB-231 as indicated by the GI50 value of 10.06 μM, the compound A6 exhibited the highest anti-proliferative activity against the cell line MDA-MB-468 as indicated by the GI50 value of 17.54 μM, the compound A1 exhibited the highest anti-proliferative activity against the cell line MCF-7 as indicated by the GI50 value of 25.86 μM, and the compound A6 exhibited the highest anti-proliferative activity against the cell line 184B5 as indicated by the GI50 value of 23.26 μM.

Conclusion: Furthermore, the research urges medicinal chemists to choose chalcone prototypes with well-defined pathways and SARs while developing more powerful inhibitors. Furthermore, it opens up new pathways for the discovery of anti-cancer derivatives using low molecular weight ligands.

Open Access Original Research Article

Some Aspects of Using Clinoptilolite in Calves Feeding

Alyona Anatolyevna Zelenchenkova, Roman Vladimirovich Nekrasov, Magomed Gazievich Chabaev, Konstantin Sergeevich Ostrenko

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 120-129
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i45B32788

The use of clinoptilolite is an effective means of increasing the gain and live weight of calves. The application does not cause difficulties in the methods of introducing the additive to calves. Natural clinoptilolites of various deposits are presented in a wide range on the feed additives market.

Aims: The objective of the work was to study the effectiveness of natural mineral clinoptilolite on physiological and zootechnical indicators of growth and development of calves.

Methodology: The study was carried out on 39 clinically healthy Holsteinized black-and-white calves selected at random, 13 animals per group. For 85 days, the calves of the experimental group received a basic diet enriched with natural mineral clinoptilolite to increase the efficiency of growth and development at a dosage of 25-50 and 50-100 g / head / day. Blood samples were taken from the jugular vein at the end of the supplement feeding (n = 5) for physiological, biochemical and immunological studies.

Results: In the course of the study, it was found that in the experimental groups there were higher gains in live weight by 7.3 and 4.7% in comparison the control, and low feed costs per 1 kg of gain. Feeding clinoptilolite promoted an increase in the concentration of Ca in the blood of calves of the dairy period by 14.2% (p <0.05), an increase in phagocytic activity by 4.87 (p <0.05), the phagocytic number was higher by 0.20 (p < 0.05) units.

Conclusion: The totality of the information presented confirms the physiological adequacy for calves to the introduction of natural mineral clinoptilolite in the indicated dosages.

Open Access Original Research Article

Cytotoxic Activity of Ethanolic Extract of Aloe saudiarabica and Aloe shadensis against Three Human Cancer Cell Line

Awad A Algarni

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 138-146
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i45B32790

Aloe saudiarabica and Aloe shadensis are a rare species of the genus Aloe found only in Saudi Arabia. The cytotoxic activity of both plants were evaluated in the current study using three different human cancer cell line, lung carcinoma (A-549), breast adenocarcinoma (MCF-7) and liver cancer (HepG2), assessed by WST-1 cell viability assays. The results indicate that the Aloe saudiarabica and Aloe shadensis showed weak cytotoxic effects against all three tested cancer cell lines, with an IC50 value of >300 μg/ml. In addition, HepG2 cells were more sensitive to Aloe saudiarabica treatment than MCF-7 and A549 cells, while MCF-7 cells were more sensitive to Aloe shadensis treatment than HepG2 and A549 cells. This study also identified the characteristic chemical constituents of the two plants using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry technique and the result indicated that 9-octadecenoic acid (Z)-, methyl ester (32.23%) was the main compound of Aloe saudiarabica while methyl 9-octadecenoate (17.28%) was the main compound of Aloe shadensis. In conclusion, the in vitro evaluation of Aloe saudiarabica and Aloe shadensis methanolic extraction showed low cytotoxicity on the viability of A-549, MCF-7 and HepG2 cell lines.

Open Access Original Research Article

Development of a Validated Stability Indicating Method for Quantification of Amoxicillin, Clarithromycin and Lansoprazole in Bulk and Pharmaceutical Dosage form by RP-HPLC

P. Sushma, A. K. M. Pawar, M. Divya

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 207-220
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i45B32798

Objective: The main objective of the present work is to develop an efficient, unique, reliable Reverse Phase High Performance Liquid Chromatography (RP-HPLC) method for the simultaneous quantification of Amoxicillin (AMX), Clarithromycin (CTM) and Lansoprazole (LPZ) in bulk and pharmaceutical formulations. 

Methods: The chromatographic separation was achieved by using Kinetex column C18 (100 x 4.6 mm, 2.6 µm) with Buffer (2.5 g of hexane sulphonic acid and 1ml of Triethylamine which are added to 1000 ml of HPLC water and adjusted its pH at 5.0 with Ortho phosphoric acid) and acetonitrile in the ratio of 70: 30 (%v/v) as a mobile phase at flow rate of 1.0 ml/min. The column effluents were monitored by a photodiode array detector at wavelength predetermined at 240 nm.

Results: The method produced reliable results at optimized chromatographic conditions. The method was linear at concentration range of 15-225 µg/ml of AMX, 15-225 µg/ml of CTM and 0.9-13.5 µg/ml of LPZ with regression coefficients of 0.9999, 0.9999, and 0.9999 respectively. The retention times of AMX, CTM, LPZ were obtained as 1.513, 3.124, 3.770 min respectively. Results obtained for system suitability, precision, LOD and LOQ were in acceptable range and were validated according to the guidelines of the International Council for Harmonization (ICH).

Conclusion: The proposed method was validated in accordance with ICH and all the obtained results were found satisfactory and were successfully applicable to the analysis of the bulk and the pharmaceutical formulations.

Open Access Original Research Article

Simple Hplc Method Development for the Estimation of Galantamine Hydrobromide in Extended-Release Formulation

Amol U. Gayke, Karunakar Shukla, Sourabh Jain

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 225-240
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i45B32800

For the determination of Galantamine Hydrobromide in bulk and produced extended formulation, a new sensitive and quick HPLC technique was developed and validated according to ICH guidelines. The HPLC analysis was carried out using a waters system with a Thermo Scientific C18 (steel column (5 µm, 250mm × 4.6 mm)) column and a mobile phase of 0.1M phosphate buffer: Acetonitrile (40:60V/V) pH adjusted to 4.5 with orthophosphoric acid, at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min. The detection was done at a wavelength of 203 nm, and galantamine hydrobromide had a retention time of 8.0 minutes. Over the concentration range of 1-10 g/ml, the calibration plot revealed a linear relationship. The accuracy of the proposed method was determined by recovery studies and was found to be near to 100 and % RSD value was found less than 2. The repeatability testing for both standard and sample solutions showed that the method is precise within the acceptable limits. RSD % of the determination of precision was <2%. The proposed method showed excellent linearity, accuracy, precision, specificity, robustness and system suitability results within the acceptance criteria. In addition, Saturation solubility of Galantamine Hydrobromide was determined in different pH mediums and it was found that Galantamine Hydrobromide has pH-dependent solubility, freely soluble in alkaline pH, and insoluble in acidic pH.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of the Effectiveness of Three Oral Health Education Interventions in Maintaining Oral Hygiene of Cerebral Palsy Children

Ishita Chandarana, Pratik B. Kariya, Sweta Singh, Adrija Buch

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 255-262
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i45B32802

Introduction: Cerebral palsy [CP] is a group of neuromuscular disorders which affects the development of movement and posture, limiting normal functional activity. Thus, it is presumed to establish an early contact with CP children to diagnose oral diseases and to introduce certain preventive home care measures to maintain good oral health. This study was conducted to check the effectiveness of three different oral health education modalities among cerebral palsy patients.

Methodology: A cross-sectional interventional study was conducted among 60 Cerebral Palsy children aged 8 to 15 years from the selected residential schools for neurodevelopmental disabilities of Vadodara. Participants from a particular school were divided randomly into 3 groups based on different oral health education modalities. Group A: These children and their caretaker were given normal verbal instruction on how to brush their teeth by Fone’s technique on a one-to-one basis. Group B: These children and their caretaker were given a tooth brushing demonstration on a tooth model. Group C: These children and their caretaker were shown an audiovisual clip showing how to brush. The oral hygiene practice was reinforced every visit. OHI-S index was recorded on the day of the demonstration, 7 days and 14 days by the principal investigator, and analyzed.

Results: The audio-visual method group showed a marked reduction in the OHI-S score measured from baseline to day 14 when compared to the verbal and model group that is 1.76±0.96 when compared to other two groups that are group A with OHI-S score 2.36±0.96 and GROUP B with OHI-S score 2.51±0.87.  The confidence of the interval was -CI=0.044-1.470. The results were the statistically significant result. (p value<0.035)Also, Group C showed a significant reduction in the DI scores as compared to the other two groups.

Conclusion: The audiovisual method with brushing video can be effectively used to maintain the good oral hygiene and gingival health of children with Cerebral Palsy. The audiovisual method helps to overcome their motor difficulties and their limited ability to perform dental plaque control.

Open Access Original Research Article

An Effective Stability Indicating RP-HPLC Method for Simultaneous Estimation of Lamivudine and Raltegravir in Bulk and Their Tablet Dosage Form

Gundapaneni Ravi Kumar, Rayala Rama Rao, Vadde Megha Vardhan, V. D. N. Kumr Abbaraju

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 263-277
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i45B32803

Background: In the current study, asimple and specific stability indicating RP-HPLC method was developed and validated for the determination of Lamivudine and Raltegravir in bulk drug and it tablet dosage form using an UV-detector. Good separation was achieved by isocratic ally on a Zorbax SB-Phenyl (150 × 4.6 mm, 3.5 μ, 80 A°) column, using a mobile phase composition of buffer (0.1% v/v Phosporic acid in water): Acetonitrile (40:60 v/v) at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min. The eluted analytes detected at 260 nm wavelength.

Results: Lamivudine and Raltegravir were eluted at 3.1 and 5.4 min respectively with run time 7 min. Linearity in the method was measured in the concentration range of 30 – 70 μg/mL and 60 – 140 μg/mL for Lamivudine and Raltegravirrespectively. The percentage recoveries of Lamivudine and Raltegravirwere determined to be 100.30% and 100.53%, respectively. The validation of the developed method is carried as per USFDA and ICH guidelines, and the degradants were well resolved from Raltegravir and Lamivudine peaks. The developed RP-HPLC method was highly precise, specific, sensitive, and stability indicating.

Conclusion: The results of the analysis prove that thedeveloped RP-HPLC method is simple, economical and widely acceptable, which can be used in routine quality control tests in the industry.

Open Access Original Research Article

Investigation of the Anti-TB Potential of Selected Phytochemicals of Nigella Sativa using Molecular Docking Approach

Shabir Ahmad Mir

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 278-286
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i45B32805

Background: Tuberculosis (TB) is one of the foremost causes of human mortality across the world. In general, it is a curable disease and several drugs are available in market for its treatment, however, because of the drug resistance to the currently available anti-TB drugs, the development and/or discovery of new drugs with better efficacy against TB cannot be overlooked. In the present study, we performed virtual screening of the major phytochemicals of the plant Nigella sativa for investigating their potential to inhibit some novel drug targets of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, which included- pantothenate kinase, type 1 (MtPanK), β-ketoacyl ACP synthase I (MtKasA), and decaprenylphosphoryl-β-D-ribose 2′-epimerase 1 (MtDprE1).

Methods: The screening of the phytochemicals was investigated through a molecular docking approach using Auto dock vina and the molecular interactions in the protein-ligand complexes were visualized and analysed through PyMol and BioVia Discovery Studio Visualizer.

Results: Our in silico observations reveal that, out of the nine selected phytochemicals screened, five compounds, namely α-hederin, dithymoquinone, nigellidine, thymoquinone and thymol binded to one or more of the selected target enzymes with significant docking scores. α-hederin binded to MtDprE1 and MtKasA with a docking score of −8.5kcal/mol and −7.9kcal/mol, respectively, dithymoquinone binded to MtKasA, MtDprE1 and MtPanK with a docking score of −6.5kcal/mol, −8.2kcal/mol and −9.2kcal/mol, respectively and nigellidine binded to MtDprE1 and MtPanK with a docking score of −8.1kcal/mol and −8.2kcal/mol, respectively. Further, thymol as well as thymoquinone were observed to bind MtKasA with a docking score of −6.6kcal/mol.

Conclusions: The results of our study indicate that the five phytochemicals of N. sativa, including α-hederin, dithymoquinone, nigellidine, thymoquinone and thymol, are worth studying further for their anti-TB activity, however, additional biological studies are warranted to validate these findings.

Open Access Original Research Article

Frequency of Complications in Neonates with Low Birth Weight

Kamran Ali Shahani, Feriha Fatima Khidri, Hina Riaz, Komal Siddiqui, Keenjhar Rani, Faiza Kamran Ali

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 287-292
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i45B32806

Objective: To identify and determine the frequency of complications in neonates with low birth weight.

Methodology: This cross sectional study was conducted at Khairpur Medical College and Lady Willingdon Hospital, Khairpur Mirs from January 2018 to July 2021. Two hundred (n=200) neonates with low birth weight (<2500 grams) were recruited and frequency of different complications were observed.

Results: The mean age of the neonates was 10.50 ± 4.34 days. Of the 200 neonates with low birth weight, 132 neonates (66%) presented with various complications; however 68 neonates (34%) were normal and without complications. Of the 200 neonates with low birth weight, the following complications were observed, hypoglycaemia (14.5%), jaundice (12.5%), respiratory distress syndrome (8%), feeding problems (8%), congenital cardiac defects (5%), hypothermia (4%), other complications such as sepsis (2%), apnea of prematurity (2%), intraventricular haemorrhage (2%), and more than 1 complications (16 neonates, 8%).

Conclusions: In conclusion, hypoglycaemia and jaundice were the common complications associated with low birth weight in neonates. Advanced maternal age during childbirth, stress, lower socioeconomic conditions, consanguineous marriages, lower body mass index and maternal illness such as preeclampsia and anaemia were the risk factors of low birth weight observed in our study. Risk factors may be identified earlier in order to lessen the morbidities and mortality in low birth weight neonates.

Open Access Original Research Article

Exploring post-Covid-19 Lockdown Students’ Satisfaction in Ethiopian Higher Education Context in case of some Selected Universities

Zeleke Wale Kassahun

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 293-301
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i45B32807

This study aimed to explore post Covid-19 lockdown students’ satisfaction from some higher education institutions in Ethiopia. The study used descriptive and explanatory research designs. A total of 480 students were taken from twelve public Universities as a sample and 366 valid questionnaires were collected. Convenience and snowball sampling were used to select the employees from each University. Also, cross- sectional survey method was applied to collect data via a Likert scale questionnaire. Correlation and multiple regression modeling were used to predict the relationships. Initially, a pilot test was a sample of 35 students to check data scale reliability. The study found that all the independent variables (crush time, leadership, and students’ initiation, instructors’ commitment) variables had a statistically significant correlation with Students’ satisfaction. Moreover, the study founded that all the studied variables were predictors of students’ satisfaction (R2= 0.672); however, the predictors that had highest influence were instructors’ commitment and crushes time. Significant emphasis and devotion is required particularly on variables such as instructors’ commitment and crush time as they are identified as a significant influencer of students’ satisfaction. Universities shall focus on enhancing instructors’ commitment and they have to allocate adequate time as before COVID -19.

Open Access Original Research Article

Oral Health Effects among Conventional Cigarette and Electronic Cigarette Smoking among Users in Saudi Arabia

Malak Mohammed ALOsaimi, Meshael Aldarrab, Lama Aldabaan, Joud Bin Dhawi, Hanan Alali

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 314-321
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i45B32810

Introduction: The use of e cigarettes is on the rise in the Middle East Countries and Saudi Arabia especially.This study aims to evaluate the oral mucosal lesions caused due to electronic cigarette smoking (ECS) use and oral health, including ‘gingival pain and/or bleeding’, ‘tongue and/or inside-cheek pain’, and ‘cracked or broken teeth’ among adolescents.

Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study conducted among 1300 participant in the kingdom of Saudi Arabia using a reliable and valid online questionnaire. The questionnaire was developed by the investigators and Google forms were used to collect the information. The questions were grouped into categories relating to socio-demographic data (age, gender), type of cigarette smoking (conventional, E-cigarette or booth), and cigarette smoking behavior (frequency).

Results: It was observed from the present study that even though oral mucosal lesions were more in conventional cigarette smokers but e cigarettes were not the safe option as it has ill effects also. Females used e cigarettes more (30.7%) as compared to males (28.2%). Statistically significant results were obtained for change in color of gingival, disturbed feeling in the tongue (p<0.000).

Conclusion: The usage of e cigarettes was seen more among females than males. The oral health effects and especially the change in color, dryness of the oral cavity and discoloration of the teeth were seen more with the conventional cigarettes users than the e cigarettes users. E cigarettes were also associated with ill effects of the oral cavity.

Open Access Original Research Article

Formulation and Evaluation of Liquisolid Compacts of BCS Class II Drug Ketoprofen

Madhavi Kasturi, Neelesh Malviya

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 322-334
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i45B32811

Aims: The main objective of the current research work is to develop liquisolid compacts of BCS Class II drug ketoprofen with an intention to enhance the solubility of drug by applying liquisolid technique.

Place and Duration of Study: Smriti College of Pharmaceutical Education between June 2018 June 2019.

Methodology: Initially liquid medication was obtained by dissolving drug in suitable solvent. Saturation solubility studies were performed in various hydrophilic non-volatile solvents to select the solvent showing highest solubility for drug. This liquid medication was admixed with calculated amounts of carrier material (Avicel PH 102) and coating material (Cab-O-Sil) using Spireas mathematical model in order to obtain liquisolid formulations. Further, this powder mass of liquisolid system was compressed to form Ketoprofen liquisolid compact formulations ranging from TK1 to TK9. They were further subjected to post compression evaluation tests such as weight variation, hardness, friability, content uniformity, disintegration and in vitro dissolution studies.

Results: Based on the solubility studies, PEG 400 was selected as solvent for ketoprofen drug. Rheological properties for the prepared liquisolid powder system were performed for all the formulations and they showed acceptable flow properties. The results obtained for the post compression evaluation tests of all the prepared liquisolid compacts were present within the acceptable limits. The disintegration time observed for all formulations were within 5 minutes. The results of in vitro release of all the liquisolid compacts showed enhanced release rates compared to that of directly compressed tablet. Lquisolid compact formulation TK7 showed maximum release of 97.62% of drug within 12 minutes in pH 7.4 phosphate buffer which was much higher when compared to that of directly compressed tablet. The SEM and PXRD studies for TK7 revealed conversion of crystalline to molecularly dispersed form of drug in the obtained liquisolid formulation. DSC and FTIR studies also revealed that there was no presence of any significant interaction between drug and excipients involved in the formulation.

Conclusion: Finally, it could be concluded that Liquisolid technique was successful in enhancing the solubility and further dissolution profile of BCS Class II drug Ketoprofen.

Open Access Original Research Article

Saudi Diabetic Patients’ Beliefs and Experiences with Health Related Information from Social Media

Mohammed Matar Alotaibi, Abdul Bari Mohd

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 340-352
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i45B32814

Introduction: Social media and acceptance of the information related to health is becoming acceptable to an extent for the public. The use of social media is rapidly growing and it is being used both by healthcare professionals and patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of social networking applications for experience and behaviour towards health information among diabetic patients.

Materials and Methods: The present study was a cross sectional study, conducted in spring of 2020 (April to May). The distribution of the survey questionnaire was done online through various social media platforms with a convenience sample of people with diabetes (n=569), Eligibility criteria were aged 18 and above, Saudis with diagnosis of diabetes and willing to give consent were included in the study. Exclusion criteria were less than 18 years old and non-Saudis and non-diabetic.

Results: Analysis of online survey data indicated that WhatsApp (89.1%) was the most commonly used social network followed by Snapchat (66.3%), Instagram (40.6%), Twitter (35%), Telegram (19.5%), Tiktok (12.5%) and Facebook (10%). About 25 (4.4%) participants strongly agreed that health information from social media impact life positively. More than half 290(51%) participants agreed to apply information only from the trusted websites. Near about half 275(48.3%) disagreed that social media could invent treatment for diabetes more than believing in health institution and medicinal industries. Nearly one-fourth 141(24.8%) of participants agreed that all health information from social media is right. Almost 264 (46.4%) said that they sometimes face health information in social media. Nearly 265(46.6%) patients mentioned that they never applied themselves any information claiming treating diabetes.

Conclusion: This study shows the effect of social media on diabetic patients and various responses of diabetic patients in regard of their beliefs and experience towards health information from social media. Most of the respondents agreed that they apply information obtained from social network and the same could lead to some deleterious effects on health.

Open Access Original Research Article

Estimation of Urinary Calcium as a Predictor of Pregnancy Induced Hypertension

Shoba Giresh

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 353-357
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i45B32815

Hypertensive diseases are still a leading cause of death among mothers all over the world. It’s complicated aetiology, which begins with aberrant placentation and ends with endothelial dysfunction, is yet unknown. The goal of this study is to learn about changes in serum and urine calcium levels in women who have Gestational Hypertension. 200 normotensive pregnant women between 24-28 weeks were included in the study based on inclusion and exclusion criteria. Urine calcium and creatinine and serum uric acid, total protein, albumin and serum sodium were estimated in corresponding samples collected from patients. The study showed a sensitivity of 80%, specificity of 71%, positive predictive value was 77%, negative predictive value 74%, and diagnostic accuracy as 74%. A single estimation of calcium to creatinine ratio in asymptomatic pregnant women between 24-28 week of gestation is a simple and cost-effective test.

Open Access Original Research Article

Role of Trace Elements (Serum Zinc & Magnesium) in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus-A Hospital Based Study

J. Saravana Jagan

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 358-364
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i45B32816

This study was undertaken with the aim to determine Serum zinc and magnesium levels in patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus without it's associated complications and Type 2 Diabetes mellitus patients with its various macro and micro vascular complications namely Coronary atherosclerosis, Peripheral vascular disease and retinopathy, nephropathy respectively. The study was conducted at diabetology out-patient department, Sree Balaji Medical college & Hospital, Chennai on total of 120 subjects of age group 40-70 years; of whom 20 were apparently healthy and served as control. Between control groups and retinopathy, a microvascular consequence of Type 2 Diabetes mellitus, there is no statistically significant reduction in serum magnesium. Overall, diabetic patients without comorbidities and microvascular consequences of Type 2 Diabetes mellitus, such as retinopathy and nephropathy, reveal a negative connection between serum magnesium and HbA1c. In diabetes patients without problems and microvascular consequences, such as nephropathy, serum zinc and HbA1c have a negative connection.

Open Access Original Research Article

Mothers Knowledge, Attitude and Practice Regarding Diarrhea and its Management in Aden-Yemen: A Cross-Sectional Study in Poor Resource Setting

Omniat N. M. Abdulla, Wafa F. S. Badulla, Mohammed Alshakka, Nazeh Al-Abd, Mohamed Izham Mohamed Ibrahim

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 365-378
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i45B32817

Background: Diarrheal diseases are still a major cause of mortality and morbidity after respiratory infection in most developing countries. There are about 1.7 billion cases of diarrheal illness and 760,000 deaths in children under 5 every year around the world. Moreover, it has an undesirable effect on the development and growth of infants and young children.

Aim: The main objective of this study was to evaluate the mothers’ knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) regarding diarrhea and its management in Aden-Yemen.

Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among mothers who visited Aden health centers in Aden city from April 2020 to July 2020. The respondents were chosen conveniently due to the difficulty of having a sampling frame. Data was collected using a KAP questionnaire.

Results: A total of 414 mothers aged 18 - 40 years had a child/children with diarrhea at the time of enrollment or in the preceding 3 to 6 months from enrollment. About 344 (83.1%) of mothers knew the definition of diarrhea, 244 (58.9 %) of mothers attributed the teething as a cause of diarrhea, and 284 (68.6%) of mothers recognized lethargy as a sign of dehydration.  Nearly 201 (48.6 %) of the mothers mentioned that diarrhea could be managed and prevented at home, and 174 (42.0%) agreed that ORS is the first-line treatment for diarrhea, and 286 (69.1%) of mothers continue exclusive breastfeeding during diarrhea. However, only 170 (41.1%) of mothers prepared ORS at home, and most of them did not know the correct way of preparing it. About 327 (79.0%) of mothers consulted the medical centers during the episode, and 199 (48.1 %) of mothers took the child to the primary health center as an immediate response.

Conclusion: The findings revealed that the KAP of the mothers was unsatisfactory for the management of diarrheal diseases. Therefore, there must be educational intervention provided by health sectors to increase awareness. Furthermore, the government should provide quality water, sanitation, essential medicines, public education, etc., to reduce the causes of the prevalence of diarrhea.

Open Access Original Research Article

A new LC-MS Method for the Determination of p-Chloroaniline and (S)-5-Chloro-α-(cyclopropylethynyl)-2- Amino-α- (trifluoromethyl) Benzene Methanol in Efavirenz Bulk Form

N. Devanna, Indhu Priya Mabbu, G. Sumathi

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 379-386
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i45B32818

The main objective of the present research study is to develop and validate a sensitive, specific, accurate and precise LC-MS method for the determination of p-Chloroaniline and (S)-5-Chloro-α-(cyclopropylethynyl)-2- amino-α- (trifluoromethyl) benzene methanol in Efavirenz bulk form. The effective separation of p-Chloroaniline and (S)-5-Chloro-α-(cyclopropylethynyl)-2- amino-α- (trifluoromethyl) benzene methanol were achieved by using Hypersil BDS (C18, 100 x 4.6 mm, 3 µm) column and a solvent system of Buffer (0.1% Formic acid in water): Methanol (30:70 v/v) with a flow rate of 0.4 ml/min. The p-Chloroaniline and (S)-5-Chloro-α-(cyclopropylethynyl)-2- amino-α-(trifluoromethyl) benzene methanol were monitored on mass spectrometer coupled with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization, positive polarity mode and quadrapole mass analyzer. The Retention time of p-Chloroaniline, (S)-5-Chloro-α-(cyclopropylethynyl)-2- amino-α- (trifluoromethyl) benzene methanol and Efavirenz were found at 5.7min, 7.6min and 11.1min resepectively. The detection limit and quantification limit were observed at 0.25ppm and 0.75 ppm respectively for both p-Chloroaniline and (S)-5-Chloro-α-(cyclopropylethynyl)-2- amino-α-(trifluoromethyl) benzene methanol. Those analytes were linear in the concentration ranges from 0.75ppm to 3.75ppm and the percentage relative standard deviation of six replicates of same concentrations of both the analytes were less than 10%. Hence this method was effective in separation and determination of p-Chloroaniline and (S)-5-Chloro-α-(cyclopropylethynyl)-2- amino-α- (trifluoromethyl) benzene methanol in Efavirenz.

Open Access Original Research Article

Left Ventricular Hypertrophy (LVH) in Patients with Advanced Stages of Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD)

Faiza Nafees Khan, Imtiaz Begum, Syed Ali Raza, Sohail Hussain, Santosh Kumar Sidhwani, Hina Wasti

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 397-404
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i45B32820

Objective: To determine the left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) prevalence in patients admitted with advanced stage of Chronic kidney disease at Ziauddin hospital.

Methodology: This was a cross-sectional study conducted in department of Nephrology of Ziauddin University Hospital, Karachi from January to July 2016. The inclusion criteria involved patients with CKD stages 3-5 undergoing two-dimensional M mode Doppler echocardiography. The sample size of the study was 147. LVH was considered as positive when Inter-ventricular-septal-wall-thickness in diastole (IVSd) >11 mm, Left-Ventricular-Septal-Wall-Thickness in diastole (LVPWd) >11 mm and Left-Ventricular-Mass-Index (LVMi) >131 g/m2 for men and > 100 g/m2 for women. The exclusion criteria included patients with terminal illness, on mechanical ventilator support, valvular heart diseases and congenital heart diseases, liver diseases and patients with acute kidney injury on chronic kidney disease.

Results: 88 male and 59 female patients were included. The mean duration of CKD was 7.02±1.60 years. 94(63.9%) study subjects were observed with left ventricular hypertrophy. A significant association of LVH was observed with gender and CKD Stages.

Conclusion: LVH can be easily diagnosed and assessed by M-mode or 2D echocardiography. The prevalence was high (60.5%) in stage 3–5 CKD patients.

Open Access Original Research Article

A Clinical Practice Guideline Summary for Pharmacological Management of Adults with Major Depressive Disorder in Malaysia

Aya Ahmed Abousheishaa, Low Sue-Yin, Kok Chee Khin, Ahmad Hatim Sulaiman, Hasniza Zaman Huri, Ng Chong Guan

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 405-411
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i45B32821

Background: Clinical Practice Guidelines (CPGs) are systematically developed statements to assist practitioners and patients with appropriate health care for specific clinical circumstances. However, evidence suggests that the uptake of these recommendations in routine care is still limited, particularly in resource-constrained countries.

Objectives: This article aimed to (1) identify current CPGs for the pharmacological management of MDD that address and are compatible with the needs of Malaysian psychiatrists (2) collate and summarise these CPG recommendations to produce a more culturally sensitive and end-user friendly guideline summary.

Materials and Methods: A multidisciplinary steering group followed an adapted development approach that included; (1) searching for guidelines on the pharmacological management of adults with depression, (2) screening them for relevant recommendations, (3) critical appraising these guidelines, and (4) extracting the required information. A panel of experts then reviewed the developed guideline summary.

Results: Six potentially relevant guidelines for the pharmacological management of depression in adults were identified. The developed summary included a decision algorithm to guide the selection of antidepressant therapy based on clinical factors, potential drug-drug interaction, tolerability, and cost of the medications. The review panel considered the summary recommendations easy to use and had the potential for uptake by busy psychiatrists.

Conclusion: A CPG summary for the pharmacological management of depression was developed that focuses on evidence-based, contextually relevant recommendations that are feasible for implementation within the local healthcare settings in Malaysia.

Practical Implications: The developed guideline summary has the potential to enhance the implementation of evidence-based practice in the management of Major Depressive Disorder within the Malaysian context.

Open Access Original Research Article

Formulation and Toxicity Evaluation of Nanostructured Lipid Carriers for the Treatment of Acne

Rita Lala, Nikita Nandvikar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 418-430
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i45B32823

Background: Acne vulgarise is an inflammatory disease involving the pathological alteration of the sebaceous glands of the body. It is not a life-threatening disease but has a great influence on lifestyle. Topical combination therapy of vitamin A and antibacterial drugs is an effective treatment for acne.

Materials and Methods: The current work investigates the nanostructure lipid colloidal carrier system of Tretinoin and Clindamycin phosphate. Nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs) were prepared by highspeed homogenization-sonication technique and characterized for physicochemical properties, permeation, in vivo anti-acne and toxicity (acute 2000 mg/Kg, repeat 1000 mg/kg) in Wistar rats. 

Results: The prepared system was found to be stable, homogenous with more site retention of drugs having non-irritation and toxicity potential. The formulation showed a size of 283 nm, polydispersity index (PDI) 0.43 and Zeta potential (ZP) -37.9 mV with drug entrapment 92.0% and 66.15% for tretinoin and clindamycin respectively. Observed permeation was 18 % and 45% for Tretinoin and Clindamycin less than marketed formulation which is more focused on dermal retention of drug. No significant abnormalities and toxicological symptoms were observed for acute and repeat dose toxicity study for histopathology and haematological examinations of organs.

Conclusion: Prepared NLC formulation was aimed at epidermal targeting. Based on obtained results it is concluded that developed lipid-based nanocarrier system of selected drugs showed the targeting potential for effective acne treatment. 

Open Access Original Research Article

A Comparative Study of Biosynthesized Silver-Nanoparticles from Citrus maxima Peel, Pulp and Seed: A Special Retrospect for Antimicrobial Activity

Priyanka Mishra, Tanzeel Ahmed, Lalit Singh

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 454-463
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i45B32827

Background: Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have been used in various medicinal products because of its anti-microbial properties. This research study has reported a simplistic, cost effective and eco-friendly method for the synthesis of Silver nanoparticles.

Objective: The objective of present study was to compare the synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) from various parts of Citrus maxima fruit like pulp, peel and seed.

Methodology: The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized by the use of UV-visible spectroscopy, fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Time-dependent synthesis of AgNPs was studied spectrophotometrically. UV–visible spectrophotometer was used to confirm the synthesis of AgNPs which showed maximum absorption at 410 nm, 420 nm and 430 nm respectively.

Expected Results: Fresh peel extract exhibited the highest concentration of silver nanoparticles in comparison to pulp and seed. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) spectra analysis confirmed the presence of possible functional groups in AgNPs which can be responsible for reduction of nanoparticles. Morphological characters of AgNPs were analyzed using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) depicting the particles size as 12.58-47.80 nm. The antibacterial property of synthesized AgNPs was analyzed viz Escherichia coli (MTCC 1687) and Staphylococcus aureus (MTCC 902), specify them to be effective against both gram positive and gram negative bacteria.

Conclusion: These results suggested that the fresh peel extract of Citrus maxima is a high-quality bioreductant for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles and have prospective for various biomedical applications.

Open Access Original Research Article

Knowledge of Cervical Cancer Screening among Women in Rural Areas

K. Kannan, S. Rajini, P. Padma Sundari, D. Ramraj, A. N. Nivethidha, R. E. Saranya

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 474-481
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i45B32829

Introduction: Cervical cancer is the most preventable and successfully treatable form of cancer, as long as it is detected early and managed effectively. Cancers diagnosed in late stages can also be controlled with appropriate treatment and palliative care. Screening is therefore an important tool in detecting cancer. The objective of this research is to find about the depth of knowledge about cervical cancer among rural women. This is a cross – sectional study done in rural areas of Pondicherry (Koodapakkam and Katterikuppam) (around 10 Km). Our subjects were patients and attenders attending the PHC OPD in between January and March 2021. Women attending OPDs of PHC in and around Koodapakkam and Katterikuppam who are > 15 years of age were the study sample excluding pregnant women, lactating women, mentally ill women and post hysterectomy patients with sample size of 300 using a questionnaire. Our study Signifies that among 277 Hindu women, 68.59% were aware of Cervical cancer screening. Among 12 Muslims 75% were aware of Cervical cancer screening. Among 11 women following Christianity 63.63% were aware of cervical cancer screening. This proves that there is no significant association between religion and awareness. (p=0.43) In our study, among 67 illiterates, 64.17% were aware of Cervical cancer screening. Among 81 women with primary school education ,65.43 % were aware of Cervical cancer screening. Among 57 women who went to high school 77.19% were aware of Cervical cancer screening. Among 38 women with higher secondary education, 68.42% were aware of Cervical cancer screening. among 49 graduates, 71.42% were aware of Cervical cancer screening. Among 8 post graduates 37.5% were not aware of Cervical cancer screening. There is association between education and awareness. (p=0.001). Totally, among 208 women under 45 years of age, 73.07% were aware of Cervical cancer screening and among 92 women more than 45 years of age 58.69% were aware of Cervical cancer screening. There is significant association between age and awareness (p=0.005).

Open Access Original Research Article

“A Comparative Study of Efficacy of Atorvastatin Alone and Atorvastatin with Omega-3 Fatty Acids Combination in Patients with Hyperlipidaemia Attending Tertiary Care Hospital”

C. Srinivasa, K. La kshminarayan, V. Srinivas, B. V. S. Chandrasekhar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 482-490
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i45B32830

Background: Current treatment with statins has become an integral part of vascular diseases but monotherapy has a significant residual event rate. Due to particularly one of the factor associated with atherogenic lipid phenotype that is characterized by a low high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and increase in non-HDL cholesterol like Low-Density Lipoprotein (LDL). Omega-3 Fatty acids have demonstrated a preventiverole in primary and, particularly secondary cardiovascular diseases.  Hence this study was planned to compare the efficacy of Atorvastatin alone with Atorvastatin and Omega-3 fatty acids in treatment in hyperlipidaemia patients.

Methods: The study was comparative, randomized, and prospective and open labeled conducted in MI patients. A total of 100 patients were selected based on inclusion and exclusion criteria. They were divided randomly into two Groups (Group–A and Group-B). Group-A was given Atorvastatin 10mg/day and Group-B was given Atorvastatin 10mg/day and Omega-3 fatty acids 600mg/day for 6 months. Follow up was done every month and efficacy was measured by assessing the lipoprotein levels in serum.

Results: The results were compared before treatment and after 6 months treatment.The levels were significantly decreased Total Cholesterol (TC), LDL, Low-Density Lipoprotein (VLDL), Triglycerides (TG) and HDL levels were increased in Group–A and Group-B. When these results compared between two Groups the HDL levels were increased also it shown high significance (<0.001) but there were no significance changes in other cholesterol levels.

Conclusion: The present study results showed that Atorvastatin and Omega-3 fatty acids treatment was more effective than Atorvastatin alone treatment in improving HDL-C levels from base line and it may have a additive effect in major coronary artery diseases.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Oral Iron Therapy in Moderately Affected Anemianic Pregnant Women

M. Sarmishta, Anitha

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 501-509
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i45B32832

In India, Iron deficiency anemia is one of the major causes of maternal deaths, over the past years, various oral and intra muscular & intravenous preparations of iron have been used for correction of iron muscular are associated with significant side effects; Intramuscular (Iron dextran) was used as an alternative to oral iron therapy for those who were not compliant to oral therapy. Iron dextran has a lot of side effects such as fever, arthralgia, even anaphylactic reactions extending to pulmonary edema and even death. Further it is not possible to achieve the target rise in Hemoglobin level in a limited time period, when the patient is approaching term. Whereas Intravenous (Iron sucrose complex) is a relatively new drug which is a BOON to medical therapy and is the BEST OPTION of iron therapy when used as an alternative to oral therapy as it restores iron stores more promptly and is able to raise the hemoglobin to satisfactory level .

Open Access Review Article

Review on Air Pollution on Health and Its Prevention

Roshani Dhanvijay, Savita Pohekar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 17-23
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i45B32773

Air pollution is the major environmental pollution that contains different types of gases, dust particles, small molecules, etc. Smoke and other hazardous gases, such as carbon, sulfur, and nitrogen oxides, are the primary causes of air pollution. Otherwise, air pollution is the contaminated air that poisonous effect on people's health. Most air pollution is affected by auto-rickshaw drivers. Auto drivers doing very stressful works which have been associated with environmental interaction factors. So the auto drivers are working within the environment, auto drivers are exposed to climate changes and poor road conditions. So the drivers are exposed to air pollution, dust, droplets, job insecurity, noise and vibration, business demands, damage to equipment, an excessive number of stops, schedule-related pressure, among others. Drivers’ social role is also reflected in the responsibility of passengers and pedestrians ‘lives and other vehicles.

Open Access Review Article

Importance of Advance Care of Planning and its Measure in Palliative Care for Patients Nearing Bitter End: A Review

Shakib H. Sheikh, Ruchira Ankar, Seema Singh, Yugandhara Hingankar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 40-48
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i45B32776

Background: Palliative care aims to reduce pain and suffering in patients and their families by a thorough assessment and treatment of physical, psychological, and spiritual symptoms. As a patient's death approaches, his or her symptoms may necessitate more aggressive palliation. Support for the dying patient's family should increase as comfort measures become more intense. Palliative care after a patient's death is largely concerned with bereavement and family assistance. Palliative care near the end of life requires assisting patients and their families in understanding the nature of their illness and prognosis. Palliative care professionals can assist patients and their families in determining appropriate medical care and aligning the patient's care goals with the healthcare team's aims. Finally, palliative care at the end of life requires determining the need for a medical proxy, advance directives, and resuscitation status. Physical pain, as well as substantial emotional, spiritual, and social misery, may be present in patients throughout their final hours and days. As death approaches, patients in their final days require careful symptom control, and families may need support and guidance. After the death is announced, the family is notified, and grieving support is provided, the care continues.

Open Access Review Article

How Does COVID 19 Alter Children Life?

Hina Rodge, Mayur Wanjari, Khushbu Meshram

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 72-77
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i45B32780

COVID 19 (Coronavirus 2019) is an infectious disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) was first discovered in December 2019 in Wuhan, Hubei, China and resulted in an ongoing pandemic. It has put the world on a crisis footing and children could be the hidden victim of the pandemic. Due to this pandemic, the impact on children is severe. Children may be more vulnerable due to school closures, lockdowns and other stressors. Access to a computer and the internet at home could determine whether education comes to a halt or if children can continue to learn outside of the classroom. And also raising the cases of malnutrition, hunger and may suffer from extended ill-consequences of this pandemic, such as child labor, child trafficking, child marriage, sexual exploitation and death etc. soap and running water may make the difference between whether children get sick or not. School closure, lack of outdoor activity, aberrant dietary and sleeping habits are likely to disrupt children's usual lifestyle and can potentially promote monotony, distress, impatience, annoyance and varied neuropsychiatric manifestations. Incidences of domestic violence, child abuse, adulterated online contents are on the rise. The COVID-19 pandemic is potentially catastrophic for many children around the world. For children caught at the apex of this crisis, there is a genuine prospect that its effects will permanently alter their lives.

Open Access Review Article

Clinical and Prognostic Value of Vascular Wall Elasticity in Pregnant Women with Arterial Hypertension: A Review

Natalia Yurievna Borovkova, Svetlana Olegovna Kolobova, Lyudmila Vasilievna Borovkova

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 153-161
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i45B32792

In recent years, the attention of many researchers around the world has been focused on studying the risks associated with the development of the pathological course of pregnancy in women with arterial hypertension (AH). The pathogenesis of gestational complications is complex and is largely associated with endothelial dysfunction, changes in the structure and properties of the vascular wall and a decrease in its elasticity. At the same time, at the present stage, a high prognostic value of the assessment of vascular elasticity in the development of cardiovascular disasters in patients with hypertension in the general population has been proved. In order to predict the risk of gestational complications early, it is promising to study the state of elasticity of the vascular wall, which will optimize the management of pregnancy and improve perinatal outcomes in pregnant women with hypertension. The literature search was carried out by  keywords using the Scopus, Web of Science, Cyber Leninka, RSCI (Russian Science Citation Index) systems.

Open Access Review Article

An Insight into 4-Thiazolidinones

Smriti Sahu, Prabhat Kumar Upadhyay, Pradeep Mishra

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 162-174
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i45B32793

Aims: This assessment is all about to get imminent into 4-thiazolidinones and comprehensively reviewing this molecule. 4-Thiazolidinones are known for their wide-ranging biological activities. 4 - Thiazolidinones contains thiazolidine ring having carbonyl group in the 4-position. The chemistry of thiazolidinones has drawn scientific interest through the years because this particular ring system is the core structure in a variety of synthetic compounds with a broad spectrum of biological activities such as anti-bacterial, anti-fungal, insecticidal, anti-epileptic, anti-mycobacterial, anti- inflammatory, anti-parasitic, hypnotic and anti-cancer. Structural modifications on the 4-thiazolidinone moiety, either by replacing the aryl group with the heteroaryl scaffold or by incorporating different groups and moieties (A&B) on –CH– group of nucleus paving a new pathway for the future research. It necessitates to widely reviewing the structure, chemistry and pharmacological aspects of 4-thiazolidinones.

Open Access Review Article

A Review on Multifunctional Excipients with Regulatory Considerations

Arti Swami, Prajakta Chavan, Shivani Chakankar, Amol Tagalpallewar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 189-201
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i45B32796

The practice of multifunctional excipients is gaining more and more attention as it simplifies the process of drug formulation by substituting the necessity of using mixture of many excipients. The multifunctional excipients are the class of excipients which includes pre-–processed and co-processed excipients and it provides added functionalities to the formulation. Functionality of an excipient is a useful property which helps in manufacturing and improves quality as well as applicability of the material. Researchers have identified that single component excipients may not always give the required results during development and manufacturing of definite API, hence they are concentrating to develop multifunctional excipients which will have improved quality that will fulfil the requirements of the formulation experts in terms of cost. The cost of new excipient development is very high as it demands toxicity studies, hence the industry is now focusing on co-processing of approved materials. The demand for directly compressible co-processed excipients has also increased due to the availability of high-speed tableting machines, time saving in Abbreviated New Drug Application (ANDA), simplified validation and stability of active ingredients. The intention of this review article is to highlight applicability and increasing attention focusing the benefits of co-processed excipients. Their advantages over conventional blend of excipients include development methods, testing and also highlighting their regulatory consideration.

Open Access Review Article

Transferosomes as a Novel Therapeutic Delivery System: A Review

Risvana Iqubal, Vimal Mathew, Kumar M., Najiya Nasri K. V., Safeetha Shamsudheen, Umamaheswari D.

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 241-254
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i45B32801

The poor penetration rate of the skin as a natural barrier makes transdermal drug delivery problematic. To increase transdermal dispersion of bioactives, electrophoresis, iontophoresis, chemical permeation enhancers, microneedles, sonophoresis, and vesicular systems such as liposomes, niosomes, elastic liposomes such as ethosomes, and transferosomes have all been used. Among these, transferosomes appear to be a promising option. Transferosomes are elastomeric or deformable vesicles that were originally discovered in the early 1990s. They're novel vesicular drug carrier system composed of phospholipid, surfactant, and water that improves transdermal drug delivery. Because of their low toxicity, biodegradability, ability to encapsulate both hydrophilic and lipophilic molecules, ability to prolong the drug's existence in the systemic circulation by encapsulation in vesicles, ability to target organs and tissues, and ability to reduce drug toxicity while increasing bioavailability, these vesicles are preferred over others. These vesicles undergo deformation, changes its shape and easily penetrates through the skin pores. There are two phases in any technique for preparing transferosomes. First, a thin film is hydrated before being sonicated to the required size; next, sonicated vesicles are homogenized by extrusion through a polycarbonate membrane. Transferosomes are evaluated for its entrapment efficiency, their drug content , in-vitro drug release, degree of deformability, turbidity, surface charge and morphology. Transferosomes are said to have a number of applications like delivery of vaccines,proteins, Anti-cancer drugs,anesthetics,herbal drugs and has better patient compliance,improved bio-availability and site-specific delivery and can serve as an emerging tool for transdermal delivery of almost all drugs and bio-actives.

Open Access Review Article

Impact of COVID-19 on Oral Health

Vaishnavi Chandak, Priyanka Paul Madhu, Kumar Gaurav Chhabra, Amit Reche, Raksha Tijare, Sakshi Agrawal

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 308-313
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i45B32809

In December 2019 an outbreak of COVID19 occurred which is a severe acute respiratory disorder. Many succumbed to this global pandemic and many are still fighting the after effect of it. The virus directly affects the immune system especially of lungs. Therefore, the people who already have compromised immunity are at the very risk. The first symptoms to appear in COVID19 patients are ageusia and anosmia while treating the COVID19 patient’s certain practices are followed which aid in rapid oral health deterioration like oxygen mask, ventilators, heavy dose of medicines. Certain medicines used in treatment also precipitate poor oral health like bleeding gums, oral ulceration and dry mouth are the most common oral health problems faced after COVID19 recovery. COVID directly affects the immune system thereby making way for opportunistic infections like mucormycosis. Mucormycosis offers a severe burden on oral and general health affecting the standard of living and cause death in severe cases. Sinusitis, Periodontitis, black staining across the bridge of nose and sinus, localized discomfort and unbearable diplopia and refractive errors along with embolism and necrosis are seen in mucormycosis patients. Treatment of mucormycosis consists of surgery and replacement of lost structures Patients with compromised immunity need to take proper precautions during and after COVID.

Open Access Review Article

Viral and Bacterial Causes of Labyrinthitis

Suzan Sulaiman Alzaidi, Abdullah Ali Alali, Zainab Radhi Alebrahim, Hawraa Abdulwahab Mayouf, Raghad Fahad Alomairy, Fatemah Yasser Alhedaithy, Felwah Khalid Alassaf, Balqees Nasser Alhammad, Saad Naser Ali, Abdullah Ali Alqabandi, Sarab Saad Alharthi

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 412-417
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i45B32822

Labyrinthitis is a known inflammation of the membranous structure of the inner ear. Affected patients usually present with nausea and vomiting, vertigo, hearing loss/impairment, and tinnitus. Many etiologies have been proposed to lead to the development of labyrinthitis, including bacterial, viral, systemic, and iatrogenic causes and the most commonly reported causes include viral and bacterial infections. Not many investigations have elaborated on the viral and bacterial etiologies, and the evidence seems to be scattered across the different studies. In the present study, we have reviewed the literature to discuss the current evidence regarding the viral and bacterial causes of labyrinthitis. Many viruses and bacteria were reported in the literature to cause the condition. However, the most common pathogen includes cytomegalovirus and maternal rubella infections, leading to congenital hearing loss. Other viruses as measles and mumps might also lead to developing post-natal labyrinthitis. Studies also indicates that COVID-19 can be a recent cause of the disease. However, evidence regarding this information, similar to the case with other viral and bacterial etiologies, still needs further validation and reporting before making solid conclusions. Accordingly, we encourage researchers to furtherly report about similar cases and conduct epidemiological investigations to better understand the etiology of the disease.

Open Access Review Article

Motivational Interviewing for Prevention of Early Childhood Caries

Saee Wazurkar, Priyanka Paul Madhu, Kumar Gaurav Chhabra, Amit Reche, Samiksha Tidke, Punit Fulzele

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 431-437
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i45B32824

Early childhood caries is prevalent disease worldwide involving 1.76 billion children even though it is preventable with proper measures. Early childhood caries not only cause local discomfort but also hampers overall growth and development of child. Early childhood caries requires invasive treatments as it progress to later stages so early intervention is helpful to prevent these invasive procedures like restoration and extraction. Various procedures such as fluoride application, oral hygiene maintenance, motivational interviewing, diet counselling, oral health education programs are used for prevention, among them motivational interviewing is the emerging modality for prevention. Motivational interviewing is client centred counselling approach which elicits the behavior change by helping clients to explore and resolve ambivalence. It was first introduced for treating alcoholism now it is implemented in various fields for management of disease such as diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular diseases, reducing sexual behavior and pain management. In some of the researches it is found that the preventive measures accompanied with motivational interviewing are more effective than the conventional health education and intervention. Though there are many researches are present on the motivational interviewing in prevention of early childhood caries, better designed and reported interventions are still needed.

Open Access Review Article

Spiritual Dimension in Oral Health

Juhi Manohar Pathekar, Kumar Gaurav Chabra, Priyanka Paul Madhu, Amit Reche, Komal Vilas Dadgal, Niraj Nitin Tikar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 447-453
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i45B32826

Spirituality is a living and vital component of mankind in which people are looking for ultimate meaning, purpose, and mastery while engaging in connections with themselves, their family members, others, their communities, society, nature, and the divine or spiritual. Health, illness, beliefs, knowledge, and medical practices are all influenced by culture, and dentistry is no exception. Everyone, whether rural or urban, has its own health and illness beliefs and practices. The only way to provide culturally sensitive health care is to be aware of, listen to, and be attentive to each patient, as well as to inquire about personal needs and wishes when appropriate. Spiritual well- being is regarded as the fourth dimension of health. It helps people realize their greatest potential, find meaning and purpose in life, and find fulfillment from within. The individual's lifestyle may have a significant impact on his or her oral health behaviour. Caries and plaque-induced periodontal illnesses are linked to personal hygiene, food intake frequency, motivation to preserve oral health, and in certain circumstances, religious commitment Dental myths are widespread and unquestioned misleading ideas that often arise as a result of a lack of education, spiritual beliefs, and traditional factors based on non-scientific information. Despite global advances in diagnosis, treatment, and prevention, some people continue to hold on to their traditional values, practices, beliefs, and myths. If these myths are exposed in a timely manner, it may be possible to reduce the costs and time required for dental treatment, thereby converting an operative treatment into conservative dental management and improve patient satisfaction.

Open Access Review Article

Study of Plant Genetic Variation through Molecular Markers: An Overview

Zeina S. M. Al-Hadeithi, Saade Abdalkareem Jasim

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 464-473
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i45B32828

This article refers to viewing the role of molecular markers during analyzing the genome of plants and their importance in plant biotechnology. In recent years, we observed the role of molecular techniques in programs for improving plant breeding and preserving genetic resources has been observed, and molecular and biochemical indicators which represent basic material through determining the diversity between genotypes for indicators it is never affected by external surrounding conditions as always in the phenotype features. Molecular markers of DNA have been widely applied to answer a range of questions related to taxonomy, molecular evolution, population genetics, and genetic diversity, as well as monitoring trade in plants and food products , in addition to its having a role in studying gene expression , genetic mapping, and studies of species evolution providing fast and accurate results. In this work, the advantages and limitations of the molecular techniques applied in plant sciences such as: RAPD (Random Amplification Polymorphic DNA Marker); ISSR (Inter Simple Sequence Repeat Marker); SSR (Simple Sequence Repeat Marker); AFLP (Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphic Marker); RFLP (Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism Marker); SNP (Single Nucleotide Polymorphism) and Real Time PCR.