Open Access Case Study

A Rare Case of Pansinusitis Fungal Mucormycosis with Orbital Involvement in Post COVID-19 Patient and Its Treatment

Deepali Ghungrud, Ranjana Sharma, Seema Singh, Ruchira Ankar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 114-118
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i44B32656

Introduction: Covid-19 pandemic disease and its infections caused may be associated with bacterial and fungal co-infections.

Case Presentation: A 61- year-old male patient, after Covid-19 disease admitted in hospital with the complaints of headache, right eye swelling, watering of right eyes, loss of vision since 2 days, also has history of loss of appetite, no history of febrile illness. Patient having history of diabetic mellitus but it was under control. As per physical examination left eye’s vision was reduced but eye movement was present. In right eye there was swelling of periorbital region, redness, watering of eyes was present and perception of light was negative due to damaged optic nerve. Loss of vision was found, eye movement was not present. Patient having mucormycosis fungal infection which was confirmed on culture test. All blood investigations were done. All reports were normal except white blood cells (WBC) were raised with 13400cu.mm. Random blood sugar (RBS) 250 mg%. Without delay medical treatment was started and patient was kept under strict observation.Spo2 were 97%, pulse rate 78 beats/ min.

Conclusion: Here we would like to bring into notice that, Medical team members should know about the danger of secondary invasive fungal infection in a patient after Covid 19 disease. This type of cases can be prevented by using hygienic technique while handling of patient and proper standard treatment. It is necessary to prevent the spread of infection and its mortality and morbidity. Hence, medical practitioners should be aware of early clinical manifestation of the disease.

Open Access Case Study

Case Report on: Dandy Walker Malformation Syndrome

Khushbu Meshram, Prerana Sakharwade, Sonali Kolhekar, Pooja Kasturkar, Shital Sakharkar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 155-160
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i44B32660

Introduction: Dandy Walker Syndrome is a congenital brain malformation that affects the cerebellum and the fluid filled areas that accompany it. The cerebellum is a part of the brain that deals with movement coordination as well as cognition and behavior.

Case Presentation: The male patient 8 year old who was apparently admitted in A.V.B.R.H on 18/8/2019 is diagnosed with a known case of dandy walker malformation and came with the complaints of headache since 4 days, fever since 3 days, vomiting since 5 days and 3 episodes of seizures. All the necessary blood investigations has been done. The CT scan as well as MRI reports has shown that large posterior fossa cyst with open communication with fourth ventricle with hypoplastic left cerebellar hemisphere and no visualized cerebellar vermis. Before taking this case, information was given to the patients and their relatives and Informed consent was obtained from patient as well as relatives.

Therapeutic Intervention: The patient was treated with NSAIDS, antibiotics, anticonvulsant, antiemetic and antacid and physical therapy to help keep muscle strength and flexibility The patient underwent VP shunt head circumference assessed regularly, vital signs hourly, provided vitamins enriched diet as per dietician’s order assisted dressing for drainage and physical therapy. Conclusion: The patient was admitted in A.V.B.R.H in a critical condition with the diagnosis of dandy walker syndrome, after providing the required treatment by the health care team members of hospital the patient condition was improved and satisfactory.

Open Access Case Study

Cerebral Palsy with Gross Developmental Delay with Lower Respiratory Infection with Hypoxia- A Case Report

Sagar Alwadkar, Mayur B. Wanjari, Pratibha Wankhede, Deeplata Mendhe

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 199-202
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i44B32666

Introduction: Cerebral palsy is a term used to describe a range of diseases caused by non-progressive brain injury that occurs before, during, or after birth. There are numerous causes. Although the brain damage does not change and cannot be cured, the symptoms may change over time.

Case Presentation: Here we discuss a 10-year-old female child with a complaint of involuntary movement of hand legs from the morning with another complaint of cough, cold, fever from 4 days. After undergone a thorough investigation and physical examination made the final diagnosis was Cerebral Palsy with Gross Developmental Delay with Lower Respiratory Infection with Hypoxia (80%). The case report aims to help diagnose such type of case and help to get early treatment with management.

Conclusion: In this case report, we mainly focus on patient signs and symptoms. According to that deliver medical and nursing management. After being given medical and nursing management patient's condition was improving.

Open Access Case Study

Adolescence Male with Psychosis: A Case Report

Shabnam Sayyad, Jaya Gawai, Pooja Kasturkar, Mayur Wanjari

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 209-213
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i44B32668

Introduction: An impaired relationship with reality is a hallmark of psychosis. It is a sign of a serious mental disorder. People with psychosis may have delusions or hallucinations. The way your brain processes information can be affected by psychosis. Losing touch with reality is caused by it. It's possible to see, hear, or believe things that aren't true. Psychosis is a symptom, not a disease. It can be caused by a mental or physical illness, substance abuse, or stress. This case report aims to provide nursing care for psychosis. The objectives of this case report are to identify psychosis symptoms by the nurses and to report immediately and to take action immediately and to prevent complications.

Case Presentation: A 17-years adolescent male admitted at Acharya Vinoba Bhave Rural Hospital Sawangi (M) Wardha with Auditory Hallucinations in psychosis since 7 (2014) years was admitted to a psychiatric ward with a chief complaint of muttering and smiling to self, decreased interaction sleep disturbance, aggressiveness. The perpetuating factors are poor drug compliance. Conclusion: The patient underwent psycho pharmacotherapy and the patient taking the medications regularly and minimized the symptoms. The relatives were informed about the prognosis and finally patient was discharged. The nurses play a vital role at the bedside and take care of psychiatric patients with auditory hallucinations effective nursing interventions for an adolescent male with auditory hallucinations in psychosis enhancing and improving patient’s mental illness who experience auditory hallucinations in psychosis.

Open Access Case Study

Case Report on Tuberculosis Meningitis-A Nurses Perspective

Sheetal Sakharkar, Seema Singh, Ruchira Ankar, Arati Raut, Savita Pohekar, Jaya Khandar, Achia Sawarkar, Pragati Alnewar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 236-241
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i44B32672

Mycobacterium tuberculosis is the bacteria that cause tuberculosis. If the infection is not treated immediately the bacterium passes via the circulatory system and spread other organs and tissues. Pathogen will travel to the meninges and causes inflammation of membranes called as tubercular meningitis. Here, the authors report a case of tuberculous meningitis a  42- years-old male patient  with the chief complaints of low grade fever with chills since 1 month, headache in frontal region since 5-6 days, altered sensorium, breathing difficulty, reduced speech and left side weakness of the body since 1 day. After admitting in the ward all investigation done like MRI brain, ECG, lumbar puncture, blood tests etc. and he diagnosed as tuberculous meningitis. Patient admitted in AVBRH in ICU, investigations done, where patient was on NIV support, nasogastric tube, foleys catheter and it has been removed as patient was improving the condition and shifted in ward. Patient medical treatment in the ward was inj. C-tri 2 gm, Inj.levoflox 500 mg, inj. thimine 100 mg, Inj.Dexamethasone 10 mg, tab. Pan 40 mg, tab. Akt4 3, Inj.manitol, tab. Lorazepam. History collection, Physical examination, neurological assessment and nursing care plan were done after all treatment patient condition has been improved.

Open Access Study Protocol

Protocol on: Level of Anxiety and Coping Strategies Adopted by Antenatal Mothers

Roshani Warghane, Shalini Moon

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 186-190
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i44B32664

Background: Anxiety symptoms in the perinatal period are frequent. Pregnancy and birth bring a slew of physiological and behavioural changes, and both mothers and fathers must contend with a slew of new obstacles. As a result, pregnancy and the postpartum period are times when women are more vulnerable to the start or return of mental illness.

Objective: 1. To assess the level of anxiety among antenatal mothers  2. To assess the level of coping strategies among antenatal mothers  3. To associate the level of anxiety with selected demographic variables 4. To associate the level of coping strategies with selected demographic variables 5. To assess the correlation between the anxiety and coping strategies of antenatal mothers.

Materials and Methods: A Descriptive research design study was undertaken to assess the level of anxiety and coping strategies adopted by antenatal mothers. In this study a total number of 100women who fulfill the inclusion criteria were selected. Modified anxiety rating  scale and modified coping strategies scale was developed to assess the level of anxiety and coping strategies adopted by antenatal mothers.

Expected Results: This study is planned to assess the level of anxiety and adopted coping strategies by the antenatal mothers. Hence it is expected to identify the level of anxiety and adopted coping strategies which helps to understand the prevalence rate of anxiety level during third trimester of antenatal mothers.

Conclusion: The conclusion will be drawn from the results.

Open Access Study Protocol

Screening and Risk Factor Associated with Deep Vein Thrombosis among Factory Workers

Monali Walke, Savita Pohekar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 253-258
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i44B32674

Background: Venous thrombo embolism (VTE) its a form of vascular disorder becomes important disease condition now a days. Basically VTE is term used for both deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE). DVT is defined as a blood clot (thrombus) in a deep vein usually in the legs, also in the calf and thigh veins. It is 3rd largest cause for mortality and morbidity. Deep vein thrombosis occur mostly there are no symptoms but in some cases lower extremity will be painful, warm redden, and also superficial veins may engorged. In such cases when there is massive embolism thrombolytic therapy agent as streptokinase or urokinase or tissue plasminogen activation used for dissolve the thrombus or resolve the obstruction. For relieving chances of venous thrombosis like range of motion, physiotherapy, graduated stocking can be categorized as important mechanical methods for the prevention of DVT.

Objective: In this study 1. To Screen   the deep vein thrombosis among factory workers

  1. To assess the risk factor of deep vein thrombosis among factory workers
  2. To associate the screening and risk factor of deep vein thrombosis among factory workers with their selected demographic variables

Methodology: Descriptive research design will use for this research study. Sample will be factory workers. Non probability purposive sampling technique will use for the study. This research study will include 120 Factory workers from Mahalakshmi Steel factory Pvt. Ltd, Deoli, Dist.Wardha, Maharashtra. Factory workers must select according to requirements for inclusion and exclusion criteria. 1.Factory workers who were   completed   5 years   in steel   factory & Factory workers who are willing participate in study are inclusion criteria. Exclusion Criteria: 1.Factory workers who   already taking treatment for deep vein thrombosis. 2. Factory workers those were participated in similar kind of study. 3. Office workers are excluded in this study.

Expected Results: Outcome includes Screening and risk factors associated with deep vein thrombosis among factory workers for the study are low probability, moderate probability, high probability with the clinical validated tool Wells criteria for screening of deep vein thrombosis. Risk factor associated with deep vein thrombosis assess with structure questionnaire. Ethical approval was obtained from (DMIMS(DU)/IEC/DEC-2019/8684). 

Conclusion: It will be drawn from the results.

Open Access Study Protocol

Comparative Analysis of Cariogenic Potential of Different Types of Commercially Available Milk Beverages- An Interventional Study

Shefali Giri, Priyanka Paul Madhu, Kumar Gaurav Chhabra, Gopika Mahure, Shailey Chandak

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 428-432
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i44B32694

To assess the cariogenic potential of almond milk, soya milk, coconut milk and bovine milk, was evaluated to check ability to enable Streptococcus mutans association formed, acid manufacturing, as well as their ability to buffer pH transforms. The baseline non stimulated whole salivary sample (2.5-5 ml) will be collected from the students in the morning at least 1 hr after breakfast. The salivary samples (pre-test and post-test) will be collected and tested for the CFUs. Salivary samples are transported in a plastic container to the microbiological laboratory. They were then tested for the number of CFUs for S. mutans using mitis salivarius bacitracin agar. Soya milk promoted much more biofilm development, whereas sugar free almond milk promoted a little. When pH test was performed, sugar free almond milk had the lowest cation exchange capacity, whereas bovine milk had the maximum cation exchange capacity.

Open Access Study Protocol

Impact of Therapeutic Ultrasound and Myofascial Release Technique on Quality of Life of Students Having Neck Pain Following Virtual Learning

Chitrakshi A. Choubisa, Vishnu Vardhan G. D., Ashish Bele

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 466-473
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i44B32698

Background: Neck pain is a ubiquitous complaint leading to work place absenteeism, disabilities and disturbed sleep wake cycle in many young working and studying people. In ongoing covid scenario, since there is increased use of laptops and mobile phones facilitating work from home for employee and virtual learning for students, there has been increased prevalence of non-specific neck pain among the people due to prolonged fixed flexion posture. Neck pain has become the condition of major consideration since 45% of UG students had experienced neck pain in last 12 months.

Aims and Objectives: to evaluate combined and individual effects of Therapeutic Ultrasound and Myofascial Release Technique on Quality of Life of students suffering from neck pain owing to virtual learning.

Methods: The participant (n=33) will be recruited in study experiencing non-specific neck pain and meeting the inclusion criteria. Three groups will be formed such that the patient in Group A will receive treated with therapeutic ultrasound. Group B will be receiving treatment using Myofascial Release Technique and Group C will be treated using combined use of both Therapeutic Ultrasound and Myofascial release Technique. The protocol will cover 1 week of treatment. Regular assessment at 0,3rd and 7th day of week will be carried out. We will evaluate using Numerical Pain Rating Scale (NPRS), Neck Disability Index (NDI), and Range of motion of neck and Manual Muscle testing of cervical musculature.

Results: The result of the study will provide affirmation on using combination therapy of Therapeutic Ultrasound and Myofascial Release Technique in people having nonspecific neck  pain.

Open Access Study Protocol

Efficacy of Percussive Massage versus Calf Stretching on Pain, Range of Motion, Muscle Strength and Functional Outcomes in Patients with Plantar Fasciitis – A Research Protocol

Madhu Lakhwani, Pratik Phansopkar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 532-539
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i44B32705

Introduction: Plantar fasciitis occurs with the deterioration of the plantar fascia and related surrounding tissues around the heel's medial calcaneal tuberosity. This illness usually causes tightness in the calf muscles. These tight muscles are thought to interfere with the normal biomechanics of ambulation. The invention of percussion massage guns intends to improve the usefulness and efficiency of self-myofascial release, following in the footsteps of vibrating foam rollers. Since there is limited research on muscle gun devices, despite their growing popularity, this study will look into their effects on range of motion, essential physiological or biomechanical factors that contribute to the disease, and their capacity to reduce muscular tightness.

Methodology: Subjects with Plantar Fasciitis (n = 48) will be recruited for a single-blind RCT. Participants will be assigned randomly to the experimental or control groups with a one-to-one allocation ratio. Participants in Group A will receive treatment via Theragun, Hot/cold immersion therapy, and a home exercise regimen during a one-week period immediately following baseline evaluations and randomization. Participants in GROUP B would only be subjected to Calf Stretching, a Contrast Bath, and a home exercise regimen. For a week, the calf muscles were treated for 5 minutes every day (7 sessions in all). As 1 week is completed, the efficacy of the approach for both groups is assessed using ankle flexibility tests, VAS, universal goniometers, Active Manual muscle testing, and the (PFPS) as outcome measures.

Discussion: The purpose of this study is to compare the benefits of the Hypervolt device vs calf stretching in individuals with plantar fasciitis. The outcomes of the study, which may include a newly designed rehabilitation technique, may assist patients experiencing Plantar +-Fasciitis.

Conclusion: Conclusion will be drawn based on the effect of both the techniques on Pain, Range of Motion, Muscle Strength, and Functional Outcomes in Patients with Plantar Fasciitis.

Open Access Short Research Article

Diagnostic Role of Dopplerography of Renal Vessels in Patients with Late Dysfunction of the Transplanted Kidney

Yakymenko Volodymyr Viktorovych, Sementsov Alexander Sergijovich, Ponomarenko Viktorij Viktorivna

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 203-208
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i44B32667

Aims: Search for non-invasive methods for diagnosing late transplant kidney dysfunction, which can improve control and monitor the condition of the kidney transplant, characterization diagnostic role of dopplerography of renal vessels in patients with late dysfunction of the transplanted kidney.

Study design:  When conducting dopplerometry, blood flow indices were analyzed from 3 to 6 cycles of heart contractions, followed by an averaged indicator. In addition, the linear blood flow velocity was assessed separately from the renal vein.

Place and Duration of Study: For the period 2016-2017 Ultrasound of an allopod was performed in 60 recipients of RT (RENAL TRANSPLANT) in the late postoperative period.

Methodology: The average age of the patients was 38.89 ± 1.52 years. There were 34 men (56.6 7%), 26 women (43.33%). All patients were divided into two groups: patients with preserved function and patients with RT (RENAL TRANSPLANT) dysfunction. Related kidney transplantation (RRT) was performed in 55.0% of patients, in 45.0% - cadaveric kidney transplantation (CKP). The groups were comparable in the main clinical and demographic parameters.

Results: The reverse dynamics was observed when examining the level of the renal filtration function indicator, the estimated glomerular filtration rate (SKF) - at a TAMX level of more than 15 cm/sec, glomerular filtration was 51.18 ± 1.93 (47.32-55.04) ml/min (p <0.01), and with a decrease in TAMX of less than 15 cm/sec, the level of SKF decreased significantly, more than twice, to the level of 25.40 ± 2.19 (21.02-29.78) ml/min <0.001).

Conclusion: The determination of dopplerographic parameters for TP with preserved and especially with impaired depuration function with a direct assessment of TAMX opens up wide opportunities in non-invasive assessment of RT (RENAL TRANSPLANT) changes, identification of developing complications, as well as improved transplant survival.

Open Access Short Research Article

Indicators of the Spectrum of Lipids of the Water-Lipid Mantle of the Skin Before and after Pathogenetically Sound Therapy of Patients with Psoriasis

Roman Leonidovich Stepanenko, Ali Mohammed, Viktor Ivanovich Stepanenko, Tetiana Konovalova, Yaroslav Volodymyrovych Tsekhmister

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 279-284
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i44B32677

Aim: The aim of the study is to analyze the features of the spectrum of lipids of the water-lipid mantle of the skin before and after pathogenetically sound therapy of patients with psoriasis.

Methods: Comparative evaluation of the therapeutic efficacy of monotherapy with the immunobiological drug Humir (adalimumab), as well as its combination with a non-hormonal drug based on natural components Psori Active (cream) in the examined patients with psoriasis vulgaris was performed according to the dynamics of regression of dermatoses clinical manifestations erythema, infiltration, peeling of the skin psoriatic rash, changes in the index PASI, PGA, BSA.

Results: The study involved 137 patients. Changes in the level of other components of the lipid spectrum of the water-lipid mantle of the skin, in particular phospholipids, cholesterol and cholesterol esters in patients of the first observation group changed insignificantly compared to their values before treatment. When comparing the normalization of the level of the studied spectrum of lipids of the water-lipid mantle of the skin in patients of the second group with different seasonal types (autumn-winter, spring-summer, off-season) and previously diagnosed with varying severity treatment, no statistically significant differences were found between seasonal types of dermatosis.

Conclusion: Analysis of the results of clinical follow-up of the examined patients with psoriasis of the first and second groups after completion of treatment and achieving clinical clinical remission indicates significant benefits of systemic immunobiological therapy in combination with topical therapy with Psori Active.

Open Access Original Research Article

A Study to Assess the Effectiveness of Token Economy for Behavior Problems among Mild and Moderate Mentally Challenged Children in Selected Special Homes

A. R. Bharathi

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i44B32646

This study was conducted to evaluate the Effectiveness of Token Economy on Behavioural Problem among Mentally Challenged Children in a Selected Special homes, Chennai. In this study Pre Experimental (one group pre test- post test) design was adopted. Setting of the study was Matheraiee, special school, valluvargurukullam campus, Chennai. The sample size was 37 and they were selected through Non Probability Purposive Sampling Technique. Behaviour problem was assessed through Conner’s Abbreviated Rating Scale (CARS). After Token Economy Intervention the collected data were analysed by using both descriptive and inferential statistical methods. Of the study participants, 48.65% showed severe behavioral problem, 32.43% had moderate and 18.92% had mild behavioral problem. There was no significant similarity between the pre test score and behavirol problems but, the study showed significant relationship between the token economy and behavior of the participants. This study concluded that the Token Economy was effective, attractive, easy to carry, dispense and cost effective therapeutic intervention in reducing the Behavioral Problems among Mentally Challenged Children.

Open Access Original Research Article

Comparative Phytochemical Profiling of Garlics (Allium sativum L.) and Onion (Alium cepa L.)

Siti Nor Aisyah Mohd Zawawi, Nurul Izzati Osman, Ibtisam Abdul Wahab, Hannis Fadzillah Mohsin

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 7-17
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i44B32647

Aims: This research aims to perform the extraction of garlic samples and onion as well as to carry out qualitative phytochemical screening by using Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC) and phytochemical analyses for the detection of carbohydrates, flavonoids, and alkaloids. 

Study Design:  Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC) and some preliminary qualitative phytochemical tests to detect the presence of carbohydrates and reducing sugars, flavonoids,   and alkaloids   were   carried   out   to   compare   and   identify   the chemical compositions in black and white garlic as well as onion.

Place and Duration of Study: Pharmaceutical Chemistry Department laboratory, Faculty of Pharmacy Universiti Teknologi MARA Puncak Alam. The whole study was conducted and completed in 12 months.

Methodology: Black garlic (BG) is derived from raw white garlic (WG) that is modified by treating it with highly controlled temperature and humidity. In addition to the black and white garlic powder samples, this comparative study was also performed on smoked garlic and onion. The extraction of black garlic (BG), white garlic (WG), crushed smoked garlic (CSG), and onion was performed by using ethanol and ethyl acetate. The comparative phytochemical profiling was conducted by using TLC and qualitative phytochemical analyses were done using standard methods.

Results: The presence of amino acid in the ethanolic extracts of black garlic (BG), crushed smoked garlic (CSG), and onion were detected. Ethyl acetate extracts might contain triterpene. Phytochemical screening tests showed the presence of reducing sugars and alkaloids in ethanolic extracts of black garlic (BG), while white garlic (WG) contains flavonoids, alkaloids, and a trace amount of carbohydrates. Both extracts of onion showed the presence of carbohydrate, reducing sugars and flavonoids. Meanwhile alkaloids are only detected in ethanolic extract of onion.

Conclusion: The extracts of garlics and onion samples in this study had shown appreciable presence of some important phytochemical compounds in Allium species such as amino acids, flavonoids, alkaloids and carbohydrates.

Open Access Original Research Article

Self-Medication with Antibiotic among Public Population in Erbil City

Rozhan Arif Muhammed, Ahmed Habeeb Hattab Dala Ali Al-Ani, Ali Omar Yassen

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 25-33
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i44B32649

Self-medication is the administration of medications without a medical prescription to manage self-diagnosed health problems or symptoms. Self-medication with antibiotics is a global phenomenon, and it is more common in developing countries due to poor regulatory controls. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of self-medication with antibiotics in Erbil city, Iraq. This was an observational cross-sectional study involving a total of 100 people from the public population in Erbil City, Iraq. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect data from the participants. Among 100 participants, 90% of them were self-medicated with antibiotics. Amoxicillin was the most commonly used antibiotic for self-medication. For successful treatment, 77% of the participants were satisfied by self-medication with the antibiotic. The primary source for the antibiotic was from a community pharmacy with 38%. The study showed that there is a significant association between self-medication with antibiotics and the occupational status of the participants. Self-medication with antibiotics was found to be prevalent among the public population of Erbil City. As a recommendation regulatory control should be implemented to prevent dispensing antibiotics without a medical prescription.

Open Access Original Research Article

Designing of some Novel Methyl 2-((4-(Benzamido)Phenyl)Sulfanyl)-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-6-Methylpyrimidine-5-carboxylate Derivatives as Potential Glucokinase Activators through Molecular Docking

A. A. Kazi, V. A. Chatpalliwar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 34-54
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i44B32650

Aims: Glucokinase (GK) is a cytoplasmic enzyme that metabolizes the glucose to glucose- 6-phosphate and supports the adjusting of blood glucose levels within the normal range in humans. In pancreatic β-cells, it plays a leading role by governing the glucose-stimulated secretion of insulin and in liver hepatocyte cells, it controls the metabolism of carbohydrates. GK acts as a promising drug target for the treatment of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).

Study Design: In the current study, the goal is to identify new substituted benzamide derivatives and test them via molecular docking as possible anti-diabetic drugs.

Place and Duration of Study: The present work has been carried out at S.N.J.B’s S.S.D.J. College of Pharmacy, Neminagar, Chandwad, Nashik, Maharashtra, India during the time period of December-2020 to February-2021.

Methodology: This work involved designing novel methyl 2-((4-(benzamido)phenyl)sulfanyl)-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-6-methylpyrimidine-5-carboxylate derivatives and their screening by molecular docking studies to determine the binding interactions for the best-fit conformations in the binding site of the GK enzyme. Autodockvina 1.1.2 in PyRx 0.8 was used to perform the docking studies of all the designed novel derivatives and native ligand against the crystal structure of GK. Based on the results of docking studies, the selected molecules will be tested for their antidiabetic activity in the animal models.

Results: Amongst the designed derivatives, compounds A2, A3, A8, A10, A11, A13, A14, A16, A17, and A18 have shown better binding free energy (between -8.7 to -10.3 kcal/mol) than the native ligand present in the enzyme structure. In present investigation, many molecules had formed strong hydrogen bond with Arg-63 which indicate the potential to activate GK.

Conclusion: From above results it has been observed that these designed benzamide derivatives have potential to activate the human GK which enables us to proceed for the syntheses of these derivatives.

Open Access Original Research Article

Fixed Dose Formulation Development and Evaluation of Bilastine and Montelukast Sodium Tablets

Umesh Chandra, Manish Kumar, Arun Garg, Shrestha Sharma, Pankaj Gupta

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 55-67
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i44B32651

Aim: The present research work was carried out to formulate stable fixed dose combination tablets of Bilastine and Montelukast Sodium, used to treat allergic rhinitis associated with asthma and rhino-conjunctivitis on basis of pre and post post-compression parameters evaluation and drug-drug-excipients compatibility studies.

Methods: Direct compression methodology was used for tablet production and final composition of drugs and excipients was optimized by evaluating pre and post compression evaluations of blend and tablets respectively. The chemical instability and stability studies were carried out using HPLC method.

Results: The Evaluation of pre-compression parameters of batch F1 to F5 shows that as we increase the amount of sodium starch glycolate and colloidal silicon dioxide from F1 to F5, bulk density and tapped density increases slightly whereas the compressibility index and hausner’s ratio of tablets was shifted from excellent to good. Angle of repose shows excellent flow property from F3-F5. After evaluation of post-compression parameters from F1 to F5, there is no significant difference in diameter, thickness and average weight of tablets. The hardness of tablets was decreased slightly from F1 to F5 therefore, the % friability was found to be increased from F1 to F5 and disintegration time was found to be decreased from F1 to F5. Dissolution studies shows % release of Bilastine and Montelukast was increased towards F1 to F5 as the percentage of Sodium Starch Glycolate increases. The drug-drug-excipients compatibility shows that there is no physical and chemical incompatibility between the drug-drug-excipients at accelerated conditions. The stability studies show that % assay of long term and accelerated samples are within 100±2%.

Conclusion: The optimized composition found in order to scale up the production of tablets.

Open Access Original Research Article

A Cross-sectional Study to Assess the Risk of Diabetes Mellitus among Pre-diabetes Obese People of Selected Rural Area of Waghodia Taluka, Vadodara

S. Adithya, C. Ranganatha, M. Gayathri

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 68-80
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i44B32652

Background: India is the diabetic capital of the world, with a maximum number of diabetic patients. There is a large burden of undetected diabetic cases in the community. There is an increasing risk of diabetes in urban slums and rural areas, because of illiteracy, lack of awareness, low socioeconomic status, and unhealthy lifestyle. The Indian Diabetes Risk Score (IDRS) is a simple, low-cost, feasible tool for mass screening programs at the community level. This background study was planned with the following aim. Aim: As72.2% of the Indian population resides in rural areas, the current study was carried to assess the risk of diabetes mellitus among Pre-Diabetes obese people and to find out the association between the risk of diabetes mellitus and selected demographic variables. 

Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional, descriptive research design was adapted. 400 subjects were recruited by non-probability purposive sampling technique among Pre-Diabetes obese people The data gathering was carried out with an Indian Diabetic Risk Score scale (IDRS). The collected data was optimized and analyzed by using descriptive statistics and inferential statistics.

Results: With regards to the risk assessment of Diabetes Mellitus, Out of 400subjects, 19.5% of the subjects belonged to no/low risk, 58.75% of the subjects belonged to moderate risk and 21.75% of the subjects belonged to very high risk as per IDRS.

Conclusion: The present study revealed that the risk of diabetes among adults is on rising in rural areas. Hence it is essential to create awareness about diabetes and accessibility to health care services among the rural population. Physical activity likes regular exercise, diet, and lifestyle modification are some of the interventions that can reduce the risk of diabetes.

Open Access Original Research Article

Expression of ITG β-1, MMP9 and Vimentin in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma – A Real Time PCR Based Approach

Krishnapriya Umashankar, J. Selvaraj, Pratibha Ramani

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 81-87
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i44B32653

Background: Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma (OSCC) is the most common malignancies which accounts for 90% of oral cancer worldwide. The 5 year survival rate of OSCC is not more than 60% due to tumor metastasis and subsequent recurrence.

Aim: To compare the gene expression of ITG β-1, MMP9 and Vimentin in OSCC tissue samples and normal tissue samples and to correlate the expression levels of these molecules with the pathological grading and survival in OSCC patients. This would facilitate the understanding of EMT in OSCC progression thereby targeting this pathway for treatment of OSCC patients in near future.

Materials and Methods: 10 OSCC samples as well as normal healthy samples were collected and RNA isolation was done using TRIR kit, and then subjected to cDNA synthesis using ITG β-1, MMP9 and Vimentin primers. Real time PCR was performed using gene specific primers at 40 cycles. The results were retrieved, tabulated and analyzed.

Results: The current research results revealed that there were up regulation of mRNA expression in ITG β-1, MMP9 and Vimentin in OSCC patients than in healthy individuals. On comparison, MMP9 showed highest mRNA expression levels than ITG β-1 and Vimentin

Conclusion: Over expression of ITG B-1, MMP9, Vimentin plays a crucial role in progression of oral cancer and targeting EMT molecules could be an effective targeted approach for OSCC.

Open Access Original Research Article

A Simple and Sensitive LC-MS/MS Method for Determination and Quantification of Potential Genotoxic Impurities in the Vismodegib Active Pharmaceutical Ingredient

Rayala Rama Rao, Gundapaneni Ravi Kumar, Vadde Megha Vardhan, Veeraswami Boddu

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 88-102
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i44B32654

A rapid and sensitive LC-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method was developed and validated for the quantitative analysis of four potential genotoxic impurities Imp-A (2-chloro-5-nitroaniline), Imp-B (1-chloro-2-iodo-4-nitrobenzene), Imp-C (1-(2-chloro-5-nitrophenyl)ethan-1-one) and Imp-D (2-chloro-5-nitrobenzoic acid) in Vismodegib API drug sample. This trace analysis was achieved on CSH C18, 15.0 cm x 3.0 mm, 1.7 micron column maintained at 45°C. Optimal mobile phase consisted of 0.05% formic acid in water was used as mobile phase A and acetonitrile used as mobile phase B in gradient mode with the flow rate of 0.5 mL/min. The developed method had the short run time of 12 minutes. Quantification of four potential genotoxic impurities were carried out using mass detection with electrospray ionization in multiple reaction monitoring mode. The method was linear in the range of 0.03 ppm to 1.50 ppm for four potential genotoxic impurities with a correlation coefficient not less than 0.999. The recoveries were found satisfactory over the range between 96.67 and 106.90% for all selected impurities. The developed method was able to quantitate all four PGIs at a concentration level of 0.03 ppm (0.03 ppm with respect to 20 mg /mL Vismodegib).

Open Access Original Research Article

Compounds from Vernonia arborea Buch.-Ham. Inhibit Microbes that Impair Wound Healing

Lalitha Vaidyanathan, T. Sivaswamy Lokeswari

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 103-113
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i44B32655

Aims: To identify the antimicrobial potency of the leaf fractions of Vernonia arborea against selected wound microbes viz., Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia.

Background: Wound healing is often delayed due to the presence of polymicrobial load, that have to be abolished to facilitate the healing process. A major class of antimicrobial phytocompound reported to occur in Vernonia arborea species include sesquiterpenes. Reports on the wound healing potency of V. arborea in wound models of Wistar rats however did not report antimicrobial activity of the aqueous or methanolic extracts.

Methodology: The column fractions of the hexane leaf extract were tested against the selected strains by agar well diffusion assay and the zone of inhibition confirmed with TLC bioautography at specific Rf. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the bioactive fractions was identified using resazurin microtiter assay (REMA) and the minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) was determined. HPTLC quantification was also performed.

Results: Out of the 30 pooled fractions, six showed antimicrobial potency against all the five tested wound microbes. The minimum inhibitory concentrations of these fractions were determined, ranging from 15.62 µg/mL to 500 µg/mL for the different microbes. Quantitative High-Performance Thin Layer Chromatography (HPTLC) revealed two compounds (a and b) in the bioactive fraction10 with yields of 633 mg (63%) and 97 mg (9.7%) per gram of the extract.

Conclusion: The findings suggest the potential use of the bioactive compound in chronic infectious wound management therapy.

Open Access Original Research Article

Diagnostic Accuracy of Magnetic Resonance Cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) In-Patients Undergoing Endoscopic Retrograde Cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) for Pancreaticobiliary Disorders

M. Vignesh Kumar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 119-124
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i44B32657

This is a prospective study done to compare the diagnostic accuracy of Magnetic Resonance Cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) in patients undergoing Endoscopic Retrograde Cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) for pancreaticobiliary disorders.Majority of the study participants were males (63.3%), while the rest 36.78% of them were females and periampullary carcinoma (11.7%) and common bile duct calculus (11.7%) are the common cause of obstruction found on MRCP followed by malignant stricture (10%). The extent of obstruction was determined in most of the study participants (91.7%) by MRCP while the rest 8.3% were not determined by MRCP. The Common bile duct calculus (11.7%) is the common cause of obstruction on ERCP followed by malignant stricture (10%) and Periampullary carcinoma (10%) and 20% of the patients were found to be normal in ERCP. Among them, 71.4 % did not show MRCP and the association was found to be significant. (p- Value < 0.00).

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of the Psycho Social Problems Related with Obese Juveniles in Actual Government School at Chennai

A. R. Bharathi

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 125-146
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i44B32658

To evaluate the level of obesity, associated psychosocial problems and comparison with demographic variables in a selected government school at Chennai. Stock (1974) health belief Theory, a non-experimental study design, was used as the conceptual frame work in the present study. The students were randomly selected for the study Semi structured interview questions and questionnaire were used to assess the psychosocial problems of adolescents and demographic data of the students, respectively. The results revealed that psycho social problems were found among 50 obese adolescents, majority of them are 15-18 years of age, females, nuclear family, Hindus and non-vegetarian. It was also exclusively observed that obese adolescents had high level of psycho social problems.

Open Access Original Research Article

Synthesis and Evaluation of Anticonvulsant Activity of Some Quinazoline Analogues

Surajmal G. Malpani, Pradeepkumar Mohanty, Janki Prasad Rai

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 147-154
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i44B32659

Aim: A new series of Quinazoline 4(3H)-one derivative were prepared by reacting quinazoline 4(3H)-one hydrazide with substituted aromatic aldehydes. Quinazoline is used as a potent pharmacological agent with various biological activities such as antimicrobial, antiviral, antitumor, convulsion, anxiety, anti-inflammatory, and analgesic. In this background, we have synthesized a series of Quinazoline 4(3H)-one derivatives (4a-4f) and screened for their anticonvulsant activity. 

Methods: In this work, Schiff bases were prepared by treating quinazoline 4(3H)-one hydrazide with aromatic aldehydes. Six compounds (4a-4f) were screened for anticonvulsant activity by Isoniazid (INH) and Pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) induced convulsions in mice.

Results: All the compounds were given satisfactory reaction yields that representing the efficiency of the employed synthetic route. In INH induced convulsion model, delayed the onset of convulsion significantly 4a, 4b, 4d, 4e, 4f when compared to an induction control group. Whereas delayed onset of convulsion was non-significant for 4c. In PTZ induced convulsion model, delayed the onset of convulsion significantly 4a, 4d, 4e, 4f when compared to induction control group. Whereas delayed onset of convulsion was non-significant for 4b and 4c.

Conclusion: This indicates the anticonvulsant activity to these derivatives which might be due to potentiating GABA activity in the CNS. This anticonvulsant activity was due to presence of electron-donating group like OH, NH2, OCH3 and electron-withdrawing group like CF3 at 2nd and 4th position of aromatic ring attached to hydrazide.

Open Access Original Research Article

Luteolin: A Potential Multiple Targeted Drug Effectively Inhibits Diabetes Mellitus Protein Targets

Rakesh Davella, Estari Mamidala

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 161-171
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i44B32661

Background: Diabetes is a significant health problem that has reached worrisome proportions: almost half of the world's population now has diabetes. Diabetes mellitus, or diabetes, is a severe, long-term disease in which a person's blood glucose levels are elevated due to their body's inability to make any or enough insulin, or to properly utilise the insulin that it does produce. The chemicals extracted from medicinal plants were shown to be both safer and more bioactive than manufactured medicines.

Objective: The goal of this research was to use molecular docking to find possible binding affinities of luteolin, a phytocompound from Rumex vesicarius L, to five target proteins, in order to find the lead molecule against diabetes.

Methodology: One chemical was isolated from Rumex vesicarius L. leaves in this research. The binding affinity of the complexes was calculated using molecular docking studies. The docking procedure was carried out using AutoDock Tools 1.5.6, which brought the ligand together with the target proteins.

Results: The binding energies of Luteolin with major Glutamine-fructose-6-phosphate amido transferase (GFAT1), Pancreatic α-Amylase, Forkhead box protein O1(FOX01), α--glucosidase, and Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) were determined to be -6.89, -6.80, -6.36, -9.35, and -7.72 kcal.

Conclusion: Our findings suggest that luteolin can target not only α--glucosidase but also DPP4 and other targets, suggesting that they may be used as type 2 diabetes mellitus inhibitors. We believe that this phytochemical, luteolin, may be utilised in preclinical studies as an anti-diabetic drug to combat diabetes mellitus.

Open Access Original Research Article

Knowledge, Attitude and Practice of Proper Handling of a Face Mask during Pandemic of COVID - 19 amongst the General Population in Chennai – A Survey

Mithra Swornappan

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 178-185
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i44B32663

Background: Facemasks have become a mandatory to prevent the pandemic spread of COVID-19. It can be utilized as part of a broader strategy to reduce transmission and save lives. However, there are several basic conditions for using masks that the general population is unaware of. People should be highly aware of the proper handling, usage and disposal of the facemask to prevent the spread.

Aim: The aim of the study is to analyze the general public's knowledge, attitude, and practice of correct face mask handling during a covid-19 epidemic, with the hope of providing the essential awareness to prevent future worsening crises.

Methods: The survey was conducted among general population. A total of 130 participants participated in the knowledge, awareness and practice assessment survey and the questionnaire was distributed online using Google survey forms. The data were collected, tabulated in excel and statistically analyzed using SPSS IBM version 20.0. Descriptive analysis & Pearson’s chi square test statistical analysis were performed.

Results: The results of the study showed that majority of the population preferred to wear face mask and 81.5 % believed that facemasks provides protection against corona virus; 3.1 % participants did not agree and 15.4 % participants were in dilemma.

Conclusions: Our results showed that some practices among young people could be regarded more appropriate than in the older people which quantify the need of more awareness campaign regarding the standardization, protocols, guidelines and strict implementation on the handling, usage and disposal of mask to minimize the pandemic spread.

Open Access Original Research Article

Beta Cell Function and Insulin Resistance in Nondiabetic, Prediabetic and Diabetic in a Subset of Obese Pakistani Population

Shaheen Bhatty, Syed Muhammad Kashif, Mohammad Nashit, Faiza Zafar Sayeed, Fariha Asad

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 214-219
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i44B32669

Objective: To compare insulin resistance and beta-cell function in nondiabetic, prediabetic, and diabetic subjects in a subset of obese Pakistani population.

Materials and Methods: Two hundred and ten obese subjects underwent anthropometric measurements. After overnight fasting for 8 hours, 6 cc blood was drawn for fasting blood glucose level, fasting insulin level. Blood glucose samples were taken after drinking 75 gm glucose in 260 ml water. HOMA IR and HOMA BETA% were calculated by the formula. Subjects were divided into obese nondiabetic, obese prediabetic and obese diabetic according to WHO criteria.

Results: Out of 210 obese subjects, 53 (25.2%) were males and 157 (74.8%) were females. The mean BMI was 32.39±5.21. Mean abdominal circumference was 102.78±10.16. There were 101(48%) obese nondiabetic, 51(24%) were found to be obese prediabetic, 58(28%) were found to be obese diabetic. Mean insulin resistance in obese nondiabetic subjects was 2.8 ±3.7, in prediabetic 8.5± 12.3, in diabetic was 17.7±24.6. Mean HOMA beta was 245.3±267.4 in obese nondiabetic subjects, 290.5±298.4 in prediabetic, and 16.6±57 in diabetic.

Conclusion: There was a significantly increased incidence of prediabetes and diabetes in obese subjects. Prediabetic and diabetic subjects were found to have marked insulin resistance. Beta-cell function was markedly reduced in diabetic subjects having a family history of diabetes, emphasizing the genetic predisposition to develop beta-cell exhaustion.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assess the Knowledge Regarding Prevention of Accidents of Schoolers among Primary School Teachers in Selected Schools

Roshani Dhanvijay, Archana Taksande, Ms. Shweta Fating, Komal Jadhav, Avishkar Bhandekar, Manojith Pradhan

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 220-228
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i44B32670

Background: Accident means-Unfortunate incident that happens unexpectedly and unintentionally, The common cause of school accident is playground equipment and risk factors of the school accident are age, Most common injury occurs in schoolers is hand injury and foot injury, a road traffic accident is the most common type of accident. Primary prevention of an accident first AID and supportive care of school accident is health education and health check-up is done by half-yearly. 

Objectives: 1) To assess the knowledge of primary school teachers on the prevention of accidents among schoolers in selected schools in the Wardha district.2) To compare knowledge regarding prevention of accidents in schoolers between male and female primary teachers.3) To compare knowledge regarding prevention of accidents in schoolers between rural and urban area. 4) To associate the knowledge of primary teachers regarding the prevention of accidents among schoolers with selected demographic variables.  

Methods: An descriptive research methodology, a non-experimental descriptive design was used to perform this analysis. Non-probability convenient sampling technique was used to select the available individual as a subject in the study. A structured questionnaire was developed to assess the knowledge of urban and rural 100 primary school teachers regarding the prevention of accidents among schoolers. The sample attributes have been defined by frequency, percentage, after data collection. The Chi-square test was also used to figure out the correlation between knowledge and specified demographic variables.

Results: The study findings show 0 (0%) of rural primary school teachers were having a poor level of knowledge score, 8(16%) of rural primary school teachers were having an average level of knowledge score, 21(42%) of rural primary school teachers were having a good level of knowledge score, 19 (38%) of rural primary school teachers had a very good level of knowledge score and 2 (4%) of rural primary school teachers had excellent knowledge score. The minimum score was 5 and the maximum score was 20, the mean score was 11.68 ± 3.13 with a mean percentage score of 58.40 ±15.69. The study findings show 1(2%) of urban primary school teachers were having a poor level of knowledge score, 5(10%) of urban primary school teachers were having an average level of knowledge score, 18(36%) of urban primary school teachers were having a good level of knowledge score, 20 (40%) of urban primary school teacher had a very good level of knowledge score and 6 (12%) of urban primary school teacher had excellent knowledge score. The minimum score was 5 and the maximum score was 20, the mean score was 12.62 ± 3.32 with a mean percentage score of 63.10 ±16.62. In the overall comparison of the rural primary school teachers having good knowledge regarding prevention of accidents of schoolers rather than urban primary school teachers.

Conclusion: Schoolers accident is a common problem in rural and urban school children. The main aim of the study was to assess the knowledge regarding the prevention of accidents of schoolers among the primary school teachers of the selected rural and urban areas of Maharashtra.

Open Access Original Research Article

Urinary Infections in Pregnancy Conditions

Vigila J, Kalpana Thalava

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 229-235
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i44B32671

The urinary tract infections (UTI’s) are common infections that can affect kidneys, ureters, and urethra. About 40% of urinary tract infections are caused during hospitalization and globally an estimated 600,000 patients are affected per year. Urinary tract infections are more prevalent in women due to their short urethra and its anatomical proximity to the anal orifice. A bladder infection may cause pelvic pain, increased urge to urinate, pain with urination and blood in the urine. A kidney infection may cause back pain, nausea, vomiting and fever. Bacteriuria is a major risk factor for the development of urinary tract infections during pregnancy and with further risk of preterm birth & pyelonephritis if untreated. This study was carried out to isolate and identify bacteria involved in the first trimester of pregnancy. A cross sectional study was conducted from February, 2019 to June 2019. Structured questionnaires were used to collect data from pregnant women. UTI was diagnosed by urine culture on standard culture media. Out of 25 pregnant women included in this study, 15 (60.0%) were symptomatic and 10 (40.0%) asymptomatic. Escherichia coli(64%) was the most commonly found bacterial isolate followed by Psedomonas aeruginosa (20%), Klebsiella sp. (12%) and Proteus sp. (0.4%). Antibiotic susceptibility test by Kirby-Bayer Disc diffusion method revealed that all the bacterial isolates subjected to antibiogram test were sensitive or susceptible to Gentamycin, Nalidixic acid, Nitrofurantoin, Amikacin and Co-trimoxazole, and resistant to Amoxicillin, Norfloxacin and erythromycin were resistant to all bacterial isolates.

Open Access Original Research Article

Total Phenolic, Flavonoid and Carotinoid Content and Anticoagulation Activities of Sapparin Tablet

Erdenechimeg Chuluunbaatar, Dejidmaa Buyantogtokh, Dagvatseren Begzsuren

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 268-278
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i44B32676

Aims: Sapparin tablet, a medicine used for the treatment of blood diseases specially curing blood thickening or impure blood, liver disease in Mongolian Traditional Medicine.  The objectives of the study were to determine total biological active substances and analyze the anticoagulation activity of the Sapparin.

Study Design: Experimental study.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Chemistry and Technology and Department of Pharmacology, Institute of Traditional Medicine and Technology of Mongolia.

Methodology: Quantitative determination of the total active constituents (phenolic, flavonoid, and carotinoids) of the methanol extracts of Sapparin was performed by using Folin-Ciocalteu reagent, aluminium chloride reagent by spectrophotometry.

A totally of forty weighing between 220-250 gm were used. Effect of Sapparin was assessed on coagulation parameters following 7, 14, 21 and 28 days administration of 37 mg/kg, 56 mg/kg, 113 mg/kg to healthy rats. The blood coagulation parameters such as prothrombin time (PT) and the activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) were measured by means of Quick’s one-stage assay and modified aPTT assay respectively in the rats. Additionally, thrombin activity test was estimated in rats with PT assay using a hemagglutination analyzer. The levels of serum X and von Willebrand factor were measured in Sapparin and control groups by ELISA.

Results: The total content of the phenols measured as 5.33±0.0005%, flavonoids as 12.95± 2.21% and carotinoids as 4.31±0.96%.

There was significant increase in all assays except fibrinogen, prothrombin time, thrombin, aPTT. Sapparin treatment significantly reduced levels of serum X factor and von Willebrand factor was significantly decreased in rats.

Conclusion: Results of this study suggest that Sapparin shows considerable anti-anticoagulant activity in animals and has potential to reduce cardiovascular morbidity and mortality.

Open Access Original Research Article

Awareness of Breast Self-Examination: Information, Attitude, and Practice among Female in Chennai City, India

A. R. Bharathi

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 285-289
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i44B32678

Now a days, International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) in December 2020 states that Breast cancer is the number one common cancer around the world and it has surpassed lung cancer occurrence. WHO and IARC in 2020 have decided to join hands in eradicating or minimising deaths caused due to breast cancer by creating an awareness of breast health, early diagnosis and providing quality care to everyone in need. The occurrence of cancer has not gone down but doubled in the last 20 years. It was estimated to be 10 million in 2000 but has raised to an alarming 19.3 million in 2020. Currently it is projected that 20% of the world population will develop cancer. It is an utmost significant fact that Breast among other cancers can be cured if detected well in advance. The present study aimed to analyse the awareness about self- examination to find out the breast cancer among the female. The participants were patients and their relatives in a government hospital (n=100). Only, 24% of them had showed adequate knowledge on self-examination and 51% having known about it but, not on practicing. The remaining, 25% of even did not know about such a method. This study showed that the important of creating awareness among women, especially, on the illiterates.

Open Access Original Research Article

Abundance of Multiple-Antibiotic-Resistant Salmonella Strains in Fecal Samples of Rhinoceros unicornis of the Kaziranga National Park, India

Tilak Saha, Dibyendu Paul, Ranadhir Chakraborty

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 298-313
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i44B32680

Aims: This study was undertaken to assess the abundance of multiple-antibiotic-resistant (MAR) Salmonella strains in fecal samples of Rhinoceros unicornis of the Kaziranga National Park (KNP), India.

Study Design: Antibiotic-resistance profile of the Salmonella isolates from fecal samples of rhinoceros was carried out by replica plating on Muller Hinton Agar (MHA) plates containing antibiotics. The presence of class 1 integrons in metallo-β-lactamase (MBL) producing Salmonella isolates was determined by multiplex PCR.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was carried out on rhinos of KNP situated in the Golaghat district of Assam, India in April 2015.

Methodology: Fresh rhino fecal samples (designated as 1R, 2R, 3R, 4R and 5R) were dilution plated onto MacConkey agar. Purified bacterial colonies were then streaked separately on bismuth sulphite (BS) agar plates. All black colonies which are characteric growth of Salmonella were selected and used to make master plates on Luria Agar. To determine the antibiotic-resistance profile of the isolates, master-plates of purified single colonies of Salmonella spp. were                  replicate-printed on plates containing antibiotics from the β-lactam, aminoglycoside, or quinolone groups. To detect the presence of an integron, a conserved segment polymerase chain reaction was used.

Results: 97.6% of the Salmonella isolates tested were resistant to >1 antibiotics (multidrug resistant or MAR). A total of 100 isolates from two fecal samples, 4R and 5R, were found to be imipenem resistant; 52 of them tested positive for the presence of MBLs. Five of the twenty MBL producing strains contained class 1 integrons.

Conclusion: Because Salmonella is usually spread by drinking contaminated water, it is likely that water bodies in KNP are contaminated with MAR Salmonella strains. In case of Salmonellosis outbreak among Indian one-horned rhinos, our antibiogram will assist the veterinarians to choose the appropriate regimen of antibiotics for the rhinos in the KNP.

Open Access Original Research Article

Features of Providing Emergency Medical Care to Patients with Thermal and Chemical Injuries during the Spread of COVID-19: Providing Antiviral Protection for Medical Workers and Developing Practical Treatment Protocols

Amina Magometovna Bairamkulova, Ismail Rasim ogly Gadzhaliev, Tatiana Dmitrievna Alekseeva, Sherifat Magometovna Bairamkulova, Olga Rostislavovna Iakimenko, Yana Paromova

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 314-320
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i44B32681

In modern conditions, the burden on the staff of medical institutions has increased many times. This is due to the fact that for more than a year and a half, the planet has been overwhelmed by waves of the coronavirus pandemic. Having come from China, this virus spread like lightning across the planet, causing an economic crisis, violation of the usual foundations of human life, etc. However, despite the undulating incidence of COVID-19 and a significant number of cases, other diseases and medical emergencies also occur, and doctors need to provide patients with the necessary assistance.

It should be said that, despite the high level of protective measures in medical institutions, the provision of emergency medical care to patients is associated with a certain risk for doctors, since assistance should be provided to such patients immediately, and it is not always possible to quickly assess whether they are carriers of the virus, unfortunately. For this reason, the risk of infection to medical workers providing emergency care to patients, especially surgical ones, is extremely high.

During the epidemic, the treatment of burn patients who have not confirmed the absence or presence of a coronavirus infection, the processes of establishing intravenous access, endotracheal intubation or tracheostomy, wound treatment and surgical intervention are the points of risk of infection. The introduction of an effective, appropriate degree of protection and the development of practical medical procedures will increase the level of protection of the medical worker and reduce the risk of infection with COVID-19.

The aim of the work is to investigate the features of providing antiviral protection for medical workers and to study the existing practical treatment protocols for providing emergency medical care to patients with thermal and chemical injuries during the spread of COVID-19.

Open Access Original Research Article

Physicians' Opinions on the Required Information about Biosimilars and the Need for Biosimilars Related Education

Nehad J. Ahmed

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 328-334
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i44B32683

Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate physicians' opinions on the required information about biosimilars and the need for biosimilars related education.

Methodology: The study included a survey that was prepared using a survey from a previous study and after face validation and content validation, it was prepared as an online form using the SurveyMonkey platform.

Results: The majority of physicians stated that the most important information about biosimilars are studies that provide clinical immunogenicity data for the biosimilar and reference product (93.33%) in addition to studies that directly compare clinical efficacy and safety between reference products and biosimilars (88.89%). The majority of physicians stated that tracking safety events with biosimilars (94.45%) and access to information on studies comparing biosimilars with reference biologics (91.11%) are important issues related to biosimilars in professional environments.

Conclusion: The present study highlights the needs of physicians for biosimilar education. More efforts are needed to increase the awareness regarding biosimilars by different formats in order to integrate biosimilars into clinical practice and to counsel patients about biosimilars.

Open Access Original Research Article

Multi Detector Computed Tomographical Assessment of Anatomical Variants of Paranasal Sinuses

P. K. Roopa Rajavarthini, I. Venkatraman

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 335-340
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i44B32684

Multi detector computed tomography (MDCT) scan of paranasal sinuses has become mandatory for all patients undergoing functional endoscopic sinus surgery. It depicts the anatomical variations in much simpler way and acts as a roadmap for endoscopic sinus surgery. In this study the maximum of participants were in the age group of 41- 50 years (32 %). The mean age of the study participants was observed to be 43.8 ± 15.6 years. HRCT PNS results shows nasal septum was found to be the most common anatomical variant (DNS- 94%). Concha Bullosa in right side were seen in 37.5% and left side were 21.9% (total unilateral cases- 59.4%) and bilateral Concha Bullosa were seen in 40.6% of the cases. Agger nasi were found to be present in 58% of the CRS cases among which right AN was 41%, left side was 30.8%, and bilateral AN were seen in 28.2% of the cases and Paradoxical Middle Turbinate were seen in 42% of cases in our study. Medialised uncinate was seen in 22% of the cases.

Open Access Original Research Article

Prevalence and Age-Related Association of Abnormal Endocrine Changes among Women with Menstrual Disorder

Faizah Mughal, Ashok Kumar, Jai Dev Maheshwari, Ali Nawaz Bijarani, Tayyaba Kazmi, Ruqaya Nangrejo

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 341-349
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i44B32685

Background: The menstrual cycle describes the healthy reproductive system of the women which is controlled by different hormones.

Aim: The goal of the study is to evaluate the prevalence of irregular menstruation in different endocrine changes and to identify their association with the age of women in reproductive life.

Methodology: It was a cross-sectional study conducted on women attending the gynecological clinic of Karachi from March 2019 to June 2019. Of the 165 women with different hormonal changes 100 presented with menstrual cycle abnormality.

Results: Among the women with menstrual irregularities 51% women presented with insulin resistance, 23% with hyperandrogenism, 19% with hypothyroidism and 7% hyperprolactinemia. Age-related association was observed in menstrual irregularities women with insulin resistant and hyperandrogenism.

Conclusion: Menstrual cycle is a physiological process, any irregularities in cycle can be caused by  even  minimal  hormonal  imbalance.  As  a  result,  it  is  critical  to  address  endocrine abnormalities in order to improve women's reproductive health.

Open Access Original Research Article

Frequently Thickened Nerve in Hansen’s Disease

P. Vignesh Shivaraman, Jayakar Thomas

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 350-355
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i44B32686

Background: Leprosy by definition is a chronic granulomatous infection of the skin and superficial nerves in the skin caused by Mycobacterium leprae and Mycobacterium lepromatosis. [1] It most commonly involves the nose, eyes, throat, and sometimes the testicles. The bacilli are most frequently transmitted via droplets, from the nose during close contact with untreated cases of leprosy. Leprosy was first mentioned in 700BC. Leprosy is common in tropical and subtropical Asia, some Pacific countries, Africa, and South America [2]. It is not known how leprosy is transmitted. Although skin lesions and nerve thickening manifest together, they also appear as separate entities. This study aims to find out the frequently thickened nerves in different spectrums of Hansen’s disease.

Objectives: To determine the frequently thickened nerves in different spectrums of Hansen’s disease.

Methods: This descriptive study was conducted in Chettinad Hospital and the Research Institute from June 2021 to August 2021. The patients were biopsy-proven Hansen's disease in a different spectrum of the disease, nerve thickening was obtained using palpation method. The Sample size was small due to the prevailing covid situation at the period during which the study was conducted.

Results: The data collected from the examination of the different spectrum of disease, the pattern of frequently thickened nerves were evaluated. A total number of 30 patients were examined by palpation method among which 10 patients showed ulnar nerve thickening,7 patients showed greater auricular nerve thickening, 4 patients showed radial cutaneous nerve thickening, 9 patients showed sural nerve thickening.

Conclusion: In our study, the most common thickened nerve was the ulnar nerve, secondary to that was the sural nerve. This study concludes the only examination done by palpation method, further diagnostic studies might increase the accuracy and specificity of the above-collected data.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Probiotic Potential of Lactic Acid Bacteria Isolated from Bottle Gourds (Calabash) of Milk Fermentation of Mbéré, Cameroon

Tchamba Mbiada Mervie Noël, Bouba Adji Mohammadou, Nodem Shanang Francky Steve, Léopold Ngoune Tatsadjieu, Mbarga Manga Joseph Arsene, Rehailia Manar, Ibrahim Khelifi, Kezimana Parfait

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 356-369
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i44B32687

Background and Aim: Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) became a field of interest by scientists in recent years due to their technological and probiotic properties. The aim of this work was to study the technological and probiotic properties of LAB isolated from the bottle gourds (calabashes)of milk fermentation, in Mbéré, Cameroun.

Methods: Five different bottle gourds from milk fermentation were collected and used for LAB isolation. These LABs were characterized using conventional cultural method, the technological (such as proteolytic, lipolytic activities) and probiotic properties (including acid and bile salt tolerance, cholesterol assimilation and antioxidant activities) were assessed.

Results: From these samples, 30 LABs were isolated and among them, 21 exhibited great lipolytic and proteolytic activities with the maximum values of 18 and 29 mm respectively. In addition, 10 LAB isolates showed interesting antimicrobial activity against pathogens germs tested and good tolerance ability under acid and bile salt stress after 24h of incubation. Cholesterol assimilation and antioxidant tests revealed that isolated BC4 and BC3 have the greatest activity (35 and 39 mm respectively) while, BC4 and BL4 have the greatest antioxidant activity (IC50 = 0,15 and 0,13 respectively).

Conclusion: LAB isolated from the bottle gourds (calabashes) of milk fermentation, in Mbéré, Cameroon can be used to develop dairy industry and manage the cardiovascular diseases.

Open Access Original Research Article

Impact of Low Intensity Exercise on Liver Enzymes (ALT & ALP)

Alamgir Khan, Muhammad Zafar Iqbal Butt, Shahzaman Khan, Sobia Nazir, Ejaz Asghar, Samiullah Khan, Zeliha Selamoglu, Muhammad Jamil, Abdul Manan

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 370-377
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i44B32688

This particular research study was basically carried out for the purpose to examine the impact of low intensity exercise on two particular liver enzymes i.e. alanine transaminase (ALT) and alkaline phosphate (ALP). 20 Non sportsmen were selected as subjects of the study (n=20, age 20 to 30 years (20.95±3.79), Body Mass Index (BMI) from 18 to 30 (25.90±5.54). Similarly the subjects were divided into two groups (Experimental Group and Control Group) through the application of International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) and measurement of Maximum Heart Rate (MHR). 12 weeks self-made low intensity exercise protocol was applied to an experimental group.  5ml blood was collected from all subjects to measure the effect of low intensity exercise on ALT and ALP. The data of pre and post-test were processed through SPSS version 24. Based on analysis and findings, the researcher concluded that in experimental group (EXG) the level of ALT and ALP was found significantly higher (p<0.05) as compared to control group (CG). Based on conclusion, it is hereby recommended by the researcher that for the purpose to promote the functional capacity of liver, low as well as moderate intensity exercise should be performed on daily basis. In addition, in this study due to lack of financial resources, two basic liver enzymes i.e.ALT and ALP were measured, therefore the other enzymes like as AST and bilirubin also need to be examined in such other research studies.

Open Access Original Research Article

Protective Effect of Gallic Acid against Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Induced by High Fat Diet

Basma S. Ismail, Eman S. Abdel-Reheim, Hanan A. Soliman, Basant Mahmoud

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 378-397
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i44B32689

Liver is considered as significant organ within body. Aims: Our survey aimed in illustrating protective effectiveness of gallic acid (GA) against high fat regimen nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Study design: In our study, Rats were classified into 3 groups; control, orally given fatty-sucrosed diet, gallic acid treated groups. Methodology: They were evaluated through measuring hepatic cholesterol and triglyceride, alanine and aspartate aminotransferases and gammaglutamyl-transferase; total, direct and indirect bilirubin; total protein, albumin and globulin; hepatic and adipose malondialdehyde, glutathione-S-transferase, superoxide dismutase, catalase, reduced glutathione and glutathione peroxidase activities; glucose, insulin, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, leptin and adiponectin; tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin-17 and interleukin-1beta; fatty acid synthase, acetyl-Coenzyme A carboxylase-α  and HMGCoA reductase. Results: Our results demonstrated that GA ameliorated the elevated lipid, serum liver function enzymes, bilirubin and the decreased L.glycogen levels and serum protein profile. GA improved the hepatic and adipose antioxidants activities by decreasing MDA and increasing GST, SOD, Cat, GSH and GPx activities. GA ameliorated the elevated Glu, INS, HOMA-IR, LEP and the decreased adiponectin levels. Moreover, GA ameliorated the elevated TNF-α, IL-17, IL-1β, FAS, ACC-α and HMGCR levels. Liver and adipose histopathologies confirmed our results.

Conclusion: Gallic acid intake exhibited a beneficial therapeutic effect on nonalcoholic fatty liver disease rats as anti-inflammatory and antioxidant agent.

Open Access Original Research Article

A Study on Nutritional Profile of Liver from Captured and Cultured Rohu, Labeo rohita (Cypriniformes: Cyprinidae)

Onkar Singh Brraich, Navpreet Kaur, Swarndeep Singh Hundal

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 398-408
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i44B32690

Fish production and fish processing waste have straight connection.  In India, the waste produced during the processing of fish is predicted to be approximate 3.6 million metric tonnes, 48 per cent of the total body weight of Indian and exotic major carps is thrown away as waste (non-edible ). The present research, it was conducted to compare the total lipid content (TLC) and fatty acid composition from the liver of captured and cultured fish, Labeo rohita  (Hamilton) having weight more than 500 gram during different months as well as to evaluate its nutritional quality. Maximum total lipid content (33.33±0.14%) was found in the liver of cultured fish in May month, while the minimum (15.26±0.24%) was in the liver of captured fish in the month of January. During the study, total lipid content was found to be considerably elevated in cultured than captured Fish, Labeo rohita  (Hamilton). The amount of three major groups of fatty acids namely polyunsaturated fatty acids, monounsaturated fatty acids and saturated fatty acids was found to be maximum in captured fish during the month of March 97.19±0.96%, 61.30±0.56% and 95.39±0.31% month of April respectively. Total n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids were observed to be highest (21.95±8.05%) in the waste of liver in cultured fish during the month of March. Hence, it is concluded that the processing waste (liver) of the captured and cultured, Labeo rohita (Hamilton) is a prosperous resource of the essential fatty acids i.e.  PUFAs and total lipids. Further, it is observed that captured species are rich in fatty acid composition as compared to cultured species. Food industries can manufacture by-products from these high nutritional value contents of   waste for human utilization. EPA and DHA also reduce the risk of various life threatening diseases.

Open Access Original Research Article

Antimicrobial Susceptibility Pattern and Molecular Identification of Acinetobacter baumannii in Alex Ekwueme-Federal University Teaching Hospital Abakaliki, Nigeria

Ikechukwu Herbert Egwu, Ifeanyichukwu Romanus Iroha, Modesta Mmaduabuchi Egwu-Ikechukwu, Ikemesit Udeme Peter, Charity Chinyere Nnabugwu, Chioma Margaret Ali, Elom Emeka Elom, Lillian Ngozika Ogene, Christiana Inuaesiet Edemekong, Ismaila Danjuma Mohammed

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 409-419
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i44B32691

Background and Objectives: Acinetobacter baumannii, a notorious opportunistic pathogen known to seriously affect debilitated individuals especially intensive care unit (ICU) patients and others with underlying illness, have consistently jeopardized many antibiotics. This study was therefore aimed to ascertain the antimicrobial susceptibility profile and molecularly identify A. baumannii pathogens in Alex Ekwueme-Federal University Teaching Hospital, Abakaliki, Nigeria.

Methodology: A total of 385 clinical samples were collected aseptically from debilitated patients and analyzed following standard microbiological procedures. Acinetobacter species was confirmed by Gram staining reaction and biochemical tests. All bacterial isolates were phenotypically screened for multidrug resistance using the Kirby–Bauer disc diffusion technique and results interpreted as per CLSI criteria. A. baumannii isolates were finally confirmed using 16S rRNA sequencing.

Results: A total of 23(6%) A. baumannii isolates were recovered from 385 clinical samples collected from 87 patients comprising 48 males and 39 females admitted in various hospital wards of AE-FETHA. The age of the patients varied from 20–79 years. The commonest sites for isolation of A. baumannii pathogen were catheter urine (8/8%) and wound sores (7/8%). The highest percentage resistance was observed with cefuroxime (96%), tetracycline (96%), sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim (96 %), and ofloxacin (91%) while meropenem (91%) and imipenem (78%) were the most effective antibiotics against A. baumannii. The isolated A. baumannii was re-confirmed genotypically by 16S rRNA gene amplification. Variations were observed in the gene sequence of all the isolated A. baumannii. 

Conclusion: Catheter urine, wound sores, and respiratory fluids were the more easily colonized samples. Also, high frequency of multidrug resistance observed in this study further established A. baumannii as a notorious opportunistic pathogen.

Open Access Original Research Article

Stigma Related to COVID-19 Positive Patients in Jeddah – Kingdom of Saudi Arabia during 2020 Pandemic

Ali Alawi Milibary, Najlaa Ahmed Mandoura

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 433-441
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i44B32695

Background: COVID-19 has contributed to the development of stigma in the community of Jeddah, thus causing negative attitudes and beliefs toward individuals linked to the disease.

Objective: To describe stigma related to COVID-19 positive patients and find out factors associated with stigma subscales.

Subjects and Methods: Analytical cross-sectional study conducted on COVID-19 positive patients (lab confirmed) in Jeddah. The sample size was 420 patients, and the data was collected using a validated questionnaire adapted from HIV/AIDS stigma instrument (HASI-P). The data were analysed using the statistical package for the social sciences (SPSS, version 27.0).

Results: Total number of responses was (419). The median age was 32 (IQR, 25-43). Both genders, Saudi and non-Saudi, were included. The tool used to measure the COVID-19 related stigma of different six subscales. The verbal abuse had a median of (0, IQR=0-0.25), negative self-perception (median=0, IQR=0.02), health care neglect (median=0, IQR=0-0), social isolation (median=0.2, IQR=0-0.6), fear of contagion (median=0.33, IQR=0-0.83) and workplace stigma (median=0, IQR=0-0). Male gender was significantly associated with social isolation and fear of contagion, while working in the health care field was associated with workplace-related stigma. 

Conclusion: COVID-19-related social stigma was reported by a considerable number of Jeddah healthcare providers, specifically workplace-related stigma. Unexpectedly, males need more attention as regard to social isolation and fear of contagion. The results of this study can be of used to guide supportive social interventions to suppress the COVID-19 related stigma.

Open Access Original Research Article

Preparation and Evaluation of Captopril Oral Floating Controlled Release Formulations

Ramakrishna Vydana, Chandra Sekhar Kothapalli Bonnoth, Vidyadhara Suryadevara, Sandeep Doppalapudi

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 442-452
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i44B32696

Aim: Dosing frequency is a major hurdle in geriatrics with frequent drug administration. In such cases, oral controlled release floating formulations are helpful which causes reduction in dosing frequency and fluctuation of drug levels in plasma. The main aim of the current research was to prepare Captopril floating controlled release formulations in order to achieve extended gastric retention in the upper GIT.

Methodology: Captopril tablets were prepared using different concentrations of poly ethylene oxide water soluble resin (PEO WSR) 303 (5% to 30%) by direct compression technique. Captopril formulations CSP1 and CSP6 were formulated using PEO WSR 303. Pre and post compression parameters were evaluated. Dissolution studies were performed for the prepared tablets using 0.1N hydrochloric acid as dissolution medium.

Results: The dissolution studies showed controlled drug release up to 12h. The formulation CSP5 prepared using 25% w/w of PEO WSR 303 showed maximum drug release of 97.97% at 12h. Almost similar drug release profile was also observed for CSP6 which was prepared using 30%w/w PEO WSR 303. These two formulations were further added with various concentrations of sodium bicarbonate (5% to 15%) and citric acid (2.5% to 10%) which enhanced floating of drug in Gastro intestinal tract (GIT). Formulation CSP8 containing 10% of sodium bicarbonate with 25% PEO WSR 303 showed less buoyancy lag time and prolonged drug release. Formulation CSP15 showed very less buoyancy lag time of 5sec. Characterization studies like Fourier Transform Infra Red spectroscopy (FTIR) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) were also carried out.

Conclusion: The prepared Captopril floating tablets could be an alternative formulation for prolonged drug release.

Open Access Original Research Article

Creating an Optimal Structure of the Diet to Increase the Productivity of Calves in Calves of Dairy Breeds

Viktar O. Lemiasheuski, Konstantin S. Ostrenko, Anastasia N. Ovcharova

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 474-484
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i44B32699

The diet of dairy bulls contains little high-quality protein. This primarily affects the main indicators of feed growth and conversion. Poor-quality protein in the diet leads to excessive formation of ammonia in the rumen. Increased concentrations of ammonia, does not participate in the synthesis of microbial protein and is excreted in the urine, which is an energy-consuming process and negatively affects the gains. Ammonia has a toxic effect, when an excessive amount of it enters the bloodstream, where it causes hyperamonymy, and creates an additional load on the liver.

Aims: The aim of the study is to create an optimal structure of the diet, in which the protein will be completely utilized by the rumen microbiota and animal protein will be reproduced on its basis to create the growth potential of fattening bulls. The development of this diet will allow creating a technology for fattening steers for meat that is economically profitable with a high proportion of healthy animals with high productivity.

Methodology: The studies were conducted on calves of the Kholmogorsky breed raised in the VNIIFBIP vivarium, aged from 1.5 months to 14 months. At the age of 1.5 months, the animals were intensively accustomed to the introduction of concentrates and coarse feeds. Feeding with a milk substitute was carried out up to the age of 70 days with free access to mixed feed and hay.

Results: During the study, the main factors responsible for the metabolic processes in bull calves were identified. The factors of digestibility in the rumen were studied. Physiological and biochemical parameters were established to assess the reduction of the risks of hyperammonemia. The use of concentrated feed against the background of strict proportional administration together with coarse feed with intensive cultivation and fattening of dairy bulls and the normal course of enzymatic processes in the rumen and throughout the body allows you to achieve an average daily increase of up to 1420 g by 14 months of age and reduce feed conversion.

Conclusion: The results obtained make it possible to increase the productivity of fattening steers in regions with a large number of dairy cattle and the availability of concentrated feed.

Open Access Original Research Article

Separation and Determination of Process Related Impurities in Palbociclib: A Rp-hplc Study

D. Srikanth, S. Ganapaty, P. Manik Reddy, G. Sowjanya, K. Sunitha

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 485-499
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i44B32700

Aims: A new gradient RP-HPLC method was developed for the separation and determination of process related impurities in Palbociclib.

Methodology: The chromatographic separation was achieved on a Inert sustain swift (C18) column using a mobile phase comprising of perchloric acid and acetonitrile in a gradient mode at a flow rate of 1 mL/min. over a runtime of 50 minutes. All the eluants were monitored at 230 nm. The optimized method was validated as per ICH guidelines for various parameters.

Results: The linearity of the method was proposed in the range of LOQ to 250 % for the drug and its impurities by subjecting the data obtained to statistical analysis using correlation coefficient model (r > 0.99). The method also gave acceptable recovery of all the four impurities at each level and was found to be accurate. The % RSD obtained in the method precision and intermediate precision were less than 2% depicting the precision of the method. The LOD and LOQ values were calculated based on the signal to noise ratio and are indicating the sensitivity of the method. The specificity of the method was checked in the presence of process related impurities and also degradants generated by exposing to a variety of forced degradation conditions.

Conclusion: The proposed RP-HPLC method for the determination of process related impurities of Palbociclib could be routinely used in the quality control testing.

Open Access Original Research Article

Radiographic Proximal Caries Detection and Multiple Intelligences

Emad A. Khan

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 500-503
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i44B32701

Introduction: The accuracy of radiographic caries detection is a multifactorial diagnostic task. One the important factors are the Inter-observer variability. One of the suggested procedures to estimate the variations is the Multiple Intelligence (MI) theory of Howard Gardner.

Aim: The current research aims to study the relation among radiographic proximal caries detection accuracy and MI for dental undergraduate and new graduates (trainees)

Patients and Methods: Twenty dental students who have just terminated caries detection training and 19 interns were employed. The sample composed of seventeen men and twenty two women. Caries detection precision was estimated as the region under Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve (Az) scores, and MI scores were estimated by sing a modified, bilingual MIS self-recorded questionnaire. MS Excel software was applied to calculate means, percentages and correlation.

Results: There was little and mild positive correlation among Az and Spatial/Visual (0.29) and Intrapersonal (0.31) domains of MI respectively. The current correlation was mild for students (0.38) and (0.40), and it was lowered for interns (0.28) and (0.26) respectively.

Conclusions: There is positive weak relationship between Az and the domains of Spatial/Visual and Intrapersonal of MI. This relationship might be diminished by education and training.

Open Access Original Research Article

Serum Testosterone Level in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

Mubeena Laghari, Shazia Murtaza, Zuha Talpur, Khalil Ahmed Memon, Aneela Tehzeen, Mohsina Hamid

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 517-522
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i44B32703

Aim: To determine the serum testosterone levels in the type 2 diabetes mellitus and its correlation with biochemical parameters of glycemic and lipid metabolism.

Methodology: A cross sectional study was conducted at Department of Biochemistry and Department of Medicine, A cross sectional study was conducted at the Department of Biochemistry, Diabetic outpatient department and Department of Medicine, Liaquat University Hospital. Male type 2 diabetics (n=100) and age matched male (n=100) were included as cases and control for study purpose. Diagnosed cases of type 2 DM, male gender and 40 – 60 years of age were included in the study protocol. Physical examination of male type 2 diabetics was performed by a consultant physician. Sera were separated from blood and stored in refrigerators at – 200C. Blood glucose, A1C, and blood lipids (cholesterol, triglycerides, LDLc and HDLc) were detected by standard laboratory methods. Serum testosterone was measured by ELISA (competitive immuno- assay) assay commercial kit. Data was entered in Statistical software SPSS 21.0 version (IBM, Incorp, USA) for statistical analysis (P≤0.05).

Results: Mean±SD age of male type 2 diabetics was 53.2 ± 11.1 years compared to 54.5±10.4 years in control (P=0.056). Serum Testosterone in cases was 10.85±4.7 mmol/L compared to 13.39±3.8mmol/L in control (P=0.0001). Low testosterone level was noted in 46% male.Serum Testosterone shows inverse correlation with RBG (r= -0.31, P=0.003), A1C (r= -0.23, P=0.014), Cholesterol (r= -0.24, P=0.014), TAGs (r= --0.78, P=0.0001) and HDLc(r= -0.70, P=0.0001). Serum testosterone proved positively correlated with LDLc(r= 0.670, P=0.0001).

Conclusion: The present study finds low serum testosterone in male type 2 diabetes mellitus patients

Open Access Original Research Article

A Cross Sectional Study of Association of HLA typing with Haemoglobin Level in Sickle Cell Anaemia

Raed Alserihi, Saeed Kabrah, Hadeel Al Sadoun

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 523-531
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i44B32704

Background: Sickle-cell Disease (SCD) is the most common blood cell disorder affecting millions of people. In severe cases, regular blood transfusion is an essential practice to relieve clinical symptoms. However, since regular blood transfusion can lead to alloimmunization to foreign human leukocyte antigens (HLA), this may result in severe anemia due to red blood cell destruction. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the association between the hemoglobin level and the presence of HLA genotypes among Sickle Cell Anemia patients. 

Methodology: A total of 64 SCD patients and 21 healthy donors seen at King Abdulaziz hospital between November 2019 and February 2021 were recruited for this study. Demographic data including ABO/Rhesus blood groups, hemoglobin concentration, were among the clinical information obtained. HLA genotyping was performed using Polymerase Chain Reaction-Sequence Specific Oligonucleotide (PCR-SSO). The data were cleaned using the Microsoft Excel and analysed using the statistical packages for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 24.

Results: The incidence of SCD is not strictly gender-related because of its transmission as an autosomal recessive disorder. Sixty-four individuals (33 females; 31 males) having SCD were analyzed. O blood group recorded the highest prevalence compared to other ABO blood groups in SCD patients. After analysing allelic association, HLA-A*02 was more frequent in SCD patients compared to control. After further allelic combination analysis of patients and compared with the control group, HLA-DQB1*02 was majorly involved in overexpression and decreasing hemoglobin level and significantly different among control and experimental groups.

Conclusion: Rhesus-positive blood types were more associated with the SCA. HLA- type II alleles could influence the clinical course of sickle cell disease and HLA-DQB1*02 was significantly different among SCD group and control individuals, which signifies the concept that the allele was overexpressed among patients resulting in low Hb level.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effects of Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation (PNF) Techniques on Bed Mobility, Transfer and Early Trunk Control in Acute Stroke Patients

Binash Afzal, Tehreem Mukhtar, Ghazal Awais Butt, Asifa Bashir, Sadiaa Manzoor, Syed Naeem Abbas

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 540-545
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i44B32706

Aims: The aim of this study was to observe the effects of Proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) Techniques to improve bed mobility, transfer and early trunk control in Stroke patients.

Study Design: Assessor blinded Randomized Control Trail.

Place and Duration of the Study: Physiotherapy department of Shalamar hospital Lahore, Pakistan from March 2019 to September 2020.

Methodology: A total of 50 acute stroke patients with severity level NIHSS>21 were recruited and randomly allocated into 2 groups (males: 29, females: 21; age range: 50 to 65) after obtaining written informed consent. Patients were assessed at baseline 0 week and after 6 week of post treatment on Trunk impairment scale (TIS) and ICU mobility scale.

Results: It showed that PNF base trunk control exercises exhibited significant improvement in Trunk impairment scale(TIS) in Group A as compared with Group B at post-test, 18.44±3.176 vs 16.12±2.35 (p=0.004) respectively. ICU Mobility scale significantly improves at post-test in Group A as compared to Group B, 7.52 ±2.583 vs 5.84±1.434 (p=0.007) respectively.

Conclusion: This study concluded that PNF based trunk exercise showed more improvement in Group A (Trunk stability exercises using PNF techniques) when compared with conventional training.

Open Access Review Article

Human Serum Albumin: A Novel Drug Delivery Carrier System

Snehal Patel, Chintan Aundhia, Avinash Seth, Nirmal Shah, Dipti Gohil, Kartik Pandya

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 18-24
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i44B32648

Serum albumin, often referred to simply as albumin, is a globular protein that in humans is encoded by the ALB gene. Albumin is a multifaceted, highly soluble, stable, nontoxic, non-poisonous, biocompatible and biodegradable plasma protein. Albumin has been widely studied as a protein carrier for drug delivery. Because of its versatile nature, it can also be used for the delivery of the hormones, metals and fatty acids by binding to its specific binding sites. Various studies revealed that albumin can be used to increase the circulating half-life and bioavailability of drug molecules which are smaller than the renal filtration threshold and are rapidly lost from the circulation leading to limiting therapeutic potential. This review article presents advantages, disadvantages, functions, importance, different nanoparticles that can be crowned with an albumin and the special features of albumin as a drug carrier, and how the understanding of these features is currently being employed to optimize the circulatory half-life albumin.

Open Access Review Article

Review on Health Impact of Fast Food on Younger Children

Vrushali Dighikar, Seema Singh

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 172-177
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i44B32662

“Fast food is a food which is speedily available as well as provides, frequently at eating places as well as seasonally related with not so much cost and nutritional things like hamburgers, French fries, and soda.” The teenagers of today will be the future of tomorrow; therefore, concentrating on today's adolescents and educating them on how to modify their behaviours toward healthy eating patterns is critical. The dietary issue is one of the most serious health issues confronting millions of children of all ages. There are lots of effects of fast food on the health of adolescents. Because of peer pressure, shortage of time, attractive packages and tastes they become closer to take fast food. Fast foods are at large quantity obtain in educational institutions through various stores. Canteens are available in educational institutions to offer soda water, soft drink, cracks and lots of other foods of less nutritious rate(value). There are many ill impacts and effects of fast food and persons are not aware of its dangerous effects. It can cause many harmful disorders. Prolonged use of fast food is the reason for medical issues, chubbiness means obesity, GI Tract problem and increased fat. Excessive intake of fast foods may reduce appetite and eliminate the chance for nutrients in foods. These quick meals are rich in fat, salt, and sugar, and they are the root cause of chronic illnesses such as obesity, diabetes, and cancer in later years of life. This review focuses on what is fast food and its effect on adolescents and the evidence of its effects on mortality, morbidity and quality of life.

Open Access Review Article

Review on Pharmacological Activity of Dioscorea floribunda

Atul Shankarrao Bhujbal, Shrikrishna Baokar, Kavita Mane, Gauri Patil, Rajendra Patil, Prabhat Jain, Adityanath Pandey

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 191-198
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i44B32665

The medicinal herb Dioscorea floribunda (Linn.) is very significant. Varahikanda's medicinal properties are quite important. It is used to treat various diseases in Ayurvedic literature. Here is a summary of studies on the antiquity and ayurvedic qualities of varahikanda, i.e. Dioscorea floribunda. Varahikanda has a variety of pharmacological characteristics, according to the research. Jeevaneeya, Rasayana, Balya, Krumighna, Pramehaghna, Kushtaghna, Vrushya, Nadivrun, Visarpa, Udarshool, Raktapitta are all Ayurvedic terms. It has antimicrobial action, wound healing activity, antihyperglycemic activity, dyslipidemic activity, anticancer activity, immunomodulatory activity, antioxidant activity, antiinflammatory and analgesic activity, antihelmintic activity, and aphrodisiac activity, according to contemporary research.

Open Access Review Article

Myth and Truth about COVID-19 and Vaccination

Kunal Agrawal, Prakash Kute, Ashish Anjankar, Roshan Kumar Jha

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 242-252
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i44B32673

SARS-CoV-2, also known as COVID-19, is a novel coronavirus that has spread from Wuhan, China to every continent except Antarctica. On March 11, 2020, the World Health Organization (WHO) changed the situation's classification from a public health emergency of international concern to a pandemic. To date (17 April 2021), the novel coronavirus — officially known as "severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2," or SARS-CoV-2 for short — has caused over 140 Million infections and approximately 3 Million deaths around the world. In INDIA, the virus has infected nearly 14.3 Million people, with nearly 1,74,000 of them dying. (April 17, 2021) We have conducted a literature search around pub Med, Medline, Scopus, WHO, and web of science to distinguish the effect of myth vs. truth about COVID 19.

Present study concludes Citizens' consciousness and the avoidance of misconceptions play a critical role in managing the pandemic, and as a result of this awareness, India's fatality rate is at 3.3 percent, with a recovery rate of 12.02 percent, according to the Health Ministry of India.

The extraordinary effort to attain widespread vaccination coverage has been greeted with an assault of incorrect and misleading information. Misinformation has the potential to harm vaccination uptake. Debunking misleading claims is a prominent way of combating vaccination misinformation. As a result, dealing with COVID-19 vaccination disinformation involves proactive measures to “immunise the public against misinformation.”

Open Access Review Article

Optimizing Opioid Abuse Prevention Strategies: Role of Pharmacist in Safe Dispensing

M. Anusree, Pravina Mohan, P. Reshma, Zuhara Mariyam

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 259-267
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i44B32675

Misuse, violence, and distribution of opioids are also a public health concern. Pharmacists are at the forefront of the health-care response to the opioid epidemic because they have more opportunities to engage with patients than primary care or specialist medical practitioners. Because of these situations, pharmacists have more chances to provide proper prevention advice and reinforce proper opioid drug usage. Understanding dosage restrictions, learning how to use prescription drug monitoring programmes, knowing when drug take-back programmes are taking place, and advising consumers about the dangers of substance addiction are both techniques that pharmacists should be informed about. Recognising "red flag" actions that may suggest opioid abuse; using tests to determine a patient's risk of opioid abuse; collaborating with other health-care providers to plan a patient's treatment; knowing how abuse-deterrent antidepressants function and what they can't do. Pharmacists can help mitigate substance misuse and improve patient outcomes by implementing these techniques. All patients who require legitimate and effective pain management through the use of opioids must have access to them. While further study is needed in a variety of areas, pharmacists may make efforts today to follow proposed recommendations, rules, and legislation to reduce drug misuse and diversion of restricted drugs.

Open Access Review Article

Knowledge Management System in Pharmaceutical Healthcare Sector: A Conceptual Research

Tsekhmister Yaroslav Volodymyrovych, Goncharuk Nataliya Petrivna, Datsiuk Nataliia Olehivna, Tsekhmister Bogdan Yaroslavovych, Lysenko Oleksandra Yuriyivna

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 290-297
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i44B32679

Aim: Pharmaceutical healthcare is a process comprising knowledge-intensive tasks. Therefore the tools used in the management of knowledge are gaining more attention. This paper aims to investigate knowledge management systems, their implementation, tools used for decision making.

Method: We have used three databases to research the knowledge management system in the pharmaceutical healthcare sector. PubMed, Google Scholar and journal websites were used for the search of the required key terms.

Result: After analyzing the data, it was found that the effective utilization of knowledge management systems in the pharmaceutical health care sector has increased the quality of care. There are many opportunities; some create new advances in health care, and some even create barriers. All these help in clinical decision support.

Conclusion: Right decision at the right time is made by evidence-based decisions in the healthcare sector. A knowledge management system is paramount in the pharmaceutical healthcare sector. Implementation of appropriate tools will significantly enhance the quality of care.

Open Access Review Article

Prevalence, Co-morbidities and Management of Psoriasis in Saudi Arabia: A Review

Afaf Enad Alenazy, Asmaa Enad S. Alenazy, Maali Salamah N. Alanazi, Manal Nashi Alshammari

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 321-327
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i44B32682

Background: Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory skin illness with an autoimmune pathogenic mannerisms and genetic tendency. It is regarded as erythematous plaques sheltered with silvery scales predominantly over the extensor exteriors, scalp, and lumbosacral region. The prevalence in Saudi Arabia was projected to be 5.3% (53% of psoriasis patients develop it before 30 years of age.

Aim: The main objective of this study is to summarize the current evidence regarding prevalence, types, risk factors, associated comorbidities and management of psoriasis in Saudi Arabia.

Methods: This is a systematic review was carried out, including PubMed, Google Scholar, and EBSCO that examining previous studies regarding psoriasis in KSA. Authors extracted the data, and then the author's names, year and region of publication, the study type, period of study, and the result were reported.                                                                                    

Results: The review included 7 studies that illustrate prevalence, types, risk factors, associated comorbidities and management of psoriasis in Saudi Arabia.            

Conclusion: The incidence of psoriasis in Saudi Arabia is within previously reported figures worldwide. Family history seems to have a strong association with the occurrence of psoriasis. CVD and psychological disorders seem to be prevalent Saudi psoriatic patients. Topical medications are widely used and effective in psoriasis management in Saudi Arabia.

Open Access Review Article

COVID-19 Pandemic: A Consequential Global Hazard to Public Mental Health

Pravina Mohan, M. Anusree, B. Nikitha

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 420-427
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i44B32693

Background: The outbreak of COVID-19 infection in humans first reported in Wuhan (China) which has spread around the world and having a significant impact on global health and mental health. It has caused widespread psychosocial and behavioural changes as a result of mass hysteria, economic burden, and financial losses, in addition to its high infectivity and the increased mortality rates.

Method: Published articles regarding to mental health related to the COVID-19 outbreak and other previous global infections have been considered and reviewed.

Comments: The pervasive fear of COVID-19, named as "coronaphobia," has resulted with a slew of psychiatric manifestations in people from all walks of life.  It has affected people from all the point of life, resulting in a variety of psychiatric issues such as anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), fear and uncertainty, panic attacks, depression, obsessive compulsive disorder, xenophobia, and racism. Collective concerns have an impact on daily behaviours, the economy, prevention strategies, and decision-making by policymakers, health organisations, and medical centres, which can weaken COVID-19 control strategies and lead to increased morbidity and mental health needs on a global level.

Open Access Review Article

Convalescent Plasma Therapy in COVID 19 an Indian Scenario: Comprehensive Review

Shruti Vimal, Pratiksha Naval, Manoj Sawadker, Pallavi Bhomia, Neha Jadhav, Shraddha Yadav, Madhura Bhosale, Arpana Dharwadker, Vidya Viswanathan

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 453-465
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i44B32697

The recent pandemic due to Corona virus more popularly known as COVID 19 has reassessed the usefulness of historic convalescent plasma transfusion. (CPT) The CPT is one of the promising therapies in the current pandemic situation. This review was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of CPT therapy in COVID 19 patients based on the publications reported till date. PubMed, EMBASE and Medline databases were screened up to 30 April 2021. All the records were screened as per the protocol eligibility criteria. 

The main features of the studies reviewed were, convalescent plasma can reduce mortality in severely ill patients, an increase in neutralizing antibodies titre and disappearance of SARS CoV 2 RNA was observed in all the patients on CPT therapy and over all a beneficial effect on clinical symptoms after administration of CP. 

Based on the review findings and the limited scientific data, CPT therapy in COVID 19 patients appear safe, clinically effective and reduces mortality. However, the need of a multicentre clinical trials, unequivocal proof of efficacy, effectiveness and the need for the standardisation of the CPT needs to be addressed immediately for the full utilisation of potential of CPT.

Open Access Review Article

A Pharmacological Review of Siddha Classical Preparations for the Management of COVID-19 at TPEC COVID Care Centre, Vellore

S. Thillaivanan, K. Samraj, S. Susikannamma, P. Parthiban

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 504-516
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i44B32702

Despite the threat of coronavirus infection, the Siddha system of medicine, India's traditional medicine, plays an important role in southern India, particularly in Tamilnadu. It contributed considerably not only in the first wave of Covid-19, but also in the second wave. The Government of Tamilnadu developed Siddha COVID-19 treatment centers for asymptomatic, mild, and moderate COVID-19 positive patients in 2020. The TPEC COVID Care Centre initiated at Vellore also one of the Centers that can be managed by Siddha medicines and Siddhar’s Yogam. As of July 14, 2021, about 4525 COVID positive patients had been treated with Siddha integrated treatment at Vellore alone in the first and second waves. Kaba Sura Kudineer, Thalisathy Vadagam, Amukkara Chooranam Mathirai, Bramanandha Bairavam Mathirai, and Adathodai Manapagu are indeed the five Siddha classical preparations used to manage the symptoms of COVID-19 positive patients at TPEC COVID Care Centre in Vellore. This Siddha medical practice is effective in conditions of symptoms and helps in the reduction of clinical outcomes. A pilot study at the same site confirmed the Siddha classical preparation's safety and effectiveness. A feedback analysis study performed at the same center also revealed that the above-mentioned Siddha classical preparations are beneficial in symptomatic treatment without causing any side effects. The medicines utilized in this study are typically proposed in other COVID care centers also in Tamilnadu. This review attempted to analyze the preclinical and clinical efficacy of Siddha Classical medicines used at that Centre for the management of COVID-19.