Open Access Systematic Review Article

Geographical Diversity in Prevalence and Associated Factors of Anaemia among Adolescents of India-A Systematic Review

Manisha Gore, Ansuman Swain, Deepak Khismatrao, Abhay Saraf

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 75-84
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i43A32466

Background: Anaemia is a global public health issue in India with anaemia prevalence of 56% among adolescent girls. While it affects all age groups, pregnant women and children are reported to be at risk. The study aims to understand the underlying factors of anaemia among adolescents.

Methods: The systematic review has included all studies from the time period, 2000 to 2020 which had anaemia prevalence among adolescent girls (10 to 19 years of age). Scopus and Web of Science databases were used to browse relevant articles within April-June, 2020. Study design, sample size, anaemia prevalence, and the method of Haemoglobin estimation, were some of the information recorded.

Results: A total of 88 articles were selected, out of which 20 were retained as per the inclusion criteria. Study from the east zone reported an anaemia prevalence of 36.4% and a significant association between serum ferreting levels and the severity of anaemia. The anaemia prevalence of different studies from the north, west and south zones ranged from 50-70%, 80-90%, and 30-79% respectively. Socio economic status, education of parents, prevalence of vitamin B12 deficiency was some of the important factors contributing to the prevalence were highlighted.

Conclusion: Anaemia prevails across and within the different zones, it is not comparable. However, strengthening of the existing level of effort is necessary to address the issue of anaemia among adolescents in India.  

Open Access Systematic Review Article

Association between Chronotype and Type 2 Diabetes: A Literature Review

Samir Barve, Sonopant Joshi, Abhay Saraf

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 165-172
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i43A32475

Chronotype is an individual attribute of a person regarding circadian rhythm. Past literature denotes that the evening chronotype individuals are more prone to obesity, sleep problems, unhealthy diet and lifestyles. This review investigates original research studies on association between chronotype and diabetes. Total 28 articles were reviewed which were published in four research databases. Evening or later chronotype was associated with diabetes and poor glycemic control. Dietary practices like breakfast skipping, percentage of calories consumed at night to total daily calories were found to partially mediate the association. There is need to study how several risk factors of diabetes and the circadian disruptors influence this association. The abstracts of the shortlisted articles were further studied and relevant articles were shortlisted. Finally, total 28 articles were selected for the review. Articles published in English language only were included. The decision to include or exclude a study; was taken by agreement of all authors.

Open Access Case Study

Case Report on Cerebral Palsy- with Ayurvedic Treatment Protocol

Sudhir Kumar Pani, B. B. Khuntia, Sudarshan Behera

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 47-50
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i43A32463

Cerebral palsy is a non-progressive disorder, which arising in early stages of development of child. There are many etiology factors like antenatal, natal and postnatal factors responsible for causing cerebral palsy but exact cause is still unknown. Spasticity is the main feature of cerebral palsy(). Classification of CP is too broad on the basis of physiological and topographic etc. Symptoms of spastic cerebral palsy can be corelated with Jadhata in Ayurveda. In Jadata, there is tightness of muscles occurs. Improvement can be got in children with ayurvedic treatment. Aim- To improve the quality of life of child suffered from spastic CP. Place and duration of study- Study was done in Parul Ayurved Hospital, Vadodara, Gujarat. Method- In this case study, Samavardhan ghrita() orally, snehana() with bala taila() and svedan () with dashmmola kwath () was given to child for 31 days. Results- mild improvement in spasticity and achievement of milestones have observed. Patient got discharged from IPD of hospital due to COVID 19 pandemic. Conclusion- Hence, through Ayurveda treatment, improvement in symptoms of spastic cerebral palsy can achieve and quality of life of child can increase spontaneously.

Open Access Case Study

Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm- A Case Report

Mayur B. Wanjari, Deeplata Mendhe, Pratibha Wankhede

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 265-269
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i43A32486

Introduction: Abdominal aortic aneurysms more commonly affect men than women and are estimated to affect 4% to 8% of men older than age 60 years. Mortality because of a ruptured AAA is high, but elective repair is an effective and relatively safe intervention.

Case Presentation: A 69-year-old male patient comes to the outpatient department with a complaint of abdominal pain from 2-3 months back.

Interventions- The treatment of patients was started immediately after admission. The surgical repair of Aortic Stent Placement for Pseudoaneurysm was done under general anesthesia on date 12 June 2021.

Conclusion: In this report, we mainly focus on expert surgical management and excellent nursing care helped in managing the complicated case very nicely. The patient response was positive to conservative and nursing management. The patient was discharged without postoperative complications and satisfactory with recovery.

Open Access Case Study

Pemphigus Vulgaris- A Case Report

Mayur B. Wanjari, Deeplata Mendhe, Pratibha Wankhede, Sagar Alwadkar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 324-328
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i43A32493

Introduction: Pemphigus is a rare and life-threatening autoimmune disease characterized by blisters and erosion of the skin and mucous membranes throughout the entire body. It mostly affects the mouth, eye, nose, throat as well as genitals. Pemphigus vulgaris is most common type of pemphigus. The epithelial lesions are caused by autoantibodies reacting with desmosomal glycoproteins found on the keratinocyte's cell surface. The binding of immunoglobulin G autoantibodies to desmoglein 3, a transmembrane glycoprotein adhesion molecule found on desmosomes, is the underlying process that causes intraepithelial lesions.

Case Presentation: A 40-year-old male patient came to the hospital with a complaint of a mouth ulcer and a genital lesion that had been since 15 years. He is having a history of oral ulcer in oral mucosa and involvement of genital area in glans penis with a history of pain, bleeding, difficulty in swallowing.  

Intervention: The patient was admitted to the hospital on 29/07/2021 and taken Inj. Rituximab 1gm in 500Ml Normal Saline in infusion pumps in over 6 Hours.

Conclusion: In this case report, we mainly focus on expert dermatological management and excellent nursing care in managing the rare complicated case nicely. Early diagnosis and treatment of pemphigus Vulgaris help determine the course of the disease of the patient and is done by a dermatologist.

Open Access Data Article

A Rare Case of Wilson’s Disease in a 17 Years Old Girl

Vrushali Dighikar, Ranjana Sharma

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 232-237
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i43A32482

Introduction: Wilson’s disease (WD) is an autosomal recessive disorder involving cellular copper transport. A defect in biliary excretion leads to accumulation of copper in the liver, causing progressive liver injury and cirrhosis. Approximately 1 in 40,000 people have Wilson’s Disease. It affects both men and women equally. Symptoms appear between ages 5 and 35.     

Case Presentation: This is a case of 17 years old girl came with complained of dysphagia, irritability, breathlessness, weakness in both upper and lower limb at left side for 6 months. She had difficulty in going up and coming down a staircase and in getting up from the squatting position. She could walk with support for the first 6 months of his illness but later, had required crutches. After her admission diagnostic evaluation was done, and in the findings was chest x-ray was done which was normal. ECG showing normal sinus rate and rhythm. Ophthalmology call was done and slit lamp examination was noted which was showing KF ring was present bilaterally. MRI brain suggested symmetrical altered signal intensity lesion in bilateral thalami and lentiform nucleus, midbrain and pons appearing hyper intense on T2/FLAIR sequences in bilateral gangliocapsular region (mainly in putamen) and thalami as well as midbrain and dorsal aspect of pons as described above. A possibility of Wilson’s Disease can be considered, blood test show that Hb was decrease that is -9.7gm%, S.G.O.T was 34.0U/L, S.G.P.T was 32.0U/L, was normal at the time of discharge early ambulation, nutrition, psychological support was given.

Therapeutic interventions and outcome: In the present case received syndopa 110/4, BD, orally. Tablet Zinc, OD, orally. Tablet Pan D, OD, orally., inj. Dexamethasone 2 mg I.V, T.D.S., Syrup Sumax, 10ml, BD.  Now the patient condition is stable.

Conclusion: This presented case of Wilson’s Disease is a rare disease condition. It is an autosomal recessive disease.In this case study, author mainly focus on expert medical management and excellent nursing care which leads to fast recovery of patient. After conversation with patient her response was positive and after nursing management and treatment she was discharged with satisfaction of recovery.

Open Access Study Protocol

To Assess the Efficacy of Lactational Counseling for Prevention of Breast Engorgement

Pradnya Gavhale, Shalini Moon

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 8-14
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i43A32459

Background: Breast engorgement is a swollen, painful breast and overfilling with breast milk. In lactating mothers this condition is common during the puerperal period. Breast engorgement developed inside the breast due to expansion and pressure exerted by the synthesis and storage of breast milk. It is also a main factor in altering the ability of the infant to latch-on. Engorgement changes the shape and curvature of the nipple region by making the breast inflexible, flat, hard, and swollen. The nipples of an engorged breast are flat or inverted. Sometimes it may lead to striae on nipples, mainly a preceding symptom of mastitis.


1.To assess the effectiveness of lactational counseling on prevention of breast engorgement

 among postnatal mother.

2.To find out association between lactational counselling of breast engorgement with selected

 demographic variables.

Methodology: A study will be conducted in AVBR Hospital Sawangi Meghe, Wardha. The 40 post-natal mothers will be selected as the study sample according to the inclusion/exclusion criteria. Sample size will calculated by using formula. In this study non probability purposive sampling technique will be used. In this study researcher will provide lactational counselling among postnatal mother after delivery. In lactational counselling researcher provide counselling regarding the importance of breastfeeding, Local breastfeeding situation, how breastfeeding works, breastfeed technique, learning exercises, health care practices, clinical practice after providing lactational counselling after that researcher will assess the breast engorgement for 4 days after the delivery of baby according to breast engorgement assessment scale. Its conclusion will made from the outcome & analysis of the study.

Open Access Study Protocol

The Efficacy of Pelvic Floor Exercise for the Stress Urinary Incontinence

Pradnya Gavhale, Manjusha Mahakarkar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 85-89
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i43A32469

Background: Stress urinary incontinence is an involuntary leaking of urine during physical activity, such as coughing, sneezing, laughing, or exercise that increases abdominal pressure. Stress urinaryincontinence has a wide variety of impacts on women's daily.

Objectives: To assess the stress urinary incontinence among women before and after pelvic floor exercise, to assess the severity of stress urinary incontinence among women before and after pelvic floor exercise, to find out the association between stress urinary incontinence and severity with selected demographic variables.

Methodology: A study will be conducted in the rural community area of the Wardha district. A total of 30 women will be selected as the study sample by using the non-probability purposive sampling technique as per the inclusion/exclusion criteria. An interventional evaluatory approach and time-series design will be used. In this study, the researcher will assess the stress urinary incontinence with the help of a structured questionnaire and again assess the severity of stress urinary incontinence with a grading scale after that pelvic floor exercise will be given to that woman after 2 weeks again researcher will assess the stress urinary incontinence and severity of the stress urinary incontinence with the grading scale.

Outcome/results: The outcome will be the pelvic floor exercise or training (PFE) will minimize the incidence rate of stress urinary incontinence among women it also helps to increase the pelvic floor muscle strength.

Open Access Study Protocol

Effect of Oculus Guided Physical Therapy in Adjunct to Conventional Therapy in Frozen Shoulder Patients- A Research Protocol

Shrutika Wankhade, Pratik Phansopkar, Neha Chitale

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 218-223
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i43A32480

Background: Frozen shoulder is a musculoskeletal ailment that causes pain and limits the range of motion of the shoulder joint. Traditional therapy, which includes mobilization, has traditionally been utilized to treat and rehab frozen shoulder patients. But, nowadays, virtual reality is also playing important role in rehabilitation programs. This study focuses on effectiveness of oculus guided physical therapy in adjunct to conventional therapy in frozen shoulder patients.

Methods: 50 participants of age more than 40 years having frozen shoulder will be randomly selected and categorized in two groups: Group A (n=25) and Group B (n=25). The duration of study will be 6 months. The pre and post assessment form will be taken from both groups and data will be analysed with the help of outcome measures which includes Numerical Pain Rating Scale (NPRS), Range of motion, Shoulder Pain and Disability Index (SPADI).

Discussion: According to a previous study on maternal brachial plexus injury, virtual reality treatment is more successful than traditional physiotherapy in rehabilitating childrens upper extremity functions.

Open Access Study Protocol

Effectiveness of Demonstration Skill on Use of Nebulization Therapy among the Parents of Hospitalized Children

Hina Y. Rodge, Archana Maurya

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 293-298
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i43A32489

Background: Many studies were conducted on nebulization therapy with the aim to compare the effectiveness of medication but not many of research are conducted on demonstration skills one the use of nebulization therapy.

Aim of the Study: The aim of the study is to assess effectiveness of demonstration skill on use of nebulization therapy among the parents of hospitalized children.


  • To assess the existing demonstration skill on use of nebulization therapy among the parents of hospitalized children.
  • To assess the effectiveness of demonstration skill on use nebulization therapy among the parents of hospitalized children.
  • To associate the post-test demonstration skill score on use nebulization therapy among the parents of hospitalized children with selected demographic variables.

Methodology: An academic hospital based study will conduct in the Acharya Vinoba Bahave Rural Hospital in Sawangi (Meghe), Wardha, Maharashtra, India. This study will use an interventional approach with a one-group pre-test post-test design and non-probability convenience sampling to select 60 samples. The parents will be select based on criteria for inclusion and exclusion. The data will be collected using a demographic variables and self-Structured Observational Checklist on Nebulization therapy will use to collect the data. Pre-test demonstration skill was carried on day 1 and post-test conducted with same checklist on 7th day which will be filled out by the researcher while observing the parents while they provide nebulization therapy to their children.

Conclusion: Conclusion of this research will be drawn from statistical analysis of samples.

Open Access Study Protocol

A Comparative Analysis of Penetration and Adaptation of Two Types of Light Cure Pit and Fissure Sealants: An In-vitro Study

Garima Mukesh Sharma, Jayashree Rajesh Patil, Priyanka Paul Madhu, Kumar Gaurav Chhabra, Amit Reche

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 428-432
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i43A32508

Background: Pit and fissure sealants are well-known for their ability to prevent occlusal caries. Given the difficulties of maintaining complete isolation for longer periods of time when treating young patients, a streamlined sealant application process is needed. As a result, the goal of the present study is to compare the penetration and adaption of 2 types of light cure sealants.


  1. To evaluate the adaptation and penetration of Conseal f ‘pit and fissure sealant’.
  2. To evaluate the adaptation and penetration of PF seal SE ‘pit and fissure sealant’.
  3. To evaluate comparison of adaptation and penetration between two types of light cure sealants.

Methodology: This will be an in-vitro comparative study, which will consist of 2 categories - Group I (acid-etch fissure sealant, Conseal f) and Group II (self-etch fissure sealant, PF seal SE). A total of 20 extracted permanent teeth will then be classified into 2 groups of 10 teeth respectively and stereomicroscope will be used to compare the penetration and adaptation between two types of light cure pit and fissure sealants.

Expected Results: The study will evaluate the penetration and adaptation of two types of light cure sealants on the tooth surface which will provide the efficacy of the sealant.

Conclusion: The study will determine the sealing and penetration and adaption capacity of the sealant by the light cure method. And the sealants are beneficial and biocompatible in preventing, stopping the advancement of non-cavitated carious lesions. Additional study is needed to determine the relative advantages of the various categories of sealant material. In practice, the benefits of sealing should be examined locally, and practitioners should follow specific standards.

Open Access Study Protocol

Evaluation of Effectiveness of Chronic Care Model on Smokeless Tobacco Cessation by Measuring Urinary Cotinine Level among the Patient Attended in the Selected Dental College & Hospital, India -An Experimental Study

Sakshi Rao, Pooja Raut, Riya Agrawal, Kumar Gaurav Chhabra, Priyanka Paul Madhu, Amit Reche

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 438-443
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i43A32510

Background: Smokeless tobacco is one of the most common causes of preventable death. It is a big social and health issue. Smokeless tobacco utilization is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in India, with more than 20% of the world's tobacco-related mortality occurring in India. The Chronic Care Model is a guide for the principal care management of higher-quality chronic diseases. The Chronic Care Model gives a structure that redirects health care resources to better meet the demands and issues of individual with chronic illness.

Objectives: To explore the effectiveness of chronic care model for smokeless tobacco cessation in patients reporting to Sharad Pawar Dental College and Hospital.

Methodology: The study will be conducted among patients reporting to Out Patient Department of Sharad Pawar Dental College and Hospital who are chronic smokeless tobacco users. This study will be conducted between two groups, in one of the groups chronic Care Model will be used and behavioural counselling will be given and in other group only behavioural counselling will be given. Urinary cotinine level test will be performed on both groups of patients consuming smokeless tobacco.

Results: The chronic care model would be advantageous for the smokeless tobacco cessation. In India, there appears to be an immediate need for the promotion of awareness and informing people about the health problems associated with the use of smokeless tobacco through the model of chronic care.

Conclusion: The utilization of Chronic Care Model (CCM) helps patient realize that not only it is a habit to use smokeless tobacco, but a chronic condition that requires long-term treatment to cure it.

Open Access Study Protocol

A Survey on Knowledge Attitude and Practices among Dental Faculty towards Antimicrobial Stewardship Program in Maharashtra

Shivani Kalmegh, Saima Siddique, Priyanka Paul Madhu, Kumar Gaurav Chhabra, Amit Reche, Akanksha Kunghadkar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 444-451
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i43A32511

Background: Antibiotic resistance makes to the top ten threats to global health in 2019. It is important for dental faculty to make efforts to improve the quality of services provided; As a result the study of awareness of the dental faculty regarding antibiotic resistance and antibiotic stewardship program was undertaken.

Objectives: Assessment of the knowledge, attitude and practices of the dental faculty towards Antibiotic stewardship program through a questionnaire study in Maharashtra.

Methodology: The dental faculty in dental institutes located in Maharashtra will be the study participants. The questionnaire will be sent to all the faculty members as an online questionnaire survey.

Expected Results: Evaluating the need of Implementation of antimicrobial stewardship program in institutions which will reduce the profuse use of unnecessary antibiotic prescription and improve the appropriateness of the antibiotic use by the dental health faculty working in a dental college without compromising the clinical patient outcome.

Conclusion: The present study will assess the knowledge, attitude and practices of the dental faculty towards Antibiotic stewardship program.

Open Access Short Communication

Revisiting Role of HbA1c

Sanjyoti Panchbudhe, Shilpa Kumar, Suresh Babu Kondaveeti

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 318-323
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i43A32492

With the increasing use of HbA1c as a diagnostic marker, more values at the lower end of the reference range can be observed. As more emphasis has been on decreasing and controlling a rising value of glycated haemoglobin, it is currently uncertain how to interpret low HbA1c values. Various conditions not related to diabetes, but with a fairly common occurrence, influence HbA1c. Alternative indices may have to be used for assessing glycemic control in these cases. It is important that such influencing factors are looked into when evaluating an inappropriately or expectantly low HbA1c value. HbA1c is a biomarker that might have utility beyond just diabetes mellitus. Its role needs to be re-examined as it is a test which is widely available, less amenable to short term physiological variations, and can be easily studied. All that is required is a different perspective or approach to its utility.

Open Access Minireview Article

Methods of Diagnosis a Preferential Advantage in COVID-19: A Mini Review

Neha Saini, Prem Pandey, Mandar Shirolkar, Atul Kulkarni

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 173-179
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i43A32476

Humanity is going through never seen before health crisis due to the outbreak of novel coronavirus or Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2). There are 24.02 million cases and 0.82 million deaths worldwide as of 26th August 2020 due to deadly infection of COVID-19. The disease has been spreading exponentially (R-naught number: 3) and has challenged even the best healthcare infrastructure in the world. With the progression of the disease, the countries shifted the focus from cure to diagnosis and containment to flatten the curve. The review shows that the disease is spreading exponentially while the resources are still limited. We focus upon the probable vectors of the virus, different diagnostic methods with advantages & limitations, and the way forward. This review article covers the different diagnostic methods with more advantages, limitations, and the future sneak-peek into the forthcoming developments for the diagnostic processes such as RT-PCR (Reverse Transcription Polymerase chain reaction).

Open Access Original Research Article

Compression of Hamstring and Quadriceps Muscles Strength in Patients with Osteoarthritis of Knee and Normal individual

M. Shukla, L. Parmar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i43A32458

Objectives: 1. To assess the strength of hamstring and quadriceps in patients with knee OA with 1 RM.

  1. To compare the strength of hamstring and quadriceps with normal individuals.

Research Design: Observational study.

Introduction: Quadriceps and hamstring muscle weakness is commonly found in knee OA which may alter normal Quadriceps/Hamstrings ratio i.e. (2:1). So the purpose of the study was to check the strength of the quadriceps and hamstring muscle in OA knee patients and compare it with normal individual.

Method: 20 diagnosed knee OA patients and 21 normal individuals were recruited. Quadriceps and hamstring muscle strength was measured in both case and normal group by using 1 RM method. Q/H ratio was obtained from the muscle strength and both were compared between two groups by using T test.

Materials: Quadriceps table, Metal weight plate, Plinth, Sand bag.

Results & Discussion: Quadriceps and hamstring strength were reduced significantly (p=<0.001) in patients with knee OA compare to normal individual. There was negative co relation between pain and muscle strength seen. No alteration in Q/H ratio (Rt knee p=0.130; Lt knee p=0.722) between the case & control found because both the muscle strength reduced similarly.

Conclusion: Quadriceps and hamstring muscle strength is significantly reduced in OA knee.

Patients compare to normal individuals but no alteration in Q/H ratio seen in both groups.

Open Access Original Research Article

Pharmacy Impact for Distinguishing Normal Face from Abnormal Face Due to COVID- 19

Payal Bose, Shawni Dutta, Vishal Goyal, Samir K. Bandyopadhyay

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 15-23
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i43A32460

In today’s world face detection is the most important task. Due to the chromosomes disorder sometimes a human face suffers from different abnormalities. In the recent scenario, the entire globe is facing enormous health risks occurred due to Covid-19. To fight against this deadly disease, consumption of drugs is essential. Consumption of drugs may provide some abnormalities to human face. For example, one eye is bigger than the other, cliff face, different chin-length, variation of nose length, length or width of lips are different, etc. To assess these human face abnormalities, the application of computer vision is favoured in this study. This work analyses an input image of human’s frontal face and performs a segregation method to separate the abnormal faces. In this research work, a method has been proposed that can detect normal or abnormal faces from a frontal input image due to COVID-19. This method has used Fast Fourier Transformation (FFT) and Discrete Cosine Transformation of frequency domain and spatial domain analysis to detect those faces.

Open Access Original Research Article

Development and Evaluation of Floating Microspheres of Sumatriptan Succinate using Ethyl Cellulose and Mucilage Extracted from Vigna Mungo

Nilesh S. Kulkarni, Mukta A. Kulkarni, Rahul H. Khiste, Mohini C. Upadhye, Shashikant N. Dhole

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 24-36
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i43A32461

Aim: The present investigation is to formulate and evaluate gastroretentive floating microspheres for sumatriptan succinate. Gastric retention is widely used approach to retain dosage form in stomach and to enhance absorption of drugs.

Methods: The gastroretentive floating microspheres was prepared by two different techniques as solvent evaporation and W/O/W multiple emulsion technique. Ethyl cellulose, HPMC K4M polymer and mucilage extracted from Vigna Mungo in various proportions were used for formulation of microspheres. Combination of ethyl acetate and acetone in different proportion was used as organic phase and the microspheres were characterized for particle size, shape, morphology, percentage yield, entrapment efficiency, drug loading, In-Vitro Floating/Buoyancy study, In-vitro Floating/Buoyancy study and release kinetics.

Results: The average particle size of all batches was found in the range 100 to 210 μm and the entrapment efficiency of all formulations was found in the range of 17.46 % to 59.28 %.Total floating time for Sumatriptan succinate floating microspheres was observed more than 12 h. The In-Vitro drug release study was performed for all formulations showed drug release in controlled manner.

Conclusion: The particle size was increased with increased polymer concentration and it showed that polymer concentration has an impact on the entrapment efficiency. Ethyl cellulose microspheres showed more entrapment and sustained delivery of sumatriptan Succinate than microspheres prepared by combination of Ethyl cellulose: HPMC K4M and Ethyl cellulose: Vigna mungo mucilage.

Open Access Original Research Article

Development, Validation and Forced Degradation Study of Emtricitabine and Tenofovir Alafenamide in its Pharmaceutical Dosage Form Using RP-HPLC

Khushboo Patel, Ujashkumar Shah, Hirak Joshi, Jayvadan K. Patel, Tejas B. Patel

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 37-46
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i43A32462

Aims: The present research was aimed to develop and validate a reverse phase high performance liquid chromatographic (RP-HPLC) method for the quantification of Emtricitabine (EMT) and Tenofovir Alafenamide (TEN) in combination.

Methodology: Separation was achieved under optimized chromatographic condition on an Inertsil C18, 250 x 4.6 mm, 5μm column. Various composition of mobile phase was tried. Separation of EMT and TEN was started with Methanol: Buffer and Methanol finally using solvent system of Buffer (pH 3.5) and Methanol in ratio of (30:70) and flow rate adjust at 1.0 ml/min was used as solvent system, the detection was carried out at 262nm using Shimazdu UV-visible detector. The mobile phase run time for the developed analytical method was 10 minutes.

Results: The standard curve was found linear in the concentration range of 20-60 μg/ ml (r2- 0.9994) and 2.5-7.5 μg/ ml (r2-0.9992) for EMT and TEN respectively. The %RSD was found to be 0.80-0.95% and 0.63-1.09 for EMT and TEN respectively. Percentage (%) recoveries for EMT and TEN to be in range of 100%-100.6% and 99.32%-100.83% respectively. The limit of detection and the limit of quantification were found to be 4.80 μg/ ml and 14.7 μg/ ml respectively for EMT and 0.11 μg/ ml and 0.33μg/ ml respectively for TEN. Results of forced degradation study showed EMT degradation in acid and base medium while TEN was showed degradation in oxidative stress. The proposed developed RP-HPLC method was validated statistically and the values were found to be within the acceptable limits.

Conclusion: In conclusion, the developed RP-HPLC method was found to be simple, specific, and rugged for simultaneous estimation of EMT and TEN. Validation results of method was found within the acceptable limits. Hence it can be used for analysis of EMT and TEN.

Open Access Original Research Article

Study of Lipid per Oxidation and Enzymatic Antioxidant Activity in Rheumatoid Arthritis: Relation with Disease Activity

Dipali Khopade, Anita Kadam, Subodhini Abhang, Adinath Suryakar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 51-56
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i43A32464

Background: Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) is one of the known Autoimmune diseases in patients with age group of 25 to 60. A significant aspect of disease development should be Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS). Few studies have shown an association between oxidative stress and RA disease activity. This study was therefore intended to examine whether there is a link between oxidative stress and disease activity.

Methods and Materials: This case-control study on 120 individuals was conducted. In accordance with the Disease Activity Score (30) were healthy controls with 90 RA patients in mild (30), moderate (30) and severe (30). Malondialdehyde Measured Lipid Per Oxidation (MDA). Antioxidant enzyme activities such as Superoxide Dismutase (SOD), Catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX) have been also measured. A correlation coefficient was also used to evaluate the strength of the link between oxidative stress and activity of the illness.

Results: the MDA levels in all the RA subgroups were substantially higher than those in the control group, but the activity of antioxidant enzymes was significantly lower. Between Malondialdehyde Measured Lipid Per Oxidation (MDA) and Disease Activity score of 28 RA patients (DAS28) there were positive correlations.

Conclusion: Significant increase in RA patients' lipid per oxidization supports the role of oxidative stress in RA aetiology and the usage of MDA for disease control.

Open Access Original Research Article

Clinical, Hematological and Immunological Correlation in Children with Dengue Infection

Bratati S. Mishra, Nitin Lingayat, Geeta Karambelkar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 57-63
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i43A32465

Mortality rate caused by dengue in tropical urban life by a vector mosquito possess severe effects including children. This is an observational study carried out in a tertiary care hospital in Navi Mumbai, from June 2006 to August 2008 area which is endemic for vector borne diseases. The clinical signs, symptoms, hematological parameters and serological correlation in 100 serologically positive for IgM and IgG children confirmed by Mac ELISA were studied. Chi-square test of significance was applied between the selected laboratory and clinical parameters. The outcomes of the study were provided with a high incidence of infection was seen in the age group of 6-10 years (50%), with a male (63%) predominance affection. Fever (100%), along with Vomiting (89%), myalgia (45%) and abdominal pain (27%) are the most common symptoms associated with dengue. Other symptoms found in childrens affected by dengue shows hemorrhagic manifestation (25%), hepatomegaly (78%), as cites and effusion (50%), hem concentration (31%), leucopenia (38%), and raised serum transaminases (67%). These findings were correlated with the severity of the infection and the parameters which were statistically significant were hemorrhagic manifestation, plasma leakage with as cites and effusion, hepatomegaly, hem concentration and leucopenia. The findings would be useful in early detection and prompt management and referral of cases for preventing mortality rate in children.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Relationship between Protein Oxidation and Total Thiols in Progression of Leprosy

A. D. Kadam, D. M. Khopade, A. V. Sontakke, S. A. Abhang

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 90-94
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i43A32467

Objective: In several countries including India, leprosy is an older disease & until now continuous to be an important health issue. Leprosy is a chronic granulomatous disease, the causative agent for which is mycobacterium leprae. Due to imbalance between natural antioxidants and oxidative stress is significant event occurs that influences the pathogenesis of leprosy. Considering this the study was carried out to find, what type of relationship between MDA, Protein carbonyl and thiols as disease advances.

Methods: 50 diagnosed leprosy patients & 50 healthy controls were included in this study. In leprosy group, 16 were Paucibacillary (PB) and 34 were Multibacillary (MB) type leprosy patients.

Results: Serum Protein carbonyl and serum Malondialdehyde increased in leprosy patients than controlling. Further analysis reveals that the serum malondialdehyde was significantly increased in MB leprosy patients than PB leprosy patients. On the other hand, our proposed system significantly lowers the total thiols in leprosy patients when compared with controls. Serum total thiols were lower in MB leprosy than PB leprosy patients. Among leprosy patients the negative correlation of Malondialdehyde with total thiol and Protein carbonyl with total thiols was observed.

Conclusion: Thus, as protein oxidation and lipid per oxidation in leprosy increases, the total thiols decreases which may lead to modifications of protein and lipids that are responsible for severity of disease hence therapy aimed at reducing generation of free radicals that can result in oxidative stress and as a result a modification of proteins and lipids.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Impact of Parental Substance Abuse and Psychosocial Behaviour of Children in Age Group of 6-12 years: School Based Study

Monali Walke, Nikita Waghmare, Priya Waghmare, Mamata Vaitage, Shiwani Umate, Vaishali Tendulakar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 95-102
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i43A32470

Aim of the study is 1. Find out the extent of reported parental substance abuse 2. Assess the psychosocial development of child 3. Assess the perceived impact of parental substance abuse on psychosocial development of children.

Methodology: The study was conducted in the school of Wardha district, Maharashtra, India. Population: School going children of age 6-12yrs and their parents. 200 sample size was selected, each 100 parent and 100 children. Non-probability convenient sampling technique used.  A structured questionnaire used for both parent and their children separately.

Results: The reported prevalence rate of parental substance abuse as reported by children shows the ratio as: The rate of no substance abusers which scores from 0-12 of frequency (14) is 14%.The rate of Borderline abusers which scores from 13-24 of frequency (23) is 23%. The rate of Mild abusers which scores from 25-36 of frequency (22) is 22%.The rate of Moderate abusers which scores from 37-48 of frequency (23) is 23%.The rate of Severe abusers which scores from 49-60 of frequency (18) is 18%. The reported prevalence rate of parental substance abuse as reported by parent shows the ratio as: The rate of no substance abusers which scores from 0-9 of frequency (6) is 6%. The rate of Borderline abusers which scores from 10-18 of frequency (24) is 24%. The rate of Mild abusers which scores from 19-27 of frequency (28) is 28%. The rate of Moderate abusers which scores from 28-36 of frequency (18) is 18%. The rate of Severe abusers which scores from 37-44 of frequency (26) is 26%. Psychosocial behaviour of children which reveals that most of the children will act as crying or will get angry which is an age appropriate behaviour.

Open Access Original Research Article

Psychological Wellbeing and Personal Coping Strategies during COVID-19 Lockdown: An Empirical Study

Swati Bajpai, Swati Vispute

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 103-116
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i43A32471

This study analyzes the factors affecting psychological wellbeing and personal coping strategies adopted by individuals, “during the lockdown of the COVID-19 pandemic”. Ox CAP-MH and Brief COPE was used to develop an online survey. Using the data collected from 351 respondents of the Indian general population, it was found that psychological well-being was affected by activity levels & social involvement; endogenous & exogenous sense of influence; leisure, bias & self worth; adaptability & mindfulness; and mental stress & sleep. Factors associated with personal coping strategies included positive reframing & active coping; defence mechanisms & self-doubt; use of emotional support & planning for the recovery of the pandemic covid-19 by personal coping; substance use & humour; spirituality; persistence threshold; using social support system. Finally result obtained is “the attitude of females and males varies”, towards the majority of the factors. The implications theoretically and in practice have been discussed.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effects of Therapeutic Weight Loss Exercises on Obese Individuals with Lumbar Hyperlordosis (LHL) and Excessive Anterior Pelvic Tilt (EAPT)

K. Vijayakumar, S. Senthilkumar, D. Dineshkumar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 138-142
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i43A32473

Obesity, especially with upper and lower limbs, is a key cause in increased sensitivity to musculoskeletal diseases (MDs). Pelvic tilt is the pelvic alignment with the femur and the rest of the body. The correct posture and alignment of the pelvis to the femur relies upon its orientation, and the natural curvature of the lumbar and cervical spine regions is Lordosis. Our study aimed to investigate impacts on obese persons with lumbar hyperlordosis and excess intertidal pelvic tilt in the weight reduction activities. In a fitness facility, 50 overweight and obese men suffering lumbar and excessive anterior pelvic tilt, between 25 and 40 years, underwent the intervention studies. The conducted exercises were carried out on the basis of the therapeutic weight reduction. The findings before and after intervention revealed the provided therapy was substantial (p<0.005). The serious lumbar hyperlordosis and excessive anterior pelvic tilt are directly related to an increase in BMI, sedentary lifestyles and physical inactiveness play an important etiological part for obesity in lumbar hyperlordosis and excessive anterior pelvic tilt development and progression. Essentially, early diagnosis and physical therapist-led intervention can rectify the deformity with little operational morbidity.

Open Access Original Research Article

Qbd Based RP-HPLC Method Development and Validation for Simultaneous Estimation of Amlodipine Besylate and Lisinopril Dihydrate in Bulk and Pharmaceutical Dosage Form

Sachin A. Babar, Sudhakar L. Padwal, Madhusudhan T. Bachute

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 143-164
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i43A32474

The objective of this experiment was to develop and validate a simple, robust, and accurate QbD based Reverse-Phase High-Performance Liquid Chromatography method for Simultaneous estimation of Amlodipine besylate and Lisinopril dihydrate in bulk and Pharmaceutical Dosage form. A box-Behnken design was employed for optimizing the mobile phase, flow rate and pH of buffer, the optimized chromatographic conditions were Phosphate buffer: Methanol (25: 75 v/v), pH of buffer: 6.5 and flow rate: 1mL/min.

Furthermore formulation injected and observed that the additives do not interfere with the peak of Amlodipine besylate and Lisinopril dehydrate. Both drugs are well resolved and Retention times were found to be 2.332 min and 3.584 min respectively.

Linearity was observed in the concentration range of 10 μg to 50 μg/mL (r2=0.999). The accuracy range was 99.75 to 100.04%. Intra-day and Inter-day precision was found to be less than 2% RSD. The proposed method was useful for the best analysis of Amlodipine besylate and Lisinopril dihydrate in Bulk, pharmaceutical dosage forms and was successfully applied to routine analysis.

Open Access Original Research Article

Impact of Varied Menu Nutrition Labelling Formats on Consumer Food Selections using FAFH

D. Kalaivani, Sarvesh Jadhav, Radhika Hedaoo

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 199-207
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i43A32478

The adoption of menu labelling in restaurant menus is a sporadic but constructive pursuit worldwide. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of varied menu labelling formats on consumer food acceptance alongside the consumer’s knowledge about nutrition hitherto.162 adults aged 18–40 were distributed among the three menu classification settings: (1) No labelling; (2) kilocalorie labelling; (3) kilocalorie, total fat and free sugars with TLS (Traffic light system) labelling. Participants were offered with their allocated menu online via goggle forms and instructed to select two starters as they would at any restaurant. Followed by this, the participants were exposed to all the three menu labelling conditions simultaneously and were asked to select any one of the three menu category formats which they would prefer to see at restaurants. The variances in the macronutrient content of the starters selected by the participant’s as per the allocated menu classification condition were analysed using one way ANOVA. Legislatively mandated menu labelling schemes at food and beverage establishments needs to be emphasized and enforced politically, to function as prime drivers of public health action in foreseeable future.

Open Access Original Research Article

Knowledge, Attitude, and Practice of Fevers in Children among the Parents in Jazan Region, Saudi Arabia

Sailaja Rao, Saad Alqahtani, Aziza Hamoud, Rawan Hakami, Omnia Dkhn, Nawal Alhazmi, Saeed Alshahrani, Yousra Nomier

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 208-217
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i43A32479

Aims: The present study was aimed to assess the knowledge, attitude and preventive practices for fevers in children.

Study Design: A cross-sectional study was conducted among the parents in a poly health clinic of Jazan.

Place and Duration of Study: This study was conducted for a period of 4 months in Jazan region, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

Methodology: The information was collected from the respondents about their knowledge, attitude and practice towards fevers using a pre-structured questionnaire. Data collection took place via online survey for about 4 months. A total number of 318 respondents were participated and statistical data analysis was analyzed for the same.

Results: Majority of the participants were mothers (84%, bp<0.001) with their education at university level. A temperature of > 37.0 °C was defined as fever by 83.3% of participants. Most of the parents use a pharmacy or approach a doctor for immediate and quick action in the treatment of fevers in children. The parents were giving importance to visit a doctor/pharmacist for better understanding about the medications to be followed and maximum number of participants (n = 200, bp<0.001) found to be significant) opted Paracetamol in the form of syrup as a best medication for their children. Chi-squared test was used to determine the significance of the knowledge, attitude and practice in the management of fevers.

Conclusion: Hence, from the findings, it can be concluded that there was a significant improvement in controlling the fevers in children.


Flow chart elaborates the knowledge, attitude and practice of fevers in children among parents in Jazan region, Saudi Arabia


Open Access Original Research Article

A Comparative Study of Topical 3% Tranexamic Acid and 35% Glycolic Acid in Melasma and Review of Literature

S. Soundarya, N. Devanand, Vaishnavi Sabapathi, Jayakar Thomas

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 238-246
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i43A32483

Aim: To compare the efficacy and safety of topical 3% tranexamic acid gel vs 35% glycolic acid peel in the treatment of melasma over face.

Materials and Methods: This is an open labelled, Randomised Controlled Trial(RCT) conducted on 60 patients. Patients were randomly divided equally into 2 groups – Group A and Group B. Patients of Group A  used topical 3% tranexamic acid gel twice a day and Group B patients were treated with 35% glycolic acid peel with a contact period of 5 minutes once in every 2 weeks. Patients were assessed every month for a period of 3 months and recurrence was assessed for the next consecutive 3 months following the treatment. Patients were asked to use a broad spectrum sunscreen before sun exposure during the entire study. Assessment of reduction in pigmentation was made by MASI score, subjective and objective valuation (blind observer) and photographic comparison. Safety profile was assessed by the side effects.

Results: The mean value of Melasma Area and Severity Index(MASI) score for glycolic acid group at baseline was 14.41 which reduced to 7.05 at end of 3rd month. In tranexamic acid group, the mean value of MASI score at baseline was 14.58 which reduced to 5.96 at the end of 3rd month. The mean percentage of improvement in MASI score in glycolic acid group 52% whereas in tranexamic acid group it is 61%.  The side effects were minimal in this study. Side effects were more in glycolic acid group than tranexamic acid group.  A total of 8 patients had recurrence during follow up. In glycolic acid group, 5 patients had recurrence whereas in tranexamic acid group, only 3 patients had recurrence. The percentage of recurrence in glycolic acid group is 16.7 % whereas in glycolic acid group it is 10.7%.

Conclusion: Tranexamic acid is a novel emerging therapy for melasma. In this study it has been found that topical 3% tranexamic acid is equally efficacious as 35% glycolic acid peel with minimal side effects in the treatment of melasma.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effectiveness of Mechanical Hydrotherapy on Pain Management among Patients with Arthritis Pain

Deepali Ghungrud, Arti Raut, Ranjana Sharma, Ruchira Ankar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 247-255
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i43A32484

Introduction: Hydrotherapy is a warm water therapy used in relieving pain such as muscle pain, back pain and inflammation associated with the arthritis pain. In arthritic condition hydrotherapy helps to improving blood circulation. It is commonly used for treating muscle injuries and stroke and brain injuries.

Objectives: To determine the effectiveness of mechanical hydrotherapy on pain management among patients with arthritis pain.

Materials and Methods: In this study a quantitative research approach with an experimental pre-test post-test research design was used for the present study. Purposive sampling was the sampling method used to collect data from arthritis patients on the basis of standardized numerical pain rating scale (NPRS). The sample size was 70, for experimental group 35 samples and control group was 35 samples. For experimental group the mechanical hydrotherapy was given along with prescribed medicines and for control group only prescribed medicine was monitored.

Results: The majority of participants were male 41 (58.57%) and female 29 (41.43%) as compared to male. In experimental group male were 22 (62.85%) and female were 13 (37.15%) and in control group male were19 (54.28%) and female were 16 (45.72%). Before intervention on day-1 pre assessment pain   mean value was 7.51 and standard deviation was 1.46 in experimental group and In control group mean value was 7.91 and standard deviation was 1.12. On day-7 post assessment pain the outcome of an experimental group after mechanical hydrotherapy with reducing pain, mean value was1.80 and standard deviation was 1.07 and in control group mean value was 7.97 and 1.27. Statistically significant improvement seen in the level of pain regarding effectiveness of mechanical hydrotherapy on pain management among patients with arthritis pain.

Conclusion: Hence it is statistically clear that, the mechanical hydrotherapy to arthritis patients is helpful in managing the pain effectively.

Open Access Original Research Article

In-silico Studies, Synthesis, and Antibacterial Evaluation of Thiophene Linked Isoxazole Derivatives

Lenisha Crasta, K. H. Khadeejath Suhana, Khatheeja Afrana, . Kshema, Pankaj Kumar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 256-264
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i43A32485

In this work a series of thiophene linked isoxazole derivatives (LK1-LK8) was synthesized by cyclization of different substituted thienyl chalcones (PL1-PL8). The structures of the synthesized compounds were characterized by IR, 1H NMR and mass spectral data. These derivatives were evaluated for antibacterial activities. Compounds LK7 showed excellent antibacterial activities amongst the synthesized compounds with MIC value 6.75 µg/ml. Molecular docking of these linked isoxazole derivatives (LK1-LK8) was also performed with crystal structure of staph gyrase B 24kDa (PDB code: 5 4URM). All the isoxazole derivatives (LK1-LK8) were docked into same groove of the binding site of native co-crystallized (1R,4aS,5S,6S,8aR)-5-{[(5S)-1-(3-O-acetyl-4-O-carbamoyl-6-deoxy-2-O-methyl-alpha-L-talopyra nosy l)-4 hydroxy 2-oxo-5-(propan-2-yl)-2,5-dihydro-1H-pyrrol-3-yl]carbonyl}-6-methyl-4 1, 2, 3, 4 methylid-ene,4a,5,6,8a-octahydronaphthalen-1-yl2,6-dideoxy-3-C-[(1S)-1-{[(3,4-dichloro-5-methyl-1 H-pyrrol-2-yl) carbonyl]amino}ethyl]-beta-D-ribo-hexopyranoside) ligand for activity explanation and exhibited good ligand interaction and binding affinity were of range -2.04 to -4.34 kcal/mol.

Open Access Original Research Article

Perception about the Factors Leading to Delay of Door to Balloon Time (DTBT) in Acute Myocardial Infarction Management amongst Emergency Medical Professionals in Pune, India

Parag Rishipathak, Shrimathy Vijayraghavan, Anand Hinduja

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 329-334
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i43A32494

Aim: Acute Myocardial Infarction is one of the commonest medical emergencies encountered by Emergency Medical Professionals. The EMS professional is the first responder in the hospital emergency room. Primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) performed in a timely manner is the preferred method of treatment for ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). This study aims to assess perception regarding factors causing delay of Door to Balloon Time (DTBT) in Acute Myocardial Infarction management amongst Emergency Medical Professionals.

Study Design: Cross Sectional Descriptive Study.

Place and Duration of Study: Symbiosis Centre for Health Skills, Pune in May 2021.

Materials and Methods: The study was conducted amongst 120 Emergency Medical Professionals in Pune, India. The data was collected during the month of May 2021. Professionals who have completed Post Graduate Diploma in Emergency Medical Services were included in the study. A pre tested and validated questionnaire developed by Jafery et al was utilized to assess the knowledge and perception level among Emergency Medical Professionals.

Results and Discussion: The study provided insight into the factors causing delay in DTBT. An overwhelming majority of respondents blamed the shortage of general and specialist staff for the delay in DTBT. Shortage of CCU beds was also reported as the key factor in the hold up by as many as 71% of the respondents. Cardiac Cath lab availability and ECG equipment shortage were considered to be hindrances by nearly half the respondents. Lack of structured protocol and poor information communication was also hampering the achievement of ideal DTBT.

Conclusion: Emergency Medical Professionals have adequate knowledge of their role and the barriers that prevent timely clinical care. The study offers avenues for improvement in various clinical and non-clinical areas so as to achieve the desired clinical goals.

Open Access Original Research Article

Occurrence of Hemorrhoids and Anal Fissures through Pregnancy and Postpartum

Esmatullah (Esmat), Baseera (Esmat)

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 357-360
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i43A32497

Objective: To recognize occurrence also danger issues of hemorrhoids and fissures throughout pregnancy and afterwards childbirth.

Population: The overall 180 pregnant females trailed up till 1 month after delivery.

Methods: Females remained inspected 4 times via pregnancy and after delivery; those that developed perianal diseases were compared with those that did not. Main outcome measures Incidence, time and risk factors of hemorrhoids and fissures. Our current research was done in Nangarhar Reginal Hospital Gyn/ Obs ward from June -2020 to June -2021. 

Results: In total 90 (50%) female patients have developed perineal diseases (Hemorrhoid, Anal Fissure. The most vulnerable times were 3rd trimester about 60 (66.6%), Second trimester 20(22.2%) and in the first month after deliver 10(11.11%).

From these Patients Investigation shows that 65(72.2%) only suffering from hemorrhoid and 15(13.5%) has both hemorrhoid and anal fissure. 80 female undergone Vaginal delivery and 10 remind has undergone of caesarean section. Risk Factors for Perineal illness during pregnancy was Constipation, Straining throughout delivery for more than 20 mins and baby weight >3900gr.

Conclusions: Hemorrhoids and fissures remain mutual throughout last trimester of pregnancy and one month afterwards delivery, through constipation, individual past of hemorrhoids or fissures, birth weight of new >3900 g, straining throughout delivery for extra than 20 mins being self-sufficiently related risk factors.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effects of Proton Pump Inhibitors on Serum Calcium Level: A Study on Rabbit Model

Rizwan Ahmed Memon, Fazeela Rizwan Memon, Ali Raza Memon, Jamshaid Ul Qadir Memon, Jawaid Hussain Laghari, Salman Shams, Ashfaq Rahim Memon

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 361-366
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i43A32498

Background: Proton Pump inhibitors (PPI) are widely used all over the world as therapeutic agents as well as prophylactic agent at different age groups for multiple gastrointestinal disorders etc. it inhibits the hydrogen potassium pump (H/K ATPase Pump). PPI interferes the calcium absorption and thus disturbs acid secretion which leads to decrease the calcium level in the body.

Objective: The present design is to evaluate the effects of PPI on serum calcium level in rabbit model.

Study Design: Randomized Control Trial/ Study on Rabbit Model.

Place and Duration of Study: This experimental study was done at Department of Pharmacology Isra Medical University Hyderabad (November 2020 to March 2021

Material & Methods: A total 20 healthy male rabbits with weight between 1-2kg were included in this study. While female rabbits, ill rabbits and rabbits with weight less than 1kg were excluded from study. Ten rabbits were given omeprazole sachet of 20mg orally dissolve in water once a day and 10 rabbits were given sachet of esomeprazole of 20mg dissolve in water once a day upto 90 days regularly. At different levels of study blood samples were obtained from vein near ear of rabbits and samples were centrifuged for 10minutes to obtain the serum. Then serum was sent to Isra Diagnostic Laboratory for analysis of serum calcium levels of all samples at different levels of study.

Results: Serum calcium levels of all rabbits were analyzed at three different levels of study, at zero level before starting of experiment, at level I after completion of one month of experiment and level II after the completion of three months of experiment. The normal serum calcium level in rabbits is 13-15mg/dl.8There was a significant decline in serum calcium level in Group A (Omeprazole Group), while in Group B (Esomeprazole Group) there was no significant relation between decreased serum calcium levels.

Conclusion: The study concluded that there is significant relation of longterm usage of PPI on serum calcium level.

Open Access Original Research Article

In-silico Inhibitory Potential of Triphala Constituents Against Cytochrome P450 2E1 for the Prevention of Thioacetamide-induced Hepatotoxicity

Aziz Unnisa, Sharuk L. Khan, Farooque A. H. Sheikh, Syed Mahefooz, A. A. Kazi, Falak A. Siddiqui, Nitin Gawai, Shweta G. Saboo

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 367-375
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i43A32499

Background: Triphala, which is a combination of fruits of Terminalia chebula, Terminalia bellerica and Embilica officinalis generally recommended as herbal drug formulation in the Indian traditional medicine system.

Study Design: To study the in-silico inhibitory potential of Triphala constituents against cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) for the prevention of Thioacetamide-induced Hepatotoxicity

Place and Duration of Study: The work has been performed at MUP's College of Pharmacy (B Pharm), Degaon, Risod, Washim, Maharashtra, India in between February 2021 to May 2021.

Methodology: We have studied the inhibitory potential of Triphala on CYP2E1 by applying molecular docking tools. The major chemical constituents of Triphala i.e. gallic acid, chebulic acid, ellagic acid, epicatechin, syringic acid, and ascorbic acid were docked on CYP2E1.

Results: Docking results revealed the very good inhibitory potential of Triphala in terms of binding affinity towards CYP2E1. All the chemical constituents have formed at least 2 and at most 6 hydrogen bonds with the crystal structure of CYP2E1. The binding energies (kcal/mol) of gallic acid, chebulic acid, ellagic acid, epicatechin, syringic acid, and ascorbic acid are -6.1, -7.1, -9.1, -8.3, -6.3, and -5.7, respectively. Ellagic acid has formed strong hydrogen bonds with Thr-303 and Thr-304 with bond length of 1.98 A0 and 2.26 A0 which confirms the excellent inhibition of CYP2E1.

Conclusion: These findings can be used to control the CYP2E1-facilitated biotransformation and drug interactions in the development of new chemical entities. In future, these phytoconstituents can be used as lead molecules to overcome the cancer associated with oxidative stress resulting from the hyperactivity of CYP2E1.

Open Access Original Research Article

Gender-Based Assessment of Haematological Parameters of Obese Individuals in Omisanjana Area of Ado Ekiti, Ekiti State, Nigeria

Emmanuel Ifeanyi Obeagu, Precious Omotunde, Getrude Uzoma Obeagu, Richard I. Eze, Ukamaka Edward, Chukwuma J. Okafor, C. C. N. Vincent, Ejike Felix Chukwurah, Blessing Oluchi Akalonu

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 376-380
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i43A32500

Background: Obesity is a serious health problem, it increases heart-related diseases and its prevalence continues to increase due to genetic and lifestyle influences. This study aims to evaluate the hematological parameters of obese individuals based on gender in the Omisanjana region of Ado Ekiti, Ekiti state. Nigeria.

Materials and Methods: The research is based on a cross-sectional study of obese and non-obese individuals in hospitals. The study was carried out in the Omisanjana area of ​​Ado Ekiti, Ekiti state. Fifty (50) obese individuals and fifty (50) apparently non-obese individuals were recruited as controls and participated in the study. The data are shown in the table and are expressed as mean ± standard deviation, and are analyzed using the Student's t test of the statistical software package for social sciences (SPSS, version 20.0), and the level of significance is established at p≤ 0.05.

Results: The results showed no significant difference in PCV (p=0.3783), WBC (p=0.501), LYM (p=0.149), GRAN (p=0.336), MID (p=0.242), ,RBC (p=0.243), HGB (p=0.086), HCT (p=0.323), MCV (p=0.943), MCH p=0.097), MCHC (p=0.922), PLT (p=0.941), when compared between obese individuals and non-obese individuals based on sex respectively.

Conclusion: The study showed no statistically significant changes, and it may be because there are no significant changes in the physiological factors and the growth factors of the precursor cells in the bone marrow, so the body mass index (BMI) has no effect on hematological parameters.

Open Access Original Research Article

Nutritional Awareness and Weight Status of Nursing College Students during COVID 19 Lockdown

K. Silambu Selvi, C. Kanniammal, B. Jayabharathi, E. Lakshmi

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 381-388
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i43A32501

Aim: The present study aim was to assess the BMI status and level of nutrition knowledge among nursing college students during covid19 lockdown

Methods: This cross sectional survey was carried out during covid19 lockdown period in Tamil Nadu among 247 nursing college students .The tool used in the data collection comprised of a Google link form structured questionnaire with two sections. Section an included height, weight, socio-demographic variables and Section B elicited 45 Nutrition knowledge questions with 3 sub sections. Data were tabulated and analyzed statistically.

Results: The nutrition knowledge level results showed that majority of 54.8% had moderate knowledge, 35.7% had adequate knowledge and only 9.6% of students had inadequate knowledge. Body mass index (BMI) status revealed that 58.5% of the students were in obese II stage,36% were in obese I stage, 3.7% were overweight, 1.1% were normal and 0.7% were found to be under weight .No significant association was found between level of nutritional knowledge and body mass index at 5% level (p=0.079). High significant association was found between “programme (p = 0.000), year of study (p = 0.000) and the level of nutritional knowledge at 1% level. There was significant association between Age (p = 0.020) Family income (p = 0.021) and the level of nutritional knowledge at 5% level.

Conclusion: Students had moderate level of nutritional knowledge and majority of them were found to be Obese. No significant association and correlation was found between level of nutritional knowledge and body mass index. Transformation of nutritional knowledge into practice and creating awareness about impact of obesity, healthy life style and dietary habits would enhance their knowledge and create positive attitude towards health challenges

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Anti-oxidant and Anti-pyretic Activity of Leaf of Dendrobium chrysanthum

Mrinmoy Basak, Pal Gogoi, Sajidul Hoque Ansari, Biplab Kumar Dey, Saikat Sen, Moksood Ahmed Laskar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 389-394
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i43A32502

This investigation is based on a very remarkable and interesting orchid of the genus Dendrobium widely available in Meghalaya (India) and it is the world second largest orchid genus. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the anti-oxidant and anti-pyretic activity of leaf of Dendrobium chrysanthum. As the plants believed traditionally to have some anti-inflammatory activity used by the rural people of Meghalaya, use of medicinal plants and plants extract  for the health procurement has always remain a common choice for the North- eastern people of India since ancient time. The leaf of Dendrobium c. was collected from Shillong, Meghalaya and extraction is done by using methanol as a solvent. The methanol extract found to have the constituents such as carbohydrate, glycoside, alkaloids, phenol and flavonoids. Acute anti-pyretic activity for the extract was investigated in pyrexia rat. Temperature level was determined after 1hours, 2 hours, 4 hours and 6 hours after giving the extract dose of 100mg/kg and 200mg/kg body weight, and it was found to show potent anti-pyretic activity by reducing the temperature in rat. In-vitro anti-oxidant activity was studied by DPPH radical scavenging method of methanolic extract which shows 36.20 as IC50 (µg/ml) whereas the standard Ascorbic acid in the same concentration shows 32.81 IC50 (µg/ml). The obtained result justified the traditional use of Dendrobium c. as anti-pyretic and antioxidant purpose.

Open Access Original Research Article

Antibiotics Using Pattern in Surgery Department of a Maternity and Children Hospital

Nehad J. Ahmed, Abdulrahman G. Alharbi

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 395-400
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i43A32503

Aim: This study aimed to identify antibiotics using pattern in surgery department of a maternity and children hospital in Alkharj.

Methodology: This is a retrospective review of the drugs that were prescribed in maternity and children hospital in Alkharj from January 2018 to August 2020.

Results: The most prescribed antibiotics by emergency department for surgery patients were metronidazole (45.59%) and ceftriaxone (42.65%). Metronidazole IV was the most commonly prescribed antibiotic (38.73%) by inpatient department for surgery patients followed by ceftriaxone (38.73%). Vancomycin vial (43.75%) was the most commonly prescribed antibiotic by critical care unit for surgery patients. The most commonly prescribed antibiotic outpatient department and day case unit for surgery patients by was fusidic acid ointment (35.00%).

Conclusion: The study showed that the most commonly prescribed antibiotics for surgery patients were metronidazole and ceftriaxone. Continuous monitoring for antibiotics prescribing is vital to increase the judicious use of these medications and more educational programs and awareness workshops for surgeons are needed.

Open Access Original Research Article

Screening of Zinc Database against Streptococcal Cysteine Protease Enzyme for Identification of Novel Group A Streptococcus Inhibitors

Ratul Bhowmik, Ranajit Nath, Ratna Roy

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 401-412
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i43A32504

Inhibition of streptococcal cysteine protease has recently emerged as quite a promising target to treat severe cases of Group A Streptococcus infections. For the identification of streptococcal cysteine protease inhibitors, structure-based virtual screening (SBVS) of the ZINC Database was performed. The docking protocol was performed with the help of AutoDock Tools and AutoDock Vina software. Based on binding affinity and similarity of interactions with our target receptor streptococcal cysteine protease, 4 hit compounds were identified, which were further subjected to ADMET (Adsorption, Distribution, Metabolism, Excretion, Toxicity) and Drug-likeness to identify the best hit compound. The most potent compound showed binding of -7.7 KJ/mol with receptor streptococcal cysteine protease. It also showed 6 similar amino acid interactions with the receptor’s native ligand along with good ADME and Drug-likeness properties. Furthermore, the molecular dynamics simulation analysis revealed that the complex formed between the protein streptococcal cysteine protease and the hit compound ZINC000205429716 had good structural stability. The current study reveals the successful use of in silico SBVS methods for the identification of novel and possible streptococcal cysteine protease inhibitors, with compound ZINC000205429716 serving as a potential lead for the creation of Group A Streptococcus inhibitors.

Open Access Original Research Article

Trends in Resistance to Cefazolin in a Military Hospital in Alkharj

Nehad J. Ahmed

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 413-416
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i43A32505

Aim: This study aimed to describe the trends in resistance to cefazolin in a military hospital in Alkharj.

Methodology: This was a retrospective study that was conducted in Alkharj to describe the trends in resistance to cefazolin from 1st of January 2020 to 30th of June 2021. The results of bacterial cultures were collected from the microbiology laboratory in the hospital.

Results: The susceptibility rate of gram negative bacteria to cefazolin in 2020 was more than 50% except Enterobacter cloacae (susceptibility rate=0) and that the resistance of Escherichia coli to cefazolin was increased from 36% in 2020 to 48% in 2021. The present study showed that cefazolin should not use to treat infections caused by Enterobacter cloacae because of the high resistance rate (100%).

Conclusion: The present study showed that the bacterial resistance of several pathogens to cefazolin was high. It is important to monitor antimicrobial susceptibility continuously and to use antibiotics wisely to minimize emergence of drug resistant bacteria.

Open Access Original Research Article

Comparitive Study of Reamed vs Unreamed Interlocking Intra Medullary Nailing for Fracture Shaft of Tibia

N. Mathivanan, S. V. Satyanarayana

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 417-422
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i43A32506

Tibia is the commonest bone to sustain open injury because of subcutaneous position. Treatment of open fractures requires simultaneous management of both skeletal and soft tissue injury. Intramedullary nailing with reaming is generally considered to be contraindicated for open fractures tibia, because it damages the endosteal blood supply which will lead to non-union, deep infection. However, recent studies with or without reaming in open fracture tibia shows no influence in healing of fracture. Purpose: To compare the clinical and radiological results of intramedullary interlocking nailing of open fractures of the tibial shaft after reaming versus unreamed medullary canal. The aim and objective is a comparative study on the technique, outcome and time taken for clinical and radiological union in either of the reamed or unreamed interlocking nailing in tibial shaft fractures. The operative technique, advantages and disadvantages, follow up, time taken for bony and radiological union and complications if any and overall functional outcome will be evaluated in patients. The follow up of patients will be done in the immediate post operative period and  subsequently  at periodic intervals both clinically and radiologically and the result so obtained will be compared.

Open Access Original Research Article

Knowledge and Perception about Diabetes and its Risk Factors

Nehad J. Ahmed, Abdulrahman S. Alrawili, Faisal Z Alkhawaja, Huwayzi F. Alqahtani, Rayan H. Alanazi

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 423-427
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i43A32507

Introduction: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a chronic metabolic disorder that increases the risks of developing other diseases in diabetic patients and can affect their quality of life.

Aim: The aim of this study was to determine knowledge and perception of risk of diabetes mellitus among the public in Saudi Arabia.

Methodology: The survey in the present cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the public knowledge and perception of risk of diabetes mellitus using a validated survey. The survey was converted to an online form using Google Forms.

Results: About 79.69% of the respondents use one or more medication and 70.31% of them had at least one chronic disease. About 34.37 % of the respondents were overweight respondents or had obesity. About 93.75% of the respondents said that they know the main risk factors and the protective factors of diabetes. More than 90 % of them have a good knowledge about diabetes and about antidiabetic drugs but more than 54% of them said that they need additional information about diabetes and about antidiabetic medications.

Conclusion: Our study suggests that more efforts should be made to increase the public knowledge about diabetes and an awareness program including lectures, workshops are essential to avoid getting diabetes among the public and to maintain good glycemic control among diabetic patients.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Preferences of Male Students for Different Pharmacy Sectors in Research Project Course

Nehad J. Ahmed

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 433-437
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i43A32509

Objective: The aim of this study was to explore the students' preferences for different pharmacy departments in research project course in Al-Kharj.

Methodology: This study included a web-based survey using google forms delivered to the students about the students’ research interest. The students ranked the pharmacy departments according to their preferences. The descriptive data were represented as frequencies and percentages.

Results: The cumulative grade of 78.85% of the students was more than or equal to 3 out of 5. About 33.66% of them ranked pharmacology as their first choice and 33.66% of them selected clinical pharmacy as their first choice.

Conclusion: Pharmacy students were interested in conducting researched mainly in pharmacology and clinical pharmacy department. Training programs, workshops and lectures are required to enhance pharmacy students’ research capabilities.

Open Access Original Research Article

Phytochemical Screening and Hepatoprotective Potential of Sida cordata

Sunil Mistry

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 452-459
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i43A32512

Sida cordata (Burn. f.) Borss. Waalk is highly distributed in entire part of India. The various parts of the plant are used in folklore medicine for the management of multiple diseases.  So,the present study was performed to examine the  hepatoprotective activity study of ethanolic extract of S. cordata leaves (SCLE) on alcohol mediated  hepatotoxicity in a rat model. Ethanol intoxicated rats showed noteworthy elevation of liver weight and volume. Further, ethanol insulted rats also showed significant elevation in the level of biochemical markers such as AST, ALT, TG, TB, and DB) and marked variation in the histological structure of liver. Oral administration of SCLE at the dose of 200 and 400 mg/kg for 30 days) significantly reduced the liver weight, hepatic markers level and restored the histological changes annoyed by ethanol thus indicating its hepatoprotective potential. Furthermore, HPTLC analysis was performed for the identification and quality estimation of S. cordata leaves.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effects of Anticoagulants and Corticosteroids Therapy in Patients Affected by Severe COVID-19 Pneumonia

Khalid Ghalilah, Abdul Momin Sabir, Irshad Ali Alvi, Malak Alharbi, Abdulrahman Basabrain, Mahmooud Aljundi, Ghazi Almohammadi, Zainab Almuairfi, Raed Alharbi, A. A. E. Ahmed

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 460-479
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i43A32513

Background: In the absence of a standard of treatment for COVID-19, the combined use of anti-inflammatory (corticosteroids and Enoxaparin) and antiviral drugs may be more effective than using either modality alone in the treatment of COVID-19.

Methods: Patients hospitalized between April 10th, 2020, through May 10th, 2020, who had confirmed COVID-19 infection with clinical or radiographic evidence of pneumonia, in which 65 patients have moderate COVID-19 pneumonia, and 63 patients have severe COVID-19 pneumonia. All patients received early combination therapy of anti-inflammatory (corticosteroids and Enoxaparin) and antiviral drugs. They assessed for type and duration of treatment, and days need to wean from oxygen therapy, length of stay, virus clearance time, and complication or adverse events. All patients had more than 28 days follow up after discharge from the hospital.

Results: Moderate COVID-19 pneumonia group were 65 patients who received Enoxaparin, antiviral drugs, empirical antibiotics for pneumonia, and standard treatment for comorbidity. Male patients were 50 (76.9%) and female patients were 15 (23.1%). 34 (52.3%) patients have comorbidity, 25 (38.5%) patients have Diabetes Mellitus and 2 (3.1%) pregnant ladies. 19 (29.2%) patients were on low flow oxygen therapy, 3L oxygen or less to maintain oxygen saturation more than 92%. All patients discharged home with no major or minor bleeding complications or significant complications. Severe COVID-19 pneumonia group were 63 patients who received methylprednisolone, enoxaparin, antiviral drugs, empirical antibiotics for pneumonia, and standard treatment for comorbidity. Male patients were 55 (87.3%) and female patients were 8 (12.7%). 37 (58.7%) patients have comorbidity, and 24 (38.1%) patients have Diabetes Mellitus. 32 (50.8%) patients were on low flow oxygen therapy, 4-9L oxygen, and 31 (49.2%) patients were on low flow oxygen therapy, 10L oxygen or more, including 12 patients on a non-rebreathing mask. Patients received methylprednisolone were 37 (58.7%) for 3 days, 16 (25.4%) for 5 days and 10 (15.9%) for more than 5 days. Sixty-two patients discharged home with one patient had a long stay, and the other two transferred to ICU. One long-stay patient transferred to ICU on low flow oxygen therapy.

Conclusion: Early use of a combined anti-inflammatory (corticosteroids and Enoxaparin) and antiviral drugs treatment in patients with moderate to severe COVID-19 pneumonia prevent complications of the disease and improve clinical outcomes.

Open Access Original Research Article

Antioxidant Activity of Some Spices and Their Two Traditional Mixture Named Ras el Hanout Used in Northwestern of Algeria

Meryem Seladji, Fatima Zohra Khedim, Hanane Dib, Nassima Bendimerad

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 480-486
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i43A32514

Aims: Our study aimed to evaluate the antioxidant activity of ten spices in the composition of two spice blends named Ras el Hanout I and Ras el Hanout II. The spices studied are Alpinia officinarum, Cinnamomum cassia, Carum carvi, Coriandrum sativum, Cuminum cyminum, Curcuma domestica, Foeniculum vulgare, Piper cubeba, Piper nigrum, Zingiber officinale, mixtures were prepared well defined measures.

Place and of Study: Laboratory of Natural Products, Department of Biology, Abou Bekr Belkaïd University, Department of Biology, Tlemcen.

Methodology: The contents of polyphenols were determined by spectrophotometric techniques. The antioxidant activities were determined in vitro through trapping evaluation tests of the free radical DPPH and iron reduction (FRAP). The dried crude extracts of spices were prepared in a water-methanol mixture.

Results: Yields vary considerably from one spice to another with values ranging between 4.01% for Coriandrum sativum and 12.26% for Cuminum cyminum. The evaluation of the antioxidant activity by the scavenging of free radical DPPH and the iron reduction method (FRAP) showed that our extracts have an antioxidant potential. The extract of Cinnamomum cassia has better reducing capability of iron in comparison to all other spices and even compared with standard antioxidant ascorbic acid. Also, a stronger free radical scavenging activity was observed compared to that of ascorbic acid and BHA. On the other hand, the concentration which inhibits the 50% effect free radical DPPH is equal to 0.15±0.035 mg / mL for Ras el Hanout I and 0.51±0.07 mg / mL for Ras el Hanout II but which remains higher than that of 0.09±0.05mg /mL ascorbic acid.

Conclusion: This study demonstrated that crude extracts of spices exhibit (individually and as a mix) significant antioxidant activity.

Open Access Original Research Article

Herbal Medicines use in Pregnancy in Northern Cyprus

Eda Tülek, Filiz Yarici, Dudu Özkum Yavuz, Mustapha Bulama Modu, Filiz Meriçli

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 487-504
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i43A32515

Objective: To identify the herbal medicinal products used in pregnancy in community pharmacies, the approach of pharmacists in Northern Cyprus and to compare the availability of the most commonly mentioned medicinal plants in accessible databases, in Northern Cyprus.

Design: Questionnaire was designed and administered to 263 community pharmacists in Northern Cyprus and gathered the data on herbal medicinal products they had and recommended to pregnant women. Databases such as ScienceDirect, PubMed, OpenAcces Journals were searched through the Near East University Grand Library’s Online Resources for keywords relating to the ‘herbal medicine’, ‘pregnancy’ ‘pregnant women’, ‘herbal products’. Descriptive statistics was used with IBM® Statistical product and service solutions software platform.

Location/Setting: Northern Cyprus

Outcome Measures: Herbal medicinal products used and recommended in pregnancy by community pharmacists in Northern Cyprus were identified. It has also been determined which of the most used plants in the world are grown in Northern Cyprus.

Results: The most recommended herbal pharmaceutical forms were herbal lozenges (n = 76, 31%), then herbal form of teas (n = 60, 24%), herbal oils (n = 57, 23%), herbal capsules (n = 36, 14%), other pharmaceutical forms (n=20, 8%). Within the limitation of our literature search, totally 650 medicinal plants (single or formula) used in pregnancy were determined.  Out of these 74 were mostly used worldwide, and it was discovered that 56 species out of these plants are grown or cultivated; 18 of the compiled species were imported species some of the genera have species growing naturally growing in Cyprus.

Conclusion: Pregnant women in Cyprus also follow their counterparts in other countries in developing interest in herbal medicines. The number of herbal medicines in the pharmacies owned by Turkish Cypriots is small. Interestingly, the result of this study showed that the pharmacists that were mainly Turkish Cypriots were found not to be selling herbal medicinal products to pregnant women without doctor’s prescriptions. This study recommends that the herbal medicines use in pregnancy should be the ones that have undergone in-depth evidence-based scientific researches with clinically proven efficacy that are known not only to the healthcare professionals such as medical doctors, midwives but also the pharmacists and the general public.

Open Access Original Research Article

A Stability Indicating Novel UPLC-PDA Method for the Estimation in Bulk and Capsule Dosage form of Isavuconazole Effective for Mucormycosis Caused by COVID-19 Pandemic

Suman Acharyya, Si, Abhik, H. K. Sundeep Kumar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 505-513
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i43A32516

The present research provides a new proven ultra-high-performance liquid chromatographic technique for isavuconazole in both bulk and capsule dosage forms. DIKMA Waters BEH C18(50 x 2.6mm, 1.7m) column was used for chromatographic separation. With the isocratic elution mode, a mixture phosphate buffer: methanol 40:60 v/v, was used as the mobile phase, and the eluent was measured at 253 nm using a UV detector. The strategy has been maintained and validated in accordance with the International Conference on Harmonization Guidelines. Stressed deterioration has also been investigated in acidic, alkaline, peroxide, thermal, and photolytic conditions. Isavuconazole was eluted with the retention time 0.861 minute in this procedure. The calibration curve plots for isavuconazole were found to be linear within the concentration ranges of 1-25µg/mL. With a percentage recovery of 100.18 percent, the limit of detection was 0.025g/ml and the value for limit of quantification was 0.50µg/mL. In a force degradation analysis, the current approach was also determined to be stable. Based on the experiential evidence, the present method was found appropriate of isavuconazole estimation in the form of bulk and capsule.

Open Access Original Research Article

Physicochemical Characteristics, Anti-Lipase and Antioxidant Activities of Polysaccharide Extracted from Astragalus spinosis Grown in the Northern Region of Saudi Arabia

Hayet Ben Khaled, Naira Nayeem

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 514-526
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i43A32517

Introduction: Northern border region of Saudi Arabia is one of the richest areas of traditional plants. This study was designed with an interest to work on the polysaccharide extracted from Astragalus spinosis leaves (PLAS) collected from rafha province.

Methods: Polysaccharide was isolated by hot water extraction, followed by ethanol precipitation. The isolated crude polysaccharide contains 62.43% ±2.09% carbohydrate and 0.29 ± 0.07% protein. The physicochemical characteristics, such as chemical composition, humidity, foaming capacity, solubility as well as water and oil holding capacity were evaluated. The structural feature of polysaccharide was studied through Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) analysis and scanning electron microscopy.

Results: Polysaccharide extracted from Astragalus spinosis leaves showed good inhibitory lipase and antioxidant activities. It was observed that the total antioxidant capacity, the 1,1- diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and the 2,2 -azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ATBS) radical scavenging activities were high at 2.0 mg/ml (97 µmol eq tocopherol ± 1.4, 73% ± 2.1 and 93% ± 0.9 respectively). 

Conclusion: the crude polysaccharide extract demonstrated good emulsion stabilizing capacities, with various hydrophobic compounds. It could be a potential source of natural antioxidants and emulsifiers.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effects of Tamarindus indica Fruit Pulp Powder on Blood and Serum Profile of Fluorosed Rats

Kumari Meenu, J. D. Sharma

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 527-537
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i43A32518

Aims: Water containing a fluoride concentration of up to 1.0 mg/L is safe. It was found that the level of fluoride in groundwater is higher than surface water, which may lead to various health problems related to fluorosis. T. indica fruit pulp powder may help to reduce fluorosis condition in rats.

Methods: In the present study, healthy adult rats of Wister strain (Rattus norvegicus) weighing between 180-200gm were used for experiments. The animal was divided into five groups. Group I, control rats received only tap water (0.9ppm F). Group II rats were treated with Tamarindus indica fruit pulp powder (4mg/day/rat) for 60 days. Group III rats were exposed to Fluoride water (100ppm F) for 60 days. Group IV treated with fluoride water (100ppm F) along with T. indica fruit pulp powder (4mg/day/rat) for 60 days. whereas, group V rats were ingested fluoride water (100ppm F) for 60 days and Withdrawal from treatment for 30 days. After respective treatment animals were autopsied and biochemical parameters of blood (erythrocyte and leukocyte count, hemoglobin, hematocrits); serum (protein, glucose, cholesterol); serum enzyme activity of SGOT SGPT, Acid phosphatase, and serum fluoride and calcium level was estimated using standard techniques.

Results: Results revealed that total erythrocyte, hemoglobin, and hematocrit values were (P=.01) reduced significantly after rats were exposed to fluoride (100 ppm) water for 60 days. whereas total leucocyte count increased with fluoride (100ppm) water exposure for 60 days as compared to control values. The serum enzyme activity of SGOT, SGPT, and alkaline phosphate elevated significantly (P=.01), whereas enzyme activity of acid phosphatase diminished following fluoride water treatment to rats, as composed to control value. The level of serum fluoride enhanced significantly (P=.01) in fluorotic rats as compared to the control value. However, when fluorosed rats were treated with T. indica for 60 days restored all altered parameters almost to control value. Withdrawal of fluoride water for 30 days revealed that there is partial recovery in all parameters studied.

Conclusion: Fluoride water consumption increases free radical generation, limits enzyme activity, and results in altered hematological and blood biochemistry. Tamarindus indica pulp powder was found to be beneficial in mitigating fluoride toxicity in rats.

Open Access Review Article

Recent Advances in Nanoparticle Drug Delivery for Targeting Lymph Node -An Overview in Cancer Immunotherapy

A. A. Podutwar, S. A. Polshettiwar, A. R. Gawade, Akshay Baheti, Manish S. Wani, Mayuri Ghanekar, Asmita Gupta, Purva Chondorkar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 64-74
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i43A32468

Generally, it is said that the lymph node plays very important role in the cancer immunotherapy. So, delivering immunomodulating compounds to lymph node can be useful strategy for cancer immunotherapy. In case of this lymph node drug delivery system, lipid nanoparticles are widely used. High amount of drugs, nucleic acids and various other compounds can easily load in lipid nanoparticle, and they are easy to be manufacture on industrial scale also. In this review, we have focused on the potential of lipid nanoparticle technology to aim lymph nodes. However, there are many factors that control the delivery of drugs to lymphatics. Before the lymphatic detection, lipid nanoformulations are necessary to go through interstitial hindrance which alters delivery of them. So, the distribution and detection of lipid nanoformulations by means of lymphatic system depend on charge present on nanoparticles, hydrophobicity, particle size and molecular weight, form & type of lipid and emulsifier concentrations are as well significant factors disturbing the delivery of drugs in the lymphatic system.

Open Access Review Article

Current Status and Perspectives of Oral Therapeutic Protein and Peptide Formulations: A Review

G. Manu, Nagma Firdose, M. K. Jayanthi, Ramith Ramu, Ranjith Raj, Shashank M. Patil, S. Jagadeep Chandra, Prithvi S. Shirahatti

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 117-137
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i43A32472

Medicinal formulations have evolved from the use of small molecules that act by blocking various receptors. On the contrary, therapeutic proteins are a class of medicines that have gained increased popularity owing to its low toxicity, high stability and exquisite specificity. Oral delivery of protein drugs is a very interesting but a highly challenging area of medicine that requires advancements in terms of bioavailability of oral drugs. The main objective of the present review is to provide a systematic overview of the various physiological barriers of delivery of therapeutic proteins and novel approaches available in this field in order to counter these physiological barriers. Advances in terms of inhibitors of proteases, permeation enhancers, mucoadhesives, short peptide conjugates, particulate delivery system including nanoparticles. Oral therapeutic proteins face challenges with regard to oral bioavailability, stability of the protein and reproducibility. Among the various strategies, a co-administration of permeation enhancers with protease inhibitors have proven most effective, while particulate delivery system is still under clinical studies in order to be establishes as a method. Overall, a thorough and focused research with sufficient knowledge on the structure-function relationship, substrate specificity and physiological parameters can deliver a potent therapeutic protein with high efficiency.


Open Access Review Article

The Situation and Preventive Measures Related to COVID-19 Infection for Medical Staff

Abdul Ghafar Sherzad, Yan Tu, Weitao Liu, M. Azim Azimee, Arash Nemat, Abdullah Asady, Nahid Raufi, Ying Huang, Xingbo Xu, Osama Alsarhan, Qingchun Zeng

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 180-198
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i43A32477

The novel coronavirus, or COVID-19, emerged from Wuhan, Hubei Province, China, and has recently spread all over the world. During the COVID-19 pandemic, healthcare workers struggle against this microscopic enemy due to their job responsibilities, thus leading to be infected in some of them, even some of them are died in line of duty. As of 2 February 2021, 37 million cases of COVID-19 among health workers from 183 countries and regions were reported to the World Health Organization (WHO), a figure that represents 36% of the total cases globally. The median age of these cases was 42 years and 68% were women. On May 24, 2021, the World Health Organization (WHO) stated that at least 115,000 healthcare workers have died due to COVID-19 worldwide since the pandemic began last year.  It is important to pay attention to the situation related to COVID-19 infection for medical staff and their preventive measures. This paper reviews the literature on all available information about the situation and preventive measures (The primary prevention of COVID-19 is to break the chain of transmission from infected to healthy people, secondary preventive measures comprise the use of health screening and recognition activities to ascertain those infected with COVID-19 and tertiary prevention consists of treatment and proper rehabilitation) related to COVID-19 infection for medical staff.

Open Access Review Article

Management of Gastroenteritis in Primary Care – A Review

Najlaa Mohammad Alsudairy, Saad Rashed S Aljameely, Fatimah Mohammed J. Alsaihati, Ahmed Mamdouh A. Alkhawfi, Mansour Hajed M Alharthi, Mohammed Ali S. Alanka, Marah Mohammed Alatrash, Hind Mohammed A. Alshanqiti, Afnan Hussain M. Althuwaybi, Alaa Mohammed A. Baduwailan, Maryam Abdullah M. Tohary, Faisal Abdulaziz M. Aljulajil

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 224-231
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i43A32481

Gastroenteritis is one the most common diseases worldwide, and it’s more dangerous in children, although in most time it’s self-limited, it can be fatal in case of children, the most dangerous side of GE is diarrhea and the dehydration that follows it. Since dehydration is the most dangerous symptom of the Gastroenteritis Oral rehydration solutions and even intravenous solution intake (in case of severe dehydration) is the main treatment, followed by symptomatic treatment such anti-emetics or antidiarrheal drugs, although caution should be considered for drugs used in children. The need to make cost-effective diagnostic and treatment decisions, avoid unnecessary investigation and referral, provide long-term effective control of symptoms, and minimize the risk of complications constitute the main challenges that PCPs face. During the last few years, the role of primary care physicians in the diagnosis and management of gastroenteritis has been recognized as very important, and it has been suggested that they have all the available resources in order to ensure high standard of care for their patients. In particular, clearly articulated clinical practice guidelines, effective medications, accurate noninvasive investigations, and evidence-based primary care management plans are available to support PCPs who want to raise their threshold for referring patients with GI symptoms.

Open Access Review Article

Ethno Medicinal Plants Used for Wound Healing Properties in Tinsukia District, Assam: A Comprehensive Review

Pal Gogoi, Moksood Ahmed Laskar, Saikat Sen, Biplab Kumar Dey, Rejwan Ahmed Choudhury, Republica Borgohain, Sajidul Hoque Ansari

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 270-292
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i43A32488

Wound healing is a vital physiological process that helps to retain the integrity of the skin after it has been damaged, whether by accident or by a deliberate operation. In Tinsukia district, Assam, tribal people and folklore traditions employ a wide variety of plants/plant extracts/decoctions or pastes to cure wounds. This study is designed to explore the ethnomedicinal plants used for the wound healing properties by the people of Tinsukia district, Assam. The Documentation of potential ethnobotanical information of traditionally used medicinal plant with wound healing activity will facilitates the scientific evaluation to look forward into a leading scientific prospect for the development of new herbal therapy for wound healing.

Open Access Review Article

Psychological Aspects of Obesity and Obesity Surgery: A Simple Review

Manal Mohammed E. Alhawiti, Sarah Muqbil B. Altmimi, Alanoud Abdullah M. Alzahrani, Hezam Shalan Alshahrani, Ghaiah Jaber A. Alharbi, Nojood Burhan M. Hamdi, Abrar Marwan A. Alamrani, Rawan Ahmed H. Alshehri, Shuruq Mohammed H. Alzahuf, Renda Ali M. Alhabib, Amal Mohammad H. Albalawi, Ali Mansour Z. Al Abbas, Duaa Saeed Q. Alsaqer, Marwan Fahad H. Altemani, Ibrahim Mahmoud Ajwah

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 299-308
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i43A32490

Grade III and IV obese patients had higher levels of depression than grade II obese patients, lower self-esteem, and lower quality of life. Thus, an important but often overlooked outcome is the assessment of the impact of surgery on mental health. This is an important outcome measure because it can contribute to a patient's concept of overall well-being. Although British Columbia has an edge in managing obesity, psychosocial and behavioral factors can influence postoperative outcomes. According to some authors, mental illness severe enough to require treatment may be a negative predictor of surgical outcome. This review reviews the literature on the impact of liposuction surgery on the psychological functioning of patients with obesity. Most studies have shown that people with obesity, especially those requiring surgery, report significantly worse quality of life. This may be due to impaired physical and psychosocial functioning, discrimination and psychiatric consequences, or it may be due to overweight and associated morbidity. Finally, most research and clinical experience shows that people with obesity who seek surgical treatment for obesity are more likely to have psychological problems, abnormal eating behaviors, and quality of life. Life declines more than the average person, but bariatric surgery can help improve your mental state. Patients, improve the patient's quality of life.

Open Access Review Article

A Review Article on Triazoles and its Pharmacological Activities

Alphonsus D’souza, K. D. Venuprasad, Prashant Nayak, Lisha K. Poonacha

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 309-317
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i43A32491

Despite the fact that triazole was first synthesised over a century ago, it continues to unique the interest of chemists, biologists, technologists, and other experts.  Triazoles  have been shown to have antiviral, anti-inflammatory, anti-fertility, anti-tubercular, antimicrobial, anti-cancer, and anti-corrosion properties in recent years. The goal of this review is to describe the structures, synthesis, reactions, and spectral properties of triazoles in order to highlight their potential applications in a variety of bioactive phenomena and analytical applications.

Open Access Review Article

Correlation between Serum Uric Acid with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and its Complications

Jayshri Sadashiv Jankar, Kumud Namdeorao Harley, Roshan Kumar Jha

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 335-345
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i43A32495

Type 2 diabetes mellitus is becoming more common over the world, making it a major health concern. Many research has been carried a link among both higher uric acid concentrations in the body and a higher incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus. On a biochemical level, uric acid has been proved to have a negative impact on insulin sensitivity in animals. When nitric oxide, essential for glucose uptake, is suppressed, this occurs. The goal of this study is to review past research on the relationship between serum uric acid and diabetes type II in various parts of the world, as well as the prevalence of such a link. Articles were chosen using the PubMed database and EBSCO Information Services. We used all relevant publications to our review that dealt with the connection among both serum uric acid and diabetes type II, in addition to the other articles. Other publications that were not linked to this field were excluded. In this systematic review, serum uric Acid levels were found to be correlated to type 2 diabetes mellitus, metabolic syndrome and carotid artery disease. Atherosclerosis is more common in people with type 2 diabetes. The reliability of concentrations of uric acid levels in blood in predicting type 2 diabetes and enhancing prevention should be the focus of future study.

Open Access Review Article

Molecular Aspects of Cancer Research Endometrium – The Prospect of Personalized Treatment

Movchan Oksana

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 346-356
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i43A32496

Aims: Endometrial cancer is the most common gynaecological cancer, and there is a growing interest in identifying the molecular pathways involved and developing molecular-targeted treatment to prevent it. Present study was aimed to give an overview of the molecular processes involved in endometrial cancer development and treatment options.

Methods: We conducted a comprehensive systematic literature review and meta-analysis. For that purpose, PubMed database was searched for related studies till June 2021 and a through selection process was adopted to select the eligible studies.

Results: Endometrial malignancies are complicated molecularly, and their focused therapy has a wide range of outcomes, with median progressive survival rates ranging from 2.3 to 18 months.

Conclusions: The effective treatment and therapy need a detailed understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying the creation and progression of endometrial cancer, as well as the development of innovative targeted therapeutic agents.