Open Access Case Report

Management of Hypertension in Elderly Pregnant Women with IVF Conception: A Case Report

Aparna M. Kawale, Manoj Patil

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 113-118
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i38A32065

Introduction: Hypertensive complications associated with pregnancy are the primary cause of maternal and fetal morbidity. Early development of cardiovascular disease is also anticipated relatively early after pregnancy is terminated. Over the past 20 years, infertility treatments have steadily increased and proven effective in achieving significant successful conception rates and live birth rates, even among women younger than 35 years of age.

Symptoms and important clinical findings: A 45 year sold female was admitted in AVBRH on date 22/01/2021 with chief complaint of breathing difficulty (elderly G5P1D1A3 with 28 weeks of gestational age)having history of previous LSCS with IVF conception with gestational hypertension.

Obstetric history: Patient had bad obstetric history of three abortionsand one still-birth. In 2017 she had got the menopause. After menopause she took the treatment in AVBRH Sawangi (M) Wardha and got the regular menses.After regular menses, shereceived IVF cycle and she was conceived in 2nd IVF cycle.

The main diagnoses, therapeutic interventions, and outcomes: After physical examination and investigations, this case was diagnosed having 28 weeks of gestation with hypertension. Patient had previous history of LSCS.Patient was treated with antihypertensive drugs to reduce the symptoms of eclampsia. Alsoshe was provided calcium supplement and iron supplement. Present case was stable but ultrasonography revealedsign of stage I- intra uterine growth restriction.

Nursing perspectives: Fluid replacement i.e. DNS and RL, monitoring offetal heart rate and vital signs per hourly.

Conclusion: Conception with in vitro fertilization have increased risk of gestational hypertension as well as fetal complications like intra uterine growth restriction. But timely treatment and management improves the outcome of pregnancy.

Open Access Case Report

A Comprehensive Rehabilitation of a known Case of Leprosy Operated for Midshaft Femur Fracture

Laukik Vaidya, Dushyant Bawiskar, Prateek Upadhyay, Pratik Phansopkar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 299-306
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i38A32089

Background: A persistent infection triggered by Mycobacterium leprae is also known as leprosy or Hansen's disease, transmitting by tiny droplets of the nose and mouth to the skin and peripheral nerves, producing disability. Leprosy therapy is based on the combination of the rifampicin, dispone and clofazimine (MDT) three-drug regimen. In patients who undergo hormone therapy, avascular femoral necrosis (ANFH) or femoral head osteonecrosis (ONFH) may occur, causing steroid-induced femoral head avascular necrosis (SANFH) Core decompression (CD) reduces bone pressure, opens the hardening area, prevents osteonecrosis repair, promotes blood vessel development through the tunnel for decompression, increases bone replacement and delays osteonecrosis.

Patient information, diagnosis and therapeutic interventions: In this case, we found a 20 years old girl known case of leprosy, was on corticosteroids for two and half years. After an increase in dosage of corticosteroids she began difficult for her walk and do her activities of daily living. She visited Acharya Vinoba Bhave Rural Hospital (AVBRH), DMIMS (DU) Sawangi Meghe, Wardha, Maharashtra, India where she got to know about necrosis of head of femur of both lower limbs. She underwent core decompression surgery of bilateral femoral head. For further management she was referred to Physiotherapy Department.

Outcomes and Conclusion:  this case, we found that a patient who is young who had Midshaft femur fracture with interlock nailing and sever kinesiophobia, affecting rehabilitation, was able to resume her ADLs independently.

Open Access Case Report

Case Report on Management of Pregnancy in a Patient with Small Muscular Ventricular Septal Defect

Lina Fating

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 325-328
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i38A32091

Introduction: Maternal morbidity and mortality during pregnancy is significantly associated with hypertensive disorders.

Patient history: A 33 years old female was admitted in AVBRH with chief complaint of breathing difficulty with G2P1A1L1 having 30 weeks of gestational age with previous LSCS and conception with small muscular ventricular septal defect, normal function and rhythm for the period of gestation.

Obstetric history: Patient had bad obstetric history of 1 induced abortion.

Clinical findings: The patient had undergone various investigations like blood tests, USG, Physical examination and antenatal per abdominal examination.

Medical Management: Patient was treated with calcium supplement and iron supplement. Nursing management: Administered fluid replacement i.e. DNS and RL, Foetal monitoring, hourly vital sign monitoring.

Conclusion: Timely treatment of Ventricular Small Muscular Septal Defect and Management in pregnancy improved the outcome of pregnancy.

Open Access Case Study

Adhesive Capsulitis of Shoulder Emphasising on Restorative and Compensatory Management: A Case Study

Vedantika Waghale, Akshata Guhe, Ranjit Ambad, Nandkishor Bankar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 49-54
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i38A32059

Adhesive capsulitis more commonly periarthritis of shoulder is a common condition characteristic by pain, stiffness and restricted range of motion leading to difficulty in household activities, overhead reach and complexity in daily activities. This condition affects around two million - mostly women between the ages of 40 and 60. Some experts say changing levels of hormones may be to blame for this connection between adhesive capsulitis and menopause. This is a case study of Mrs. R a 55-year-old female presenting complain of left-sided shoulder pain and restricted movement. These symptoms started gradually but over time they began to affect her general quality of life and morale. Pain increased, particularly at night leaving her extremely tired during the daytime and she started to experience problems especially when dressing. After conducting a thorough examination, which included assessment of active and passive range of movements (rom), x rays and diagnostic special tests we reached a diagnosis of adhesive capsulitis of left shoulder The conservative management remains the mainstay treatment of adhesive capsulitis

With using soft tissue mobilization treatment techniques in combination with a home exercise programmed with active assisted exercise. Here in this case study, we are emphasizing on the restorative and compensatory management decreasing the hours of OPD visits and promoting home program

Open Access Case Study

Clinical Feature, Cause and Outcome in Female Paediatric Child with Osseomuscular Type of Wilson’s Disease

Mayuri Yelekar, Lina Pahune, Indu Alwadkar, Aparna Kawale

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 254-258
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i38A32083

Introduction: Genetically inherited diseases have grown in the last few decades. Wilson’s disease is one of those, named after the U.S.-born British neurologist Dr. Samuel Alexander Kinnier Wilson.

Case Presentation: A 12 years old female child was admitted in A.V.B.R. hospital with the chief complaints of altered behaviour, speech disturbances, no physical coordination, uncontrolled movement since 2 to 3 months and fever since 2-3 days. Golden brown eye discoloration was present. After physical examination and investigation doctor diagnosed it as a case of Wilson’s disease.

The Main Diagnosis, Therapeutic Intervention and Outcomes: After physical examination and investigation doctor diagnosed this as a case of Wilson’s disease.  Zinc and vitamin supplements were given for 7 days to enhance immunity.  Beta-blocker was given For 7days twice a day, Tab. Trietinine 250 mg was given once a day for 7 days to remove the heavy metal i.e. copper. She took all treatment and outcome was good. Her signs and symptoms got reduced and she was able to do her routine activities.

Conclusion: The diagnosis of Wilson's disease relies largely on clinical examination and laboratory confirmation of abnormal metabolism of copper. This case responded well to all treatment and her recovery was good.

Open Access Case Study

An Ayurvedic Approach to Vipadika (Palmoplantar Psoriasis): A Case Study

Amrita Biswas, Amol Madhav Deshpande, Mayuri Amol Deshpande

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 267-273
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i38A32085

Ayurveda includes all the skin diseases under the broad name Kushta (Skin Diseases). There are 18 types of skin diseases were described in Ayurved Samhitas. Out of which 11 are Kshudra Kushta. Vipadika (Palmoplantar psoriasis) is one of them. Different Acharyas have given different presentations of signs and symptoms of Vipadika. According to Ashtang hridaya, Panipadsputana (Cracks over palms and soles), Tivra Vedana (severe Pain), Manda Kandu (Mild Itching), and Sarag Pidika (Red-colored Macule) are the symptoms of Vipadika. This skin disease hampers day-to-day activity and depresses patients because of cosmetic issues. This case was about a woman of age 55 years having Itching on the plantar aspect of both feet, cracks over soles, burning sensation, and pain during walking. There was no previous history of any systemic disease. The patient had not undergone any surgical procedure. The patient used to eat pickles twice a day on daily basis. At the first follow-up, the burning sensation was reduced. Then the cracks, itching, and pain during walking reduced with consecutive follow-ups. Raktmokshan (Leech therapy) was planned after every 15 days. Total treatment was about 3 months with a follow-up of 15 days. With this treatment protocol, the patient got completely relieved from all parameters.

Open Access Case Study

Efficacy of Agility Training in a Police Cadet: A Case Study

Dushyant Bawiskar, Pratik Phansopkar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 281-287
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i38A32087

Background: Plyometric training is a blend of training for strength and stamina. This enables muscles to exert full strength in short time intervals, with the intention of increasing power (speed-strength) in order to ensure stronger police cadet agility. Preparation for physical health, Preparation for Technical Event, Tactics Preparation and psychological preparation these are four important components for the Sports which makes athletes more-strong and achieve high success.  Agility is characterized by sudden change in the direction by maintaining the ability in which quickly changing the direction of the body.

Objective: Analyse the result of the 12-week Plyometric Agility Program in Police Cadets. Diagnosis, Therapeutic Intervention and Outcomes: The cadet was examined for any deformity and any problems regarding the lower limb soft tissue and Range of motion, Manual muscle testing and agility test were carried out. 40 Cadets aged above 18 years were grouped into two. Analysis was then carried out with assessment of T-test Agility test, Illinois Agility Test, Edgren Side Step Test. Intervention duration is 12-weeks, completed successfully. Assessment was done on 1st day of visit then at the end of 6th week and again at the end of 12th week. Cadet would have to perform 4 session of Plyometric Training per week. Plyometric Training is best to increase the agility which was evident in this case.

Conclusion: Plyometric training is very beneficial to increase the Agility of the lower limb as the time period required to complete the Agility test were more and now the time period is less. It comes under the “Good” Grades. Hence, it is proved that Plyometric Training is more helpful to increase the agility.

Open Access Study Protocol

Diagnosis of Bacterial Meningitis and AMR Profile Using Molecular and Immunological Techniques

Rucha P. Parsodkar, Aliabbas A. Husain, Gargi D. Mudey, Lokendra R. Singh, Rajpal S. Kashyap

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 89-105
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i38A32063

Background: Bacterial meningitis (BM) is severe complication of central nervous system (CNS) and is often associated with high mortality and morbidity rates if not timely diagnosed and treated. Current diagnostic tools for BM and drug resistance suffer from lack of sensitivity due to paucibacillary nature of Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF).

Objectives: The objective of the study is to develop rapid and efficacious immunological tools (Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay and Lateral flow) for diagnosis of BM in hospital settings. In addition, in-house molecular assays will be developed for diagnosis of extended spectrum beta lactamases and Carbapenems drug resistance in community and hospital acquired BM infection

Methodology: A prospective observational study will be carried out in patients admitted in IPD awards of CIIMS, Nagpur. Diagnosis of BM will be done using conventional gold standards and by in-house designed nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for 8 etiological pathogens. An in-house ELISA assay will be standardized and optimized based on culture filtrates antigen isolated from clinical isolates of etiological pathogens associated with BM for immunological diagnosis. For diagnosis of drug resistance, in-house conventional PCR assay targeting ESBL (TEM, SHV and CTX-M) and Carbapenems (NDM, OXA-48, VIM) resistance genes will be standardized and optimized. The sensitivity and specificity of developed test will be determined by standard ROC curve using medical software. The diagnostic accuracy will be determined based on concordance with gold standards.

Expected results: A simple, rapid ELISA assay will be developed for etiological diagnosis BM in hospital settings.  In addition, in house molecular assay will be developed for rapid identification of ESBL and Carbapenems drug resistance in BM cases.

Conclusion: A simple, rapid, efficacious immunological and molecular tools for diagnosis of BM and drug resistance will be developed for improved management of cases in hospital settings as governance of bacterial meningitis in India is poor.

Open Access Study Protocol

Evaluation of Predictor like Maternal Serum Lipid Profile in 2nd Trimester in Pregnancy Related Hypertensive Disorders

Arpita Jaiswal, Dhruva Halani

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 195-201
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i38A32075

Background: The most leading cause of perinatal and maternal deaths and morbidity in developed and developing countries like India is pregnancy related hypertensive disorders especially pre-eclampsia. PIH is defined as; in previously normotensive and normoproteinuric women, hypertension of >_ 140/90 mmHg with or without proteinuria measured on two occasions 6 hours apart after gestational age (20 weeks).Women with pregnancy related hypertensive disorders experience varied and altered lipid changes.    Increased TG, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), cholesterol and decreased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) concentrations leading to dyslipidemia was found in majority of the studies.

Aim: The study aims to evaluate predictor like maternal sr. lipid profile in 2nd trimester in pregnancy related hypertensive disorders.

Objective: To evaluate the occurrence of normal maternal and altered maternal serum lipid profile serum lipid profile in 2nd trimester of pregnancy in pregnancy related hypertensive disorders and compare them .

Materials and Methods: The design of the study will be prospective as well as observational conducted from September 2020 to august 2022 with an estimated sample size of 1000. Patients included were nnormotensive and non-proteinuric in second trimester (13-20 weeks of gestation). Subjects will be evaluated on the basis of preformed and pretested proforma consisting of history, clinical symptoms and presentation and investigations. Blood samples for serum lipid profile will be collected in plain bulb with aseptic conditions and analyzed at the biochemistry laboratory by enzymatic method.

Expected Results: We expect that from our results, altered maternal serum lipid profile in 2nd trimester will be positively associated with pregnancy related hypertensive disorders.

Open Access Short Research Article

Phytochemical Profile of Saribus rotundifolius (Anahaw) Crude Extract Found in the University of Eastern Philippines

Flyndon Mark S. Dagalea, Karina Milagros C. Lim, Manuela Cecille G. Vicencio, Ma. Lourdes C. Alvarez, Maria Judy M. Somoray, Abel Alejandro U. Flores Jr, Francis Michael G. Tubello, Jannah Louise L. Beros, Rose Ann F. Ablazo, Tom Joel Q. Caloza

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 250-253
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i38A32082

Phytochemical profiling focuses on the determination of the secondary metabolite present on a sample.

Aims: In this research, a phytochemical profiling was done in Saribus rotundifolius (Anahaw) leaves and fruit crude extracts.

Methodology: This study determines the secondary metabolites; alkaloid, tannin, flavonoid, cardiac glycoside, saponin, and terpenoid. The samples were cut into pieces and was submerged in an ethanol solution for the extract of crude extract and undergo a rotary evaporator for the separation of the ethanol solvent.

Results: The finding showed that the anahaw leaves and fruit crude extract contains secondary metabolites present in both leaves and fruit crude extracts, that can be used in pharmaceutical and drug development, this includes an anti-microbial potential.

Open Access Minireview Article

The Paradox of Happy Hypoxia in COVID 19

Madhu Bansode, Pankaj Bansode

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 119-124
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i38A32066

Ever since the human race has been exposed to the novel COVID 19 illness, newer and newer intriguing features of the COVID viral plethora are seen with each passing day. Many manifestations of the COVID 19 illness have been baffling and unexplainable to researchers currently. One such unusual presentation seen is ‘happy hypoxia’ or silent hypoxemia in a third of patients' total number. This review article is intending to put some light on the puzzling condition of happy hypoxia. We authors refer you through various theories postulated for happy hypoxia. It has definite clinical implications in the sense that it can be lifesaving if detected early and promptly in a COVID patient. We conclude that happy hypoxia or silent hypoxemia is a new entity and should be diagnosed with a high index of suspicion in COVID suspect patients in both young patients with no co morbidities and the elderly and diabetics. Diagnostic modalities like pulse oximeter should be widely used at hospitals and clinics and for self-monitoring by the patients at homes. Also, chest X-rays or HRCT imaging of the lungs is essential in the early stages to identify the early infective changes with compromised lung function and rule out this happy hypoxia. Also, further research is essential to find the exact ethologic of this subclinical though ominous prognostic entity.

Open Access Minireview Article

Indian Laws during COVID-19 Pandemic: Implications to Health and Management

Gaurav Jaiswal, Rakesh Kumar Jha, Praful S. Patil

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 232-236
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i38A32079

Introduction: 2019 corona virus disease (COVID-19), a respiratory disease caused by a new corona virus (SARS corona virus 2, also known as novel corona virus) in China, has spread and attracted worldwide attention. The WHO declared the outbreak of COVID-19 a global public health emergency on January 30, 2020. Following the 2002 corona virus (SARS-Corona Virus) and the 2012 MERS Corona Virus, the virus SARS corona is the third most infectious disease and the largest corona virus that caused human outbreaks in the 20th century.

Aim: To assess the Indians law that affects or supports the Indian citizen with present scenario of Pandemic.

Conclusion: Coronavirus has called for a mixed response in India. The answer includes a host of regulations, guidelines, services, and administrative structures, as well as public and government warnings. As the demands of government action grow, the Passivence Sicknesses Act has become a topic of discussion. Instead of establishing a comprehensive health care system, the Pestilence Infections Act allows states to take special measures in response to serious infectious diseases. The law gives the public a broad mandate to participate in oppressive actions against citizens within this limited framework.

Open Access Original Research Article

Stress and Oral Hygiene Practices among South Kashmiri Residents during COVID-19 Pandemic - A Cross-Sectional Study

Asifa Ashraf, Ipseeta Menon, Ritu Gupta, Vikram Arora, Dipshikha Das, Iram Ahsan

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 8-20
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i38A32054

Background and Objectives: Covid-19 is highly contagious disease and has today become a major public health concern in the developing countries worldwide. This study attempted to assess the knowledge, attitude, anxiety experience, perceived mental healthcare, and oral health among adult Kashmiri population during the COVID-19 pandemic.

Methods: An anonymous online questionnaire was developed using Google forms to avoid person-to-person contact. The structured questionnaire consisted of questions covering several areas: sociodemographic data, knowledge, awareness, attitude about the COVID-19 , the anxiety level, oral hygiene habits during confinement, care and disinfection control behaviours in the dental environment.

Results: Due to continuing conflict in Kashmir during the last 18 years there has been a phenomenal increase in psychiatric morbidity. The results reveal that the prevalence of depression was high 46.3% among Kashmiri residents who were anxious with the thought of  COVID-19 virus. In our study it was also found that 66.2% of the responders had a moderate level of knowledge about being getting quarantined and 97.7% of the participants had an adequate knowledge about its preventive aspects. The anxiety levels identified in the study were high i.e. more than 70% of the participants were preoccupied with the COVID-19 pandemic over the past months. Approximately, 42.6% of the participants have been angered and distressed due to being worried about the ongoing pandemic. Oral hygiene and last visit to the dentist were found highly significant in our study i.e. approximately  36.6% of the participants had visited a dentist among which 35.2% had visited only due to consultation advise.

Conclusion: Population of Kashmir had a better mean knowledge score regarding this virus but yet mental health is an integral part of overall health and quality of life. Substantial and sustainable improvements can be achieved only when a comprehensive strategy for mental health which incorporates both prevention and care elements is adopted. There is a need to intensify the awareness and address the mental health issues, and importance of oral hygiene of people during this COVID-19 pandemic.

Open Access Original Research Article

Self-Medication Practices: A Threatening Challenge

Vaishnavi Bante, Vaishali Rahate, Rahul Dixit, Rakesh Kumar Jha, Roshan Kumar Jha

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 21-25
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i38A32055

Background and Objectives: Self-Medication is a growing concern for the health authorities especially in Urban population. This research was aimed to find the various determinants of Self-Medication and to assess the influence of Pharmacists, Perception about doctors, Self- Knowledge gaining attitude of the patients on Self-Medication.

Methods: This study was conducted in Nagpur city with a random sample constituting                      house wives, students, professionals and Businessman. The sample size was 71. Descriptive analyses, correlation analyses and multiple regressions were performed using SPSS Version            21.0.

Results: The results indicated that 80% of the housewives take the medicines on the basis of previous prescription, word of mouth or on the suggestion of the pharmacist. It was alarming to find that 76% of the students took the medicines on the basis of web search. Fever (39%), headache (33%) & Abdominal pain (23%) are the prominent reasons for Self-Medication. There was a positive correlation between Advice of Pharmacist, Self-knowledge collection attitude of the patient with the Self-Medication behavior. NSAID’s, anti-allergen and antibiotics are the most frequently used drugs.

Conclusion: Self-medication is an important health issue prevalent in India. Over the counter (OTC) and Old prescriptions available with the patients leads to rise in Self-Medication. There should be a strict regulatory control on procurement of drugs from the pharmacist.

Open Access Original Research Article

In vitro Comparative Quality Evaluation of Different Brands of Marketed Paracetamol Tablets Available in Bangladesh

Mahfuza Rahman, Khurshida Akter, Md. Shahin Sarker, Jinat Fatema Sharna, Mir Imam Ibne Wahed

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 26-32
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i38A32056

Aim: This study was performed to evaluate the quality of five brands of Paracetamol 500mg tablets from different manufacturers.

Methods: The general quality parameters of these tablets like weight variation, hardness, thickness, diameter, friability, disintegration time and also dissolution time were evaluated according to the established protocols. For measuring weight variation, an electric analytical balance was used. The hardness, thickness and diameter were determined by an automated hardness tester. Friability was measured by a friabilator. Disintegration time and dissolution time were analyzed by disintegration apparatus and dissolution tester respectively.

Results: In this study, all the five brands of the tablets passed the BP or USP standards for in vitro evaluation tests with a very slight deviation. All brands complied with the standards for weight variation (550.1±5.88 mg to 631.1±4.71 mg), hardness (121.60±6.6 N to 220.20±7.6), disintegration time (3 minutes 15 seconds to 5 minutes 30 seconds). However, in case of friability, although brand A showed slight deviation, the remaining had shown the satisfactory results with the standard. In addition, the drug release rate of different brands of paracetamol was satisfactory within 30 minutes and ranged from 90.88% to 103.75%.

Conclusion: It can be concluded that almost all the tablets of paracetamol purchased from retail outlets in Bangladesh are manufactured and marketed according to GMP. Further work is recommended on bioequivalence of these tablets.

Open Access Original Research Article

Glycaemic Regulation with Zinc Combination in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

Gangaram Bhadarge, Pratibha Dawande, Nandkishor Bankar, Raunak Kotecha

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 33-37
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i38A32057

Introduction: Zn supplementation improved glutathione peroxidase enzyme activity and decreased malondialdehyde and nitric oxide levels in diabetic rats, revealing Zn's defensive effect against oxidative stress in type 2 diabetes. The investigators have discovered that consuming Zn increased liver function and protected pancreatic tissue from damage caused by diabetes. Since Zn also prevents chronic hyperglycemia, it helps to minimize oxidative stress caused by type 2 diabetes. Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a global health problem that affects more than 3 million people worldwide (16% of population). Chronic hyperglycemia causes oxidative stress in diabetic patients by the development of free radicals (oxidants) and lowering the antioxidant protection mechanism.

Aim: Glycaemic Regulation with Zinc Combination in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.

Materials and Methods: Faculty of Medicine and Diabetic Opd, Datta Meghe Mediсаl Соllege and Shаlinitаi Meghe Hоsрitаl аnd Reseаrсh Сenter, Nаgрur in соllаbоrаtion with Dаttа Meghe Institute оf Mediсаl Sсienсes Deemed to be University, Sаwаngi, Wаrdhа, Mаhаrаshtrа.

Results: The mean Zn level was 12.213±2.342in all participants and 9.121±1.782 in the control group, whereas it was significantly low (9.121±1.782) in the diabetic group, and there was statistically significant difference in Zn levels between the controls and the diabetic group (P < 0.001).FBS, HbA1C, serum Zinc mean effects between control and patients showed statistically significant differences in type 2 diabetes mellitus (P <0.0001).

Conclusion: Our findings show that people with diabetes have lower levels of Zn than healthy people. The cause and effect of the association between very low levels of Zn and the progression of diabetes, or diabetes that causes Zn deficiency, is still unknown. Low levels of Zn are associated with poor glycemic control, and poor glycemic control is a good indication of Zn deficiency, as there was a negative association between serum Zn and FBS and HBA1C. If diabetic patients have low glycemic regulation, a long history of diabetes, obesity, or are over the age of 50, we look to assess their levels in Zn so that Zn alternative treatment can begin to release oxidative stress in this high-risk group.

Open Access Original Research Article

Neuroprotective Outcome of Thymol against Global Cerebral Ischemia Reperfusion injury in Albino Rats

M. Hima Saila, Manga Devi Ch, Santhrani Thakur

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 38-48
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i38A32058

Aims: The purpose of the present study was targeted to explore the possible role of thymol against global cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury in albino rats.

Study Design:  Healthy Albino Wistar rats (200–250 gm) were divided randomly into 5 groups (n=6).  Group I and II were considered as normal control and sham control, received 2% tween 80 orally, group III was ischemic- reperfusion (disease control) and received 2% tween 80 orally and Group IV and V received thymol at doses of 50 mg/kg, per oral and 100 mg/kg, per oral. respectively.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Pharmacology, Sri Padmavathi School of pharmacy, Tiruchanur, Tirupati in between Sept 2019 to March 2020.

Methodology: Group I and II were considered as normal control and sham control, received  2% tween 80 orally, group III was ischemic- reperfusion (disease control) and received 2% tween 80 orally and Group IV and V received thymol at doses of 50 mg/kg, per oral (p.o) and 100 mg/kg, per oral (p.o). respectively. After pretreatment with thymol for 2 weeks, rats were subjected to bilateral common carotid artery occlusion for 1 hour accompanied by 22 hours reperfusion (I/R). After 22 hrs of reperfusion, motor coordination, hanging wire test, despair swim tests were studied. Antioxidant levels of reduced glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and pro-oxidant level of Malondialdehyde (MDA) were analyzed in brain tissue homogenate. Changes in cerebral infarct size and histopathology were studied.

Results: Pretreated groups of thymol (50 and 100 mg/kg p.o) showed significant improvement in neurobehavioral changes and attenuated oxidative damage as indicated by reduced LPO, restored GSH, SOD and CAT levels and decreased infract size when compared to ischemic reperfusion group.

Conclusion: This study suggests that thymol may have a beneficial role against global ischemia reperfusion induced damage caused by excessive free radicals and behavioral alterations in rats.

Open Access Original Research Article

A Silver Hope in the Dreadful Pandemic: Shift towards a Healthier Lifestyle, Hygiene and Cleanliness

Rishabh Dhabalia

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 162-167
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i38A32071

The COVID-19 pandemic has spread its terror globally for over a year now. There is no continent that has been spared by this scourge. And perhaps a few small countries with no reported cases. Regardless, it is an irrefutable fact that this novel coronavirus pandemic has shaken the pillars of human civilization. For those unaware or living under a rock since the past year or so, the disease is caused by the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) virus. The first cases were reported to the World Health Organisation as a cluster of pneumonia from unknown causes from Wuhan, China on the 31st December, 2019. And, thus began its reign of terror, spreading across the world, like hot cakes sold out in a carnival. That being said, humanity has suffered a lot at the hands of the pandemic. Innumerous deaths, sufferings, unending lockdowns and curfews, social problems, people losing their livelihoods and the list goes on. It is, thus, easy to give in to the mood of gloom and doom with all that is going on around us. However, just as with anything, there is a side too, that is scarcely talked about. There have also been some positive impacts of this pandemic that one couldn’t have foreseen beforehand. So, without further ado, below we have covered a few positive side effects of this curse of a pandemic!

Open Access Original Research Article

Earrings: An Obscured Source of Cross- Contamination in Dental Clinics of India

Sweta Singh, Priyanka Talmale, G. Archana

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 168-173
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i38A32072

Purpose: This study aimed to check for the bacterial contamination of earrings worn by female dentists involved in direct patient care.

Method: This cross-sectional microbiological study was carried out among female dentists working in clinical departments of a tertiary care dental hospital. A questionnaire concerning awareness regarding the donning of ornaments as possible source of contamination was administered. It also included questions on measures taken to prevent cross contamination through earrings and methods for disinfection of earrings used if any. Two swabs from each participant were taken, one from the earring and other from the underlying skin site using a sterile microbial swab moistened in saline. The samples were then dispensed into 1 ml of sterile water by vortexing for 45s. The vortexed sample was then inoculated onto Blood Agar. The inoculated plates were incubated for 24 hours at 37˚C aerobically. Further examination was done for the count of bacteria, type of bacteria and antibiotic sensitivity.

Result: In total 90 swabs, 45 each from earring and underlying skin were cultured for microorganisms. All the (100%) samples were positive for bacterial contamination. The swabs obtained from underlying skin sites were found to have significantly higher microbial load. (p-value = 0.008). Sixty two percent (62%) of the participants were aware of earrings being a possible source of contamination and 55% had the knowledge that ornaments are supposed to be removed while working in patient clinics. Only 5% practiced removing the ornaments which included bangles/bracelets, rings and watches. None reported to have removed earrings while working in clinics.

Conclusion: The results of this study show that earrings are potential source of cross contamination in a dental setting. This can act as nidus for colonization of bacteria and possible source for nosocomial infections and pathogenic transmission.

Open Access Original Research Article

Pharmacy Impact on Covid-19 Vaccination Progress Using Machine Learning Approach

Shawni Dutta, Upasana Mukherjee, Samir Kumar Bandyopadhyay

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 202-217
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i38A32076

The novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has created immense threats to public health on various levels around the globe. The unpredictable outbreak of this disease and the pandemic situation are causing severe depression, anxiety and other mental as physical health related problems among the human beings. This deadly disease has put social, economic condition of the entire world into an enormous challenge. To combat against this disease, vaccination is essential as it will boost the immune system of human beings while being in the contact with the infected people. The vaccination process is thus necessary to confront the outbreak of COVID-19. The worldwide vaccination progress should be tracked to identify how fast the entire economic as well as social life will be stabilized. The monitor of the vaccination progress, a machine learning based Regressor model is approached in this study. This vaccination tracking process has been applied on the data starting from 14th December, 2020 to 24th April, 2021. A couple of ensemble based machine learning Regressor models such as Random Forest, Extra Trees, Gradient Boosting, AdaBoost and Extreme Gradient Boosting are implemented and their predictive performance are compared. The comparative study reveals that the Extra trees Regressor outperforms with minimized mean absolute error (MAE) of 6.465 and root mean squared error (RMSE) of 8.127. The uniqueness of this study relies on assessing as well as predicting vaccination intake progress by utilizing automated process offered by machine learning techniques. The innovative idea of the method is that the vaccination process and their priority are considered in the paper. Among several existing machine learning approaches, the ensemble based learning paradigms are employed in this study so that improved prediction efficiency can be delivered. 

Open Access Original Research Article

Prevalence of Oral Sub Mucosal Fibrosis in Pre- Anesthesia Clinic in India: A Cross Sectional Observational Study

Sweety Agrawal, Pratibha Deshmukh, Shweta Takalkar, Parag Sabale, Vivek Chakole

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 218-222
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i38A32077

Introduction: Oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF) is a premalignant lesion of the buccal mucosa usually caused by chewing of betel nut, areca nut and tobacco. OSMF causes difficulty in laryngoscopy and intubation of the trachea. Patient of submucosal fibrosis do come for emergency and elective surgeries requiring general anaesthesia. In such scenario maintaining airway is a big challenge for anaesthesiologist. Knowledge of Prevalence of submucosal fibrosis in local region and degree of OSMF with difficult intubation may help anaesthesiologist to prepare and plan airway management in such conditions.

Aims and Objectives: To evaluate the prevalence of oral submucous fibrosis in patients coming in pre-anaesthesia clinic and assessment of airway and prevalence of degree of OSMF by measuring Interincisal mouth opening in patients of oral submucosal fibrosis.

Methods: Cross-sectional observational study was conducted in the department of anaesthesiology on 500 patients coming in pre-anaesthesia clinic. Patients were identified and sent to dental department for confirmation of diagnosis OSMF if one or more clinical feature of OSMF were present. A detailed proforma was used to record demographic parameter, the type of tobacco, betelnut and areccanut chewing habits, difficulty in mouth opening, inter incisor distance. OSMF was divided in 4 stages on the basis of inter incisor distance.

Results: Prevalence rate of submucosal fibrosis patients coming in our pre-anaesthesia clinic was 8%. Thirty patients were found to be in stage 1 (75%.), nine patients were found to be in stage 2 (22.5%) and only one patient was in stage 3.

Conclusion: Being aware of the prevalence of OSMF in the region and stages of OSMF in regard to inter incisor distance in pre-operative clinic helps anaesthesiologists to prepare and plan airway management. And hence surgical exploration can be avoided.

Open Access Original Research Article

Compelling Evidence of Bacterial Pharyngeal Colonization among Clinical Sciences Students

Lienda Bashier Eltayeb, Fawziah Saeed Alharthi, Maha Noghaemesh Aldosari

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 223-231
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i38A32078

Background: Upper respiratory tract is one of the commonest sites for microbial colonization, and the colonized individuals are at risk of infection, and medical students are frequently exposed to a variety of infections agents and are more likely to get colonized by them. The current study aimed To determine the frequency of pharyngeal bacterial colonization among clinical students. Methods: A total of  140 throat swab was collected from study participants, among them, 70 clinical students were enrolled, and 70 nonclinical subjects were recruited as a control group. Isolated bacteria were identified using ordinary laboratory techniques (Gram staining and biochemical tests). Result: Among clinical participants, there were 16 (80%) of them in the age group 20–25 years of age, Frequency of pharyngeal carriage in studied subjects were 29(20.7%), 23(32.9%) of clinical sciences students were significantly carry the virulent bacterial pathogen, while only 6 (8.6%) of the control group have clinical pharyngeal bacteria (P-value ≤ 0.001). S. aureus was carried among 11 (15.7%) clinical sciences students, followed by S. pneumoniae 3 (4.3%), P. aeruginosa, and Haemophilusspp 2 (2.9%). Penicillin and Ciprofloxacin resistance was high frequent, statistically, significant differences were also revealed in the clinical sciences students group who have had a past history of respiratory infection, were 13/16 (80%), and 6/7 (85.7%) of them frequently carried gram-positive bacteria and negative bacteria respectively (p. value =0.023)

Conclusion: Clinical students complain of a high frequency of bacterial throat colonization, and then multidrug-resistant of bacterial strain. Such evidence may increase the possibility that clinical students play role in the transmission and dissemination of the infection for others.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluating the Influence of Reminder Text Messages to Wear the Removable Retainers in Orthodontic Patients- A Randomized Prospective Study

Manoj Kumar Sharma, Stuti Mohan, Sunny Tandon, . Ashutosh, Sushant Bhatnagar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 237-244
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i38A32080

This study was conducted to evaluate the influence and cooperation of Orthodontic patients to wear removable retainer by sending reminder text messages. 54 orthodontic patients (24 males and 30 females) aged between 18 to 25 year were enrolled for the study. Patients were randomly divided into two groups: an Experimental group (27 patients) who received timely reminder text messages and a Control group (27 patients) who did not receive any messages. Text Messages were sent thrice a week for a period of 6 months. Two measurements were calculated on plaster models i.e. Inter canine width and extraction spaces at three time intervals during the observation period. The plaster models were made at the time of insertion of retainer (T0) after 3 month of wearing the retainer (T2) and then after 6 months (T3). A statistically significant differences were observed in the intra- and intergroup comparisons. Group 1(Control) showed increase in both inter canine width and extraction spaces. Whereas Group 2 showed non-significant differences for both parameters. It was concluded from the results that reminder text messages had a positive influence on patient compliance regarding wearing the removable retainer after completion of fixed orthodontic treatment.

Open Access Original Research Article

COVID 19 in Geriatric Patients in Vidharbha Region

Ayush Chamat, Ninad Nagrale, Nandkishor Bankar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 245-249
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i38A32081

Introduction: Although all age groups are at risk of getting COVID-19, older people are at greater risk of developing serious illnesses as a result of the physical changes that come with aging and the onset of health symptoms Symptoms: Fever Cough Throat Throat Tiredness According to the current epidemiological evidence, patients with SARS-coV2 virus over the age of 80 are at greater risk of dying than younger patients, according to a study of Coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) is a highly contagious disease caused by a novel coronavirus from Wuhan, China, was also recognized by the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses as acute acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) (ICTV).

Aim: Covid-19 in geriatric patients in vidharbha region

Materials and Methods: Covid 19 positive Patients went directly to the Observed Treatment in the Dept. of Medicine and Dept. of Respiratory, DMMC and SMHRC, Nagpur.

Results: Recovery is usually slower and more difficult. Most of us are concerned about our elderly relatives who live far away from us. They can experience anxiety as a result of living alone, being on a fixed income or pension, no longer driving and unable to use public transportation, and having their regular health checkups postponed. They may also be suffering from undiagnosed or poorly treated depression. COVID-19 has exacerbated the concerns of millions of elderly people.

Conclusion: We may also assist them by following the steps below. Ensure their medical supplies are stocked up.

Open Access Original Research Article

Concept of Kshara Nirmana Out of Kanji with Reference to Rasayansara- A Pharmaceutico-Analytical Study

Mahesh S. Pawar, M. R. Pandya, A. N. Jayaprakash, Abhaya Kumar Mishra, Lopamudra Dash

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 259-266
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i38A32084

Kanji (sour rice gruel) is an acidic fermented preparation mentioned in many of the Ayurveda classics for various purpose like therapeutic use, pharmaceutical processes etc. A special method of kanji preparation is mentioned in Rasaratnasamuchchaya commentary by Acharya Dattatreya Anant Kulkarni and similar preparation is also mentioned in Rasayansara book recommended for the Parada samskara (mercurial processes) with some difference in ingredients. Kshara (alkaline preparation/ alkali) is an important preparation mentioned in classics. In Rasayansara text, Acharya Shyamsundar Vaishyaji has described a unique method of Kshara nirmana out of the leftover material of the Kanji. This kind of innovative methods should be adopted to recycle the leftover waste matters. It will help in regenerate the new pharmaceutical product. Here an attempt has been done by preparing the kanji and the kshara out of its residue material as mentioned in Rasayansara. First Kanji was prepared as per the reference of Rasayansara book and the leftover after filtration was dried. The kshara was prepared out of this dried leftover. Organoleptic and physicochemical analysis of the prepared kshara was done. The average yield of obtained kshara was 4.88%. The moisture content of the final product found very less while total ash value found on higher side. The pH value suggests its alkaline nature. It shows good solubility in various solvents and good water-soluble extractive value. Exploration of such innovative procedures where waste stuff is been recycled should be increased in present time.

Open Access Original Research Article

An In vitro Comparative Evaluation of Microleakage of ACP Containing Pit and Fissure Sealant and Moisture Tolerant Pit and Fissure Sealant

Rachna Mulani, Aditi Mathur

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 274-280
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i38A32086

Background: Pits and fissure sealants are widely used to prevent caries in children. Microleakage is one of the most crucial factors resulting in sealant compromise. Factors pertaining to microleakage like, pre-treatment of occlusal surfaces, moisture control, bonding systems, and flowability of the sealant, will determine the longevity of the treatment. In vitro microleakage studies are useful in predicting the marginal sealing ability of pit and fissure sealants.

Aim: This in vitro study was undertaken to evaluate and compare the microleakage of ACP (Aegis®) containing pit and fissure sealant and moisture tolerant pit and fissure sealant (EmbraceTM WetbondTM).

Study Design: In vitro study.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry, Dr. D.Y. Patil Dental College and Hospital, Pune. between June 2020 and February 2021.
Methodology: 26 permanent non- carious premolars extracted for orthodontic treatment were used. The sealants used for the analysis of microleakage were Aegis® and EmbraceTM WetbondTM pit and fissure sealants. The premolars were divided into two groups of 13 each. After sealant application, they were immersed in methylene blue dye. The teeth were subjected to thermocycling for 24 hours, after which The teeth were sectioned buccolingually and dye penetration was studied under a stereomicroscope (magnification 10X).

Results: Both the groups were studied and statistically evaluated using Mann- Whitney U test. Aegis® showed higher microleakage in (46.2%) than Embrace (38%), though the results were not statistically significant.

Conclusion: Both the materials showed microleakage, more In-vivo studies with longer follow- up periods are needed to evaluate and compare the clinical success of these pit & fissure sealants.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Antivenom Activity of Cassia alata Leaf Extract against Daboia Russelii Venom

Achala Bhat, K. S. Rajesh, Reshma Raghavan

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 288-298
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i38A32088

Cassia alata, commonly known as candle bush, ringworm bush is an extensively distributed plant of the family Leguminosea. It is an annual and occasionally biannual herb, flowering in the sunshine and humid areas, with an average height of 1 to 4m. Biological activity in plants has been claimed to be effective as antidiabetic, antimicrobial, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-allergic, antimicrobial, analgesic, anti-ulcer, antiviral, antidepressants, hepatoprotective, antimalarial, anthelmintic, cardiovascular, and anesthetic properties. The ethanolic extract of plant was subjected first time for neutralization of snake venom activity. Primary phytochemical screening shows the existence of alkaloid, steroids, phenols, flavonoids, and triterpenoids. Ethanolic extract of Cassia alata plants was tested for antivenom activity against Daboia russelii venom. Various dose levels of leaf extract 200 and 400mg/kg showed significant neutralization of hemorrhagic activity, and at 400mg/kg leaf extract showed significant necrotizing activity in rats.

Open Access Original Research Article

Design and Evaluation of Natamycin Nanocrystals Loaded In Situ Gel for Ophthalmic Administration

Roshni Das, Marina Koland, S. M. Sindhoor

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 307-324
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i38A32090

Background: Natamycin belongs to a large group of naturally occurring polyene antifungal antibiotics derived from Streptomyces natalensis. Natamycin has a restrictive pharmaceutical role because of its extremely low aqueous solubility, which severely reduces the bioavailability of the drug. To improve the absorption of the drug, nanocrystals of natamycin were prepared and incorporated into in situ gel.

Aim: To improve the solubility and absorption of natamycin nanocrystals by preparing nanocrystal in situ gel of natamycin for ophthalmic delivery

Methodology: Natamycin nanocrystal was prepared using Sono-Precipitation method. Box-Behnken approach was employed to assess the influence of independent variables, namely concentration of stabilizer, sonication time and amplitude on particle size and zeta potential of the prepared nanocrystal.

Optimized natamycin nanocrystal in situ gel formulations was characterized for various parameters like pH, viscosity, drug content, in vitro drug release and ex vivo permeation studies.

Results: The optimized formulation of natamycin nanocrystal with a particle size of  293.9nm and zeta potential -14.6mV was incorporated into in situ gels. The pH triggered in situ gel was prepared using Carbopol and Hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC)., which showed clear preparation, pH of the formulation was closed to the pH of tear fluid, i.e., 7.4, viscosity showed pseudoplastic behaviour with immediate gelation remained for an extended period, and the drug content was around 99.70%. From the characterizations given above, PF-4 was optimized and evaluated for In vitro drug release showing slow and sustained release when compared to the marketed formulation and followed first-order kinetics with the diffusion-controlled mechanism. Ex vivo permeation through goat's cornea of PF-4 showed better permeation than marketed formulation. The stability studies of PF-4 showed that formulation was stable at the appropriate condition.

Conclusion: Nanocrystals formulations of natamycin was successfully formulated and incorporated into in situ gels. Further in vivo studies need to be carried out for confirmation of pharmacological activity

Open Access Original Research Article

Incidence and Risk Factors Associated with Post Tibial Plateau Fracture Deep Venous Thrombosis: A Prospective Cohort Study

Abdul Samad Qureshi, Dildar Ahmed Khan, Sikandar Ali, Mohammad Faheem Iqbal

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 329-334
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i38A32092

Objective: The purpose behind this study was to determine the incidence and risk factors associated with post tibial plateau fracture deep venous thrombosis (DVT)

Materials and Methods: A prospective study was conducted in a tertiary care hospital, Indus Medical College & Hospital, Tando Muhammad Khan to recruit those patients who were undergoing orthopedic surgeries during the periods of eighteen months. All the adult patients of both gender planned for surgery due to tibial plateau fracture were enrolled under this study. Duplex ultrasound was performed to detect the presence of underlying postoperative DVT. Post-operatively patients were assessed for potential risk factors associated with higher incidence of DVT. 

Results: For the final analysis, 344 patients were included among them majority were males (n = 219, 63.66%) with overall mean age and SD was 47.52±12.02 years. The most common cause of fracture was road traffic accident (n = 178, 51.74%). The overall incidence of post-operative DVT observed in our study was 9.30% (n = 32). Mean age 40.19±6.10 years, increased mean duration of operation 3.01±.078 hours, increased mean duration of post-hospitalization 18.49±7.37 days, raised mean WBC counts 20.12±5.64, and increased mean D-dimer levels 3.24±3.09 (laboratory cut off value 0.5mg/L) were significantly associated with higher incidence of DVT in patients operated for tibial plateau fractures.

Conclusion: This prospective analysis has identified the potential modifiable risk factors associated with DVT. Consideration should be given to the preventable and treatable risk factors to prevent from the DVT associated complications.

Open Access Review Article

COVID-19 Pandemic - Clinical Features, Recent Investigations, Diagnosis, Modes of Transmission, and Role of WHO

Neelam Vinod Motwani, Abhilash Ulhas Dudhekar, Pramita Ambadas Muntode

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i38A32053

In 2019 December, a bunch of respiratory disorder cases associated with city’s South China seller spot for sea food of unknown pathology was identified by the health authorities of Wuhan, China. And has been designated a public health emergency of international concern. Consequently, it was concluded that the virus spreads from individual-to-individual, and carriers are the most common source of Coronavirus growth. Novel Coronavirus, SARS–COV-2, was revealed by subsequent investigations and that was the initiative agent now at the core of a major outburst. To prevent or to reduce transmission, special focus and efforts were applied to vulnerable population including elderly people, children and health workers. And large scale measures were taken to lower communicable spread of COVID-19 from surveying a relation of (SARS) Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome and (MERS) Middle East Respiratory Syndrome, where beta corona virus, which strike the lower respiratory tract and shows pneumonia in human being, was the causative agent. WHO announced outbreak of COVID-19 in the early First light of January 31, 2020 (Korea Standard Time) as “Public Health Emergency of International Concern” (PHEIC).An important collective goal was to reduce the outbreak and to flatten the peak of the outbreak curve. Delays result in significantly higher death tolls. In this review, we are trying to highlight the clinical features, investigations, WHO declaration of PHEIC, mode of transmission, effective Infection protocol to prevent this virulent infection from expansion and WHO 5 Movements because Hand Washing is a way of disinfecting a person’s hands that considerably decreases likely pathogens (deadly germs) on the palms.

Open Access Review Article

Nanotechnology as an Effective Tool for Antimicrobial Applications: Current Research and Challenges

Sunil Kumar Srivastava, Siddharth Srivastava, Nitin Chauhan

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 55-67
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i38A32060

The prevention and treatment of bacterial infections is a matter of great concern. The high use of antimicrobials/antibiotics for treating bacterial infections in recent years also poses a great risk of developing resistance in many bacterial species. It was also reported that biofilm formation by bacteria prevents the entry of antibiotics and also helps bacteria to develop resistance against any applied antibiotic, making the treatment more difficult. All the current approaches have shown inadequacy to overcome the challenges presented by pathogenic microbes. Therefore, adoption of a better method/strategy to face these challenges is the need of the hour. As per reports, nanotechnology has shown tremendous success in many fields. Moreover, in the last few years, the research highlighted the potential of nanotechnology as an effective tool for antimicrobial applications. Metallic nanoparticles and their oxides such as silver (AgNPs), zinc (ZnAgNPs), gold (AuNPs), iron (FeNPs), copper (CuNPs), titanium (TiNPs), zinc oxide (ZnO-NPs), magnesium oxide (MgO), titanium dioxide (TiO2-NPs), copper oxides (CuO-NPs) and iron oxides (Fe2O3-NPs) are considered effective nano-materials against pathogenic microbes. It was observed that the higher surface area to volume ratio of nanoparticles, the way they interact with bacterial membranes/cell wall and their various antimicrobial mechanisms surpass all the barriers and reach targeted sites, thereby making them potential candidate for antimicrobial applications. There is no doubt that nanotechnological strategies/interventions in healthcare sector will revolutionize the current treatment regime. The present review provides the understanding of variety of nanoparticles and their mechanisms for antimicrobial and antibiofilm efficacy, further their role to overcome antibiotic resistance is also highlighted in detail.

Open Access Review Article

COVID-19 Pandemic: Health Impact and Social Responsibility

Gazal Chhabadia

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 68-74
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i38A32061

Background: COVID-19 is wreaking havoc all around the world and the containment measures are in progress. Vaccine news may cheer up but social vaccine must continue to be employed.

Summary: COVID-19 has affected almost every aspect of the life mostly adversely and profound effect can be seen. Vulnerable sections are worst hit and need some kind of stimulus and help. Social responsibility of every citizen who are capable to help is kicked in as there is the time of distress. Digital divide and vulnerabilities cane be addressed through coordinated efforts between various agencies.

Conclusion: More coordinated examples need to be flashed so that more people can join these efforts. Huge amount of potential is still there as social responsibility needs to be taken by many of us. Social responsibility is the debt that we had taken from the society and we need to pay back it by various act of generosity. Even donating food and providing clothes to needy can be considered as act of kindness. Digital divide is increasing and socially responsible people can address it by pooling some resources from likeminded folks and easily tackle the digital divide and bridge.

Open Access Review Article

A Review on the Potential Application of Medicinal Species from Asteraceae Family in Cancer

Sunil B. Baile, Ghanshyam R. Parmar, Rajesh Hadia, Shivkant Patel, Dillip Kumar Dash, Sarvajeet Khare

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 75-88
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i38A32062

Globally cancer is one of the most prevalent life-threatening diseases that have a significant impact on humans. The uncontrolled division of cells is a sign of the disease. Modern cancer therapies have several side effects on healthy cells. The problem of increasing tumour resistance to existing drug treatments is a serious concern. As a result, there is a critical need for more effective medicine to combat this condition. New ways to avoid this illness are in high need. Humans' pursuit of health is a never-ending drive for a healthier, longer life. Despite this, sickness and pain are still a part of his battle for survival. Natural products have a significant role in the battle against cancer and can be used to test novel therapeutic agents. Plants are natural remedies for a variety of illnesses. It is important to identify a variety of therapeutic plants which are useful for human being. Herbal therapies are a viable alternative to conventional cancer treatments. This article looks at plants from the Asteraceae family that have anticancer properties. Plants of the Asteraceae family play an important role in combating malignancies of the stomach, breast, colon, and lung, according to a thorough examination of research papers. The results of the study indicated a spectacular outcome in the prevention of cancer.  

Open Access Review Article

Role of Family Medicine in Reducing the Risk of Health Neglect in Low Socioeconomic Communities

Mohammed Ibrahim Habadi, Yousef Hussain Alharthi, Khalid Mohammed Razim, Abdulelah Abdullah Aljurbua, Hamda Daifullah Alazwari, Ali Mohammed Alfalahi, Khalid Abdulradhi Alshaeri, Nawaf Hameed Almohammadi, Mohammad Abdullah Assaggaf, Omar Mohammad Alrashedi, Naif Ayidh Almalki

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 106-112
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i38A32064

Family medicine and family physicians have exerted significant efforts in reducing the impact of the deteriorated socioeconomic factors in some communities. They attempt to enhance the quality of care for individuals. Continued research and dedicated levels in this field can also be associated with clear and innovative approaches to enhance the management of certain diseases and to improve the quality of care to reduce patients’ negligence related to potential management plans. it has been reported that family physicians have major roles in elevating the quality of care, achieving better disease management, and enhancing the quality of care for the corresponding patients because they have direct involvement with the individuals’ community and patients, In this literature review, the aim to discuss the impact of socioeconomic status on healthcare and the role that family medicine plays to enhance the quality of care for corresponding individuals’ community. The continued care of family physicians towards the health care of patients can significantly enhance the quality of life and have related health outcomes. Setting priorities and prescribing suitable treatment regimens are two important factors that might solve the problem of negligence to treatment regimens in low socioeconomic communities. Local authorities should also provide suitable environments for patients to enhance the nationwide outcomes and to reduce the burdens over the healthcare facilities by calling for integrated social, providing medical efforts, and enhancing the quality of care for patients.

Open Access Review Article

COVID-19 and Common Myths and Policy Intervenes

Niharika Kochhal

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 125-131
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i38A32067

Background: COVID-19 pandemic has grappled the worldin the last two years. No concrete solution is available yet, but the news about the last stage approval of several vaccine candidates is promising.

Summary: Infodemic, as United Nations term it, is creating menace all across the globe. Usually not noticed, it has serious repercussions if not detected and left untreated. Cooperation across the spectrum of both citizens and law enforcement agencies are needed to stop this spread. As various laws are already in place, enforcing those is a serious challenge as tracing digital footprints can sometimes be difficult.

Conclusion: More analysis on how these messages and fake news are getting transmitted should be done. A counter campaign against Infodemic may be another option after practicing digital hygiene.

Open Access Review Article

The Role of HRCT chest in COVID-19 Pneumonia

Nisha P. Govindani, Bhushan Lakhkar, Ravi Christian, Suhas Tiwaskar, Kaustubh Anil Madurwar, Varun Singh, Bhavik Unadkat, Shreya Tapadia

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 143-156
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i38A32069

COVID-19 pneumonia is a recently identified lung infection, the hazardous factor of this pneumonia is pandemic dissemination of infection by corona virus. Due to its high mortality and morbidity it has become a threat to the human life. As pneumonia is the commonest manifestation chest x-ray becomes the primary modality of investigation however many symptomatic patients do not have a positive chest X-ray findings hence, HRCT is used as primary modality for both screening as well as a diagnosing COVID-19 pneumonia. It has been observed that in many situations RT-PCR test are negative or inconclusive but the HRCT in such cases is useful and conclusive.

Aim of the article is to highlight the role of HRCT in diagnosing COVID-19 pneumonia and providing proper guidance to the Clinicians for assessing the response and therapeutic purpose for covid19 pneumonia. recently, HRCT score have also been used to provide the clinicians an idea about the Prognosis of this disease progress.

Open Access Review Article

The Pharma Therapeutic Fruits: An Overview

Souvik Tewari, Ravindra Kumar Agarwal, Rumila Sitaram Kumar, Swati Nakhale

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 132-142
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i38A32068

The term ‘Pharma Fruits’ means the fruits containing pharmacological properties and the term ‘Therapeutic Fruits’ means the fruits containing therapeutic properties.  For the production of fruits, India is the 2nd largest country after China in all over the world.  Many researchers are continuously trying to find out the therapeutic value of different types of fruits. The present review article provides some information about pharma-therapeutic fruits and their pharmacological and therapeutic properties. This review article concludes that the fruits that have pharmacological and therapeutic properties help to maintain good health by providing good nutrients.

Open Access Review Article

Dermatological Manifestations of Magnesium and Thermite Poisoning

Reem Mohammed S. Abahussain, Atheer Abdullah Al Jubeiri, Asma Saleh S. Alruwaili, Faisal Saeed A. Al-Ghamdi, Muath Sulaiman G. Alhamdi, Amani Ahmad S. Albalawi, Renad Mohammed H. Alanazi, Raghad Mohammed E. Alhawiti, Khalid Bakhet B. Aljohani, Sarah Majed A. Alquayr

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 157-161
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i38A32070

Thermite is a metal powder and metal oxide mixture that is pyrotechnic. Thermite conducts an exothermic decrease oxidation process (redox) when inflamed by the heat or chemical reaction. Burning thermite or magnesium produces predominantly thermal injury that may be considered identical to deep partial- or full-thickness thermal burns. While exposure to incendiary metals can occur in many settings, serious burns are most likely to result from industrial or military incidents. The main cause of thermal damage in combustion thermite or magnesium is the identical to the profound burning thermal burning of partial or total thickness. Thermite incendiaries can create several tiny, deep, dispersed molten iron burns. Local anesthetic may make this feasible. Outcomes and complications of incendiary metal burns are similar to other thermal injuries. In this paper we overview magnesium and thermite poisoning dermatologically and their management.

Open Access Review Article

Overview of COVID-19 Pandemic: Transmission, Epidemiology and Diagnosis

Akoijam Nisha Devi

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 174-181
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i38A32073

In the early part of the last month of the year 2019, suddenly many people started suffering from a new respiratory disease in the city of Wuhan in China. At that time the cause of the disease was not known. The disease was caused by a new coronavirus which was never detected in the past. WHO called it the novel coronavirus 2019. Later the virus was named as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. The disease is considered to have originated from the wet market located in the city of Wuhan in China. It came from the bats and infected the humans and possibly with an intermediate host like the pangolins. From the place it originated the disease spread to other places within China and to other countries outside China. WHO recognised the disease as a pandemic, as the disease spread to other parts of the world in Europe and Asia. This pandemic has affected the mankind as never before. More than 110 million people are confirmed infected with this disease. More than 2.5 million people have succumbed to this devastating disease. The pandemic has affected almost all the countries in the world. At a time when many countries were in lockdown mode, it seemed the world had come to a standstill. Individuals of both sexes belonging to all age groups can get infected, although old persons and persons with co-morbid conditions are more prone to get infected and also has more chance to develop severe form of this disease carrying high morbidity and mortality. In this review, the literature of the causative agent, epidemiology, mode of transmission, diagnosis and treatment and preventive strategies are reviewed, so that the reader is provided with sufficient current knowledge about this disease.

Open Access Review Article

An Invasive Yet Potentially Diverse and Unexplored Genus: Typha L.

Vidhi Makwana, Abhaykumar Kethwas, Niravkumar Sapoliya, Krupa Limbachiya, Sanjay Gamit, Preeti Verma, Mamta Shah

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 182-194
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i38A32074

Aim: Typha genus belongs to the family Typhaceae and is comprising of about 13 known species distributed in the subtropical and tropical regions of North America, South America, Asia, Africa, Australia and Europe. Several species are considered as invasive weeds that colonize wetlands and marshes because they are highly productive by clonal growth, forming very large, persistent and often monospecific stands. This review offers detailed information on the aquatic species of the cosmopolitan genus Typha L. with specific focus on their distribution, identification, importance in bioremediation, usability and traditional uses along with chemical and biological diversity.

Methodology: An extensive browsing in three electronic databases (Unbound Medline, PubMed and ScienceDirect) and internet search engines (Scifinder and Google Scholar) enabled us to connote the studies on Typha genus available till date.

Results: Literature survey corroborated that some species of Typha are valuable as sources of traditional medicine in human health, while some are still widely used for non-pharmacological purposes. Numerous phytochemical investigations of plants of this genus confirmed the presence of alkaloids, glycosides, tannins, steroids, phenols, saponins, flavanoids, carbohydrates, proteins, oils and fats. Besides, various studies cited in this review article have demonstrated that the extracts or active substances that have been isolated from the species of Typha genus have multiple pharmacological activities.

Conclusion: The review draws the attention of scientists towards the utility and important issues associated with the probable approaches that should be investigated to encourage people to take maximal benefit of the potentially useful species of Typha genus.