Open Access Case Report

Delirium in a Male Patient Following Recovery from Mild COVID-19 Infection

Yasir I. Alsenaidi, Khalid F. Alsadhan, Mohammed W. Alwhibi, Hessah I. Almezail, Abdullah A. Alrasheed

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 169-173
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i45A32730

COVID-19 has had a worldwide impact that is unprecedented and catastrophic. Infection with COVID-19 can cause various neuropsychiatric complications, including delirium, which is commonly reported with the acute phase of illness with COVID-19 infection. However, delirium after complete recovery from mild COVID-19 infection has never been reported. Here we present the first case for a 58-year-old male diagnosed with a positive COVID-19 infection with a PCR test after a 1-day history of headaches and loss of taste and smell. By 10 days after the positive PCR test, the patient recovered completely without any recurrence of symptoms. However, the patient was observed to be unaware of their surroundings and displayed changes in their behaviour 11 days after recovery from mild COVID-19 infection. Physical examinations were abnormal, while the lab tests and the brain images showed normal results. The patient started to improve on the second day of admission without presenting any decline in health. Delirium that develops after recovering from COVID-19 infection should be investigated thoroughly to determine the reason; if no clear cause can be identified, the delirium may be secondary to COVID-19 infection.

Open Access Case Report

Metabolic Ketoacidosis in a Gravida Diagnosed with COVID-19: A Case Report

Sparsh Madaan, Dhruv Talwar, Sunil Kumar, Arpita Jaiswal, Neema Acharya, Sourya Acharya, Dhruva Halani

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 328-333
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i45A32750

We present a case of term pregnancy which presented with chief complaint of Breathlessness, chest pain as well as a one day history of vomiting. She tested positive for COVID19 through reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction of nasopharyngeal swab and the symptoms were attributed to Pneumonia caused due to COVID19.However,the arterial blood gas showed metabolic acidosis with high anion gap. This was a non lactate acidosis with no hypoxemia. Most reasonably the state of pregnancy with increased energy demands along with increased metabolic maternal demand due to infection coupled with maternal starvation had resulted in this Ketoacidosis . In view of non progression of labor caesarian section was carried out and a healthy neonate was delivered. There was an initial improvement in maternal ketoacidosis post partum however optimal management of COVID19 pneumonia required oxygen support and use of corticosteroids. Thus we highlight how an unusual metabolic demands of pregnancy might mimic COVID 19.

Open Access Case Report

A 10 Years Old Child Presented with Hemiparesis and Moyamoya Disease – A Case Report

Nikita H. Seth, Ashish W. Bele, Nivedita Chandrapal Singh, Mohd Irshad Qureshi, Chaitanya A. Kulkarni

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 422-425
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i45A32761

Introduction:  In Moyamoya disease there is long standing, continuous developing occlusion of the arteries of Circle of Willis which leads to development of typical collateral vessels seen on cerebral angiogram. Moyamoya Disease was diagnosed on performing the MR Angiography. Child with Moyamoya disease presents with recurrent episodes of sudden hemiplegia that might occur at alternative sides. The disease is progressive and dynamic in children. Acute management of this disease is symptomatic. MR Angiography clinches the diagnosis and neurosurgical intervention with physiotherapy which may be required as a part of definitive management. Objectives: Our case brings forth the significance of considering Moyamoya Disease to be classic etiology for acute ischemic strokes in children.

Case Report:  We report a rare case of 10 year old female child who was admitted at our medical center for the complaints of transient ischemic attack & left side hemiparesis with left facial palsy. In respect to our case, surgical intervention was not considered due to having satisfactory response on the commencing medical management.

Conclusion:  Our case brings forth the importance of considering MMD to be classic etiology for acute ischemic strokes in children .MMD is main diagnosis when we evaluate the children with cerebrovascular events. To asses this non operative MR angiography is investigation of choice.  For favourable outcome in children with Moyamoya disease the key is early diagnosis and management.

Open Access Case Report

Turner’s Tooth: A Rare Case with Review of Literature

Asha Karadwal, Sushruth Nayak, Prachi Nayak, Kush Pathak

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 480-484
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i45A32769

Turner’s tooth is a form of enamel hypoplasia. Periapical pathology of the primary tooth is the main culprit behind the enamel deficiency in the permanent tooth. The altered tooth is called a Turner’s tooth. Color of the affected tooth varies from focal areas of white, yellow, or brown discoloration to extensive hypoplasia which can involve the entire crown. The crown of the permanent teeth develops mainly from six months and extends upto fifteen years. The part of the crown which gets damaged is directly related to the location of the ameloblastic activity at the time of damage. Therefore, we are here discussing the case of a seven year old boy which was reported to be the case of turner’s tooth hypoplasia.

Open Access Case Study

Burkitt Lymphoma: A Case Report

Hina Y. Rodge, Ashwini Thawakar, Bibin Kurian, Archana Maurya, Darshana Kumari

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 389-393
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i45A32756

Introduction: Burkitt lymphoma is highly metastatic active malignant B- cell Non-Hodgkin’s Lymphoma characterized by translocation and deregulation of the d- MYC gene on chromosome no.8 on DNA strand.

Background: Burkitt lymphoma (BL) accounts for 30–50% of all peadiatric lymphomas, and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) is the fourth most common malignant tumor in children. In the sex distribution, there was a male predominance, especially among children

Case Presentation: A 12 year old female child was brought to Acharya Vinoba Bhave Rural Hospital, Sawangi (Meghe), Wardha, Maharashtra, India on date 12/01/2020 with complaints of  breathlessness since 5 days, high grade fever since 10 days and retrosternal chest pain since 10- 15 days along with anorexia. The patient had a complete blood count, which revealed that his hemoglobin percent, total red blood count, hematocrit and Mean Corpuscular Hemoglobin were all low. Pleural Fluid cytology analysis, Virology investigation, CECT Chest and Cytopathological Examination (USG guided FNAC) done from left axillary lymph node were all performed for diagnostic purposes. The patient was diagnosed as Burkitt Lymphoma after comprehensive examinations. He was treated Tab. Tablet Augmentin, Tab. Pantoprazole, Tab. Prednisolone, Tab. Brufen, and Tab. Emset, Syrup Gelusil, Injection Cyclophosphamide and Injection Vincristine as well as nursing care was provided based on his needs.

Conclusion: Patient showed spontaneous recovery.

Open Access Study Protocol

Effect of Muscle Energy Technique versus Motor Control Exercise Adjunct to Conventional Therapy on Pain, Range of Motion and Functional Disability in Patients with Chronic Neck Pain – A Research Protocol

Deepak Jain, Deepali Patil, Pratik Phansopkar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 54-59
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i45A32714

Background: Physical, neuropathic, or secondary causes can all contribute to neck difficulty. Any other illness might be acute 6 weeks, subacute 3 months, or chronic (lasting more than 6 weeks) (lasting up to three months). Physical consequences, life-distressing or non-life- distressing causes, large and small factors, reliable and inaccurate neck pain. Motor control is a motor retraining programme that focuses on the neck flexors, extensors, and shoulder girdle muscle's coordination and holding skills. MET is a treatment method that makes use of the patient's muscles contracting in a specific, directed manner against a therapist-applied counterforce.

Methodology: The participants in the study will be enrolled of 50 patients who suffer from prolonged neck pain. And each group will be split into 25 people. One group will get MET for four weeks, whilst the other will get MCE and traditional treatment. Pain, ROM, and Functional Disability will be reviewed using a methodical approach.

Conclusion: We need to see how this experiment affects people of MET versus MCT in addition to conventional therapy core on pain, ROM and functional Impairment on neck discomfort that persists. In conclusion, the focus of this research is to find out the efficacy of MET versus MCT in addition to standard therapy, as well as its impact on chronic Neck discomfort has a negative impact on one's quality of life. This study will aid in the relief of chronic neck pain.

Open Access Study Protocol

Efficacy of Integrated Neuromuscular Inhibition Technique Versus Mulligan Mobilization on Pain and Functional Disability in Subjects with Non-Specific Low Back Pain –A Research Protocol

Neha Chitale, Deepali Patil, Pratik Phansopkar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 99-104
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i45A32719

Introduction: Pain in lower back region is a problem everyone deals with at least once in their life. Chronic back pain in lower back region is the pain which is present for more than 3 months. We can divide lower back pain as specific back pain or non-specific back pain. Non-specific pain in lower back region is because of unknown origin. Treating low back pain is a main challenge physiotherapist faces. Mulligan mobilization is a techniques used to facilitate range of motion and reducing pain whereas integrated neuromuscular inhibition is a technique used to treat any abnormality in muscle.

Methodology: 80 participants with non-specific low back pain will be included. Integrated neuromuscular inhibition technique will be given to Group A and group B will get mulligan mobilization. Group A will have 40 participants and Group B will have 40 participants. Treatment will be given for 6 weeks and pain and functional disability will be documented and statistical analysis will be done.

Discussion: In this study integrated neuromuscular inhibition and mulligan mobilization’s efficacy will be seen in subjects with chronic non- specific lower back pain on pain and functional disability using modified oswestry scale for functional disability and numeric pain rating scale for pain.

Conclusion: Conclusion will be drawn post study as which technique of mulligan mobilization and integrated neuromuscular inhibition is better to reduce disability and pain in patients with non-specific lower back pain. This study will give a better approach to the physiotherapist in managing the low back pain

Open Access Study Protocol

Impact of Pre-Operative Coping Strategies and Exercises on Post-Operative Recovery and Quality of Life of Patients with Cancer having Depression

Riya Bansal, G. D. Vishnu Vardhan, Ashish Bele

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 402-411
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i45A32759

Background: Cancer is a broad term that refers to a variety of diseases that can occur in any part of the body. Depressed symptoms are more common in cancer patients than in the general population, and depression is linked to a worse prognosis. The patient has anxiety, depression and other mental health disturbances when diagnosed with the fatal disease.  The research scales in this paper focus on how to improve the quality of life and manage mental health problems like depression a patient goes through by pre-operative coping strategies for depression and finding out post-operative impact of it is explored.

Aims & Objectives: to study effect of pre-operative coping strategies and exercises on post-operative improvement in patient’s mental stability and overall health.

Methods: The participants (n=20) will be recruited in the study suffering from cancer and meeting the inclusion criteria. Assessment will be done using various scales and treatment in the form of coping strategies will be implemented pre operatively and evaluated post-operatively.  The protocol will cover 6 weeks of treatment. In the rehabilitation period, we will evaluate the stress and depression levels affecting the QoL of cancer patients.

Result: Expected result includes the coping strategies and exercises given pre operatively improves the post-operative recovery and quality of life of cancer patients having depression

Conclusion: We can conclude that this method will help to improve quality of life and lower the effects of depression and betters the treatment results.

Open Access Study Protocol

Protocol on Effects of Yoga on Anxiety and Depression among Women with Polycystic Ovarian Disease

Roshani Shankarrao Warghane, Manjusha Mahakarkar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 432-436
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i45A32763

Background of the Study: The most common endocrine condition among women of reproductive age is polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). Amenorrhea, hirsutism, infertility, obesity, acne vulgaris, and androgenic alopecia are some of the symptoms. PCOS is a stigmatising condition that has a negative impact on a woman's identity, mental health, and overall quality of life (QOL). In India, this issue has gotten too little attention. PCOS is a hormonal imbalance that affects one out of every ten women of childbearing age. PCOS causes hormonal imbalances and metabolism issues in women, which can have an impact on their overall health and attractiveness. Infertility can also be caused by PCOS, which is a common and treatable condition.

Objectives: 1. To assess the existing level of anxiety and depression among polycystic ovarian disease women. 2. To assess the testosterone level in polycystic ovarian disease women. 3. To assess the effectiveness of yoga on level of anxiety and depression among polycystic ovarian disease women. 4. To associate the level of anxiety with selected demographic variables. 4. To associate the level of depression with selected demographic variables.

Material and Methods: A Experimental one group pre-test and post-test study design  was undertaken to assess effectiveness of yoga (Malasana) related to level of  anxiety and depression among polycystic ovarian disease women . In this study a total number of 30 women who fulfill the inclusion criteria were selected. Modified anxiety rating scale and modified depression scale was developed to assess effectiveness of yoga (Malasana) related to level of anxiety and depression among polycystic ovarian disease women.

Expected Results: This study is planned to assess the effectiveness of yoga (Malasana)  on  level of  anxiety and depression among polycystic ovarian disease. Hence it is expected to evaluate the effectiveness of yoga (Malasana) on level of anxiety and depression which helps to understand the effectiveness of malasana on anxiety and depression among polycystic ovarian disease women.

Conclusion: The conclusion will be drawn from the results.

Open Access Study Protocol

Comparison the Impact on TENS and Conventional Physiotherapy in Stroke Patients with Upper Limb Dysfunctions: A Research Protocol

Shivani S. Lalwani, G. D. Vishnu Vardhan, Ashish Bele

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 466-475
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i45A32767

Background: Stroke is a sudden neurological explosion resulting from poor blood flow perfusion to the brain. Stroke prevalence rates in India are expected to range from eighty-four to two hundred sixty-two strokes every 100,000 persons in remote regions and from three hundred thirty-four to four hundred twenty-four strokes every 100,000 persons in metropolitan areas. It causes brain cells to die abruptly due to inadequate oxygen and is a neurological condition characterized by blood flow blockage.

Aim & Objective: to examine the impact of TENS (Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation), EMS (Electrical Muscle Stimulation), and ROM (Range of Motion) exercises on upper-limb functioning in hemi paretic stroke victims.

Methods: The current study subjects (n=39) would be stroke survivors. Patients will be divided into three groups: group A will receive TENS, group B will receive EMS, and group C will get ROM exercises. The protocol will cover 2 weeks of treatment. We will assess upper limb functioning, activities of everyday living (ADLs), and mental condition at frequent intervals. By using the MHQ (Michigan Hand Outcomes Questionnaire), Hand Grip Strength (HGS), Brunnstrom Hand Function Recovery stages.

Results: The successful completion of this study will provide evidence on the best treatment strategy for stroke patients to improve their upper extremity motor function using individual TENS, EMS, or ROM exercises.

Conclusion: This study will be beneficial to treat Stroke patients with upper limb dysfunction by treating by TENS modality which might be an option for EMS treatment.

Open Access Short Research Article

The Role of Orthodontic Treatment and Prosthetics during the Recovery Period after Surgical Treatment

Timerlan Aslambekovich Kadiyev, Muslim Kazbekovich Aigumov, Tatyana Timokhina, Kirill Dmitrievich Baranov, Marina Mikhailovna Krekova, Vitaly V. Goncharov

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 156-162
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i45A32728

The present paper considers the role of orthodontic treatment and prosthetics in the recovery period after surgical treatment of an injury to the maxillofacial area. Analyzing the sources within the framework of the research topic, the author cconcludes tthat surgical treatment of maxillofacial trauma and postoperative rehabilitation often requires an interdisciplinary approach, which makes it a difficult task. This is due to the fact that these injuries usually affect several structures of the oral cavity and face, including hard and soft tissues, often causing malocclusion. Thus, the clinical picture and the appropriate treatment strategy may vary greatly from one person to another. Therefore, before drawing up a final treatment plan, a thorough and thoughtful multidisciplinary assessment of each patient is necessary.

Open Access Short Research Article

A Observational Study on Hypopigmented \ Depigmented Macules in Geriatric Population Attending Dermatology OPD in a Tertiary Care Centre

B. Shea Sharma, Jayakar Thomas

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 195-198
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i45A32733

This article lays out the common hypopigmented \depigmented lesions in geriatric population encountered in dermatology OPD in a tertiary care centre in India. Hypopigmented/depigmented lesions is commonly encountered in a dermatology OPD on a day to day basis. This study is an observational study carried out on 100 patients in dermatology OPD in a tertiary care centre who satisfied the inclusion criteria of age more than 60 years with hypopigmented or depigmented lesions. Hypopigmented/depigmented lesions have a great impact on patients aesthetic  appearance leading to psychosocial impairment. A further research with larger sample size and longer study duration can help us understand hypomelanosis in geriatric population better.

Open Access Minireview Article

Enantia chlorantha and its Multiple Therapeutic Virtues: A Mini Review

Anyutoulou Kitio Linda Davares, Mbarga Manga Joseph Arsene, Podoprigora Irina Viktorovna, Das Shommya

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 254-259
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i45A32741

Enantia chlorantha is a plant commonly employed traditionally in phytotherapy to treat various ills. It has been a source of interest for many scientific works due to its exceptional properties, thus in the essence of highlighting the most pertinent outcome of the results obtained, this review had as objective to present the plant, its traditional uses, its composition, and multitude of exploitable virtues. Nevertheless, the adverse effect and the toxicological aspect constituting a limit to its use in conventional medicine, was also treated.

Open Access Original Research Article

Bioethanol Production from Locally Growing Algal Biomass: A Promising and Cost-effective Approach

. Shivangi, Rohit Raina, Manish Mishra, Shelly Sehgal

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i45A32707

Background: Energy production and consumption ratio form the hallmark of the economic prosperity of a country. To keep up with the demand and supply of energy a major switch to biofuels is reasoned but the cost associated with production and the choice of raw material forms two major economical and ethical concerns, especially in the under-developed and developing countries where the food is not sufficiently available to everyone. In this scenario, the use of food sources as raw material becomes unjustified.

Purpose: To address these issues, here we made an effort to obtain bioethanol from a non-edible and easily available resource that requires a modest cost of production i.e., a locally available algal bloom. Also, different methods of pre-treatment were employed and scrutinized for their efficacy. These methods of pre-treatment are very cost-effective and easy to administer.

Materials and Methods: The algal biomass was pre-treated separately in three ways viz., freeze-thawing, mechanical disruption and rotten wood treatment. The algal cake left out after extraction of lipid content for biodiesel production was also used as a fourth sample. After pre-treatment, the supernatant was collected and estimated for reducing sugar content and allowed to ferment using Saccharomyces cerevisiae. A distillate was obtained and checked for ethanol percentage through gas chromatography.

Results: The mechanically disrupted sample yielded the highest percentage of ethanol followed by algal cake, freeze-thawing and rotten wood treatment.

Conclusion: Given present food scarcity, the non-edible algae could be a better alternative for bioethanol production as compared to the use of conventional food crops. Through this study, we have found that a better yield can be achieved if the algal biomass is pre-treated via mechanical disruption.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Teachers and Students Experiences on Online Teaching during COVID-19 Pandemic: A Case-Study at a University Dental Teaching Hospital

Shilpa Bawane, Kalyani Bhate, Luke Kale, Lakshmi Shetty, Shreya Raut

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 26-33
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i45A32709

Background: COVID-19 disease is a global phenomenon that is exerting its influence on a lot more than just health sector. Colleges, Institutes, and Schools were also part of the lockdown that followed the outbreak. Educational institutes have shifted from classroom teaching to online teaching-learning platforms.

Aim: The study aimed to assess teachers' and students' experiences on online teaching during the COVID-19 pandemic at university dental teaching hospital Pune, India.

Methodology: The study design was a cross-sectional questionnaire-based study. The research setting was online. Eligibility Criteria of the study were the teaching staff of the College who had taken to online teaching and undergraduate students who had attended online classes. Custom-made questionnaire link using 'Google form' was sent to teachers and students through WhatsApp and E-mail.

Results: 63% of students and 90% of staff responded with the questionnaires. During COVID-19, 96.7% of teachers and 98.4% of students had used Zoom as an online teaching platform. 25.6% of teachers had experienced network issues as the main problem. 90% of staff did not prefer online teaching over classroom teaching. 10% of teachers did prefer online teaching during the COVID-19 pandemic.  82.4% of students didn't prefer an online learning method. The most common difficulties faced by students were network issues.

Conclusion: Knowledge of teachers' and students' experiences on online teaching is important to overcome the issues faced by them. Teachers' opinions are vital for improvising and dealing with issues with online teaching. The result of this study can be used as a guide for improving effective online teaching.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effectiveness of Near Peer Learning on Knowledge and Habit Making Regarding Prevention of Water Borne Diseases among Primary School Children – A Pilot Study

Rupa Ashok Verma, Archana Maurya

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 34-41
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i45A32710

Near peer learning is an educational practice in which children interact with  their peers or friends attain educational objectives. In simpler terms children involved in this type of learning are seniors and juniors of the same school or college. Learners are more comfortable and relaxed, and ready to learn when teacher is their peer, whom they know and understand. At the same time, it develops communication skill, leadership skills and confidence of public dealings in the teacher peer.  In recent days, near peer teaching and learning becoming popular as learning methodology in schools and colleges. It involves students exposed to similar circumstances, from same educational programme, but at different levels. Research question of the study is ‘Is Near Peer learning effective on improving knowledge and habit making regarding prevention of waterborne diseases among primary school children?’

This study was carried out systematically to assess the effectiveness of structured Near Peer learning, where a senior student teaches regarding prevention of waterborne diseases to junior students. Here the subject selected for structured near peer learning is “prevention of waterborne diseases”. Elder children of age group 13-14 years taught their near peers of age group 9-10 years, regarding prevention of waterborne diseases with special attention on improving personal hygiene and hand hygiene. The researcher assessed the effectiveness of structured Near peer learning regarding prevention of water borne diseases, in increasing the knowledge and improving the habits related to Personal hygiene and Hand washing, among primary school children. An evaluative research approach with one group pre test post test design was adopted.  In the study, 4 students of 13-14 years age group were selected and researcher taught them regarding prevention of waterborne diseases. 40 primary school children of age group 9-12 years, constituting both boys and girls were also selected through convenient sampling technique. Then one elder child taught 10 younger children regarding same. Pretest and post test done. The questionnaire used were, demographic proforma, knowledge questionnaire, and checklist. Mean pretest was 9.925 and mean post test knowledge was 15.6

Mean pretest for practice was 33.5 and mean post test for practice was 42.07. Hand washing mean pretest practice score was 7.075 and post test was 10.095. There was significant association between pre test scores regarding knowledge and practice and education of child, occupation of father and age of child. P_value<0.005.

Open Access Original Research Article

Premilinary Phytochemical Study of Different Extracts of One Medicinal Plant Cissus quadrangularis

Saranya Arunagiri, K. S. Srinivasan

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 42-48
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i45A32712

Herbal plants are the most valuable resources to prevent from many illness and to treat the many disorders in humans. Cissus quadrangularis is a one of the traditional medicine and belonging to vitaceae family. In Ayurvedha medicinal system this plant is used to treat many diseases like diabetes, snake bites, rheumatic pain, cardiovascular diseases. Cissus quadrangularis used as anticancer properties against MG63 human osteocarcinoma cells. Stem of the Cissus quadrangularis is an edible vegetable and the plant commonly called as ‘bone setter’. Our present study was analyzed the primary phyto constituents present the different solvents of Cissus quadrangularis and antioxidant activity. Three different extracts aqueous, methanol and ethanol were used to find out the phytoconstituents and antioxidant properties. The results were reveals that the plant Cissus quadrangularis consists of numerous primary and secondary phytoconstituents. Flavonoids and tannins were found to be higher in ethanol extracts, legnings, saponins was high in methanol extracts. Antioxidant study also reveals ethanol extracts shows more antioxidant activity than other two solvents.

Open Access Original Research Article

Dietary Supplementation of Lactobacillus brevis Normalizes Metabolic Parameters in Mouse with Obesity and Hyperglycemia

Amlan Jyoti Ghosh, Rejuan Islam, Tilak Saha

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 60-70
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i45A32715

Aims: Exploration of the ameliorative effects of Lactobacillus brevis on glycemic and obesity parameters in high fat diet (HFD) fed hyperglycemic Swiss albino mice.

Study Design: HFD with 58% fat, 25.6% carbohydrate, and 16.4% protein was fed to mice to develop metabolic syndrome. The experimental group of obese mice was fed with oral supplement of L. brevis for 28 days and the metabolic parameters of the mice are compared with control groups. The experiments were performed in triplicate.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was executed in the Laboratory of Immunology and Microbiology, Department of Zoology, University of North Bengal situated in the Darjeeling district of West Bengal, India in 2020-21.

Methodology: ‘ND’, fed with normal pellet-based diet; ‘HFD’, fed with HFD diet and 10% sucrose water and ‘HFD + LB’, fed with diet same as ’HFD’ group along with 1× 108 CFU of L. brevis (for each animal/day) from 22nd day onwards. At the end of experiment (on 50th day) the body weights, Oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), fasting blood glucose (FBG) levels and serum Lipid Profile were measured.

Results: the HFD group showed significantly high FBG levels (203.66 ± 8.73 mg/dL) when compared with the ND group (130± 2 mg/dL) but the FBG levels in HFD + LB group (163.66 ± 4.72 mg/dL) were not as significantly higher as the HFD group. OGTT test revealed L. brevis helped to resist the persistent hyperglycemic effects. It was seen that the levels of lipids like Triglycerides and Total cholesterol in HFD + LB group were in normal range and similar like that of the ND groups (172.22 ± 3.854 mg/dL and 134.89 ± 4.705 mg/dL).

Conclusion: These findings indicate strong association for probiotic use of L. brevis as a potent preventative measure to combat the detrimental metabolic changes.

Open Access Original Research Article

Knowledge Attitude and Perception (KAP) of Patients towards Analgesics Use: A Cross-Sectional Study in Outpatient Pharmacy Settings

Pavitashini A/P Paramalingam, Rita Pauline Sanjivi A/P James, Nurulsyazienna Zahari, Nanthinisri A/P Sethuraman, Aina Amanina Abdul Jalil, Nur Najihah Izzati Mat Rani

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 71-79
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i45A32716

Aims: This study aimed to explore and determine patients' knowledge, attitudes, and perceptions about the use of analgesics.

Study Design: Cross-sectional study by using structured, researcher-assisted survey questionnaire with a representative sample of patients in Hospital Selama.

Place and Duration of Study: Regardless of their clinical conditions, 272 patients who visited the outpatient pharmacy in Hospital, Selama, Perak Malaysia, and obtained NSAIDs were interviewed. The patients' knowledge, attitude, and perceptions of NSAID side effects were recorded.

Methodology: To perform this study, structured self-administered questionnaires will be constructed after a comprehensive literature review. A panel of experts comprising of research academicians will discuss, review, and verify the content of the questionnaire, and it will be subjected to revision based on their recommendations. The questionnaire will be written in Malay and English and will be translated into both languages. Pilot research on 20 patients will be done prior to the study to assess the reliability of the validated questionnaire. The results of the pilot research will be used to make final adjustments. Cronbach's alpha test will be used to assess internal consistency, with alpha=0.40 established as the lowest acceptable value for validity.

Results: There was no correlation between patient knowledge, attitudes, or perceptions about the use of analgesics. As a consequence, at Hospital Selama's outpatient pharmacy department, patients' knowledge, attitude, and perceptions about analgesic use were not substantially associated. A more in-depth investigation of the key reason why the majority of patients have commonly prescribed analgesics and often seek extra explanations despite being given adequate information is required.

Open Access Original Research Article

Subinhibitory Levels of Oxytetracycline in Earthworm Meal Significantly Boost Resistance-Mutation Rates in Bacillus spp. within the Gut of Eisenia fetida

Tilak Saha, Avishek Biswas, Ranadhir Chakraborty

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 80-87
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i45A32717

Aims: To estimate changes in the number of oxytetracycline -resistant strains, a dynamic population of Bacillus in the gut of Eisenia fetida cultured in processed-cow-dung (PrCD) supplemented with subinhibitory amounts of oxytetracycline, was studied.

Study Design: Sterile water containing oxytetracycline was sprayed over PrCD at concentration of 0.012 µg per mg dehydrated PrCD per spraying. The number of oxytetracycline-resistant Bacillus spp. microbiota of E. fetida’s gut was compared to the number of oxytetracycline-resistant Bacillus spp. in its feed (PrCD). For this purpose, Luria Agar (LA) and Bacillus Agar (BA) plates amended with or without oxytetracycline were used.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was carried out in the Omics Laboratory of Department of Biotechnology, University of North Bengal situated in Darjeeling district of West Bengal, India during 2017-18.

Methodology: E. fetida gut content and PrCD samples were collected on different days of the experiment for bacteriological analysis. Dilution plating on LA yielded the total number of cultivable heterotrophic bacteria. LA plates amended with oxytetracycline (15 µg/ml) were used to acquire the fraction of heterotrophic bacteria resistant to oxytetracycline. BA plates were also utilized to obtain the fraction of resistant Bacillus spp. population. The frequency of mutation was determined using a conventional formula.

Results: In the gut of E. fetida reared in PrCD supplemented with sub-inhibitory concentration of oxytetracycline, a rise in the oxytetracycline-resistant Bacillus population was observed. On day 1, the frequency of oxytetracycline-resistant Bacillus spp. (5×10-8) matched the spontaneous mutation frequency, however higher frequencies on days 2 and 7 (1.6×10-4 and 3.5 x 10-6 respectively) suggested significant dissemination of oxytetracycline resistance in the gut environment.

Conclusion: Subinhibitory oxytetracycline concentrations in earthworm diet had a significant effect on mutation rates, showing that evolutionary forces on the gut microbiota may be determining their responses to antibiotic stress.

Open Access Original Research Article

Impact of Skill Training Programme (STP) Regarding Postnatal Care of Mothers Who Underwent Lower Segment Caesarean Section on Competencies among Students: A Quasi-Experimental Study

Banapriya Sahoo, Akoijam Mamata Devi, Haobijam Madhubala Devi

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 88-98
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i45A32718

Background:  In the twenty-first century, Caesarean section is the most frequent operation in obstetrics. Throughout the twentieth century, Caesarean sections have proven to be one of the most efficient abdominal procedures. Over the last three decades, the number of caesarean sections has risen considerably. Around the world, the number of caesarean sections performed is on the rise. From 2003 to 2018, it is more than doubled, reaching a peak of 21% and is growing at a rate of 4% every year. Today’s student nurse will become future nurse, so it’s vital create them competent while providing care to the mothers after lower section caesarean section.

Objective: To assess current competencies among students on postnatal care of mothers who underwent lower section caesarean section in study group , to assess the impact of the skill training programme on the competencies of students in focused group & to find out the association between post-test competencies with the demographic variables of students of study group.

Methods and Materials: The quasi-experimental with non-equivalent pre-test post-test design study was conducted on 30 students in each of experimental and control group by convenient sampling technique in two nursing institutions at Gurugram, Haryana.

Results: Experimental group subjects enhanced the level of knowledge from 11.6 to 17.8 and their skill from 11.7 to 35.5 after implementing the skilled training programme, while the control group showed no improvement. There is a statistically significant transformation between the pre-test and post-test scores. Paired sample ‘t’ test was used to observe differences between pre and post-test mean scores. Students with prior knowledge were more competent, which is statistically noteworthy with a P value of < 0.001. Age, sex, religion, parents' education, and home location are not significant demographic characteristics. The Pearson chi square test was used to determine statistical significance.

Conclusion: Skill training not only enhance knowledge in a specific field, but then also clarifies students how to network, accomplish to timeline, and connect efficiently with people. A competent student nurse can become a competent staff nurse by developing skill through effecting skill training program during study period.

Open Access Original Research Article

Dermatophytosis in a Suburban Hospital-A Study on Distribution and Clinical Types According to Age and Sex

Aishwarya Shankar, Jayakar Thomas

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 110-113
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i45A32722

Aim and Objectives: Dermatophytosis is a fungal infection of the outermost layer of skin and its appendages such as hair, nails and scalp. The present study was undertaken with a view to find out the clinical pattern of dermatophytic infections in our hospital.

Materials and Methods: A total of 100 patients were included in the study. History was taken, general and physical examination was done. Multiple sites were involved in some cases, but were categorised prioritising the most predominant site involved. Patient was diagnosed and classified based on clinical types, age and sex.

Results and Conclusion: A total of 100 patients were enrolled in the study in which 56 males and 44 females were affected. The most commonly affected age group was 19 to 59 years (63%). The most common clinical type of infection was T. cruris affecting 41% of the study population.

Open Access Original Research Article

Formulation and Evaluation of Vaginal Bioadhesive Drug Delivery System of Acyclovir

Bhaskar Mohite, Rakesh Patel, Nandu Kayande

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 114-124
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i45A32723

Acyclovir is an anti-viral, which has been used in the treatment of vaginal disorder. Acyclovir is almost completely absorbed after oral administration but has low bioavailability of about 10-15% because of first pass metabolism. As first pass metabolism removes approximately 85-90% of the drug, so for clinical efficacy of the drug it should be frequently administered. Hence an attempt has been made to produce sustained release dosage form of the acyclovir which can be specifically employed for the treatment of vaginal disordered by Herpes simplex virus. The Mucoadhesive tablets of acyclovir has been prepared by direct compression methods and evaluated for various parameter such as thickness, friability, hardness, drug content, weight variation, swelling index, surface pH, bioadhesive force, bioadhesive time, drug release etc. The kinetic data was applied to the optimized formulations. So formulation of acyclovir in a vaginal mucoadhesive tablet dosage form will decrease the frequency of administration, which can lead to an improvement in patient adherence and thereby improving its clinical efficacy.

Open Access Original Research Article

Preclinical Screening of Antidepressant Activity of Formulated Sertraline Hydrochloride-Loaded Solid Lipid Nanoparticles in Rats

Sachin R. Hangargekar, Pradeep K. Mohanty, Janki Prasad Rai

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 134-138
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i45A32725

Objective: The main goal of our study was to investigate the antidepressant activity of Formulated Sertraline hydrochloride-loaded Solid Lipid Nanoparticles (SLNPs) by using a rat forced swimming test (FST) and tail suspension test (TST).

Materials and Methods: Animals were divided into three groups, consisting of six rats in each group. Out of these,  one  group  served  as  control  that received distilled water, second group was standard received Sertraline  HCl  (20  mg/kg  intranasal)  and  third  group  was  received  test formulation (SLNPs 50 mg/kg intranasal). To assess the effect of SLNPs on immobility activity through FST and TST were used to take as a measure of antidepressant activity.

Results: SLNPs reduced the immobility duration in TST as well as in FST. In both methods, there was a statistical significant decrease in immobility of SLNPs group when compared to the control group.

Conclusion: The results suggested that SLNPs produced significant antidepressant effect in rats which was comparable with control group and standard Sertraline HCl group animals.

Open Access Original Research Article

Stability-indicating RP-UPLC Method for Determination of Vildagliptin in Drug Substance and Its Tablet Dosage Form

Kalyani Peluri, S. Rajasekaran

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 139-146
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i45A32726

Aim: The foremost purpose of this research work is to diminish the analysis time and to establish cost effective method for estimation of Vildagliptin by RP-UPLC.

Study Design: UPLC based Quantification studies.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Pharmacy, Bhagwant University, Ajmer, Rajasthan, Indiabetween June 2020 and August 2020.

Methodology: A simple, responsive and precised RP-UPLC method with good robustness was developed and validated as per ICH for the analysis of Vildagliptin in drug substance and separation of degradants generated by different forced degradation conditions. Productive separation of Vildagliptin was attained by the use of Luna C18 column (100x2.6mm and 1.6µm) with a mobile phase composition of 0.1% v/v Trifluoroacetic acid and Acetonitrile in 80:20 v/v, which was pumped with 0.5 ml/min flow rate. The eluted substances were examined with PDA detector at 239nm. Stressed degradation studies were performed with proposed method to determine the percentage degradation of Vildagliptin.

Results: The RT of Vildagliptin was observed at 1.56 min. The developed method was validated as per ICHQ2B and proved that the method was precise, sensitive, specific and accurate.The lowest concentration of limit of detection (0.05µg/ml) and limit of quantification(0.5µg/ml) of Vildagliptin make obvious about the sensitivity of the method. The correlation coefficient found to be 0.9997 for given range of linear concentrations. The calculated average percentage recoveries of Vildagliptin in spiked solutions were found to be in the range of 99.1-100.5. The calculated % RSD was determined to be less than 2. Determination of degradation of amount of Vildagliptin by forced degradation studies representing the stability indicating nature of the proposed method.

Conclusion: The developed method said to be highly sensitive, accurate, specific and robust, therefore this method has high probability to adopt in pharmaceutical industry for regular analysis of Vildagliptin.

Open Access Original Research Article

Normal Reference Range for Serum TSH, Free T4, Total T4, and Total T3 on Roche® Platforms in Basrah, Iraq

Nassar Taha Alibrahim, Samih Abed Odhaib, Ali Hussain Alhamza, Ammar Mohammed Saeed Almomin, Ibrahim Abbood Zaboon, Rudha Naser Hussein, Muayad Baheer Kadhim, Adel Gassab Mohammed, Dheyaa Kadhim Al-Waeli, Hussein Ali Nwayyir, Haider Ayad Alidrisi, Ibrahim Hani Hussein, Mahmood Thamer Altemimi, Husam Jihad Imran, Abbas Ali Mansour

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 147-155
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i45A32727

Background: Thyroid function tests are mandatory in clinical practice because symptoms and signs are not reliable to discriminate between various types of thyroid disease.

Aim: The aim of this study was to determine assay-specific reference range for serum free T4, total T4, total T3 and TSH among healthy non-pregnant adult cohort for Roche® platforms in Basrah (Southern Iraq) from single laboratory in a tertiary center using indirect approach of the available data.

Methods: A Cross sectional study for non-pregnant adults 19 years and above. Sera were analyzed by using cobs e411 for thyroid functions tests.

Results: Total enrolled persons were 10,078. The 95% reference intervals for TSH were 0.20-6.50 μIU/mL, which increased with age though not linear, for free T4 were 0.8-1.70 ng/dL, for total T4 were 3.78-15.33 μg/dL, and for total T3 were 0.80-2.50 ng/mL.

Colcusion: Cobs e411(Roche® analytical platform) analyzer reference range for thyroid function  cannot be applied for Iraqi population .

Open Access Original Research Article

A Comparative Study on Isolation and Characterization of Lecithin from Gallus gallus and Gallus gallus Domesticus Using Analytical Methods

S. F. Choragudi, N. Sibin, M. Keerthi Padma Sree, Gulam Saleem, K. Prashanth Babu, C. H. Arun

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 163-168
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i45A32729

The present study mainly focuses on the extraction and purification of lecithin from both Gallus gallus and Gallus gallus domesticus. The comparative study shows a great significance in the amount and quality of lecithin extracted from both the sources. The egg lecithin was standardized by Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC) analysis and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) spectroscopy. TLC analysis was done and calculated for both standard and the samples. It was found to be the same for the test sample and standard soya lecithin. FTIR analysis shows the presence of Methyl group, alkane, carbonyl group, alkenes, hydroxyl alkyl ketone. FTIR helps to compare the in- tensity of functional groups in both lecithin isolated from Gallus gallus and Gallus domesticus.

Open Access Original Research Article

Myths and Perception of Management Students and Faculty towards Covaxin and Covishield Vaccines, Vijayawada, Andhra Pradesh

B. Kishore Babu, A. Yashwanth Reddy

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 174-184
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i45A32731

Introduction: With the vaccination drive underway, it is important to dispel any myths about vaccines circulating in India. Lack of proper understanding and lack of exposure to the science behind the functioning of a vaccine people have different perceptions towards two vaccines i.e., Covishield and Covaxin, which are available in India. It is the need of the hour to dispel the myths and misconceptions around both vaccines.

Materials and Methods:  A study has been undertaken to know the perceptions of management students and faculty towards Covaxin and Covishield vaccines, Vijayawada, Andhra Pradesh. A structured questionnaire is prepared and forwarded to around 2000 respondents of different Management colleges located in Vijayawada. A convenient sampling technique was adopted and got 412 responses and analyzed with SPSS software.

Results: Out of 412 respondents, majority 55.3%(228) respondents are believing that side effects are less with  Covaxin, followed by 27.9%(115) respondents believes that no many differences between both brands, followed by 16.7%(69) respondents are thinking that side effects are less with Covishield in the study area.

Conclusions: It has been concluded that the Majority of the respondents in the study area are well versed with the dose, mode of vaccines. Inefficacy and effectiveness, side effects of vaccines, respondents are different opinions. The government has to promote the two vaccines and take steps to curtail the myths about these two vaccines through advertisements in electronic media, print media

Open Access Original Research Article

Fetal Outcomes of Abnormal Placental and Birth Weight Ratio

Uzma Aslam, . Raishem, Asma Kashif, Aisha Dahri, Azra Khanam, Mahwish Iqbal, Aneela Ali

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 199-204
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i45A32734

Objective: To find out the fetal complications of abnormal placental and birth weight ratio.

Materials and methods: This is a cross sectional study conducted from January 2019 to January 2020 at department of Gyn/Obs PMCH Nawabshah. Total 110 patients who met the criteria were included in this study. After history, clinical examination and required radiological and biochemical investigations, participants were delivered and weight of placenta and bay was measured and ratio was recorded. Results were made and conclusion was drawn.

Results: Age difference was also seen in participants. Maternal age ranged from 18-35 years. 65(59%) patients ranged from 18 to 25 years. 30(27%) patients were of age between 26-30 years. 16(14%) aged from 31-35 years. Regarding fetal outcomes, Intra Uterine Growth Retardation (IUGR) was found to be among 30(27.27%), IUD in 3(2.72%), fetal distress in10 (9.09%), low APGAR in 7(6.36%), respiratory distress in 6(5.45%) and Cardio Vascular Diseases in 0% patients.

Conclusion: To sum up, it is concluded that in our study, the common fetal outcome due to abnormal Abnormal Placental And Birth Weight Ratio (PBWR) was intra uterine growth retardation (IUGR) followed by IUD, fetal distress and low APGAR.

Open Access Original Research Article

A Study of Knowledge, Attitude, and Practices of Menstrual Hygiene among Adolescent Teenage Girls in and Around Anantapur Town

Thamineni Rajavardhana, L. Reddanna, J. T. Rudra, M. G. Rajanandh, V. Sreedhar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 205-214
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i45A32735

Menstrual hygiene is defined as the principle of maintaining the cleanliness of the body during menstrual flow. It requires basic facilities such as appropriate clothes, soakage material, water, soap, and toilet facilities with privacy. Many studies have revealed that most adolescent girls had incomplete and inaccurate information about menstrual hygiene and physiology. It also revealed that mothers, television, friends, teachers, and relatives were the main sources that provided information on menstruation to adolescent girls. In our study, most of the girls belong to the age group of 15 – 17 that is 448 participants are from that age group which comprises about 89% and they mostly belong to intermediate which is around 442 students (88.4%). 90.6% of the girls knew that menstruation occurs only in females and 88% of the girls aware that the best sanitary products are pads and only 39.6% of girls knew about menstruation before menarche. It was observed that only 37.2% of girls knew that infection would occur if they don’t clean their vagina regularly during their menstruation. Maximum that is 304 (60.8%) girls responded for dysmenorrhoea in the present study. The majority of these responses were in the age group of 13–15 years. the knowledge on menstruation and menstrual hygiene was found to be unsatisfactory although the practices were noted to be good. The majority of girls attained menarche in the study. Menstrual hygiene is an issue that needs to be addressed at all levels. In our study majority of the mothers were found to be illiterates, as mothers are the first informant to the majority of adolescent girls the health education actives can be extended to the mothers to improve awareness.

Open Access Original Research Article

Parthenolide Induces Apoptosis and Cell Cycle Arrest by the Suppression of miR-375 Through Nucleolin in Prostate Cancer

Rajesh Kannan Moorthy, Sridharan Jayamohan, Mahesh Kumar Kannan, Antony Joseph Velanganni Arockiam

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 215-227
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i45A32736

Aims: To investigate the effect of parthenolide on nucleolin in controlling the expression of miR-375 that induces apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in prostate cancer.

Study Design: This study is an experimental study.

Methodology: The cytotoxicity effect of parthenolide was tested by MTT assay for 48 h. Microscopic techniques were used to identify the morphological changes of the cell line. The expression of apoptotic and cell cycle regulatory genes was analyzed by the Real-Time PCR. The phase of cell cycle arrest was identified by Flow cytometry.

Results: The obtained results indicated that parthenolide induced cytotoxicity and suppressed the proliferation by reducing the growth of LNCaP cells in 48 h. The microscopic analysis showed the alteration of cell morphology and increase of cytoplasmic reactive oxygen species.  Parthenolide promotes apoptosis by the downregulation of nucleolin, Bcl-2, and up-regulation of Bax gene. Moreover, the flow cytometry assay showed the G1/G0 phase of cell cycle arrest.

Conclusion: Parthenolide induces apoptosis and cell cycle arrest through nucleolin by the suppression of miR-375 in prostate cancer cells.

Open Access Original Research Article

Knowledge of Healthcare Professionals Regarding the Primary Management of Anaphylaxis in Madinah, Saudi Arabia

Nasser S. AlHaddad, Abdul Rahman A. Alshaeri, Athar A. Faidh, Yaser M. Alahmadi, Hossein M. Elbadawy, Ahmed J. Aldhafiri

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 228-235
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i45A32737

Aim: To assess the knowledge, attitude and practice of healthcare professionals regarding the anaphylaxis in Medina, Saudi Arabia.

Settings and Design: This was a population-based epidemiological study using a survey composed of 20 questions about the causes, symptoms, and treatment of anaphylaxis.

Methods: This survey was distributed to healthcare professionals who represented different job categories including consultants, specialists, interns, residents, nurses, and medical students. 

Statistical Analysis Used: One-way ANOVA is used to compare the knowledge score across different job categories. SPSS V26 software was used for the analysis and a p value of <0.05 was considered significant.

Results: The mean of the correct answers for all participants was 60% and no difference in the mean scores was found in all participant from different job categories. The minimum achieved score was 30% and the maximum score was 100%. The score for the correct answers to each question was varied from 21% to 81%.

Conclusions: The shortage of knowledge among the healthcare professionals regarding anaphylaxis predicts the occurrence of undesirable outcomes for patients. Educating healthcare professionals regarding the management of anaphylaxis can improve the quality of healthcare services.

Open Access Original Research Article

A Comparative Study of Active Management of the Third Stage of Labor IV Methergine and IM Oxytocin

K. Sharmila

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 267-272
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i45A32743

Postpartum haemorrhage (PPH) has been more common over the last three decades, accounting for 11% of all pregnancy-related deaths in the United States. In the third stage of labour, risk classification and active management are crucial preventative techniques. To avoid negative effects, a multidisciplinary approach to PPH patient care is required. To treat uterine atony, uterotonic medicines like oxytocin are used in combination with manipulative procedures like uterine massage and balloon tamponade. The amount of blood loss, duration of the third stage, need for MRP, incidence of PPH, need for repeated oxytocics, and its side effects were measured in Group I 100 women who were administered injection oxytocin 10 IU injection methergin 0.2 mg IV within one minute of the baby's delivery. The mean blood loss at vaginal delivery in Group I was 100-150 ml and in group I P value 0.027, which was statistically significant .In  Group II was 160-200 ml with P value 0.036, which was statistically significant. The mean duration of third stag labour in Group 1 was 124.6 min and Group 2 was 144.8 min intravenous methergin is a better uterotonic when compared to intramuscular oxytocin to reduce the amount of blood loss at delivery and prevent complications like atonic PPH.

Open Access Original Research Article

Multielemental Screening and Analytical Method Validation for Determination of Elemental Impurity in Sucroferric Oxyhydroxide by Using (ICP-MS)

Vikas Kumar Singh, Santosh Kumar Verma, Sudhanshu Ranjan Swain

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 273-280
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i45A32744

A highly selective, specific, precise sensitive and reliable ICPMS method has been developed and validated by using ICP-MS for the determination of multielement in Sucroferric oxyhydroxide. The described ICP-MS method provides specific detection and quantification of minor and trace elements from 0.3J(30%) to 2J(200%) of its individual specification of each element i.e Ag, As, Au, Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ir, Li, Mo, Ni, Os, Pb, Pd, Pt, Rh, Ru, Sb, Se, Sn, Tl,  and V.The analytical method found to be Linear for each individual element with working concentration range from 30%, 50%, 100%, 150% and 200% i.e 0.3J, 0.5J, 1J, 1.5J and 2J with correlation coefficient not less than 0.990.The % recoveries of elemental impurities of each individual elements at three different concentrations with spiking in samples were found to be an acceptable range as 70% to 150%.The method was found to be precise and robust and its relative standard deviation was below 20%.The actual observed relative standard deviation in Precision was found to be in an acceptable range. Therefore developed method can be use for routine quantitative analysis of elemental impurities like Ag, As, Au, Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ir, Li, Mo, Ni, Os, Pb, Pd, Pt, Rh, Ru, Sb, Se, Sn, Tl, and V to ensure the quality of drug product.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Histopathology of Carcinoma Breast with Special Reference to p53 Marker

Meera Balakrishnan

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 281-286
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i45A32745

Introduction: Breast cancer is one of the most common cancers among women in the world. The high incidence of breast carcinoma in women has inspired a thorough investigation of potentially modifiable risk variables (clinical parameters, morphological type, and biochemical indicators) for prognosis, preventative tactics, and treatment options. One of the most important prognostic indicators for breast cancer is p53.

Aims and Objectives: The goal of this study was to use immunohistochemistry to assess the prevalence of p53 mutant protein in breast cancer, correlate the results with clinical and histological parameters, and establish its impact on axillary node metastasis.

Materials and Methods: A clinicopathological study of 50 cases of infiltrating ductal carcinoma of the breast was performed using immunohistochemistry to examine for p53 mutant protein expression.

Results:  Percentage of p53 immunohistochemical positivity in this study was 22%, which is similar to other studies' reported statistics. In both the positive and negative cases of lymph node metastases, immunohistochemical data revealed an equivocal p53 status. In compared to p53 negative cases, the carcinomas with p53 positivity showed aggressive characteristics, such as greater size and higher grade. Patients with significant lymphocytic reactions to tumours, patients under 35 years of age, and those with tumours on the left side had a higher chance of receiving a positive p53 status. This study clearly shows that breast cancers with high p53 expression are generally aggressive tumours with a poor prognosis and a poor response to endocrine treatment and chemotherapy.

Open Access Original Research Article

A Validated Reversed-Phase HPLC Analytical Method for the Analysis of Fenofibrate in Bulk Drug and Tablet Dosage Formulation

Awdhut Pimpale, Rajendra Kakde, Ishwar Kakde

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 306-312
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i45A32747

Aims: A accurate, precise, and stability-indicating Reversed-Phase HPLC technique has been established for the estimation of fenofibrate in tablet formulation.

Study Design:  Experimental study.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, RTM Nagpur University, Nagpur-440033, Maharashtra, India between June 2019 and March 2020.

Methodology: The chromatographic separation was attained on RP Princeton column (C18) (250 mm x 4.6 mm, 5 µ) with mobile solvent system as a mixture of water (pH 3.0 along o-phosphoric acid) and acetonitrile in the proportion (40:60) v/v, flow rate 1.0 ml per minute, at 240 nm. The retention time of fenofibrate was 3.905 minutes.

Results: The method demonstrated linearity in the concentration range of 87-232 µg/ml with a coefficient of correlation (r2) of 0.9994. The % RSD was ˂2% and percentage recovery was found to be 99.13-100.74%. The assay of marketed tablet formulations was found to be 99.98%.

Conclusion: The developed and validated technique as per ICH rules for specificity, accuracy, precision, linearity, and system suitability. Reverse Phase-HPLC technique was utilized to the market formulation.

Open Access Original Research Article

“Robust and Rapid” UV Spectroscopic Method for Estimation of Luliconazoleand Clobetasol Propionate Drug Combination

Binal Solanki, Hirak Joshi

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 313-320
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i45A32748

Objective: The new combination for Luliconazole and Clobetasol Propionate was approved for the treatment of variety of skin disease. The main objective of this research is development and validation of novel, simple, fast and responsive derivative spectroscopic process for simultaneous estimation of newly approved combination Luliconazole (LLZ) and Clobetasol Propionate (CLP).

Methodology: Here in this first derivative spectroscopic method, the absorbance of LLZ and CLP was taken at 312nm (ZCP of CLP) and 249nm (ZCP of LLZ) respectively. Establishment of linearity was in a concentration varies from 10-50 µg/ml for Luliconazole and 5-25µg/ml for Clobetasole Propionate.

Results: From the method developed above the R2 value observed for LLZ and CLP is 0.9988 and 0.9961. Statistical validation of accuracy and reproducibility was done for planned procedure with the help of recovery studies. The mean % recovery of Luliconazole and Clobetasol Propionate was found to be 99.45 % and 99.43% respectively. For LLZ the Limit of detection is 0.0054 µg/ml and limit of quantification is 0.0164 µg/ml and for CLP the Limit of detection is 0.0009µg/ml and limit of quantification 0.0027µg/ml.

Conclusion: From research work the method development was done and shows fast, precise, exact and easily accessible laboratory procedure for routine evaluation of combination drugs.

Open Access Original Research Article

A Survey on Self Medication among the General Population in Pondicherry

S. Rajini, Tamil Selvi

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 341-347
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i45A32752

Although pharmaceuticals have made a main influence to health, a large proportion of the world’s population today are facing problems when consuming and accessing medicines. Healthcare professionals are usually sharing their health decisions with their patients in terms of the availability of medicines and its accessibility. Accordingly, patients are being more involved in taking actions either with or without direct healthcare professional guidance, seeking for other facilities to obtain medicines or tend to self-care. Self medication is becoming common in our routine life. This is actually an unhealthy and risky practices. Present study was done to determine the survey on self medication among the general population. A cross sectional study was conducted among the general population of pondicherry.111 persons took part in this cross sectional study. Data is analysed using suitable statistical methods. Among 111 persons    participated in the study the most common reason to take self medication is in case of minor illness and the sources of information about the drug is from the previous prescription and the drugs they get from medical shop. Only 28.4 % visits the qualified medical practioner in case of illness and mostly they have taken medicines for cough, cold, sore throat and followed by that they have taken medications for headache. Out of 111 persons most of them have taken is analgesics followed by allergy medications. The general population has taken the self medication which is a wrong practice.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Antibiotic Sensitivity Test against Ophthalmic Pathogens

R. Shanmugapriya, A. S. Shijila Rani, S. Babu, V. Ambikapathy, N. Sengottain, A. Panneerselvam

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 383-388
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i45A32755

Ophthalmic infections can cause damage to the structure of the eye which can lead to vision loss and blindness if left untreated. Ophthalmic infection or eye infections are caused by exposure to bacterial, fungal viral and protozoan are common with frequently reported in Asian countries. In the present study, the external ocular infected samples collected from Thanjavur Medical College Hospital, Thanjavur. Seven strains were isolated from the external ocular infected samples and identified a standard manual of Determinative Bacteriology by Bergy’s manual 12th edition. The commercial antibiotics and eye drops tested against Bacillus cereus, B. subtilis, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella sp. Pseudomonas sp. Streptococcus sp. and Staphylococcus aureus. The majority of the isolates were sensitive to tobramycin followed by moxifloxacin, gatifloxacin and ofloxacin. The resistant antibiotics are ciprofloxin and sensitive antibiotic was ampicillin was recorded with respective bacteria.

Open Access Original Research Article

Antifungal Efficacy of Triple Antibiotic Paste, Double Antibiotic Paste with Fungicide and Calcium Hydroxide with Chitosan as a Vehicle against Candida albicans: An In vitro Study

Seera Sudhakar Naidu, Vemareddy Rajashekar, Korrai Balaraju, Chava Gayathri, Garapati Harshitha, Kaluva Kolanu Sreeha

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 394-401
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i45A32757

Introduction: The purpose of current research is to assess the in vitro antimicrobial efficacy of different medicaments with two different vehicles against Candida albicans (C. albicans).

Materials and Methodology: An agar well diffusion assay was used to determine the experimental medicaments' efficacy against C. albicans. Medicaments were divided into six groups, which includes Triple antibiotic powder (TAP) with saline or chitosan, Double antibiotic powder with fungicide (DAPF) with saline or Chitosan, and calcium hydroxide with saline or Chitosan. The diameters of growth inhibition zones were recorded and compared for each group for three days, i.e., 1,4,7 days. The differences between groups were analyzed by Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U tests.

Results: The largest inhibition zones were observed for the double antibiotic paste + fungicide with chitosan and the smallest for Ca(OH)2 with saline. Over a week, zones of inhibition were consistent only with group V – double antibiotic paste with fungicide and chitosan as the vehicle.

Conclusion: DAPF with chitosan is more efficient against Candida albicans. Since the endodontic infections are polymicrobial in origin, the combined local drug delivery of antimicrobial agents such as ciprofloxacin, metronidazole, doxycycline along with antifungal drugs such as fluconazole with an efficient drug carrier (chitosan) is recommended to combat the microbial load.

Open Access Original Research Article

Masticatory Ability and Oral Health Related Quality of Life in Partially Edentulous Patients Involving Posterior Teeth after Rehabilitation with Tooth-Supported Fixed Dental Prosthesis

Sheetal Khubchandani, Anjali Bhoyar, Trupti M. Dahane, Seema Sathe, Surekha Godbole, Sweta Kale Pisulkar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 426-431
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i45A32762

Background: Loss of teeth affects the masticatory ability and overall health of the patient especially posterior teeth as they contribute more to mastication as compared to anteriors. Loss of teeth can lead to undesirable consequences and early rehabilitation with any type of prosthesis can lead to desirable changes and thus missing teeth should be replaced as soon as possible.

Aims and Objectives: To determine the change in masticatory ability and quality of life (QoL) after replacement of missing posterior teeth by fixed dental prosthesis.

Methodology: Maximum bite force was recorded before and after treatment. Also a self-perceived questionnaire was filled by the patient to assess the change in QoL. Patients with missing posterior teeth were included. Patients with acute infections or systemic diseases were excluded.

Results: Significant change (p=0.0001) in both masticatory ability and QoL of the patient was seen. The co-relation of both was clinically significant while statistically non-significant (p=0.77). Results were significant for both the studied parameters but co-relation between them was no significant. It is because of the patients perceived satisfaction of the overall treatment.

Conclusion: Rehabilitation of posterior teeth improves mastication and also overall oral health related QoL.

Open Access Original Research Article

Anti -Fungal Activity of Commercially Available Extracts of Garlic (Allium sativum), Turmeric (Curcuma longa), Amla (Emblica officinalis): An in vitro Study

Mohammad Abu Bakr Siddique, Ladke Vaibhav Sunil, Shirol Pallavi D., Kumbhar Gauri M., Koshy Ajit V., Shah Amisha, Farhana Ashraf

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 437-447
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i45A32764

Background and Purpose: Many innovations are constantly emerging with the advances in modern medicine and also it is occurring in various traditional medicines as they are considered to be safe and economical in current increasing health care financial burden.  Due to emerging of MDR (multiple drug resistance) microorganisms and reduce efficacy of Modern medicines researchers and clinicians are required to revisit the traditional and alternative medicines.

Material and Method: Extracts of garlic (Allium sativum), turmeric (Curcuma longa), amla (Emblica officinalis) and honey were prepared at concentration of 1mg/mL, 2mg/mL, 3mg/mL and were tested on different cancdidal species like Candida Albicans, Candida tropicalis, Candida glabrata, Candida Parapsilosis and Candida Krusei and on Fluconazole as a positive control. Disc Diffusion Test for antifungal assay was performed.

Results: The anti-fungal effect was maximum at 3mg/mL concentration for all the herbal extracts. Zone of inhibition for fluconazole, was highest (35.00 ± 1.73). Among herbal extracts zone of inhibition for garlic was maximum (16.67 ± 0.88), followed by turmeric (12.67 ± 1.20), honey  (11.00 ± 0.58 ), amla  (9.33 ± 0.67 ). Similarly for each dose, comparing the mean zone of inhibition between antifungal groups Tukey test showed significantly (p<0.001) different and lower zone of inhibition in herbal extracts (garlic, turmeric, honey and amla) as compared to fluconazole at all the doses.

Conclusion: Among all the extracts garlic showed maximum efficiency. Also, the results obtained for herbal extracts showed that they were less efficient compared to fluconazole which was used as positive control.

Open Access Original Research Article

Comparison of the Psychological Impact of COVID-19 Pandemic on Saudi Nationals Arriving from Abroad During Institutional Quarantine and a Year Later: An Analytical Cross-Sectional and Follow-Up Study

Fahad Yousef Alaujan, Amal Hassan A. l. Ghamdi

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 455-465
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i45A32766

Aim: To assess the psychological impact of COVID-19 pandemic and estimate the prevalence of depression, anxiety, and stress on individuals during institutional quarantined in 2020 and reassess a year later to compare outcomes and investigates different associated factors.

Study Design: An analytical cross-sectional and a follow-up study

Place and Duration of Study: An institutional COVID-19 quarantine center, in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, between May 2020 and July 2021

Methodology: A sample of 138 participants were recruited. After obtaining the participants demographics date and consent, an electronic questionnaire was distributed to assess participants psychological well-being using the 42-item depression, anxiety, and stress scales (DASS) twice, at the end of quarantine period and one year later, to compare outcomes and associated factors.

Results: Out of all the sample (n=138), male represented 64.5% while female accounted for 35.5%. Half the participants (50.7%) were married comparing to 40.6% single and bachelor’s or higher degrees holders accounted for 61.6% while 26.8% had high school degree. The psychological health was assessed for all participants twice, resulting with prevalence of depression, anxiety, and stress during quarantine period of 34%, 33%, and 22% respectively and a decreased prevalence a year late (20%, 13%, and 9, respectively). The differences between the two psychological assessments were significant (depression: P = .02, anxiety: P< .001, stress: P = .005). Educational level was associated with stress at time of quarantine (P = .03). Marital status and employment status were significantly associated with participants depression levels a year after quarantine (P = .03, P = .04, respectively).

Conclusion and Recommendations: The psychological well-being of quarantined participants was negatively impacted during this unlikable experience. Numerous demographic factors were significantly associated with the undesirable effects. We propose implementing a psychological assessment program in future quarantine centers to prevent further mental health impacts.

Open Access Original Research Article

Prevalence of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and Pre-Diabetes Using HbA1c

Maryam Fatima, Zainab Ali, Zubia Zafar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 476-479
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i45A32768

Introduction: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a group of metabolic diseases depicted by crippled insulin release by the pancreas and insulin resistance of body tissues.

 Objectives: The main objective of the study is to analyse the prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus and pre-diabetes using HbA1c.

Material and Methods: This cross sectional study was conducted in Islam Medical College Sialkot during 2020 to 2021. A special questionnaire concerning family history and health-related information was filled for all participants by direct interviews with the researchers. People previously diagnosed with diabetes or hemoglobinopathies were ruled out from the study. Blood samples were collected from all subjects using EDTA tubes and centrally analyzed for HbA1c.

Results: The data was collected from 200 patients of both genders. In all, 200 participants were found to be currently diabetic, giving an overall prevalence of current condition to be 24.6% (95% CI 21.90 - 27.49) in the study population. History of disease was reported by 31.5% participants (P < 0.001).

Conclusion: It is concluded that adjustments in platelet files are believed to be measurably connected with diabetes and its intricacies. The prevalence of type 2 diabetes and pre-diabetes is much higher than previously thought in Pakistan.

Open Access Review Article

The Dynamics of Innate and Adaptive Immune Response to Sars Cov-2 Infection and Its Limitations in Human Beings

Akpanda Etido, Emmanuel Ifeanyi Obeagu, Chukwuma J. Okafor, Udunma Olive Chijioke, C. C. N. Vincent, Genevieve C. Mojo-Eyes

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 10-25
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i45A32708

This article deals with the dynamics of the innate and adaptive immune response to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARSCoV2) infection. SARSCoV2 is the viral factor that causes the current global coronavirus pandemic disease 2019 (COVID2019).

In terms of person-to-person transmission, it is contacted by inhaling the sneeze droplets of infected people. Severe acute respiratory syndrome Coronavirus 2 attacks lung cells first in its binding mechanism because there are many conservative receptor entries, such as angiotensin converting enzyme 2. The presence of this virus in host cells triggers a variety of protective immune responses, resulting in leads to pneumonia and acute respiratory distress syndrome. In the SarsCoV2 infection process, virus replication, immune response, and inflammatory response are dynamic events that can change rapidly; leading to different results, involving the dynamic expression of pro-inflammatory genes, peaking after the lowest point of respiratory function and leading to a cytokine storm, research on the interleukin 1 (IL1) pathway has shown that it is a factor related in severe respiratory diseases. The weakened expression of cytokines associated with mild infections will also delay T cell immunity to SARSCoV2, thereby prolonging the infection time; this indicates that such afebrile (afebrile) infections and undifferentiated COVID19 cases may promote the virus in the community Spread. This review aims to provide a general overview of the dynamics involved in the human immune response to this viral infection. It also includes a brief description of its structure, discovery history and pathogenesis to facilitate the understanding of this article.

Open Access Review Article

Role of Vitamin (D) Deficiency in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

Mohammed Hussen Sheikh, Manal Mohammed E. Alhawiti, Shaykhah Salman A. Alderaan, Daher Mushref Daher Alshehri, Shahad Abdulaziz S. Alzahrani, Aseel Ali T. Albalawi, Reem Awadh N. Alharbi, Faisal Ibrahim S. AlSukairan, Hamad Saad M. Alkhaldi, Zainab Ali H. Alarab, Abdullah Hassan F. Alsuayri, Marwan Fahad H. Altemani

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 49-53
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i45A32713

The disorder of the automatic spectrum is a neurodolevating disorder characterized by a decrease in social interactions, communication and stereotypical disorders and repeated behaviors with various degrees of gravity. A number of systematic reviews and meta- analyses have described prenatal and perinatal factors, as well as factors related to maternal nutrition and lifestyle. There is evidence to support the importance of vitamin D in the normal structure and function of the nervous system. The effects of VD administration during pregnancy on the mother and conception before and after birth have been repeatedly investigated. It has been found that preventing VD can reduce the risk of autism.

Open Access Review Article

Lag Screws in Maxillofacial Trauma- A Review

Subhashini Ramasubbu

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 105-109
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i45A32721

The etiology of mandibular fractures includes mainly assaults and road traffic automobile accidents. Additionally, fall and sports injuries are the foremost common causes for mandibular fractures. Mandibular fractures outnumbered zygomatic and maxillary fractures by a ratio of 6:2:1, respectively. Road traffic accidents is that the most typical etiology, followed by assaults and sport-related injuries. For the management of maxillofacial trauma, the treatment commonly done is open reduction and Internal Fixation using miniplates. Lag screws as compared with plates, have a plus of the necessity of minimum implant material which they also provide maximum stability. The lag screw placement is a simple method of rigid fixation. The choice of the lag screw technique depends on patient factors, kind of fracture, site of fracture, and thus the skill of surgeon. The aim of this review is to assess the efficiency of Lag Screws for the management of maxillofacial trauma.

Open Access Review Article

Skanda (Bala Graha) and Cerebral Palsy – A Review

Pinakumari I. Patel, Swapnil C. Raskar, Aboli Patil, Sudhir Pani, Vishal Prajapati

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 125-133
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i45A32724

Among the Ashtanga Ayurveda, Kaumarbhritya focuses on child care in particular. Graharogais the most neglected portion due to excess mythological explanation, difficulty in clinical understanding, diagnosis, severity, complication, and treatment is entirely different from the routine disorder of children. Graharogas are those entities that attack and seize the body then affect the neonates and children very quickly with high mortality. Different acharyas describe Graha with their types, symptoms and treatment. Acharya Sushruta and Acharya Vagabhatta describe Skanda graha- commander-in-chief of the army of Devatas. The symptoms of the affected child resemble very much with Quadriplegic Cerebral Palsy. Cerebral palsy (CP) is the leading cause of childhood disability affecting function and development. The motor disorders of cerebral palsy are often accompanied by disturbances of sensation, perception, cognition communication, and behavior. Therefore, this paper aims to understand Balagraha with the modern aspect as well as its clinical application in day-to-day practice.

Open Access Review Article

Issues of Animal Welfare Regulations on Pharmacy Education and Research in India

Anuradha Girme, Anil Pawar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 185-194
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i45A32732

Biomedical research is essential to the health and well-being of our society. Animal use for biomedical research has a long history and is routinely performed in new drug discovery and development processes. Animal experiments are an integral part of the curriculum for students in the life sciences, including pharmacy, to learn how to conduct animal experiments. These experiments may cause pain and distress to the animals. Laws and regulations have been enacted to make it illegal to cause undue pain or suffering to animals. These guidelines provide that due and full consideration should be given to alternative technologies not involving animal testing. Despite the movement to minimize animal use in research, pieces of evidence show that there has been a continuous increase in the worldwide use of laboratory animals over 10 years, from 115.2 animals to 192.1 million. The lack of suitable animal-alternative technologies and unavailability of required infrastructures are some of the reasons for animal use. As per directives of the University Grant Commission, the Pharmacy Council of India has decided to prohibit animal experimentation in pharmacy education. This adversely affected teaching and research activities in pharmacy institutions. As a result, the number of seats available for the postgraduate course (Master of Pharmacy) in Pharmacology is decreasing every year. In 2021, the highest number of seats are available for Pharmaceutics (9510, 35%) followed by that for the Pharmacology (4620, 17%). This article mainly focuses on the background of Indian legislation for animal experimentation and the impact of these regulations on animal experiments for pharmacy education and research in India.

Open Access Review Article

Emerging Medical Treatments of Intrahepatic Cholestasis of Pregnancy

Sheema Sabahath, Fatmah AlDabbous, Mansour Mohammed, Ali Al Alhendi, Neda Al Yaqoot, Alya Ali, Nora Alfertaj, Norah Alotaibi, Areej Alalati, Haya Alhajri, Taibah Allahdan

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 243-248
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i45A32739

Although intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy is not a serious one, it can be very distrustful to the affected women. It can also lead to significant complications and adverse events over the fetus as what has been previously reported that it is linked with stillbirth, fetal distress, and premature labor, especially in severely affected cases. Many treatment modalities have been proposed to relieve pruritis and enhance the levels of bile acids within the serum of the affected women. The administration of ursodeoxycholic acid has been studied by various studies in the literature, and evidence is conflicting about its potential efficacy and safety. However, recent evidence for a meta-analysis indicates that the modality can reduce pruritis. Nevertheless, the effect is minimal and not significant when compared to the placebo group. No significant differences were also noticed between the placebo and treatment groups. We also found that other treatment modalities than ursodeoxycholic acid can also be administered. Nonetheless, these were not adequately discussed in the literature, and therefore, should be cautiously administered within the clinical settings. Finally, further trials are needed to validate of the current evidence and enhance the quality of reporting and planning proper management guidelines.

Open Access Review Article

Recent Developments and Biological Activities of 5-Oxo-Imidazolones Derivatives: A Review

N. Yellasubbaiah, V. Velmurugan, B. Nagasudha

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 287-305
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i45A32746

Heterocyclic compounds are essential primary units for both the synthetic and natural starting points. 5-oxo-imidazolone is a 5-member ring system that contains 3 carbons and 2 nitrogens that are arranged at 3 and 1 positions, and ─C═O at the 5th position of the ring. 5-oxo-imidazolone is known as a privileged molecule because of its all biological potency. This biological property increased the attention of many investigators to analyze this ring system and expose several activities. The present review aims to outline the various activities reported on the synthesis and the biological potencies of 5-oxo-imidazolone derivatives. 5-oxo-imidazolone is an important pharmacophore in modern drug discovery.

Open Access Review Article

Dyes Removal Using Novel Sorbents – A Review

R. Amalraj, R. Ramsenthil, G. Durai, R. Jayakumar, R. Palaniraj

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 355-382
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i45A32754

Efficient and economical treatment for color removal in the effluent of dyeing units and the dyestuff production units have always need an emerging technologies. In general physical methods such as adsorption, ion exchange and filtration/coagulation methods, chemical methods like ionization, Fenton reagent, photo catalytic & biological processes namely aerobic/anaerobic degradation, biosorption are used for dye removal. Adsorption using solid materials (i.e.) adsorbents, considered as an effective process for color removal, because of its higher efficiency over other processes. Researchers made an attempt to use various non-conventional, low-cost, naturally-occurring biomasses as adsorbent, which may be mineral, organic or biological materials. These include fruit peels, seeds, leaves, bark, sawdust, straw, ash sludge and other materials that are available in abundant quantity. The various methods showed the color removal capability of adsorbents; mainly based on the processing methods and the variety of dye. In this review, various dye adsorbents and their capacity for removing the dyes from various effluents is highlighted.

Open Access Review Article

Impact of Heavy Metals Consumption on Human Health: A Literature Review

Yaser Qureshi

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 412-421
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i45A32760

While some heavy metals are essential trace components, many are bio toxic in human biochemistry. As a result, a full grasp of underlying systems is required. For supporting life and minimizing environmental damage, we must grasp their sources, liquidation techniques, chemical modifications, and deposition patterns These metals are discharged into the environment by both natural and human activity, including mining, industrial operations, and vehicular emissions. Soils and groundwater are contaminated when they leak into subsurface fluids and eventually into the aquifer. The world's commerce and coordinating systems frequently generate environmental toxicity and poisoning. Swallowed, they generate bio toxic compounds, lose structural integrity, and block bio reactions. This study's goal is to learn more about heavy metals and their bio toxic effects on humans.

Open Access Review Article

Review on Theobromine: An Alternative to Fluorides in Treating Dentinal Hypersensitivity

Shailee Chandak, Priyanka Paul Madhu, Kumar Gaurav Chhabra, Amit Reche, Gopika Mahure, Shefali Giri, Manoj Chandak

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 448-454
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i45A32765

Theobromine is a unique constituent that can help dentistry and general health in the future. The generic name of theobroma is obtained from two Greek words i.e., Theo and Broma, which means “food of the gods". It can be found in cocoa beans and chocolates. Theodent toothpaste harness the power of cocoa. Rennou, the main component in Theodent, is a unique compound that combines theobromine, calcium, and phosphate to enhance enamel remineralization. This article is to review the effectiveness of theobromine in blocking dentinal tubules by preventing dentinal hypersensitivity, and its positive effects on general health. Various researches and valid documents were reviewed by us. Several studies have been conducted that shows theobromine is effective in blocking dentinal tubules, thus preventing dentinal hypersensitivity as well as tooth demineralization. It also has other general health benefits. Because of its potent vasodilation, diuretic and heart stimulant effect, theobromine can also be used in treating high blood pressure. It also aids in opening of airways and helps in preventing kidney stones. The use of fluoride dentifrices is debatable, as it has many detrimental effects. Also, we consider that theobromine if used as a component in dentifrices, if unintentionally swallowed, cause no catastrophic effects.

Open Access Review Article

Evaluation and Management of Aural Atresia; Review Article

Ahmed Osman Abdullah, Abrar Ali Aldhameen, Razan Mohammed Almutairi, Nada Abdullah Asiri, Abdulaziz amer alshehri, Abdulelah Mohammed Sharaf

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 348-354
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i45A32753

The absence of a patent ear canal, which can be acquired or congenital, is known as Aural Atresia. The most common cause of acquired Aural Atresia is an inflammatory response to trauma or otologic surgery. Although rare, acquired Aural Atresia is most commonly found after external ear trauma, such as car accidents, gunshot wounds, or recent otologic surgery. The main treatment of Aural Atresia is surgical, also the invention of bone anchored hearing devices provide greater alternative solution, each methods has its advantages of disadvantages, we hope In the future of developing more effective treatment options.

Open Access Review Article

Prevalence and Pathophysiology of Pediatric Urolithiasis - A Review

Ahmed Abdelsamie Fadl, Zakiah Esmail Pasha, Abdulaziz Adel Abanumay, Albatool Mohammad Baz, Lena Mohammed Noor Hariri, A. Alghamdi, Abdullah Hussain, M. Alruwaili, Saleh Alshami, H. Alanazi, Yousef Mukhlef, Z. Albaqami, Khalaf Nahedh, Mohammed Adel Ezzat, Dana Khalid Alabdulqader, Waad Mohammed Mohsen

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 236-242
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i45A32738

Urolithiasis is a condition in which hard deposits made of salts and minerals are accumulated inside the kidneys. A lot of studies demonstrated adult urolithiasis but studies on pediatric urolithiasis is still scarce. Studies had shown that pediatric urolithiasis prevalence is progressively increasing worldwide. The main cause for this increase is not totally clear but has been associated to changes in climate, nutritional habits and other environmental factors.  Pediatric urolithiasis is distinctive and different from adult urolithiasis concerning prevalence, etiology and clinical presentation. Over the time while the condition was evolving, the main cause has changed from predominantly infectious to metabolic in nature. Pediatric urolithiasis should not be underestimated as it is associated with morbidity mainly since it possesses a striking feature which is ability to recur. Metabolic risk factors are more communal in pediatric urolithiasis than in adults. The common type of calculi in children is comprised of either calcium oxalate or calcium phosphate mainly and is often associated with a metabolic abnormality. Informed as metabolic abnormalities, Idiopathic hypercalciuria and hypocitraturia are the most frequently reported. A good understanding of the causes and risk factors of pediatric urolithiasis will provide better strategies and techniques for calculi treatment and prevention in children.

Open Access Review Article

Overview of Scleroderma Renal Crisis - A Review

Mohammed Salah Hussein, Fozah sultan F. Alshammari, Rayan Jahz N. Almutihi, H. Alrougi Abdullah Fahad, Hussain Ali Busaleh, S. Altammami Sultan Saleh, Amal Mohsin Almaghribi Shiha, Suwaydi Essa Alsalami, Hussam Obaid Abdullah Al Harbi, Khadijah Nasr Aldeen M. Dhafer, Fatimah Essa Alhammaqi

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 334-340
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i45A32751

Scleroderma renal crisis is a life-threatening condition. It usually starts with a sudden onset of severe hypertension, followed by renal failure, hypertensive encephalopathy, congestive heart failure, and/or microangiopathic hemolytic anemia. Renal ischemia, hyperplasia of the juxtaglomerular apparatus, activation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS), and an increase in blood pressure are caused by decreased blood flow caused by structural changes in the blood vessels as well as renal vasospasm ("Raynaud's phenomenon"). This overview discusses the evaluation, diagnosis, and treatment of scleroderma renal crisis, emphasizing the importance of early detection of disease, strong correlation of corticosteroids intake and the disease incidence, and best approach of such cases.

Open Access Review Article

Prospective Evaluation of Vitamin D Supplementation on Peripheral Neuropathy in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus -A Review

Faisal Suliman Algaows, Fatema Abdullah Althkerallah, Norah Abdulmohsen Alsuwailem, Amnah Abdulnasser Mawlan Ahmed, Razan Fahad Alwagdani, Sarh Abdulhameed Alomran, Bayan khalid Y. Alwasifir, Ohoud Muqbil Almutairi, Hawra Abdulmohsen Alfrdan, Ziad Saloum Aldebas, Khuolod Saeed Alqahtani, Alaa Abdulrahman Alfayez, A. Alfadhli, Rahaf Fahad

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 260-266
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i45A32742

Diabetic neuropathy is a long-term consequence of diabetes that can cause significant morbidity and a decline in quality of life in many individuals. Low vitamin D levels, in addition to causing rickets in infants and chondrosteoma in adults, may have a role in the development of DM and its underlying disorders, according to a growing body of evidence. Vitamin D deficiency has been linked to type 1 or type 2 diabetes, as well as the microvascular and macrovascular problems that come with it. Vitamin D insufficiency has been linked to diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) as an independent risk factor. Vitamin D, both topical and oral, has been shown to considerably improve DPN symptoms and pain.

Open Access Review Article

Surgical Management of Acute Mesenteric Ischemia; Review Article

Hashem Bark Awadh Abood, Mohammed Abduljalil Al Abdulwahhab, Omar Essam Altayyar, Ahmad Sayyaf Alrakhimi, Sawsan Yaseen Abdulla Ali Isa, Wafa Abdullah Mohammed Albati, Yazed Abdullah Albogami, Saud Abdullrahman I Rouzi, Mohammed Tarik Alrefai, Reem abdulmohsen alsaeed, Mohammad Saleh Almarri

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 321-327
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i45A32749

Mesenteric ischemia is a condition in which the amount of oxygen available is insufficient to meet the needs of the intestines. The small intestine, colon, or both can be affected by ischemia. The most common cause of occlusive ischemia is an abrupt obstruction of a major artery, which causes a considerable drop in intestinal blood flow. Early diagnosis is one of the most essential components in achieving a favorable outcome. The most prevalent treatment is surgical management. However, there are minimally invasive therapy alternatives that have been shown in observational studies. For arterial thrombosis, endovascular stenting is an option, and anticoagulation is an option for venous thrombosis. Endovascular aspiration, mechanical embolectomy, and local thrombolysis are all possibilities for patients with arterial embolism.

Open Access Review Article

Management of Traumatic Brain Injuries with Brain Concussion – A Review

Hisham Mohammed Sonbul, Abdulsamad Yahya Ahmadi, Ahmed Mohammed Al Hammad, Aqeelah Adel Alhabeeb, Mohammed Ahmedabed I. Abualsaoud, S. Alotaibi, Hala Adel, Almaha Abdullah Shatwan, Duaa Abdulkadir Al Muslim, Mohmmad Khaled Alamoudi, Ahmed Saleh Almohimeed, Ahmed Saleh Al Radhwan

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 249-253
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i45A32740

A typical occurrence in emergency rooms is traumatic brain injury (TBI) resulting from head trauma which is normally responsible for far more than 1 million visits per year. The magnitude of TBIs varies from mild, intermittent symptoms to longer periods of altered states of consciousness. The precise mechanism of concussion is indefinite. In serious brain trauma, Axon tearing is expected, but there is no evidence for this concussion process. Most concussion patients improve rapidly and entirely. Concussion management is usually supportive and some cases may need hospital admissions and ICU care according to severity of injury and related symptoms.