Open Access Case Report

Case Study of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome -An Overview

Pratiksha Chitalkar, Rakesh Kumar Jha, Dhruba Hari Chandi

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 56-60
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i39A32141

Introduction: Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is also known as polycystic ovarian disorder (POD). The disease is mainly metabolic (hyper androgenic) one. It usually affects women between the ages of 18 and 44. PCOS has no clear origin, although it seems to work at home. It is related to the effects of high levels of hormones in the body, such as high insulin levels.

PCOS affects more than a million people in India each year. PCOS affects one in five Indian women (20%). Left untreated, the disease can lead to serious health problems.

Conclusion: There is no permanent treatment for it since it is an irreversible syndrome/disease. The best way to improve health conditions is to change one's lifestyle and take drugs. One of the most effective methods is to make a healthy food/bad food chart and stick to it with exercise and medicine on a daily basis.

Open Access Systematic Review Article

Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) as a Tool for Diagnosis and Treatment Analysis of Mood Disorders

Mapari Poojal, Ranjit Ambad, Ninad Nagrale, Nandkishor Bankar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 123-127
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i39A32149

Background: The misdiagnosis rate for mood disorders is high. Psychiatric literature is in much need of a more objective and quantitative tool for the investigation of mood disorders. Although SPECT has been previously used in research for the understanding of the neuroscience behind depressive and bipolar disorders, it is a tool that remains underutilized in clinical settings.

Aims: To study the effectiveness of SPECT as a tool for diagnosis and treatment analysis of mood disorders.

Discussion: SPECT provides a significant insight into the neurochemistry of the brain during normal and abnormal functioning. The involvement of regional cerebral blood flow(rCBF) and serotonin transport (SERT) abnormalities as markers of mood disorders are theories that receive backing from single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT).

Conclusion: This neuroimaging technique may be used a tool for differential diagnosis between mood disorders. Moreover, SPECT may be utilized to evaluate the effectiveness of treatment being provided to patients with mood disorders. Additional research to improve sensitivity and specificity of SPECT may encourage its further usage in clinical settings. The future of SPECT as a tool for diagnosis and treatment analysis of mood disorders looks promising.

Open Access Systematic Review Article

Immediate Dentin Sealing For Indirect Esthetic Restorations: A Systematic Review

Khaled Alghulikah, Reem Mohammed Al Kahtani, Sara Abdullah Al Rasayn, Sara Khalid Alawad

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 168-174
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i39A32156

Background: The progress in the field of dental adhesion has shown great implications for restorative dentistry. Immediate dentin sealing is a technique that was introduced to improve the bonding of indirect restorations. The improvement of bonding techniques to both enamel and dentin promotes the practice of conservative dental treatment.Hencethe purpose of the current study was to search for the best available evidence concerning the clinical outcomes of immediate dentin sealing.

Methodology: An extensive search was performed using different online databases (Pubmed, Scopus, Web of Science, Google Scholar and Cochrane library). These search engines were searched for relevant articles by developing relevant search strategies. Three independent authors reviewed studies, collected data, and assessed risk of bias.

Results: After reviewing 221 studies, duplicates were removed and inclusion and exclusion criteria were applied. Finally, three clinical studies were accepted in this review.

Conclusions: Previous in vitro studies have shown improved outcomes, although there was no strong evidence in clinical studies to prove superiority of this clinical approach.

Open Access Systematic Review Article

Marginal Adaptation of CAD/CAM Restorations: A Systematic Review

Khaled Alghulikah, Maha Loay Bohairi, Ruba Al-Mutlaq, Basmah Al-Feraih

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 279-285
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i39A32171

Background: Several treatment options are available for restorative dental treatment of moderate to large teeth defects. However, in recent years, improved computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) technology show several advantages, including favorable esthetic results, conservative preparation techniques and cost-effectiveness hence the aim
of the study was to search for the best available evidence in investigating whether CAD/CAM fabricated partial coverage restorations will show better marginal adaptation and provide an evidence-based clinically relevant statement.

Methodology: An extensive search was performed using four online databases. Search strategies were developed for each online database, the studies were reviewed by three independent authors, and inclusion/exclusion criteria were applied and the quality of the included studies was assessed.
Results: The initial search resulted in 998 studies from all the databases. Six clinical studies were identified as relevant to the research question and were included in the qualitative assessment.

Conclusions: Marginal adaptation of CAD/CAM-fabricated restoration shows excellent clinical outcomes in short-term observation periods. There is a need for clinical trials that compare the clinical outcomes of CAD/CAM-fabricated restoration to direct composite restorations.

Open Access Case Study

A Clinicl Case Report on Black Dog (Depression)

Dharti Meshram, Jaya Gawai, Pooja Kasturkar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 181-185
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i39A32158

Aim: - The intent of this case report is to define the top practice for a person detected with depressive disorder who has been denoted to a public mental health facility for treatment. To identify the black dog symptoms early to provide treatment and prevent potential complication.

Presentation of case: A 45-year-old male patient got admitted in psychiatric ward AVBR Hospital Sawangi Meghe Wardha, Maharashtra, with the complaints of insomnia, low mood, social withdrawal, irritable, lack of interaction, lack of interest, sadness, hopelessness, helplessness, decrease appetite and suicide ideation such as hanging. patient was apparently asymptomatic 10 month ago when his younger brother passes away and his started show above clinical features of depression. patient received antidepressant drug citalopram, Imipramine and two-time Somatic therapy (Electroconvulsive Therapy). symptoms were minimized.

Result: The patient was received psychopharmacological treatment antidepressant drug sertraline, citalopram, fluvoxamine along with somatic therapy (ECT) two times and psychosocial therapy, coping strategies, family therapy, yoga, recreation, meditation and symptoms was minimized.

Discussion: Millions of people worldwide suffer from depression. it is most common disorder in outpatient clinic. which can result impairment and disability of individual ability to cope up with daily life.

Conclusion: A positive outcome gets by the patient not only with the help of therapeutic management but also the family coping and support even. later on, due to proper psychopharmacological treatment, patient shown positive feedback and slowly all the aims are achieved which were planned in period. Finally, the patient got discharged from the hospital and now he is continuing his on follow up.

Open Access Case Study

Case Report on Rheumatoid Arthritis

Roshani Dhanvijay, Savita Pohekar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 212-216
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i39A32162

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune disorder that inhibits the body's immune system that induces inflammation in the injured areas of the body. It is commonly caused the joints of the palms, wrists, and knees. An inflaming rheumatoid arthritis joint contributes to joint tissue damage. This condition may cause chronic or long term discomfort, instability, and deformation. Symptoms include exhaustion, pain, and depression. If the patient does not undergo early diagnosis and care for symptoms, a series of symptoms can arise including Osteoporosis, rheumatoid nodules, dry eye and mouth, carpal tunnel syndrome Case Report: The female patient name is Yogita Shinde 65-year-old religion Hindu lived in the kandhali. She was admitted to AVBR Hospital with the chief complaint of pain in her shoulder and hands, joints pain, swelling on both the hands. She started taking ibuprofen 800 mg 3 times per day to relieve discomfort and rigidity.  Three months earlier, as she was doing her job, she had pain on her right and left shoulders. She still started to feel very sleepy and short-tempered. Tab ibuprofen was not an effective very long time for pain.  One morning, Yogita couldn't lift her arms without the intense pain of her back. She was conscious that it was time for help. She had spoken to her parents, and they advised her to see a physician. The primary healthcare practitioner (PHP), who tested and carried out a variety of blood test. Positive-rheumatoid factors, CCP antibiotics, higher ESR, and C-reactive protein were seen via the blood samples. These findings were communicated to Yogita and the Rheumatologist was directed at her PCP to see her as soon as possible. The primary health care practitioner inquired about the medical records of Yogita parents and grandparents, family conditions, medical and operative records of yogita, and details on their family and working lives. And after that, the physician started the treatment, after which Yogita feels better for some days. After a few weeks she having recurrent pain in her hand and foot, this is intolerable to her. And then she is admitted to AVBR Hospital on date 20th Sept 2020

Open Access Case Study

Total Anomalous of Pulmonary Venous Connection- A Case Report

Archana Maurya, Hina Y. Rodge, Bibin Kurian, Sagar Alwadkar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 226-230
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i39A32164

Introduction: Among Cyanotic cardiac diseases, Total Anomalous Pulmonary Venous Connection is the only condition involving venous system malformation. Total Anomalous Pulmonary Venous Connection is a rare congenital anomaly in which all 4 pulmonary veins have no direct communication with the left atrium.

Background: Almost one in a hundred newborn babies worldwide is affected by congenital heart disease. TAPVC is approximately 7-9 per 100,000 live births and it accounts for about 0.7- 1.5% of all congenital heart diseases. Congenital cardiac defects are the most common congenital anomalies in live births as well as the main cause of childhood Motability and Morbidity in the developed nations.

Presentation of Case: A 5-month-old male child was admitted to ‘Sri Satya Sai Sanjeevani Hospital, Naya Raipur, Chhattisgarh, India’ on date 1 February 2021 with complaints of excessive sweating on the head while feeding, Tachypnoea, cyanosis and Lower Respiratory Tract infection. The child was diagnosed at 2 months of age and the child was brought to Sri Satya Sai Hospital for surgical management of TAPVC.

Interventions:  The treatment of patients was started immediately after admission. The surgical repair of obstructive mixed TAPV and PDA ligation was done under general anesthesia on date 02 February 2021.

Conclusion: In this report, we mainly focus on expert surgical management and excellent nursing care helped in managing the complicated case very nicely. The patient response was positive to conservative and nursing management. The patient was discharged without postoperative complications and satisfactory with recovery.

Open Access Case Study

A Case Report on Pulmonary Effusion due to Non-Hodgkin’s Disease

Sarika Selsurkar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 256-260
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i39A32168

Introduction: In patients with non- Hodgkin's disease, pleural effusion is not an unusual finding, with a recorded incidence of up to 20 percent. The effusion can be unilateral or bilateral, and the fluid causes symptoms of dyspnoea, cough, and/or chest pain in most patients.

Case Presentation: A 17 years male was admitted in AVBRH with the chief complaint of chest pain since 4 days on one side which radiated to left shoulder, breathlessness from 2 days on walking and cough from 1 month. Patient had no complaint of fever, cold, abdominal pain,        vomiting, orthopnia or trauma. The patient had done all necessary investigations by physician order.

Therapeutic Intervention, Management and Outcomes: Patient was treated with oxygen therapy, chemotherapy, Thoracentesis and anticoagulant, antibiotics medication.

Nursing Management: Administered fluid replacement i.e. RL, oxygen therapy 15 litres per minute, chemotherapy, monitored all vital signs half hourly.

Conclusion: Timely treatment and management of Pleural effusion with non-Hodgkin’s disease can bring out successful recovery with limited complications.

Open Access Study Protocol

Comparative Clinical Trial on Aragwadha Erand and Trivrutta Eranda Nitya Virechana in Gridhrasi (Lumbago Sciatica Syndrome): A Study Protocol

Shweta Parwe, Sandip Jadhav, Milind Nisargandha

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 68-74
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i39A32143

Background: At present, the life style is gradually shifting away from healthy living, and therefore people fall victim of various diseases. Sedentary lifestyle, stress, improper posture, continuous jerky movements, long travelling, etc., put maximum pressure on the spine and lower portion of the pelvis. About 80–90% of people get affected by low back pain and 5% of those become victims of sciatica.

Aim: Studying the effect of Trivrut Eranda Tailam and Aragvadha Eranda Tailam Virechana in Gridhrasi (Lumbago sciatica syndrome).

Objectives: To study the effect of Trivrut Eranda Tailam in Gridhrasi, To study the effect of Aragvadha Eranda Tailam in Gridhrasi and to compare the effect of Trivrutta Eranda Tailam and Aragavadha Eranda Tailam in Gridhrasi.

Methodology: This study will be a Randomized controlled interventional trial to be conducted on 30 participants. The participants will be divided into two groups viz. Group A and Group B. The patient in Group A will be given Trivrutt Eranda Tailam (15 patients) and Group B will be given Aragvadha Eranda Tailam (15 patients).

Results: Nitya virechan will be carried out in both these groups. The results will be compared on the basis of SLR test [Straight leg raising test], Lassegue sign, Flip test, Bowstring test and Serum electrolytes used for Gridhrasi.

Conclusion: Conclusions will be drawn on the result.

Open Access Study Protocol

Diagnosis of Senile Amyloidosis by Fine Needle Aspiration Biopsy and Cell Block from Abdominal Fat Pad

Arvind Bhake, Kaustubh Kharche

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 84-90
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i39A32145

Background:  Amyloidosis is menacingly increasing medical problem in aging population across globe. Its clinical presentation is varied. Its laboratory diagnosis often requires biopsy material. The fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC, FNAB) offers dependable diagnostic alternative to cumbersome biopsy. Present protocol describes the FNAC of abdominal pad of fat as surrogate site for diagnosis of senile systemic amyloidosis avoiding biopsy other known sites. 

Aim: To study diagnostic accuracy of subcutaneous abdominal fat tissue fine needle aspiration cytology/biopsy for detecting systemic (senile) amyloidosis and its utility in clinical practice.

Objectives:

  1. To diagnose systemic amyloidosis (senile) by fine needle aspiration cytology/biopsy of abdominal fat pad on crush smears of aspirates and cell blocks.
  2. To correlate the diagnosis of deposits of amyloid with the clinical manifestations in specific and non specific clinical manifestations of amyloidosis.
  • To know the sensitivity and specificity of the diagnosis of amyloid deposition on fine needle aspiration cytology/biopsy of abdominal fat pad in comparison to the results of cell block preparations.

Methodology: A prospective study carried out to compare results of FNAC of abdominal pad of fat with paraffin embedded cell block in diagnosis of amyloidosis in suspected cases of cases of senile systemic amyloidosis. Technical adopted methods to be used are regular tissue stains, congo red stain and polarized microscopy. 

Expected Results: It is expected that results of study will establish FNAC of abdominal pad of fat as dependable office diagnostic procedure that would avoid complicated biopsy procedures of gastrointestinal tissue, skin, bone marrow and others for senile systemic amyloidosis.  

Open Access Study Protocol

Study of Clinical Profile of Carcinoma Breast and Prognostic Significance of Serum Lactate Dehydrogenase as Tumor Marker in Carcinoma Breast

Geetika Malhotra, D. D. Wagh, Meenakshi Yeola

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 162-167
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i39A32155

Background: Breast cancer is the highly prevalent malignancy and is a major killer in women around world. In India, there is substantial statistically significant increase in breast cancer incidence patterns. Women from under developed areas(883000 cases) have a significantly higher no. of cases than those from developed areas (794,000) [1]. There are various risk factors associated with breast malignancy. A variety of bio-chemical markers have been tested to determine the malignancy, for the early detection of carcinoma of different origin. LDH is the easiest and cheapest to calculate of all of these indicators.

Objectives:

  • To study the clinical profile of patient with breast
  • To study the prognostic significance of LDH as tumor marker in breast
  • To compare post-operative LDH level in patient undergoing surgery for carcinoma breast v/s patient undergoing neoadjuvant chemotherapy.
  • Compare variation in preoperative baselines LDH levels and post-operative LDH levels.

Methodology: It is a prospective observational study done on patients with breast cancer. It will be conducted at Dept. of General Surgery , J.N.M.C and AVBRH, Sawangi (Meghe), Wardha. The study will be conducted on patients with Carcinoma Breast.

Results: To be assessed after the study.

Conclusion: Serum LDH is a good prognostic marker of breast cancer.

Open Access Study Protocol

Development and Validation of a Daily Monitoring Stroke Scale: A Three-Month Follow up Study

Parag Aradhey, Sunil Kumar, Sourya Acharya

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 175-180
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i39A32157

Introduction: Stroke is the one of the common health problems world-wide causing significant morbidity and mortality. Various scales are framed and validated for use in stroke trials and clinical use. Most widely used scale for stroke assessment is NIHSS scale but this scale is infrequently used in routine clinical practice. This is because of various limitations like poor representation of posterior circulation deficit and predominant motor and language representation and poor representation of fine motor & cognition deficits in this scale.

Objective: Therefore, the purpose of the present study is to formulate a daily monitoring scale which can objectively assess and prognosticate stroke patients. Present study aims to incorporate daily examined parameters in one instrument to develop a routinely useful tool for neurologist and physician which can be simple, fast, reliable, and reproducible.

Method: We will include GCS score, brainstem reflexes, gaze, speech, distal and proximal motor power, inattention, ataxia, sensory deficits and gait examination parameters in proposed scale. After initial pilot study (15 patients), we will include developmental cohort (400 patients) and validation cohort (60 patients) to formulate and validate this study. Outcome measures will be 30 -day mortality and morbidity assessed at day 30 and 90 with modified Rankin score and Barthel index. Total patients included will be 460 patients with follow up for 3 months

Results: It is expected to develop simple, reliable, and reproducible scale for monitoring of acute stroke patients.

Open Access Study Protocol

Comparing the Effectiveness of Transrectal Misoprostol with Intravenous Oxytocin in Active Management of Third Stage of Labour in Preventing Post-partum Hemorrhage

Nidhi Patel, Kiran Borkar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 272-278
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i39A32170

Background: PPH which is 500 ml or more blood loss in 24 hours of birth . Uterine atony has been the commonest cause of PPH. To prevent PPH uterotonics like oxytocin and misoprostol should be given. Intravenous route of oxytocin has rapid effect, but is associated with cardiovascular side effects like rise in heart rate and decrease in blood pressure. Slower rate of absorption, lower peak levels and reduced adverse effects is seen with misoprostol given rectally when compared to sublingual and oral routes. This study aims to compare the effectiveness of transrectal misoprostol and intravenous oxytocin in preventing post-partum haemorrhage.

Objectives: To compare the effectiveness of 600mcg transrectal misoprostol with 10IU intravenous oxytocin in active management of third stage of labour in preventing PPH and recommend technique for active management of third stage of labour in preventing PPH.

Methodology: Women randomized into two groups for prevention of PPH and are given 600ug of misoprostol per rectally and 10IU oxytocin intravenously. Duration of third stage, the blood volume in kidney tray and additional blood loss in sterile surgical pads for 24hrs will be noted. The blood loss due to episiotomy will be taken as 50ml.Need of additional uterotonics(oxytocin or misoprostol), blood transfusion, removal of placenta manually, haemoglobin before and after delivery will be noted. Monitoring of patients for vital signs, uterine tone, fundal height and vaginal bleeding for 2 hour will be done.

Result: The expected outcome of the study will be a significant difference in the blood loss during third stage of labour and 24 hours in post-partum period when uterotonics like oxytocin or misoprostol are used in managing third stage of labour actively.

Conclusion: Our study will show the effect of intravenous oxytocin and transrectal misoprostol in managing third stage of labour actively to prevent post-partum hemorrhage.

Open Access Short Research Article

Effect of Murivenna Ointment in the Management of Parikarthika (Acute Fissure in Ano) – A Pilot Study

M. V. Sreerag, Mukhund Dhule

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 156-161
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i39A32154

Parikarthika (Fissure in ano) is one of the most painful condition which is occurring in the ano rectal region. Due to irregular food habits and modern life styles of peoples in the present era has also added to the increase in the rate of incidence of fissure in ano. The aim of the present pilot study was to assess the effectiveness of Murivenna ointment in the management of Parikarthika. This study was conducted in 22 patients diagnosed as acute fissure in ano. Patients Murivenna ointment was applied locally with digitally in fissure bed (Parikartika) of all 22 patients. All patients were advised to follow this twice daily after sitz bath for 4 weeks or till healing of fissure bed whichever is earlier. Adjuvant drug Triphalachurnam 5 gm orally at bedtime with lukewarm water was prescribed daily to all patients with constipation. There was significant relief in symptoms like pain in ano and bleeding per rectum in all patients after 30 days of treatment. The anal sphincter tonicity became normal in 21 patients (95.45%) after 30 days of treatment. Ulcer in ano was completely healed in 19 patients (86.36%) after 30 days of treatment. There was no reoccurrence in all patients after 30 days of follow up. The irritable symptoms like pain and bleeding per rectum were effectively relieved within 14 days of treatment in all patients. It is one of the effective treatments in the management of fissure in ano as it relieved the cardinal symptoms of fissure in ano such as cutting pain and burning pain.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effectiveness of Turmeric and Extra Virgin Olive Oil in the Management of IL 6 and IL 10 in Healthy Mice

Sama Mohammed Attiyah, Hoda Elsayed Mohammed

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 9-16
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i39A32134

Background: Anti-Inflammatory properties of turmeric and extra virgin olive oil have numerous health benefits. They exert and promote anti-inflammatory actions, moreover, each gives benefits that go beyond reducing inflammation.

Objective: The aim of our study is to evaluate and compare the immunomodulatory effect of each turmeric and extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) alone or in combination.

Methods: We demonstrated the serum level of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6 and IL-10 in healthy male Swiss albino mice (C57BL/6 strain) after oral intake of curcumin and extra virgin olive oil for six weeks by ELISA assay. 

Results: Our results showed that dietary intake of turmeric and EVOO had a reducing effect on serum IL-6 level and could increase the production of IL-10 level significantly. Inflammatory responses of turmeric and EVOO combination appear to be more effective on health by inhibition of IL 6 and induce IL 10 production. 

Conclusion: Anti-inflammatory effect of turmeric and EVOO can play an important role in modulating the level of IL 6 and IL-10. Moreover, co-administration of them having a greater anti-inflammatory effect. 

Open Access Original Research Article

Quality Attributes Comparison of Selected Brands of Rosuvastatin Calcium Tablets Marketed in the US and Bangladesh

Shahrin Tasnim Monisha, Kamrun Nahar Ela, Rabeya Islam, Sadia Afruz Ether, Fahad Imtiaz Rahman

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 46-55
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i39A32140

Aims: This study investigated whether locally marketed rosuvastatin calcium tablets in Bangladesh have comparable physical and chemical attributes, including in vitro bioequivalence profiles, to the proprietary brand.

Methodology: Nine generic products (G1-G9) containing 10 mg of rosuvastatin calcium were compared to the proprietary brand Crestor® (R1) and an FDA approved generic rosuvastatin calcium tablet (R2). Weight variation, diameter, thickness, friability, drug content, disintegration time and dissolution profiles were tested according to United States Pharmacopeia (USP) guidelines. In vitro bioequivalence requirements were assessed by calculating difference (f1) and similarity (f2) factors.

Results: The generic products complied with the pharmacopeial requirements for weight variation, disintegration time and friability. All the tablets had drug ranging between 92%-105% and released more than 80% of rosuvastatin within first 15-30 minutes. However, for brands G5, G7 and G8 the f1 values were 15.7%, 15.82% and 25.21% respectively and their f2 values were 41.8, 41.6 and 32.6 respectively whereas for G9 the f2 value was 43.4. These brands have thus failed to meet in vitro bioequivalence requirements.

Conclusion: We conclude that few substandard generics of rosuvastatin calcium has somehow found its way to the market and further studies are required to ascertain their noncompliance.

Open Access Original Research Article

Doubling Time and Its Interpretation for COVID-19 Cases: A Comparative Study in Pimpri Chinchwad Municipal Corporation, Pune, Maharashtra, India

Parth Aphale, Aditya Dilipkumar Patil, Dharmendra B. Sharma

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 75-83
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i39A32144

Background: COVID-19, also known as Novel Corona Virus, causes respiratory disorder in humans and has been declared as a global pandemic in the first quarter of the year 2020 by the World Health Organization. As this pandemic persists the second, third and fourth quarters had shown variation in COVID-19 cases. In the first quarter of the year 2021 again there seems to be a rise in cases of COVID-19. So, a comparative analysis from March 2020 – April 2021 of COVID-19 cases has been studied.

Methodology: An exponential statistical model was used to calculate the predicted value of COVID-19 using doubling time for a short duration. The cases of COVID-19 were predicted from 10th April 2021 to 10th June 2021 using doubling time and exponential regression method.

Results: The distribution of cases showed a curve-linear trend over the last one year. We explored various models like exponential, logarithmic (lo-linear), linear, quadratic, and generalized linear model (GLM) to fit into the observed distribution of cases. Since the distribution of cases was perfectly following a linear trend in each of the four segments, we applied a linear regression model to observed distribution and then predicted the anticipated no. of cases by extending this linear trend to a future period (120 day). With the help of the exponential statistical model, doubling time/rate based on prior 9 days, the predictions of up to 2.61 lakhs cases have been done by the end of June 2021.

Conclusion: This study will be useful for the Government of India and Maharashtra state-specific to Pimpri- Chinchwad Municipal Corporation (PCMC), Administrative Units, Frontline health workforce, researchers, and scientists. From this study it has been evident that during the pre-lockdown period, in the initial stages there seems to be rise in cases. While, during lockdown period it was observed that there was relatively decrease in the number of cases. After the government authorities imposed the unlock strategies the cases began to rise as compared to the lockdown period. Thus, it appears that only essential services should be open for the citizens of India and the state lockdown should be carried on for the next 3 months (April 2021 - June 2021).

Open Access Original Research Article

Protective Effect of Cucurbita maxima against Maximal Electroshock Induced Convulsions

Nagnath R. Kadam, P. K. Mohanty, Ashish Jain

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 91-101
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i39A32146

In the present investigation, an indigenous plant, Cucurbita maxima was studied for its protective effect against maximal electroshock (MES) induced convulsions in Wistar albino rats. The rats were pretreated with different doses (100, 200, 400 mg/kg) of hydroalcoholic extract of seeds of Cucurbita maxima for 14 days and then, they were subjected to maximal electroshock seizures (40 mA for 0.2 sec) treatment. Hydroalcoholic extract of Cucurbita maxima seeds at 200 and 400 mg/kg doses significantly reduced the duration of hind limb extension along with the protection of rats against maximal electroshock induced seizures. The reference standard i.e., phenytoin (20 mg/kg) provided complete protection. Thus, present study revealed anticonvulsant effect of Cucurbita maxima against maximal electroshock-induced convulsions in rats.

Open Access Original Research Article

Comparative Study of Serum Cystatin C and Serum Creatinine Level in Before and After Hemodialysis

Dattu Hawale, Ranjit Ambad, Nandkishor Bankar, Raunak Kotecha

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 102-106
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i39A32147

Background: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a pathophysiologic process characterised by a decrease in nephron number and function, which often leads to end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Serum plasma cystatin C is a new test for determining kidney function. Its accuracy in determining the efficacy of haemodialysis in patients with end-stage renal disease has yet to be determined.

Serum cystatin C, which is formed at a constant rate by all nucleated cells and filtered freely by the glomerulus, is neither secreted nor reabsorbed, and is unaffected by non-renal influences.

Materials and Methods: This study was a comparative study, conducted in the nephrology Department at DMMC & SMHRC, Nagpur in collaboration with ABVRH and JNMC Wardha, Sawangi (Meghe) during September 2020 to March 2021. Total 25 patient (End stage renal disease) included for the present study, the age group 30-60 years with 17 male patients and 08 female patients.

Result: Serum creatinine concentration in the before hemodialysis with 8.72±3.00 and for the after hemodialysis 3.20±1.18(P < 0.0001). The serum cystatin C concentration in the before hemodialysis 5.50±2.09 and for the after hemodialysis 8.7±1.75(P < 0.0001). the process of hemodialysis leads to a significantly low in a serum creatinine concentration as compared to before hemodialysis. The serum cystatin C concentration significantly increase in the after hemodialysis patient as compared to before hemodialysis.

Conclusion: Hemodialysis adequacy cannot be determined using serum cystatin C. It does, however, serve as a surrogate marker of dialysis inadequacy, particularly when low flux membranes are used. Routine examination of serum cystatin C in hemodialysis patients will help in the monitoring of the patient's overall clinical condition.

Open Access Original Research Article

Study of Glutathione-s-transferase and Reduced Glutathione Receiving Chemotherapy

Ranjit S. Ambad, Suryakant Nagtilak, Rakesh Kumar Jha, Meghali Kaple

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 134-140
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i39A32151

Cervical cancer is the third most prevalent cancer in women worldwide, and the fourth leading cause of death from cancer in women. Recent advances, such as the availability of broad scale genome data, articulated gene tag (EST) data bases, innovative sequence alignment techniques, and X-ray crystallography determination of three-dimensional structures, have significantly expanded our understanding of structure–function relationships in this important enzyme superfamily. Total 36 histologically confirmed patients, locally advanced FIGO stage  IIB–IIIB cervical cancer were enrolled. Based on the findings of our research, it can be concluded that improvements in GSH concentration during the treatment of locally advanced cervical cancer can have a major impact on the treatment response. In comparison to the lack of concentration changes in the blood serum of patients who have had no reaction to medication or who have had a reported relapse following treatment, GSH tends to be an effective   indicator.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assess the Knowledge and Attitude Regarding Alternative System of Medicine among the Adults in Rural Community Area

Pratibha Wankhede, Nayan Khelpande, Dipali Khode, Neha Khode, Shubhangi Khunkar, Dharti Khewale

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 148-155
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i39A32153

Introduction: The folk medicine which is available such as herb, flora, found and minerals. The people taking some treatment for improving health and treat the person which lies in ancient times. Some of the people of the alternative system such as homeopathy, Ayurveda, Siddha, Unani, naturopathy and yoga. The alternative system of medicine is widespread. This leads to improving knowledge regarding the alternative system of medicine in the rural community area.

Background: The present study has been designed to capture the knowledge and attitude towards the Alternative health care system of medicine in its user and non-users to compare the differences in its source of knowledge among the rural community people. Knowledge regarding the alternative therapies that are living in the rural community area. The person has some knowledge regarding alternative health such as naturopathy, homeopathy, yoga, Unani and Siddha. The people will have known about alternative therapies.

Objective: To assess the knowledge of adults in rural community areas regarding the alternative system of medicine. To assess the attitude towards an alternative system of medicine among rural community areas.  

Methods: The sample size is 100 among the adults in the rural community area.

Results: In the present study 98% of the adults were having a positive attitude and only 2% of them had a negative attitude. Association of knowledge score and attitude score with the selected demographic variables there is a significant in the gender and not significantly associated with education, occupation, caste regarding the alternative system of medicine and significant association between attitude score the gender and not significantly associate with education, occupation, caste regarding the alternative system of medicine.

Conclusion: This study revealed that in wardha city, there is relatively high public interest in complementary and alternative medicine and a significant number has a produce good awareness attitude toward complementary and alternative medicine.

Open Access Original Research Article

Preparation and Biological Evaluation of Silybin Liposomes for the Treatment of Liver Disorders

Saijyosthana Gandey, Vema Aparna, Raghupathi Kandarapu

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 186-200
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i39A32159

Aim: The aim of the present study was to develop silybin liposome by incorporating phosphatidyl choline & cholesterol so as to increase its oral bioavailability and liver targeted enhanced hepatoprotection.

Methodology: Thin film hydration technique was used for the development of liposomes by using phosphatidyl choline, cholesterol and drug. Liposomes were evaluated for vesicle size, zeta potential, PDI, encapsulation efficiency, surface morphology and in vitro drug release study. Further the optimized formulation was evaluated for APAP-induced alterations in liver and kidney function tests in rats and histopathological studies.

Results: The results were promising with a sustained drug release of 80% within 20hrs, optimized vesicle size of 276nm and 89% encapsulation efficiency. The animal studies demonstrated superior hepatoprotective effect compared to silybin solution.

Conclusion: The silybin liposomes showed better in-vitro release & in-vivo hepatoprotection along with better animal activity & improvement in histopathological changes as compared to silybin.

Open Access Original Research Article

To Assess the effect of Fast Food among Adolescent Group

Vrushali P. Dighikar, Seema Singh

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 201-206
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i39A32160

Background: Different types of fast food are becoming more popular in all parts of the world, including both developed and developing nations. Because of changes and transitions in people's lifestyles and dietary habits, an increasing number of people of all ages, particularly adolescents and young adults, are gravitating toward fast food. For past 10 years, Fast food consumption has increased globally. Hence, the topic of eating fast food can turn specifically very much better for the age group of 13-18. Because of this for controlling the eating habits of fast food first attention might be given to developing some nutritional habit to the adolescents.

Aim: To assess the effect of fast food among adolescent group.

Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional research design was used in the study. The study was conducted among adolescents’ group rural area of Wardha district, Maharashtra. The population of the study was the adolescent group. The sampling technique used was simple random sampling. The sample was consisting of a total number of 85 subjects. A structured knowledge questionnaire were used to assess the knowledge and effect of fast food.

Results: After the detailed analysis of the conducted study leads to the following conclusion that Means score of the adolescent group was 12±2.88 and the mean percentage of score was 60±14.41 It is revealed that the adolescent group is having lot many effects of fast food on their health and having knowledge regarding the effect of fast food, in that 1.18% of the adolescent group had a no effect, 30.59% of them had mild, 58.82% of them were moderate and 9.41% of them had a severe.

The minimum score was 5 and the maximum score was 17 out of 20.

Conclusion: The research concludes that adolescents are having an effect of fast food on their health so because of that they are having average knowledge regarding the effect of fast food.

Open Access Original Research Article

Study on Percutaneous Intramedullary Nailing In Adult Diaphyseal Humeral Fractures

Mohsin Aijaz Soomro, Ajmal Khan Silro, Raheel Akbar Baloch, Najeeb Ur. Rehman, Muhammad Faraz Jokhio, Niaz Hussain Keerio, Syed Shahid Noor

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 207-211
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i39A32161

Objective: The objective of this research was to evaluate close fixation techniques for fractures of humerus via percutaneous intramedullary nailing.

Methodology: This was a prospective study, carried out in Suleman Roshan Medical College Tando Adam Pakistan from January 2019 to January 2020. About 60 patients with humeral shaft fractures were made part of this study with a follow-up period of about 1 to 2 years. The inclusion criteria were humeral fractures that were of less than 7 days prior to surgery, the displacement of fracture >20° in sagittal as well as coronal plane, and the distance measuring >2cm between the two fragments. All patients were treated via the closed fixation technique. Multiple nails that were slender as well as flexible (3-5) were used in the close fixation technique including rush nails (45 patients) and ender nails (15 patients). All the patients within their follow-up periods were evaluated for ROM, pain, or any kind of deformity, and all the patients were assessed radiographically to check the process of bone union.

Results: The outcome was analyzed before implant i.e at six months and after the implant was removed. About 86% patients (n= 52) revealed satisfactory outcomes at six months. About 5 patients revealed non-union or delayed union that was healed after 2nd surgery of bone grafting in 3 patients and injections associated with bone marrow in 2 patients. Stiffening of the shoulder was found to be a frequent complication that decreased significantly when the position of nail insertion was changed during the research.

Conclusion: The technique of intramedullary nailing displayed many benefits including minimum tissue stress, a quick surgery time, decreased period of hospital stay, and rapid bone union.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Aliskiren Hemifumarate and Amlodipine Besylate in combined Tablet Dosage form by Three Simple UV Spectrophotometric Methods

Ashim K. Sen, Dhanya B. Sen, Aarti S. Zanwar, Rajesh A. Maheshwari, R. Balaraman

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 217-225
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i39A32163

Background: For a cardiovascular patient's blood pressure to be effectively controlled, more than one drug is required. When coupled with amlodipine besylate (AMLO), a calcium channel blocker, Aliskiren hemifumarate (ALI) is the 1st nonpeptide, low molecular mass, orally active transition state rennin inhibitor to efficaciously normalize blood pressure and cardiac ailments.

Objective: Three innovative, easy, sensitive, exact, and accurate UV spectrophotometric approaches, including simultaneous equation method (SEM), absorbance ratio method (ARM) and 1st derivative (zero-crossing) spectroscopic approach (FDR), were created and authenticated by validation for synchronized estimation of ALI and AMLO in tablet formulation.

Materials and Methods: The SEM was used to measure the absorbance of both medicines at 237 and 280 nm. ALI and AMLO were calculated using 237 and 271 nm, respectively, in the ARM. ALI and AMLO, on the other hand, used the FDR technique to transform UV spectra to first derivative spectra, with the first derivative signal captured at 237 and 254 nm, respectively. The wavelength interval (Δλ) was kept at 2 and the scaling factor was kept at 1 when transforming zero-order spectra using the first derivative approach. Validation of the proposed processes was done in compliance with the “International Conference on Harmonization” (ICH) recommendations. Results: SEM and ARM both showed a linear outcome in the range of 1-50 µg/ml for ALI and AMLO. FDR, on the other hand, was shown to be more sensitive and linear between 0.5 and 50 µg/ml for both medications. The results of the method validation parameters were within the allowed ranges of the ICH guidelines.

Conclusion: The proposed procedures were shown to be relatively quick, sensitive, simple, and cost-effective, and can thus be used for scheduled quality control analysis of ALI and AMLO in the mixed tablet.

Open Access Original Research Article

Determination of Clinical Utility of Novel Biochemical Markers in Osteoarthritis

Ankita Kondhalkar, Ranjit Ambad, Neha Bhatt, Roshan Kumar Jha

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 240-245
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i39A32166

Introduction: Osteoarthritis is a progressive joint disease characterized by loss of articular cartilage, joint bone hypertrophy, subchondral sclerosis, and chemical and morphological alterations in the synovial membrane and joint capsule. Stiffness, soreness, and focused dislocation of the articular cartilage are changes in the disease seen at the last level of OA, as well as synovial inflammation. Pain is a common clinical symptom, especially after prolonged exercise and weight bearing, and stiffness occurs after inactivity. Biologic markers will also play an important role in the production and monitoring of new structure-modifying therapies for osteoarthritis due to their rapid changes in response to treatment.

Aim: We conducted an observational study to estimate biochemical markers in the knee osteoarthritis patients who came to SMHRC Nagpur for a routine visit.

Material and Methods: The study included 60 people who visited Shalinitai Meghe hospital in Nagpur for a health check-up. We were able to keep the two groups apart here. The control group is comprises of Healthy Volunteer, while the study group is made up Knee osteoarthritis patients. Each community consists of 30 patients. COMP, Endoglin, Osteopontin, Hs-CRP: all of these parameters were estimated by commercially available ELISA kit.

Results: The levels of COMP, Endoglin, Osteopontin, and Hs-CRP in the study group were significantly higher than in the control group. In synovial fluid detection, endoglin levels in the sample group are not significantly higher than in the control group. Endoglin levels in the blood increase, as do other parameters.

Conclusion: These findings show a significant increase in the systematic and local development of these biomarkers in the main OA of the knee, as well as the link between disease severity and its production, meaning that they may be involved in OA pathogenesis. Longitudinal studies with repetitive measurements of these biomarkers in plasma and synovial fluid and their interactions with knee pain OA are necessary to track or predict the clinical course of OA and, ultimately, determine their potential role in determining the best time to participate.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of in vivo Wound Healing Activity of Ursolic Acid Rich Chloroform Extract of Hedyotis herbacea Linn Ointment

K. Anand Babu, S. Sivakrishnan, S. Jasemine

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 246-255
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i39A32167

Aim: This study evaluates the effect of in vivo wound healing potential of Ursolic acid rich chloroform extract of Hedyotis herbacea Linn ointment using incision and excision wound model.

Study Design: Wound healing potentials of Hedyotis herbacea were analysed by Incision and excision wound model.

Place of Study: Nandha College of Pharmacy, Erode, Tamilnadu.

Methodology: Hedyotis herbacea was subjected to extraction (cold maceration), with solvents of increasing polarity. All the extracts were estimated for the presence of phytoconstituents by HPTLC. As the study has been focused on the phytoconstituent based biological activity, the Ursolic acid rich chloroform extract was chosen for the study of wound healing activity. The Chloroform extract of Hedyotis herbacea was incorporated into ointment base, to prepare the ointment. The ointments prepared with Chloroform extract (2.5% and 5%) of Hedyotis herbacea (CEHH) were subjected for evaluation of excision and incision wound model. Wistar albino rats were divided into four groups each consisting of six animals; group I (left untreated) considered as untreated control, group II treated with 5% w/w povidone-iodine ointment served as standard, group III treated with CEHH 2.5% w/w ointment, and group IV treated with CEHH 5% w/w ointment were considered as test groups. All the treatments were given once daily. Wound healing effect was assessed by the rate of wound contraction, level of total protein, Hydroxy proline, Hexosamine and Hexuronic acid and histopathology studies in an excision wound model. Tensile strength was also measured in both excision and incision wound.

Results: Wound healing activity of CEHH 5% w/w ointment treated group was greater than CEHH 2.5% w/w and untreated groups in both excision and incision wound model. The high rate of wound contraction (*P< 0.001), high tensile strength (*P< 0.001), and elevated total protein, Hydroxyproline, Hexosamine, and Hexuronic acid content were observed in animals treated with CEHH ointments when compared to the untreated control group of animals. Histopathological studies of the CEHH ointments treated groups also revealed the effectiveness in wound healing.

Conclusion: These results justified the claimed traditional use of the Hedyotis herbacea as wound healing plant.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessing of the Risk Factor & Determine Epidemiology of Acne Vulgaris in Tertiary Care Teaching Hospital

Rajesh Hadia, Idrisi Mohammed Tousif, Avani Kapadia, Suchitra Pillai, Hemraj Singh Rajput, Dhaval Joshi, Som Lakhani, Kushalkumar Gohel, Rajesh Maheshwari

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 261-271
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i39A32169

Background: Acne vulgaris remains one of the commonest diseases to afflict humanity, with over 90% of males and 80% of females affected by the age of 21 years.

Objectives: The aim of this study was to assessing the specific risk factors, determine the epidemiology and etiology of Acne Vulgaris.

Methodology: It is a cross-sectional observational study conducted for a period of six month in the department of dermatology, Dhiraj General Hospital, Vadodara. Patients who were diagnosed with acne vulgaris and fulfilled the inclusion criteria were enrolled in the study. Data was collected by filling the patient medical record sheet.

Result: Total 300 patients were included in the study. Out of which 38.67% males and 61.33% females were found affected by Acne Vulgaris. The mean age group affected were found to be 21.77±4.06 years. When compared their social habits, patients consumed more caffeine (49.67%) than alcohol (24.67%), smoking (15.33%) and tobacco (5.67%). 32.33% patients also had history of seborrheic dermatitis. Using GAGS scale, we found 94% patients suffered from moderate Acne condition while 6% suffered from severe Acne condition.

Conclusion: Acne Vulgaris was predominantly found in females in adolescence and in males in adulthood. The severity was found more in males than females. The common site for Acne Vulgaris was found to be face while comedones and papules were the common types of lesions. Stress was found to be one of the major aggravating factors for severity of Acne Vulgaris.

Open Access Original Research Article

In Silico Gene Expression and Pathway Analysis to Explore the Link between Hes1 and Adipocyte Stem Cell Differentiation in Obesity

Priyanka Sharma, Chandramani B. More, Avinash K. Seth

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 292-298
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i39A32265

Aim: Hairy/enhancer of split homolog-1 (Hes1) is a transcription factor with bHLH domains and participates in controlling proliferation and differentiation of various stem cell progenitors. The study aims to analyze pathways and genes up regulated and co-expressed with Hes1 to examine their linkage with adipocyte stem cell differentiation in obesity.

Methodology: In this in silico analysis, Gene Expression Omnibus Dataset GDS5056 was used to shortlist 23 genes differentially up regulated and co-expressed along with Hes1 during adipocyte stem cell differentiation in obese patients. Then, these genes along with their interactor genes were submitted to Reactome pathway analysis database and were statistically analyzed.

Results: Total 12 enriched pathways were obtained which majorly belonged to two categories: neuronal cell differentiation and signaling; and inflammatory response. Since Hes1 is known to regulate such pathways as a master transcription factor and repressor, its level of expression determines the result as proliferation or differentiation. Thus, these in silico findings may help in designing future experiments to determine role of Hes1 in deciding fate of adipocyte differentiation or proliferation in obesity.

Open Access Review Article

Comorbidities: A Decider of Severe Clinical Outcomes in COVID-19 Patients

Rahul Agrawal

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i39A32133

Background: Comorbidity is the biggest decider in COVID-19 pandemic whether the infected person will develop the severe clinical outcome or not. It is one of the few conclusions that has widespread acceptance.

Summary:After analyzing the case fatalities of COVID-19, many patients were found to be having either one of many conditions which are commonly called as comorbidities due to which they cannot made it to survivors list. Also several COVID-19 patients requiring the sophisticated medical attention like ventilators and oxygen support system have any kind of underlying medical condition. Deteriorated immune system is one of the reasons behind slipping into severe symptoms category.

Conclusion: It is established that comorbidities are the major influencer in COVID-19 infected patients. More study is needed to further segregate the data on the basis of each comorbidity.

Open Access Review Article

Exploring the Pathogenic Role of Stress in Inflammatory Bowel Disease and its Management

Shaini Suraj, Anand Prakash, Pratibha Dawande, Obaid Noman

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 17-22
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i39A32135

Every organism is constantly adapting to changes happening in the environment.  This adaptation helps in maintaining homeostasis.  All organisms must adapt at molecular, cellular, physiological, and behavioral levels.  Amongst many factors which act as a threat to homeostasis, one of them is stress.  The organism has to bring about both physiological and behavioral changes.  The various researches in recent years have shown that adverse life events, along with chronic stress, and depression leads to increased likelihood of relapse in patients with quiescent IBD. Many studies of experimental stress in animal models of colitis support this. Till date, the therapeutic successes of stress reduction therapies have not been explored largely.  This is also due to methodological difficulties in going ahead with such studies.  This paper tries to explore the recent researches in enhancing our understanding of the pathogenic role played by psychological stress in inflammatory bowel disease and focuses our attention on the need for controlled studies on the curative prospective of stress reduction therapies for IBD.

Open Access Review Article

Overview of the Presentation and Updated Management of Sinusitis

Khaled Abdullah S. Alasmari, Lena Defallah G. Alzahrani, Sultan Suliman Q. Al-ruwaili, Rahaf Naif A. Alenezi, Sarah Fahad M. Bukhari, Sarah Muqbil B. Altmimi, Shaden Akram A. Alanazi, Lama Muaysh M. Aljohani, Alshaymaa Akram A. Alanazi, Afnan Mohammed H. Almutairi

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 23-30
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i39A32136

Acute and chronic sinusitis are common primary care presentations. They are caused by mucosal inflammation, which inhibits mucociliary function of the nose and paranasal sinuses. Because it affects the mucous membranes that line both the nose and the sinuses, the complete medical word for sinusitis is "rhinosinusitis". Sinusitis is usually caused by a viral upper respiratory tract infection, with bacterial sinusitis occurring in about 2% of cases, yet in most cases overall antibiotics are being used and prescribed which is in most part are not needed, and cases often resolves without antibiotics need, most general practitioners rely on clinical findings to make the diagnosis. Watchful waiting and symptom treatment with nasal oxymetazoline, pseudoephedrine, and saline nasal irrigation are recommended. In this paper, we overview the presentation and management of sinusitis.

Open Access Review Article

A Review Article on the Relation between Anxiety and Depression

Ayushi Meshram, Rakesh Kumar Jha, Parikshit Muley

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 31-34
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i39A32137

Anxiety depression is the commonest phenomena in preponderant population. Many individuals might have experience it and still not know, very often in a state of constant denial and negligence with the fact knowingly. The causes can vary from psychological, physiological and traumatic past experiences. This article incorporate studies of anxietydepression and their relationship and causes. Anxiety depression are the most common psychological disorder. Their relationship is very baffling, their symptoms overlaps with each other. There are many causes for it physiological, psychological, behavioural, insomnia, or due to past trauma. Physical exercise reduces the symptoms of mild anxiety and depression.   

Open Access Review Article

Age-related Macular Degeneration: Simple Review

Abdulaziz Saeed A. Alghamdi, Abeer Ahmed Al Mutairi, Afaf Mahal R. Alanazi, Asrar Awad M. almutairi, Mei Khalid S. Alfaqiri, Sultan Suliman Q. Al-Ruwaili, Faisal Saeed A. Al-Ghamdi, Sarah Fahad M. Bukhari, Arwa Mohammed Alrefai Aljuhani, Lina Mohammed Aljohani, Sarah Mohammad M. Ali, Sarah Abdulla A. Bukhamsin

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 35-40
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i39A32138

Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a common, chronic, and innovative degenerative disease of the macula that affects the elderly, with significant loss of imagination and foresight due to abnormalities within the photoreceptor, retinal pigment epithelium, Bruch's membrane, and the choroidal complex. AMD is currently being elucidated through molecular dissection of histopathological samples and genetic coupling. Threat factors for AMD can be broadly based on character elements (e.g. age, gender, race / ethnicity, heredity, and socioeconomic reputation) and environmental factors (e.g. consumption and alcohol consumption). Signs and signs of AMD are: Druids. This is one of the early symptoms and symptoms of AMD and the presence of neovascularization in the macula in humid conditions. Form of AMD A medical examination is usually sufficient for the installation of an AMD analysis, but the use of additional examinations such as fundus vehicle fluorescence, optical coherence tomography, fluorescein angiography and inexperienced angiography with indocyanine for diffuse macular anomalies makes sense. unimaginative and prophetic cure cases can help.

Open Access Review Article

Alzheimer's Disease: History, Stages, Diagnosis and Its Future

Urvi Jiwtode, Swarupa Chakole, Neha Bhatt

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 41-45
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i39A32139

Background: Alzheimer’s is a brain disease in which brain cells responsible for memory loss and other intellectual functions starts to die. It can also be said that there is a loss of connections in nerve cells of brain. Although scientists have not yet found out the main underlying cause of this disease, there are several other factors that have been studied which leads to alzheimer’s. Some of them include tangling of TAU protein, plaques formed by amyloid, shrinkage in brain tissue etc. It is the 6th leading cause of death in US and 3rd in older people. It was discovered by a psychiatrist Alzheimer’s, who researched on a patient Auguste D. He noticed dementia, aggressiveness and some other mental illness in her and then studied her brain after her death. Alzheimer’s is asymptomatic in early stages, that is why we cannot start the treatment in early stage. The disease can be identified once a person start getting symptoms. But until then the damage has already begun and progressed. We do not have a cure for this disease yet. It can only be delayed by treating the symptoms and by therapy. But the scientists are carrying out different clinical trials such as detangling of TAU protein etc to make this disease fully curable.

Open Access Review Article

Metabolomic Interactions: An Insight into Health and Disease

Maheswara Reddy Mallu, Shaik Mohammad Anjum, Sai Sri Samyutha Katravulapalli, Sri Sai Priya Avuthu, Koteswara Reddy Gujjula, Suryanarayana Veeravilli, Anupama Ammulu Manne

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 61-67
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i39A32142

Over the past decade, metabolic engineering has emerged as an active and distinct discipline characterized by its over-arching emphasis on integration. In practice, metabolic engineering is the directed improvement of cellular properties through the application of modern genetic methods. The concept of metabolic regulations deals with the varied and innumerable metabolic pathways that are present in the human body. A combination of such metabolic reactions paves the way to the proper functioning of different physiological and biological processes. Dealing with the adversities of a disease, engineering of novel metabolic pathways showcases the potential of metabolic engineering and its application in the therapeutic treatment of diseases. A proper and deeper understanding of the metabolic functions in the human body can be known from simulated yeast models. This review gives a brief understanding about the interactions between the molecular set of metabolome and its complexity.

Open Access Review Article

A Review on Flax Seed: A Legume for Longevity

Kinjal P. Patel, Shivkant Patel, Dillip Kumar Dash, Ramachandran Balaraman, Rajesh A. Maheshwari

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 107-122
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i39A32148

Flax seed, tiny packs of nutrients supply a wealth of health benefits. Dietary flaxseed has an amazing use in a different health conditions. Research evidences on the properties of dietary flaxseed have wide spread information. It has been found that the tiny, edible seeds of the flax plant, have gained superfood status because of its therapeutic values in preventing the diseases. From the past few years, there is growing evidences that the people have become more health conscious. Many trials have been conducted with the upgraded standards of control available in order to provide consistent information on its significance to the general community. The purpose of this review is to provide a comprehensive summary of the research that have reinforced the growth of flaxseed as a commodity with importance in the health and medicine fields. Flaxseed is emerging as a vital functional food element because of its rich contents of α- linolenic acid (ALA, omega-3 fatty acid), lignans, and fiber. Flax lignans have potential health benefits such as in reduction of cardiovascular disease, cancer, atherosclerosis, diabetes, arthritis, osteoporosis, autoimmune and neurological disorders. The role of the Flax protein in the prevention and treatment of heart disease and in supporting the immune system has been proven. The present review focuses on the evidences of the potential health benefits of flaxseed through human and animals.  Its role in enhancing the longevity by alleviating the common health challenges like  hypertension, cancer and diabetes.

Open Access Review Article

Melatonin as a Novel Supplement to COVID 19 Therapies

Madhu Bansode, Pankaj Bansode

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 128-133
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i39A32150

The COVID-19 disease continues its rampage on the human population all over the world. The pathogenesis mechanisms involve various inflammatory and altered immune responses and oxidative processes, leading to complications like cytokines storm and death in vulnerable cases. Therefore, in this review, we summarize current evidence on melatonin therapy for viral infections with focus on possible underlying mechanisms of melatonin actions. Since this pandemic crisis elapses time, researchers worldwide are busy trying new solutions to overcome the heavy toll of the COVID-19 illness morbidity and mortality. One such drug with growing recognition is melatonin. Melatonin is a well-known anti-inflammatory and antioxidant molecule which helps in promoting adaptive immunity. Melatonin improves sleep and anxiety and also can prevent fibrosis. It is a readily available over-the-counter medication that can be manufactured easily in bulk, hence inexpensive to a patient from a developing nation like India. It can be orally administered and has a wide margin of safety. This article reviews the various facets, merits, demerits, and rationale of the re-use use of molecule melatonin, which is yet to be recognized.

Open Access Review Article

Overview on Hormonal Replacement Therapy in Menopause

Shaden Akram A. Alanazi, Atheer Mansour E. Alatawi, Atheer Salman O. Alhwaiti, Aumniyat Saad A. Alrashidi, Dimah Mohammed A. Abu Murad, Ghadah Ali R. Alanazi, Mei Khalid S. Alfaqiri, Rahaf Naif A. Alenezi, Wejdan Abdullah Albalawi, Layan Hussain J. Alharbi

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 141-147
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i39A32152

Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) is defined as a therapy that could allow women to free themselves from the malediction of estrogen loss and conserve their femininity. The study aims to summarize the updated evidence regards types, indication, contraindication, and untoward effects of hormonal replacement therapy among menopausal women. There are several different drug classes comprising estrogens, progestogens, and estrogen + progestogen combinations. Estrogen is the primary active component of HRT, treating menopausal symptoms, particularly vasomotor symptoms. There are several adverse effects of hormone replacement therapy that manifest in many different ways depending on the route of administration, and whether that route has local or systemic effects. Further research is needed to study the risks of menopausal HRT and pharmacological studies are needed to lower these risks and make its use safer with less side effects.

Open Access Review Article

The Role of Radiographic Imaging in Diagnosis and Follow-up of Vesicoureteral Reflux: Review Article

Mahmoud Elsayed Mahmoud Fadl, Anwar Suwailem Almutairi, Amal Muteb S. Alshalan

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 231-239
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i39A32165

Background: Primary vesicoureteral reflux is a basic influencing for urinary tract infections in children. The basic technique for the diagnosis of vesicoureteral reflux is voiding cystourethrography, accompanied with cystoscintigraphy. Voiding cystourethrography has the benefit of only minor irradiation. However it does no longer permit the morphological assessment of bladder and vesicoureteral reflux grading. Colored-Doppler cystosonography with echocontrast is a currently delivered technique for imaging vesicoureteral reflux. The purpose of our study is to explore the role of Radiographic Imaging in diagnosis and follow‐up of vesicoureteral reflux.

Method: A systematic review was carried out, (including PubMed, Google Scholar, and EBSCO) of imaging modalities used to detect or evaluate vesicoureteral reflux disease. The found articles were screened by titles, and abstracts. No software will be utilized to analyze the data. The review was performed by the group members and each verified by at least two, to ensure the validity and minimize the mistakes.

Results and Conclusion: Colour-Doppler cystosonography, due to the nonexistence of ionizing radiations, has great benefits, mainly in cases requiring continued or prolonged monitoring. In spite of practices stated in the literature, this procedure has a role in the diagnosis of vesicoureteral reflux. Our group chooses colour-Doppler cystosonography for the follow-up of medium-severe grade vesicoureteral reflux previously diagnosed by radiology and/or scintigraphy. Cystoscintigraphy is used only to confirm cases resulting negative at ultrasonography. 

Open Access Review Article

Study of Typhoid Fever: A Review

Prathmesh Siddheshwar Kaluse, Neha Bhatt, Nandkishor Bankar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 286-291
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i39A32172

Salmonella typhi and Salmonella paratyphi, all members of the Enterobacteriaceae family, are the primary causes of typhoid fever. Salmonella enterica serovar and enteritidis are isolated by multiplex quantitative polymerase chain reaction PCR after detailed study. Salmonella nontyphoidal (NTS) is most frequent in infants, although the majority of cases are limited to gastroenteritis. Salmonella is spread by polluted water, raw food, and large groups of sick people, and is most prevalent in heavily populated cities, civil disorder, and inadequate sanitation. It can only be passed from one sick individual to another and humans are the only ones that can spread it. Chickens, milk, and uncommon tortoises are the most common causes of salmonella. The Patients went directly to the Observed Treatment in the Dept. of Medicine, at DMMC, SMHRC Nagpur. Enteric fever is still a major public health concern around the world, particularly in developing countries. Typhoid cases in cities are estimated to be about 800-900 per year, according to studies. While inexpensive and widely available, the Widal exam should be used with caution. Massive public awareness campaigns should be undertaken to inform citizens about the importance of taking preventative measures, vaccines, and seeing a doctor, among other items. Doctors should be aware of the emergence of newer antibacterial agents that are both safe and reliable, as well as the gradual development of antibiotic resistance. Aside from that, the discipline should anticipate newer curative and preventative interventions.