Open Access Systematic Review Article

Impact of Gastric Acids on Surface Roughness of Dental Materials: A Systematic Review

Waseem Radwan, Iman El Mansy, Aljohara Alyahya, Mada Alawad, Reem Alsaileek, Sara Alyousef

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 166-171
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i42B32436

Introduction: Dental materials whenever used for restorations in the oral cavity can be subjected to dental erosion because of the gastric juices and can cause roughness and act as a nidus for the growth plaque. Aim of this study was to evaluate impact of artificial gastric acid on surface roughness of dental restorations, examining scientific studies published from 2010-2020.

Materials and Methods: This study follows and complies with principles of PRISMA guidelines for a systematic review research methodology. In March 2020, an initial search was carried out in the MEDLINE (PubMed), Science Direct, Google Scholar, and Saudi Digital Library database of indexed journals from 2010-2020 using the keywords: impact,” “effect,” “gastric acid,” “gastric juice,” “indirect restorations,” “dental materials,” “dental ceramics,” “crowns,”. Bibliographic materials from these articles were then utilized to find other sources. 

Results: The MEDLINE (PubMed) search retrieved thirty articles, of which three were relevant to the study. Total articles found in Google scholar were 11,500 article, in which 11 were analyzed for further review and only seven matched the allocated inclusion and exclusion criteria. 512 articles were found in the Saudi Digital Library and only three of these articles followed the inclusion criteria of this study.

Conclusions: It has been proved by numerous studies that acidic exposure significantly affects the surface roughness of dental ceramics negatively. There is lack of evidence to support the claim that Zirconia is the dental ceramic of choice for patients with intrinsic acid regurgitation. Thus, it is recommended to conduct further studies in order to assess and confirm the best material that can withstand such acidic environment.

Open Access Systematic Review Article

Efficacy of Different Tooth Lining Materials on Marginal Seal of Composite Restorations Extended upto Root Surface of the Tooth- Systematic Review

Basil Y. Alamassi, Shouq M. Ashehri, Reema A. Morayah, Ghadah F. Alharthi, Meshari N. Alshayea

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 172-182
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i42B32437

Introduction: Microleakage is a major concern in composite restorations, especially with margins located on dentin or cementum of the tooth. This study aimed to review the available literature investigating in vitro the efficacy of different tooth lining materials on the marginal seal of composite restorations extended below the Cemento-Enamel Junction (CEJ) of the tooth.

Materials and Methods: Different combinations of the review terms were used to electronically search PubMed, Google Scholar, Cochrane Library, and Ebscohost databases for the last fifteen years. The records were initially screened for relevancy based on title and abstract. Articles that seemed to meet the criteria for inclusion were selected for full-text assessment.  Studies deemed eligible were in vitro studies conducted on human teeth with cavities extending below the CEJ and restored using different tooth lining materials under the composite restorations.Every included study was evaluated using the Cochrane risk of bias assessment tool.

Results: The initial search identified 619 publications. After removing duplicated records, the remaining 421 records are screened at the level of titles and abstracts to meet our inclusion criteria. 62 records were designated for full-text methodological assessment, and 15 studies were found eligible for qualitative synthesis. The sealing ability of different tooth lining materials under composite restorations was investigated in the chosen studies, with varying outcomes. Microleakage in the tooth restorations was determined by examining the extent of dye penetration under a microscope.

Conclusion: Despite the reports of less dye penetration with specific tooth liners in some in-vitro studies, there is no consistent evidence supporting that such tooth liners could reduce microleakage in composite restorations of the tooth.

Open Access Case Study

Subdural Hygroma- A Case Report

Hina Y. Rodge, Ashwini Thawakar, Bibin Kurian, Archana Maurya

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-5
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i42B32419

Introduction: An accumulation of Cerebrospinal fluid in subdural spaces is known as subdural hygroma. It is encountered in all age-groups but overall, most common in elderly. The exact pathogenesis of Subdural Hygroma is still unclear.

Presentation of Case: A 03 months old female child was brought to Acharya Vinoba Bhave Rural Hospital, Sawangi (Meghe), Wardha, Maharashtra, India on date 02/10/2020 with the complaints of breathing difficulty, elevated body temperature, excessive enlargement of head with bulged and tense fontanel, high pitch shrill cry, restlessness, nausea and vomiting. On physical examination, it is found that head circumference was 44 cm, head size was enlarged, bulged anterior fontanel, angular cheilitis, pale conjunctiva as well as peripheral cyanosis were present. The child was diagnosed at birth and child was brought to Acharya Vinoba Bhave Rural Hospital, Sawangi (Meghe), Wardha for surgical management of subdural hygroma.

Intervention: The treatment of patients was started immediately after admission.Burr-Hole Evacuation was done on 4th October 2020 and the patient was discharged on 08th October 2020. 

Conclusion: In this report, we mainly focus on expert surgical management and excellent nursing care helped in managing the complicated case very nicely. The patient response was positive to conservative and nursing management. The patient was discharged without postoperative complications and satisfactory with recovery.

Open Access Case Study

Case Report on Post Operative Case of Exploratory Laparotomy for Ruptured Ectopic Pregnancy with Septicemia

Arati Raut, Ruchira Ankar, Samruddhi Gujar, Savita Pohekar, Sheetal Sakharkar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 363-368
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i42B32453

Introduction: Extra uterine pregnancy is a first-trimester pregnancy problem that affects 1.3–2.4 percent of all pregnancies. The key signs of the ectopic pregnancy are abdominal discomfort and vaginal bleeding along with Sharp, dull, or cramping pains may be experienced around 50% of the women who are suffering from ectopic pregnancy. The neglected ectopic pregnancy may results in the fallopian tube can burst, internal abdominal bleeding, shock, and serious blood loss and later complication is septicemia. As a health care professional it’s very important to manage certain complication with medical and surgical management.

Main Symptoms and/or Important Clinical Findings: A 20 years old female with post operative case of Exploratory Laparotomy admitted in A.V.B.R.H. on 14/02/2021.with chief complaints of the after undergone certain investigation she  has diagnosed as Exploratory Laparotomy with septicemia as post-op complication.

The Main Diagnoses, Therapeutic Interventions, and Outcomes: A 20 years old female with post-operative Exploratory Laparotomy for Ruptured Ectopic Pregnancy operated case with septicemia, with chief complaints of acute abdominal pain, and vaginal bleeding the doctors manage her initially with I.V. fluids, antibiotics, Zonac suppository and adequate nursing management.

Nursing Perspectives: The nursing interventions initiated for managing present case are fluid replacement therapy, monitoring vital sign per hourly, monitoring the CBC reports and other investigations like USG abdomen, blood glucose levels. Maintained TPR Chart, I/O Charting, abdominal girth charting.

Conclusion: In the Present case the patient of A  20 year old female with post operative exploratory laparotomy  for  ruptured ectopic pregnancy with  septicemia it has been managed with  the therapeutic and surgical   treatment ,right now the patient condition then  patient has discharged on dated 22/2/21.

Open Access Study Protocol

Efficacy of Relaxation Therapy on the Breathing Pattern among Bronchial Asthma Patients

Roshani P. Dhanvijay, Savita Pohekar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 55-60
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i42B32424

Background: Bronchial asthma (BA) is a chronic disease characterized by inflammation of the airway that triggers frequent cough, wheezing, dyspnea, and chest tightness. Bronchial asthma may be caused by exposure to multiple irritants and pollutants which include: pollen, dust mites, mold spores, pet dander, smoke, respiratory allergens.Treatment for bronchial asthma patients along with the medication for relieving the symptoms of asthma. Various alternative therapies alleviating the rate of wheezing, aiming to minimize asthma triggers.

Aim: The study aim is to assess the effectiveness of selected relaxation technique on the breathing outcome among patients diagnosed with bronchial asthma.

Methodology: It is an interventional evaluatory approach; time-series design will be used to conduct the bronchial asthma patients. A Non-Probability purposive sampling technique will be used to select the samples. This research study included 40 patients of AVBRH Rural hospital Sawangi (M) Wardha. Patients must select according to requirements for inclusion and exclusion criteria. The pretest-posttest will be taken with the assessment of peak expiratory flow rate, breath-holding time, and frequency of using the inhaler. After that, statistical and inferential analysis will be done.

Expected Results: Outcome includes the selected relaxation technique on the bronchial asthma patients that are effective for relieving the symptoms and frequency of medication. Both relaxation method which is most effective for the bronchial asthma patients that are going to assess with the sample.

Conclusion: The conclusion will be drawn from the statistical analysis.

Open Access Short Research Article

Short Term Follow Up of Patients with Osteoporotic Vertebral Compression Fractures Treated with Percutaneous Vertebroplasty

R. Balaraman

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 183-187
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i42B32438

Vertebral compression fractures are the most common osteoporotic fractures, 30-50% of all women develop vertebral compression fractures. In this study the mean age of 64 years with youngest case of age of 55 years and oldest case. 55 % of patients included in the study are female. One case had systemic hypertension, one case had Parkinsonism, and one case had Coronary Artery Disease. A significant reduction in analgesic intake was revealed. The patients without any analgesics increased from 0.5% (n=2) pre operative to 85.7% (n=30) at the six months follow-up (P less than 0.0001). pain score of ODS for immediate, 1month, 2 month, 3rd month and 6 month and found that(patient active measure) pam is reduced after immediate to 1 month till 6 month(p<0.05), and after 3 rd month to 6 month no difference in pam score was observed.

Open Access Minireview Article

Prevalence and Updated Management of Paralytic Ileus: A Simple Review

Ali Mohammed A. Alahmari, Abdullah Hassan F. Alsuayri, Hdinan Mohammed J. Alsadi, Basem Khaled G. Alshahrani, Fahad Mohammed Abdullah Alyahya, Saud Kashem Al Saadi, Ayman Dhaifallah A. Alamri, Hezam Shalan Alshahrani, Faris Theyab M. Alamri, Mohammed Ayed M. alshahrani, Amal Abdullah Albalawi, Muna Faisal Alnaim

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 61-66
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i42B32425

The study aims to summarize the updated evidence regards, epidemiology, causes, clinical manifestations, and management of paralytic ileus. Lower abdominal surgical procedure, particularly big open cuts and increased bowel operations, is linked with an increased hazard of bowel obstruction. Though, numerous risk issues have been revealed to upsurge the probability and resistance of intestinal obstruction, such as prolonged abdominal / pelvic surgery, lower gastrointestinal (GI) surgery, open surgery, retroperitoneal spine surgery, opioid use, cancer peritoneal, intra-abdominal inflammation (sepsis / peritonitis), delayed enteral nutrition or nasogastric (NG) tube placement, and hypokalemia. Signs of intestinal obstruction are tachycardia caused by any interruption of movement, absence of abdominal pain, abdominal distention and tenderness, shortness of breath, and hypovolemia. Bowel sounds disappear and flatulence is not discharged, leading to gastric stasis, which can cause hiccups, discomfort, and easy vomiting. Preventive measures include avoiding unnecessary exposure and over-processing of the intestine or traction of the mesentery. Treatment is conservative, as this condition is mostly self-limited. Pharmacologic Therapy have little place, but there are some exceptions of adequate values.

Open Access Original Research Article

Prevalence of Obesity and Hypertension among Rural School Adolescents: A School Based Pilot Study in Kerala, India

Ramya Kundayi Ravi, R. Vineetha

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 6-12
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i42B32420

Aim: The prevalence of hypertension and obesity is increasing worldwide. Recent data on sustained hypertension and obesity among school-going children and adolescents from the state of Kerala, India are limited. The aim of the present study was to estimate the prevalence of obesity and hypertension among apparently healthy school going adolescents.

Methodology: A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 252 school going adolescents aged 11-16 years (173 boys and 79 girls) selected from two private aided rural schools of Thrissur, District, Kerala, India. Measurements like height, weight, and blood pressure were done using standard guidelines. Guidelines of Indian Academy of Pediatrics and standard guidelines of blood pressure measurement using gender height specific blood pressure percentile charts were used to identify the overweight/obese and pre-hypertensive/ hypertensive adolescents respectively. Analysis was done using SPSS version 27.0. Gender wise differences were checked using chi-square and t-test.

Results: Among 252 adolescents, 83 (20.7%) were either overweight or obese and pre-hypertensive or hypertensive. The overall prevalence of obesity and overweight was found to be 9.5% and 15.1% respectively. The overall prevalence of hypertension and prehypertension was found to be 15 (6.0%) and 24 (9.5%) respectively. Systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure was found to be statistically lower (P<0.001) among those with normal BMI, than those with overweight or obesity. The mean systolic and diastolic BP was slightly more among boys than girls and it was not statistically significant.

Conclusion: The high prevalence of hypertension, obesity and the strong association between obesity and high blood pressure seen among school-going adolescents necessitates immediate attention. Strategies should be designed and implemented for prevention, early identification, and treatment of pediatric obesity and hypertension in forestalling the morbidity/mortality from non communicable diseases and its complications.

Open Access Original Research Article

Awareness of Stammering Disorder among Related Fields University Students, Lahore Pakistan

Aqsa Noor, Muhammad Azam Khan, Bareera Saeed, Hafsa Nareen, Fahad Massod

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 13-18
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i42B32421

Aims: To determine the awareness of stammering disorder among university students of related fields that are Speech Language Pathology, Psychology, and Allied Professionals.

Study design: Cross sectional survey is used as research design in this study.

Place and Duration of Study: University of Central Punjab, The University of Lahore. Superior University, Lahore campus between June 2020 and July 2021.

Methodology: Sample (N=333) was drawn through purposive sampling technique from various universities of Lahore with age range of 17 – 35 years of 44% male and 56% female students of related fields( Speech Language Pathology, Psychology, Allied Professionals).Standardized questionnaire was used to determine the awareness. Data was analyzed through SPSS with descriptive statistic of frequency and percentages.

Results: Majority of participants 59.6% had accurate awareness regarding stuttering is more common in male and stuttering is not hereditary.

Conclusion: It was concluded that majority university students of related fields have accurate awareness regarding stammering disorder in Lahore, Pakistan.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Hepatoprotective Potential of Manilkara hexandra STEM Bark: An In-vitro Analysis

Prasoon Kumar Saxena, Deepak Nanda, Ritu Gupta

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 19-38
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i42B32422

Background: Manilkara hexendra (Sapotaceae)is tree species, privately known as Khirni,, found in Thar Desert districts of northwest and western India. The bark acquired from the stem is utilized as a solution for syphilis, urinary issues, amplification of spleen, gonorrhea, leucoderma, and liver infections. The point of this work is to consider the hepatoprotective impact of unrefined Ethyl acetate removal from the bark portions of Manikara hexendra. The Ethyl acetate extricate got from bark portions of Manikara hexendra was assessed via cell line study in HepG2 cell line followed in for hepatoprotective movement in rodents by initiating liver harm via paracetamol and carbon tetrachloride.

Results: The Ethyl acetate extricate at an oral portion of 400 mg/kg displayed a critical (P &lt; 0.05) defensive impact. These biochemical perceptions were enhanced by histopathological assessment of liver areas. The action might be a consequence of the presence of flavonoid mixes. Moreover, the intense harmfulness of the concentrates gave no indications of poisonousness up to a portion level of 4000 mg/kg.

Conclusion: It could be inferred that Ethyl acetate concentrate of Manikara hexendra has huge hepatoprotective properties.

Open Access Original Research Article

Studies of Some Haemostatic Variables in Preeclamptic Women in Owerri, Imo State, Nigeria

Obioma Raluchukwu Emeka-Obi, Nancy C. Ibeh, Emmanuel Ifeanyi Obeagu, Hope M. Okorie

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 39-48
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i42B32402

Preeclampsia is a serious and life-threatening pregnancy complication. In this study, the levels of haemostatic parameters were measured in preeclamptic women in Owerri, Imo State. A total of 120 pregnant women aged 18-45 years at 20-40 weeks of pregnancy were recruited; 60 were preeclamptic women (test group) while 60 were normotensive pregnant women (control group). Preeclampsia was determined by the presence of ≥2+ protein in the urine using combi 2 dipstick for urinalysis and sphygmomanometer blood pressure reading of ≥ 140/90 mmHg. From the demographic data obtained in the studied subject through questionnaire, it showed that nulliparity and family history of high blood pressure were the most dominant risk factor of preeclampsia. The mean haemostatic parameters (PT, APTT, Fibrinogen, D-dimer and t-PA) of the test group were 12.3±0.94sec, 32.17±3.38sec, 627.31±106.93mg/ld, 2.23±0.50mg/l, 2.65±0.57ng/ml respectively, while the control group were 11.76±0.97sec, 28.69±2.64sec, 554±124.81 mg/dl, 1.89±0.44mg/l and 2.37±0.66 ng/ml respectively. There was a significant difference between the haemostatic parameter of the test group when compared with the control group. The results indicated that although anaemia and activation of coagulation and fibrinolysis occur within the peripheral circulation of both preeclamptic and normotensive pregnancy, an abnormal pattern of haemostasis occurs more in preeclamptic women.

Open Access Original Research Article

To Assess Competency in Interpretation of Cardiac Arrhythmias among Emergency Medical Professionals in Pune, India

Parag Rishipathak, Monesh Bhandari, Anand Hinduja

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 67-73
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i42B32426

Introduction: The annual number of deaths from Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) in India is projected to rise from 2.26 over the past several decades and have ranged from 1.6% to 7.4% in rural populations and from 1% to 13.2% in urban populations.

Electrocardiography (ECG) is a non-invasive tool which is extensively used to understand and analyze a patient’s cardiac condition. It provides information about cardiac condition and helps in diagnosing acute coronary syndromes and cardiac arrhythmias. Emergency Medical Professionals (EMP’s) handle numerous cases of medical as well as trauma emergencies daily and are the first responders prior to hospitalization and the only reliable resource to help in revival of the patient. As it is of high priority, to give the upmost necessary care to the patients, being able to interpret and honing the skills to interpret ECG is of utmost importance and necessary.

Despite its immense clinical value, there continues to be a lack of a comprehensive ECG interpretation curriculum in medical education programs. The goal should be to encourage the development of organized curriculum in undergraduate and postgraduate medical education programs, and to ensure the acquisition of level-appropriate ECG interpretation skills while maintaining patient safety.

Objective: To assess competency in interpretation of cardiac arrhythmias among Emergency Medical Professionals

Study Design:

Place of Study: Symbiosis Centre for Health Skills (SCHS), Pune India in May 2021.

Methodology: The present study was conducted in May 2021, amongst 200 Emergency Medical Professionals (EMPs) employed in various hospitals in the city of Pune, India. American Heart Association (AHA) – Pre-course Self-Assessment questions were utilized for the study to assess ECG interpretation competency among Emergency Medical Professionals.

Conclusion: The present study highlights the poor ECG competence amongst EMP’s. and is limited by its small sample size and interpretation of only three kinds of cardiac rhythms. Yet the study offers, insight on the current gaps in competence and offers simple solutions to improve the scenario.

Open Access Original Research Article

A Dissertation on Non Traumatic Abdominal Emergencies

Y. Satish Reddy

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 74-77
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i42B32427

The incidence of appendicitis is most commonly seen in the age group of non traumatic abdominal emergencies between 15 and 25 accounting for 30% of all the studied cases. In this studied cases males were predominantly affected. The main cause of viscus perforations are Duodenal perforation percentage. This study results shows the male preponderance and also a decrease in age of peptic ulcer majorly due to typhoid. The most commonest hernias to become obstructed is inguinal hernia. Small bowel obstruction seems to be disease of the young as shown by our series. Both the sexes were mostly affected from our findings. Maximum in the 0-10 age group, we had only 3.9% of such cases in our study. The female incidence (56.3%) predominated over the male incidence (43.7%).

Open Access Original Research Article

Hepatoprotective Effect of Papaya Seed Ethanol Extract on Rifampicin Isoniazid-induced Rats

Yessi Sunari Wahfar, I. Nyoman Ehrich Lister, Edy Fachrial

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 78-83
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i42B32428

Aims: Hepatotoxicity induced by anti-tuberculosis drugs, including rifampicin and isoniazid (AT- DILI, Anti Tuberculosis-Drug Induced Liver Injury), is an adverse reaction followed by significant morbidity. Several in vivo and in vitro research has confirmed that papaya seeds contain various non-essentials, minerals, and fiber. Carica papaya role in disease prevention through modulation of various processes, such as anti-inflammatory, anti-diabetes, immunomodulatory activity, and antioxidant activity, suggests a role in neutralizing free radical generation and ultimately preventing pathogenesis. This study aimed to determine the hepatoprotective effect of ethanol extract of papaya seeds on rifampicin and isoniazid- induced rats.

Study Design:  This study is experimental study.

Methodology: The experimental animals in this study were divided into eight groups, including normal group, negative group 1, negative group 2, negative group 3, positive group, treatment group I (papaya seed ethanol extract dose of 100 mg/kgBW), treatment group II (papaya seed ethanol extract dose of 300 mg/kgBW), and treatment group III (papaya seed ethanol extract dose of 500 mg/kgBW), then the rats were dissected, and blood was taken for AST, ALT, ALP, GGT, and Bilirubin level measurements.

Results: The results showed that papaya seed ethanol extract could reduce ALT, AST, ALP, GGT, and Bilirubin levels that were significantly different (P <0.05) than those in the negative control group.

Conclusion: Flavonoid contains in the extract ethanol carica papaya has vita role to prevent the liver toxicity caused by isoniazid and rifampicin.

Open Access Original Research Article

Prevalence of Obesity and Overweight among Female Nurse Students, Umm Al-Qura University, Makkah, Saudi Arabia

Hassanat Elbashir Mohammed Mustafa, Badria Abd Alla Mohamed Elfaki

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 84-91
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i42B32429

Aims: The aims of the study to estimate the prevalence of obesity and overweight among females’ students to adopt strategies to combat these problems and decrease their risk.

Study design: A cross-sectional study design.

Methodology: It was conducted among 129 participants at Um Al-Qura University collage of nursing, 2017. Stratified proportional random sampling was adopted, structured questionnaire and checklist for body height and weight were used to collect data. Agreement from each participant was taken and then written consent was obtained. The data was analyzed used SPSS version 20. A descriptive statistic was done, BMI was calculated to estimate the prevalence and Chi Square test for statistically significant was used.

Results: Shown that the prevalence of overweight and obesity were 9.0% for each and insignificant (P=Value 0.266) similar among age groups.

The study included 129 females, 51% at age group of 22-25 years and 88% with moderate family income. Also, a high significant obesity 10%, was found among single, while overweight was a high among married participants 45% (P value= 0.002). Addition to high insignificant obesity associated with high family income (P value=0.450).

Conclusions: The study explored that the prevalence of both overweight and obesity were high and similar among participants age groups, and strongly associated with many risk factors which should be considering a serious health problem that need specific attention from the community and health sectors.

Open Access Original Research Article

Development and Validation of a Novel RP-HPLC Analytical Method for Sitagliptin Determination in Human Plasma

Sagar Pamu, Sazal Patyar, Lakshmi Thakkalapally

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 92-101
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i42B32430

Background: Different bio-analytic methods have been developed for determining drug concentration in plasma, but methods for sitagliptin determination are still very rare. In this study, RP-HPLC based method has been developed for assessing sitagliptin concentration in plasma.

Aim: To develop and validate RP-HPLC based analytical method for estimating sitagliptin in human plasma for pharmacokinetic applications.

Methods: In the present study, the mobile phase composed of acetonitrile: 0.5% triethanolamine (20:80) with pH 6.5 has been utilized. Samples of plasma containing sitagliptin and internal standard (IS)-rosiglitazone were extracted with dichloromethane:diethyl ether (4:6; v/v) at pH 7.4. The rate of flow was 1 ml/min. The retention time was about 5,232 and 6,903 minutes respectively for sitagliptin and rosiglitazone.

Results: At concentrations of 100-3200 ng/ml in plasma, calibration curves of sitagliptin were linear. The inter- and intra-day precision and accuracy ranged in between 93.56-98.56% and 1.09-4.55% respectively. For specificity, the study findings showed no co-eluting peaks occurring with IS drug (rosiglitazone) and confirmed that no percentage of interferences at analyte (sitagliptin) retention in presence of rosiglitazone. The sitagliptin recovery was 96.442%. Chromatographic separations were performed on HI Qsil C-18 HS column (250mm x 4.6mm x 5μm). The stability of stock solutions of sitagliptin and IS at room temperature was 98.06% and 100.79% respectively while under refrigerated conditions stability was 98.19% and 96.59% respectively. Freeze-thaw stability for sitagliptin was performed with low & high QC and shown as 98.26% for and 97.45% respectively. The limits of detection and quantification were 8.592 ng/ml and 28.641 ng/ml respectively.

Conclusion: A simple, sensitive and accurate method was developed for bio analytical estimation of sitagliptin in human plasma using liquid-liquid extraction technique. The validation results of linearity, accuracy, precision, stability, selectivity, ruggedness, LOD and LOQ were good under acceptable limit and can be applied for pharmacokinetic studies.

Open Access Original Research Article

Persuasion in Instructions of COVID-19 by Saudi Arabia Ministry of Health

Ibtesam Abdul Aziz Bajri

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 124-138
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i42B32431

This study analyzes the persuasive strategies of instructions used by the Ministry of Health (MoH) in Saudi Arabia. It is intended to emphasize the given instructions and advice provided by the Saudi ArabiaMoH. Twenty-four short service messages on Coronavirus are randomly selected and analyzed to identify the Aristotle’s threemajor persuasive strategies exploration used as a baseline. To measure the nature and relevance of the persuasive strategies, textual content analysis is used. This hopefully cultivate their interest in learning further about the persuasive context used in different fields of linguistic endeavor. It is concluded that Ministry of Health (MoH) has used a variety of persuasive techniques and tones. It is revealed that the MoH uses the strategies of persuasion separately or combined with each other. These strategies involve the use of logos, pathos, and ethos. It is also found that in every persuasive strategy, there are different techniques that can be specified and pointed out, affirming that multiple techniques may apply in one strategy or another. Moreover, the most recurrent types of persuasive strategies used in text exploration are ethos and logos, while in persuasive techniques; simple and direct language, emergency information language and personal pronoun are predominantly used based on the content analysis. In addition, purposeful and reasonable tones are highly emphasized in the text exploration.

Open Access Original Research Article

Formulation and Evaluation of Miconazole Nitrate Loaded Nanoparticles for Topical Delivery

Ashish Y. Pawar, Khanderao R. Jadhav, Komal D. Ahire, Tushar P. Mahajan

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 102-123
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i42B32432

The aim of the present work was to formulate and evaluate Miconazole nitrate (MN) polymeric nanoparticles (NPs) for systemic delivery of the active ingredient after topical administration. The Solvent evaporation approach was used to make nanoparticles for topical delivery of MN. Particle size, entrapment efficiency and SEM were all measured in MN-SLN. A consistent size distribution (PI 0.300) was used to generate aqueous NPs dispersions with a mean particle size less than 250 nm. After 3 months of storage, the produced semi-solid systems had a mean particle size of less than 250 nm and a PI of less than 0.500. The F5 formulation was been chosen as the model formulation from among the nine nanoparticle formulations developed (F1 to F9). The reason for this was that, according to the ICH stability guidelines, formulation F5 was judged to be optimal and stable. The F5 formulations of miconazole nanoparticles shows the highest entrapment efficiency (93.28%) and drug loading (86.64%). In conclusion, there are two major advantages of using miconazole nanoparticle drug delivery systems. i.e., they are topical preparations that assemble in the hair follicles and wrinkles to produce a systemic and local action. It is possible that nanoparticles will be the most effective treatment for fungal skin infections.

Open Access Original Research Article

Formulation & Evaluation of Naringin Nanoethosome by Cold Method

Ashish Y. Pawar, Khanderao R. Jadhav, Komal Naikwade, Tushar P. Mahajan

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 139-152
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i42B32433

Naringin is a flavonoid which shows various pharmacological effects, such as, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant,cholesterol lowering activity, free radical scavenging activity. Although naringin is easily found in citrus fruits but has lower bioavailability, biodistribution and undergoes biotransformation to naringenin. To overcome this, the main objective of this work is to formulate  nanoethosome formulation containing naringin.  The use of nanoethosomes as vesicle drug carrier having ability to increase solubility, improve biodistribution, slows the biotransformation which improves the activity of naringin for treating neurological disorder. The ethosomes were formulated by varying the variables such as concentrations of soya lecithine, polyethylene glycol, and ethanol. The formulations were evaluated  with entrapment efficiency, and particle size. Results specify that prepared nanoethosomes of naringin shows decreased particle size, better entrapment efficiency as compared to rigid ethosomes. The F4 was selected as optimized formulation which was further characterized for vesicle size determination. The F4  shows vesicles size of 145.9 nm having 83.9% entrapment efficiency. The nanoethosomes were  proved to be significantly superior in terms of amount of drug permeated into the skin, with an enhancement ratio of 3.77 when compared to rigid ethosomes. Our results suggests that nanoethosomes are an efficient carrier for improved naringin permeation & stability.

Open Access Original Research Article

Development and Validation of RP-HPLC Chromatographic Dissolution Method for the Simultaneous Estimation of Ramipril and Hydrochlorothiazide from Solid Dosage Formulation

Prabhakar V. Raut, Sudhakar L. Padwal, Madhusudhan T. Bachute, Satish A. Polshettiwar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 203-217
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i42B32440

The present study describes the dissolution method development and validation of Ramipril and Hydrochlorothiazide in tablet dosage form by HPLC Method.

A simple, rapid, selective, reproducible and isocratic reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatographic (RP-HPLC) method has been developed and validated as per ICH guidelines.

Analysis was performed on a Thermo, Sunniest C8 (150 mm x 4.6 mm, 5 µm) with the mobile phase consisting of mixing 500 mL of buffer solution and 500 mL of acetonitrile at a flow rate of 1.0mL/min. UV detection was performed at 210nm and the Run time for Ramipril and Hydrochlorothiazide were 10 minutes. The calibration curve was linear (correlation coefficient = 1.000) in the selected range for both analytes.

The optimized dissolution conditions include the USP Type 1 (Basket) rotation rate of 100 rpm and 750 mL of 0.1 N Hydrochloric acid as dissolution medium, at 37.0 ± 0.5°C. The method was validated for precision, linearity, specificity, accuracy, limit of quantitation and ruggedness. The system suitability parameters, such as theoretical plate, tailing factor and relative standard deviation (RSD) between six standard replicates were well within the limits. The stability result shows that the drug is stable in the prescribed dissolution medium.

Open Access Original Research Article

Age-Related Haematological Variations in Patients with Asymptomatic Malaria in Akure, Ondo State, Nigeria

Emmanuel Ifeanyi Obeagu, Ayomiposi Ibironke Busari, Immaculata Ogochukwu Uduchi, I. A. Ogomaka, Adaobi Maryann Ibekwe, C. C. N. Vincent, Udunma Olive Chijioke, Chukwuma J. Okafor, Henshaw U. Okoroiwu, Calista Ndidi Adike

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 218-224
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i42B32441

Background: Malaria is a life-threatening infectious disease of widespread burden. Malaria remains a leading communicable disease in the developing countries of the world. It occurs mostly in the tropical and subtropical regions and accounts for considerable morbidity and death. Malaria which is liable for a major amount of mortalities in endemic countries has been revealed to have both direct and indirect impacts on the haematologicalparameters.The study was done to compare the levels of haematological parameters of asymptomatic malaria patients based on age groups.

Methods: The study is a cross-sectional study among asymptomatic malaria patients based on age groups. This study was conducted in Oda Road area of Akure, Ondo State. Two hundred (200) subjects were recruited for this study with each group comprising of 100 subjects for patients with asymptomatic malaria for the 2 age groups (16-30 years and 31-65 years). The data were presented in tables and as mean ± standard deviation and analyzed using student-test for parametric data and chi-square for non parametric data by statistical packages for social sciences (SPSS, Version 20.0) and level of significance set at as p≤ 0.05.

Results: The results showed that subjects on age group 16-30 years were 100(50%) comprising of 50 males (25%) and 50 females (25). Also age group 31-65 years has 100 subjects (50%) comprising of 50 males (25%) and 50 females (25).The results showed significant difference in MCV (p=0.008), MCH (p=0.024) and no significant difference in PCV (p=0.675), WBC (p= 0.224), LYM (p=0.109), GRAN (p=0.061), MID (p=0.066), RBC (p=0.119), Hb (p=0.546), MCHC (p=0.262), PLT (p=0.783), when compared between age groups in years (16-30 and 31-65).

Conclusion: The study showed increase in MCV and MCH of asymptomatic malaria patients within the age group of 31-65 years compared to asymptomatic malaria patients on 16-30 years age group. This shows that microcytic hypochromic anaemia may be experienced in asymptomatic malaria patients within the age group of 16-30 years more than in 31-65 years age group.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of the Cold Chain Expanded Program on Immunization at Governmental and Private Health Care Centers in Riyadh City, Saudi Arabia

Abdulrahman Hussain Alqahtani, Suhair Alsaleh, Abdulaziz Almana

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 225-236
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i42B32442

Objective: Vaccine storage is essential to ensure optimal vaccine effectiveness. Cold chain is a series of storage and transport links, designed to keep the vaccine at the correct temperature till it reaches the user. To evaluate the Cold Chain Expanded Program on Immunization at Governmental and Private Health Care Centers in Riyadh city, Saudi Arabia.

Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted from March to May 2021 in government and private primary health care centers of Riyadh, Saudi Arabia were included. Data collection was carried out using standardized check list developed by Saudi Ministry of Health (MOH) and World Health Organization (WHO). Data were analysed using IBM SPSS Statistics 26 (C) and IBM SPSS 26 (IBM Inc.)

Results: The results showed that the mean score of Room and Refrigerator Elements for governmental PHCs was 8.8(±0.82), while it was 8.3(±1.86) for private PHCs. The mean temperature monitoring device score for government PHCs was 4.0 (0.0), and the 3.65 (±0.92) for PHCs centers. The mean temperature chart (record keeping) score for governmental PHCs was 2.55(±0.5) and 1.8(±1.2) for private PHCs. The mean maintenance and operations score for governmental PHCs was 4.6 (±0.49), while it was 4.1 (±0.84) for private PHCs. The mean scores of all cold chain components differed significantly between government and private facilities (p=0.000).

Conclusion: Our study highlights the cold chain management programs Saudi Arabia. More importantly governmental PHC centers in the current settings comply with the standards to the guidelines, provided by Saudi Ministry of Health and WHO, was observed, in comparison to private PHC centers.

Open Access Original Research Article

An Eco-friendly RP-HPLC and UV-Method Development and Validation for an Estimation of Tolvaptan in Bulk and Tablet Dosage form Followed by Forced Degradation Studies

Patel Seema A., Sayyed Nazifa S., Lajporiya Mobina I., Manjra Mehfuza U., Aejaz Ahmed, G. J. Khan

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 271-286
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i42B32446

Aims: To develop and validate a new, simple, rapid, precise, and accurate An Eco-friendly RP-HPLC and UV-Method Development and Validation for an estimation of Tolvaptan in Bulk and Tablet dosage form followed by Forced Degradation Studies

Place and Duration of the Study: The present work has been carried out at Ali-Allana College of Pharmacy, Akkalkuwa between November-2020 to April-2021.

Methodology: The UV-Spectroscopic method was developed for the estimation of tolvaptan in bulk and tablet dosage form. The solvent selected for the tolvaptan UV analysis was 4% aq. SLS solution, the solution of 10µg/ml was scanned in UV region from 200-400 nm and the λmax value was determined. The RP-HPLC method was developed on Sunsil C18 150 mm x 4.6mm x 5μ column using acetonitrile: water [45:55] as mobile phase at flow rate 1.0 ml/min and UV detection at 266 nm.

Results: The maximum absorbance was observed at 266 nm. The wavelength 266 nm was selected for further analysis of tolvaptan. The calibration curve was determined using drug concentrations ranging from 20-100 µgm/ml. The system suitability was performed by injecting a standard solution containing 200µg/ml of tolvaptan in six replicates. For two of them, the peak asymmetric were <1.5 and the theoretical plate number was >2000, and the %RSD of tolvaptan was less than 2.

Conclusion: From the above results, it was concluded that the developed UV and RP-HPLC methods are precise and accurate and can be applied for the quantitative estimation of tolvaptan from bulk and tablet dosage forms. The method can be used for routine testing of tolvaptan by the pharmaceutical industry. Validation of the developed method was done as per International Conference on Harmonization (ICH) Q2R1 guidelines.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Daclatasvir and Sofosbuvir Therapy on Serum Levels of Angiogenic Factors: A Prospective Cohort Study

Eman M. Hamdy, Nashwa A. Shebl, Tarek M. Mostafa

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 298-308
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i42B32448

Background: Direct-acting antiviral agents therapy is considered a breakthrough in hepatology due to high rates of sustained virologic response in all patients including those with decompensated cirrhosis. However, impact of Direct-acting antiviral agents-induced sustained virologic response on hepatocellular carcinoma development remains conflicting.

Aims: This study aimed at evaluating the change in circulating levels of vascular endothelial growth factor and transforming growth factor-β1, the main angiogenic factors involved in hepatocarcinogenesis process, in cirrhotic patients achieved sustained virologic response after Direct-acting antiviral agents therapy.

Study Design: This was a prospective, single-center, cohort study.

Place and Duration of Study: Patients were recruited from the outpatient clinic of National Liver Institute, which considered a tertiary referral center in Menoufia University, Egypt (September 2018 to February 2019).

Methodology: Forty-five decompensated cirrhotic hepatitis C virus infected patients with no history of hepatocellular carcinoma participated in the study. All patients received 60mg oral daclatasvir and 400mg oral sofosbuvir once daily for 12 or 24 weeks with or without ribavirin. Serum levels of vascular endothelial growth factor and transforming growth factor-β1 were measured at baseline and 12 weeks after the end of therapy.

Results: The median serum levels of vascular endothelial growth factor showed a non-statistically significant increase (from 1123 ng/L to 1269 ng/L, P = 0.126). But, transforming growth factor-β1 median serum levels exhibited a non-statistically significant reduction (from 13.22 ng/ml to 12.44 ng/ml, P = 0.163) 12 weeks after treatment.

Conclusion: Our findings show direct-acting antiviral agents therapy do not affect vascular endothelial growth factor and transforming growth factor-β1 serum levels. But, a larger scale prospective cohort study on an extended follow-up period is recommended.

Open Access Original Research Article

Anti-Atherosclerosis and Anti-Hypertensive Effects of Flavonoid Isorhamnetin Isolated from the Bark of Cordia dichotoma L

Syed Salman Ali, Mohammad Asif, Najam Ali Khan

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 316-338
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i42B32450

Aims: This study aimed to investigate the anti-atherosclerotic and anti-hypertensive ability of isolated Isorhamnetin from the bark of Cordia dichotoma L.

Study design: Experimental study

Place and Duration of Study: The extraction and isolation of bark of Cordia dichotoma L bark (ACDL) was done at Biosapience lab, Bhopal, India. Anti-atherosclerotic activity was done at IFTM University, Moradabad, India. Anti-hypertensive activity was done at BilwalMedchem and Research Laboratory, Pvt. Ltd, Jaipur, India. All the studies was conducted from 2015 to 2021 depending upon the availability of resources.

Methodology: Column chromatography was done for Ethyl acetate soluble fraction of successive alcoholic extract of Cordia dichotoma L bark (ACDL), followed by successive fractionation using benzene, n-butanol, and acetone. Eluents with similar Rf values were pooled and underwent flavonoid test. Only a single eluents that passed the test was underwent purification. The crystallized powder obtained underwent UV, FTIR, Mass, 1H NMR and 13C NMR analysis for structural identification.

The evaluation of anti-atherosclerotic activity of isolated Isorhamnetin from bark extract of plant C. dichotoma L was done in high fat induced atherosclerosis rats. The seven groups of Wistar rats were taken and each group containing six rats. To evaluate the anti-hypertensive activity of the plant extract, L-NAME induced hypertension model was used.

Results: The structural identification and confirmation of flavonoid Isorhamnetin was analyzed by characterizations of isolated product. Lipid, lipoprotein profile and body weight were determined in high fat diet induced atherosclerosis rats. Isorhamnetin isolated from bark of C. dichotoma L produced a significant and dose-dependent anti-atherosclerotic activity in terms of reduction in low density lipoprotein (LDL), very low density lipoprotein (VLDL), Total cholesterol (TC), and Triglyceride (TG) level; and elevation of high density lipoprotein (HDL). Isorhamnetin isolated from the bark of plant C. dichotoma L reduced the elevated arterial pressure of L-NAME induced hypertensive rat significantly to the level of normotensive animal group. The isolated Isorhamnetin have shown its potential as an efficient source for the treatment of hypertension.

Conclusion: The present study has identified the isolation and characterization of isorhamnetin flavonoid from bark of plant C. dichotoma L. This study also provides evidences of anti-atherosclerotic and antihypertensive effects of C. dichotoma L.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Effects of Lubricants on the Disintegration and Dissolution Profile of Metronidazole Tablets Formulated Using Sida acuta Gum as a Binder

Sinodukoo Eziuzo Okafo, Avbunudiogba John Afokoghene, Christian Areruruoghene Alalor, Deborah Ufuoma Igbinake

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 350-362
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i42B32452

Aims: This research was done to study the effects of types and concentrations of lubricants on the dissolution and disintegration profile of metronidazole tablets formulated using Sida acuta gum as a binder.

Methodology: Sida acuta gum (SAG) was extracted from powdered dried leaves of Sida acuta. Metronidazole granules were produced by wet granulation technique using different concentrations (1 and 2%) of SAG as a binder and mixed with different concentrations (0.5, 1.0, and 1.5%) of magnesium stearate (MS) or sodium lauryl sulphate (SLS) as a lubricant. The granules/lubricant -mix was compressed into tablets and evaluated for hardness, weight uniformity, drug content, disintegration time, friability and in vitro drug release.

Results: The hardness for the tablets was from 4.08 to 7.97 Kgf. The friability was from 0.02±0.45 to 3.40±0.43%. Tablets from formulations A1-A3, B2, and B3 failed the friability test. Formulations prepared with 1% SAG were more friable than those formulated with 2% SAG. Disintegration time for formulations A1-A3 (1% SAG + MS) ranged from 19.07 to 63.5 min, while that of A4-A6 (2% SAG + MS) was from 39.06 to 81.48 min. Formulations B1-B3 (1% SAG + SLS) had disintegration time that ranged from 4.22 to 6.8 min while that of B4-B6 (2% SAG + SLS) was from 9.35 to 15.90 min. The % drug release at 60 min for formulations that contained SAG and MS was 76.60-104.28% and SAG and SLS was 99.89-101.35%

Conclusion: Metronidazole tablets formulated using SLS as lubricant disintegrated faster than those formulated using magnesium stearate as lubricant. Percentage drug release from tablets containing SLS was slightly higher than those that contained magnesium stearate. Higher concentrations of the lubricants produced softer tablets.

Open Access Original Research Article

Antibacterial Activities of Calcareous/TiO2 Nanocomposites

P. Mariselvi, T. Anantha Kumar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 377-388
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i42B32455

Aims: In the present investigation, To synthesis, characterization and antibacterial activity of Calcareous/TiO2 nanocomposites toward Bacillus, Proteus vulgaris, Micrococcus luteus, Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli.

Methodology: The resulting Calcareous/TiO2 nanocomposite was synthesized by         hydrothermal method. The synthesized nanocomposites were characterized by using XRD,        SEM with EDAX, AFM, TEM and UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy. The antibacterial            activities of the Calcareous/TiO2 nanocomposite species were checked by using agar well diffusion method.

Results: The XRD pattern is showed that the diffraction peaks appear in the pattern    corresponding to the anatase phase of TiO2. UV-Visible spectrum showed that the blue shifted when compared with bulk TiO2 (3.2 eV). The blue shift might be caused by nanosize effect and structural defect of nanomaterials. AFM image shows the morphology of Calcareous/TiO2 nanocomposites forming sharp particles on the surface. TEM image showed that the particles exhibit a relatively uniform particle size distribution. The average size of the nanocomposites estimated from the TEM image is around 50nm.

Conclusion: In conclusion, the Calcareous/TiO2 nanocomposites have been successfully synthesized. The prepared nanocomposites were characterized using various analytical tools like XRD, SEM with EDAX, AFM, TEM, UV-Vis absorption spectrum.

Open Access Original Research Article

Comparing the Efficacy of 2% Diltiazem Gel with 0.2% Glyceryl Trinitrate in Anal Fissure

Ehsanullah Malik, Sania Bhatti, Qararo Shah, Muharram Ali Abbasi, Khushbakhat Abro, Vaqar-E-Sahar Shah, Fahad Jibran Siyal, Dua Rabel Siyal, Sumbul Masood, Abdul Basit Gopang, Arsalan Humayun

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 397-401
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i42B32457

Objective: To compare the efficacy of 2% diltiazem gel with 0.2% glyceryl trinitrate in patients presenting with chronic anal fissure at Tertiary Care Hospital, Larkana.

Methodology: This prospective comparative Study was conducted at department of Surgery ward-II Chandka Medical Hospital, Larkana from 14-01-19 to 14-07-19. A total of 130 patients who were treated as OPD cases were included in this study. Each patient detailed history & clinical examination, details of symptomatology was recorded in a epically diagnosed proforma. These patients were randomly divided in two equal groups i-e group A 65 patients and group B 65 patients. Group A patients were treated with 02% glyceryl trinitrate and group B patients were treated with diltiazem gel 02%. All the patients of group A & B were followed up to 02 months after start of leadema as a OPD cases.

Results: A total of 130 patients (65 each in 2% diltiazem gel with 0.2% glyceryl trinitrate group) were included. Mean age in both groups was 42.56±3.91 and 41.71±4.01. 46 (70.8%) and 19 (29.2%) were male and female in Group A and 39 (60%) and 26 (40%) were male and female in Group B. Efficacy of 2% diltiazem gel with 0.2% glyceryl trinitrate in patients presenting with chronic anal fissure was 76.9% and 50.8% respectively.

Conclusion: DTZ (2%) and GTN (0.2%) are equally effective in healing anal fissures. DTZ is better than GTN as it causes less side effects, low recurrence rate, healing rate and therefore better compliance.

Open Access Review Article

Cutaneous Disorders Due to Exposures to Marine Life: A Simple Review

Rayyan Fahad H. Altemani, Yousef Hussain J. Alharthi, Raghad Saud A. Albalawi, Abeer Mohammed M. Al-Enezi, Farah Abdulrahman Aljohani, Khawla Abdulrahman Alzahrani, Dana Mohsen Alqasmi, Abeer Zaal S. Alblawi, Dhuha Abdullah ALQasir, Sarah Ali Abusabir, Afnan Fadhel Aljawi

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 49-54
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i42B32423

Exposure to aquatic organisms includes a variety of clinical situations. Skin damage after exposure to the marine environment includes bacterial and fungal infections as well as damage caused by aquatic plants and protists. Aquatic skin diseases are various skin diseases found among swimmers, divers, fishermen and tourists participating in water activities. Some conditions are particularly relevant to fresh or salt water, while other conditions may occur in both environments at the same time. Injuries can be divided into several general categories. There may also be overlapping, non-infected mechanical damage, infection after mechanical damage, and mechanical damage accompanied by inoculation of poisons or substances with sensitizing properties. The clinical manifestations of skin diseases generally include erythema, blisters, urticaria, edema, scars, pigment changes and paresthesias. General management is achieved through the application of first aid as well as diagnostic imaging and tetanus prevention.

Open Access Review Article

Utility of Pramana in Ayurveda – A Review

K. Manjula, Vd. Arun Vaidya, V. Asokan, Tejas Kumar Vyas

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 153-157
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i42B32434

Ayurveda has inculcated many principles from darshana shastra. Pramana is one such principle which is widely used in Ayurveda with certain modifications in its applicability. With the keen observation and analytical skill the ancient sages identified the pramana as the tool to gain thorough knowledge. Ayurveda has adopted pramana namely aptopadesha, pratyaksha, anumana, yukti along with other types. The word pramana and pariksha are used synonymous in Ayurveda. Systematical analysis and gaining the exact knowledge is pariksha. Vast application of these can be seen in the treatises. Thus a literary review is taken up as an attempt to understand the utility of pramana in Ayurveda with respect to understand the basic concepts, field of research, diagnosis and treatment of disease is done.

Open Access Review Article

Etiology, Diagnosis and Management of Acute Compartment Syndrome: A Simple Review

Yazeed Ali S. Albalawi, Reema Ibrahim A. Albaltan, Turki Abdullah A. Alzahrani, Ahad Mohammed Almutairi, Meshael Alawi Almatari, Yasser Sultan M. Almuthhin, Zahraa Abbas A. Kassarah, Wejdan Mohammed K. Alhujayri, Habib Yousef Aldabbab, Turki Abdullah A. Alahmadi

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 158-165
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i42B32435

The study aimed to summarize the updated evidence regards, Etiology, Diagnosis and Management of Acute compartment syndrome. Acute compartment syndrome (ACS) is a condition in which pressure builds up inside a closed osteofascial compartment, impairing local circulation. Early diagnosis and treatment are credited with the best outcomes following Acute Compartment Syndrome. The severity of compartment syndrome varies from mild to severe. Fasciotomies should be performed very soon if the patient have acute compartment syndrome. The treatment of late compartment syndrome (delayed or missing diagnosis) is more problematic. Long duration of acute compartment syndrome without treatment can cause irreversible damage that’s why early intervention is a must, non-operative measurement is preferred if possible, to prevent any surgical complications, however if surgery is needed it must be performed with Two-incision fasciotomy being the most used method.

Open Access Review Article

Propagation, Phytochemistry and Pharmacology of Plumbago indica - A Review

H. A. S. A Priyanjani, R. M. U. S. Senarath, W. T. P. S. K Senarath, M. L. A. M. S. Munasinghe

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 188-202
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i42B32439

Aims: Plumbago indica is a medicinal plant widely grown in the tropics and temperate region to use in traditional systems of medicine. Different parts of this plant are used to treat rheumatoid arthritis, dysmenorrhea, cancer, leprosy, syphilis, rheumatism, paralysis, headache, leukoderma, enlarged glands, scabies, ophthalmia, dyspepsia, haemorrhage, piles, flatulence, loss of appetite etc. Various kinds of researches were carried out in different countries on propagation and pharmacology of this medicinal plant. Scientifically proven data were concentrated on this paper to facilitate reliable convenience data source and encourage further studies.

Methodology: Scientific data published on full papers, abstracts about morphology, growth, propagation, traditional medicinal uses and pharmacology of P. indica over 70 years (1949-2020) by researchers in different countries were collected and categorized under suitable topics.

Results: According to literature P. indica leaves, stems, roots contain phytochemical compound that are responsible for its medicinal properties. Tissue culture of this plant can be uses as effective propagation method to fulfill the increasing demand of raw materials (dried plant parts) for medicinal preparations as well as preserve the plant in their natural habitat.

Value: P. indica is used to treat vast range of diseases in traditional medicinal systems in different countries and currently pharmacological experiments are conducting to prove it scientifically. Plumbagin present in P. indica roots was already identified as a potential anti-cancer agent and subjected to more research interest. Therefore this review article helps new researchers to get wide knowledge about the plant and its pharmacology.

Open Access Review Article

Determining the Effectiveness of Different Reconstruction Method and Mandibular Implants for Fracture in the Mandible

Maryam Hassannia, Sajad Ghorbanizadeh

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 237-257
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i42B32443

Introduction: Every year, many people suffer from mandibular defects due to various reasons such as trauma or malignant tumors. Various techniques for reconstructing mandibular defects have always been considered by surgeons and maxillofacial specialists to select the best option and achieve the desired results for the patient. In this study, various articles and their techniques for reconstruction of mandibular defects were reviewed and their results were reported.

Materials and Methods: The present study is a systematic review study in which the keywords implants, mandibular, trauma, reconstruction of the desired articles in two databases pubmed and science direct from January 1, 2010 to August 31, 2018 And were selected and then examined.

Results: 33 articles met the inclusion criteria on which the final review was performed. 17 articles were clinical studies, 9 articles were case reports and 7 articles were reviews. In these 33 studies, various techniques were examined, including the use of free vascularized fibular flap, the use of computer software, and the prototyping technique.

Conclusion: Among the existing methods, the use of free vascularized fibular flap has been approved as a widely used and reliable method in various studies, and many researchers believe that this technique is the gold standard for the reconstruction of mandibular defects. The use of computer software was also used as a complementary technique to improve surgical outcomes.

Open Access Review Article

Role of Pharmacists in Health Care: A Review on Pharmacist and Consumer Views

Haritha Mohanan, Aiswarya Rajesh, V. V. Aswathi, A. Sareena

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 258-263
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i42B32444

As a member of the therapeutic team, pharmacists should be directly involved in patient healthcare. Many studies over the last few years have shown that pharmacists providing pharmaceutical care services can enhance patients’ clinical status and health care outcomes. However, differences exist between developing and developed countries in the accepted scope of pharmacists' professional services. The expansion of the pharmacist's role can lead to significant changes in patient perceptions. Advancements in pharmacy practice and the incorporation of professional services are gaining attention in developing countries. This review aims to analyze pharmacists’ and public views and attitudes towards the role of pharmacists in healthcare to find the best ways to support and improve the services. Studies investigating public or pharmacist views on pharmacists' roles or pharmacy services from 2010 to 2021 have been considered and reviewed.

Open Access Review Article

A Review on Antimicrobial Stewardship Programs in Multiple Care Settings

Aiswarya Rajesh, Haritha Mohanan, Rajeev P. Thomas

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 264-270
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i42B32445

Antimicrobial resistance is a global problem that is regarded as one of the most important threats to human health. Misuse of antibiotics leads to an increase in antibiotic resistance as well as higher healthcare costs. Antimicrobial stewardship is a coordinated, multidisciplinary program aimed at improving antimicrobial prescribing to enhance treatment outcomes while reducing unpredictable consequences of antimicrobial use, such as toxicity, pathogenic organism selection, and resistance emergence. Each hospital has its own antimicrobial stewardship program, which requires the enthusiastic participation of both administration and medical staff. The key components are audits and feedbacks, antibiotic pre-authorization, the use of guidelines or written material, and healthcare professional education. These strategies allow for a reduction in total antibiotic exposure while still providing the best care and avoiding the overuse of broad-spectrum antibiotics. Prospective audits can reveal ineffective interventions and suggest changes. The goal of this review is to gain a better understanding of Antimicrobial Stewardship programs so that antibiotic prescribing, dispensing, and administration can be improved in multiple care settings.

Open Access Review Article

Selective Optimization of Side Activities (SOSA) as an Efficient Approach for Generation of New Leads from Old Drugs

Preeti P. Mehta, Yogita Ozarde, Ranjit Gadhave, Arti Swami

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 287-297
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i42B32447

The selective optimization of side activities (SOSA) approach appears to be a promising strategy for lead generation. In this approach old drugs are used to generate new hits or leads. The objective of SOSA is to prepare analogues of the hit molecule in order to transform the observed “side activity” into the main effect and to strongly reduce or abolish the initial pharmacological activity. The idea of taking a molecule with a primary activity in humans and then enhancing a secondary effect through structural changes describes the most common implementation of SOSA. An advantage to starting a drug discovery program with molecules that have already been tested in humans is that those molecules have already satisfied many safety criteria. Such molecules also likely have favourable pharmacokinetic profiles. In the present review different successful examples of SOSA switches are summarized. We hope that the present review will be useful for scientists working in the area of drug design and discovery.

Open Access Review Article

The Role of Mitochondrial Energetics and Inflammasome NLRP3 in Diabetic Cardiomyopathy

Maha Almas, Usaal Tahir, Mariam Zameer, Maham Mazhar, Qurban Ali, Ayesha Rafique, Khushbukhat Khan

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 309-315
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i42B32449

Diabetic Cardiomyopathy is the worldwide leading cause of lethal heart disorders burdening the healthcare systems. Mitochondrion is the key regulator of myocardial metabolism. It fuels the cardiocytes and regulates the pumping activity of heart. People living with diabetes have defected myocardial metabolism which may likely to cause ventricular dysfunction or other heart disorders due to mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutation. Furthermore, the inflammatory injury due to inflammasome activation is a potent contributor to the cardiac injuries. Though the mechanism of inflammation is still poorly known. This review highlights the association of altered mitochondrial energetics and inflammasome activation with cardiomyopathies.

Open Access Review Article

Review on Abhrasindoora: A Sublimated Mercurial Formulation as a Herbo-Bio-Mineral Metallic Compound for Respiratory Ailments

Rakesh Bramhankar, Jaimini Arya, Abhaya Kumar Mishra, Snigdha Das, Nisha Munishwar, H. Raghuveer

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 339-349
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i42B32451

Abhrasindoora is a unique mercurial formulation as a herbo-bio-mineral metallic compound which is mentioned under Kupipakwa Rasayana Prakarana in Rasendra Sambhava. There are four formulations are mentioned with the name of Abhrasindoora, amongst them one in Rasendra Shambhava and three in Rasayogasagara. In this review article we have focused on the specific method mentioned in Rasendra Sambhava, which is a combination of Dhanyabhraka, Shodhita Parada (Mercury), Shodhita Gandhaka (Sulphur) in equal proportion (1:1:1). Its method of preparation initiates with the Kajjali formation followed by impregnation of Latex of Calotropis procera (QS) and freshly expressed arial root juice of Ficus bengalensis (QS) and cooking into mud smeared seven layered glass bottle using sand bath heating system. Specific heating pattern consisting of mild (1200C-2500C) moderate (2500C-4500C) and intense (4500C-6500C) heat should be maintained for preparation of Abhrasindoora. Previous pharmaceutical study done by Dr. Jyoti B. (2018) had yielded approximately 28% bright red color Abhrasindoora. In Rasayogasagara, bhasmikarana process is mentioned for preparation of Abhrasindoora which is not appropriate as per current trend. Hence, Rasendra Sambhava method is appropriate to prepare Abhrasindoora. This formulation has broad spectrum activity along with suitable adjuvants. The therapeutic indications are Cough, Bronchial Asthma, Fever etc. This herbo-bio-mineral metallic compound is quick acting, low dose, highly stable, good palatability and helps to treats chronic ailments.

Open Access Review Article

Role of Curcuma Longa in Type 2 Diabetes and its Associated Complications

Waseem Abbas, Rafeeq Alam Khan, Mirza Tasawer Baig, Safdar Ali Shaikh, Andeep Kumar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 369-376
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i42B32454

Background: Occurrence of Diabetes and its related complications increased all over the world due to recent lifestyle trends.  A higher proportion of ultra-processed foods in the diet have been associated with a higher risk of T2D. A lack of fiber and a surplus of refined simple carbohydrate are contributing to obesity and diabetes diagnosis. Hence there is need to evaluate different nutraceuticals for the management of Diabetes.

Methodology: A Scopus, pub Med/Medline and Google Scholar electronic database search was done by using the key word role of Curcuma Longa in diabetes type 2 and its associated complications to review the related articles.

Summary: Curcumin a yellow color powder is one of the most important components of Curcuma Longa L; and commonly utilized as food additive in Asian countries. Pre-treatment of human umbilical vein endothelial cells curcumin leads to decrease in intracellular MGO level induced by exogenous MGO and also modify the carboxymethyl cellulose formation. Curcumin nutritional supplement fully normalized arterial AGEs. Curcumin reduced AGEs increase in the heart of diabetic rats. Curcumin reduces the development of diabetes in pre-diabetic population.

Conclusion: The literature review shows that the Curcuma Longa L; revealed anti-diabetic and antioxidant effects and prevent the development of diabetes associated complications in different animal model.

Open Access Review Article

An Overview on the Epidemiology, Pathophysiology and Treatment of Vitiligo: A Review

Dhaifallah Alrokwi Alenizi, Abdulrahman Munis W. Al-Ruwaili, Wael Salamah Thiyab Alanazi, Abdulazez Aweed Mehdy Alonezy, Talal Ahmed A. Albalawi, Rahaf Meshal L. Alanazi, Sama Abdulfattah M. Al Madani, Luluah Maan Ramadan Abdullah

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 389-396
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i42B32456

Vitiligo is one of the complex diseases that has existed during the entire history of humanity and so far we have not fully understood it, serval theories have been proposed most of them suggest strong linkage between deficiencies in certain genes and the disease, refereeing that the disease has strong genetic factor that plays a rule in triggering the disease, and the epidemiology studies confirms also that theory due to higher incidence in people who have siblings but this theory does not fully unlocks the full causes of the disease as it seems also to have strong environmental triggers. One of the biggest problem about the disease and the QoL is not the disease lifestyle itself but rather the social and psychological effects of the disease and the social acceptance impact, because it affects the appearance of its patients and thus affects their social acceptance leading to some serious psychological and depressive disorders, and that effects differs from society to another and by different categories, that’s why psychological follow up and treatment is critical part of the overall treatment. In this review, we overview recent updates in epidemiology, pathophysiology and treatment of vitiligo.