Open Access Case Report

Impact of 6 Weeks Pilates Training on Menopause Specific Symptoms and Quality of Life in Menopausal Women: A Case Report

Anjali Bais, Simran A. Mishra, Palak P. Darda, Pratik Phansopkar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 83-89
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i37B32024

Introduction: The concept of menopause is a complete cessation of ovarian function. Most common symptom of menopause include muscle and joint ache, poor memory, lower back pain and trouble sleeping. The vasomotor and emotional domains reported less often compared with the physical and psychological domains. Such adverse changes in physical and mental health may have a negative impact on Quality of Life (QOL). Pilates is a mind body exercise focusing on muscle strength, core stability, endurance, muscle control, posture, and respiration which seems to improve both the physical and psychological components in women during menopause. The given study helps to provide the effect of 6 weeks Pilates training protocol on menopausal women’s presenting complaints as well as on her QOL.

Complaints and clinical finding: Patient’s main concern were low back ache without any cause night sweats, fatigue, disturbed sleep wake cycle which lead to difficulties in performing activities of daily living which hampered the QOL of the patient. Physical findings revealed decrement in lower back and lower limb muscle strength along with some tightness. Scales helped to reveal that patient is having fatigue and tiredness and mat-exercise treatment protocol were formed.

Therapeutic Intervention: 6 weeks Pilates training.

Conclusion: As there are minimal to no evidence present in reference to this study, it helps us to provide new and proper treatment protocol and it is helpful to know the effect of the same. It showed significant improvement in the muscular strength as well as reduction in stress level and helped in enhancing the QOL of the patient.

Open Access Case Report

Telmisartan Induced Myotoxicity: A Case-Report

Rajesh Hadia, Krishna Bhavsar, Riddhi Patel, Vidhya Shivadas

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 117-120
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i37B32029

The precise incidence of drug-induced myopathy is still not known, only few reports with the use of Telmisartan. There are likely around 150 agents that are associated to cause myotoxicity like statins, corticosteroids, anti-retroviral, and immunosuppressants. Therefore, as recommended by the guidelines, therapeutic drug monitoring of Telmisartan is required after the initiation of the therapy. However, the rise in serum creatinine up to 20-30% is accepted. But if serum creatinine level increases >30% then withdrawal of the therapy is recommended.

Suspicious with the previous therapy of Tab. Telmisartan as no other pathology could be detected. A causality analysis was done using the Naranjo’s algorithm and WHO-UMC Scale and the present ADR was found to be ‘Probable’ with Telmisartan. Tab. Telmisartan was withdrawn completely and was switched by another Antihypertensive -Tab. Enalapril (5mg). Gradually, the condition of the patient showed improvement in terms of both- the clinical symptoms and laboratory abnormalities. However, re-challenge of the drug was not performed in order to avoid further toxicity. After 15 days, the patient had visited Medicine Outpatient Department (OPD) again the creatinine and uric acid levels where checked which were normal and further advised to follow up every month. To be conclude, adverse drug reaction of myotoxicity associated with telmisartan is rare but quite significant. So, close monitoring is necessary to ensure safety of drug therapy especially in long term use.

Open Access Case Report

A Physiotherapeutic Approach Along with Bronchodilators to Control Bronchial Asthma in a 35 Year Old Adult: A Case Report

Nupur Thombare, Madhumita Yadav, Pratik Phansopkar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 121-125
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i37B32030

Background: Bronchial asthma is a common disease characterized by the generalized narrowing of intrapulmonary airways accompanied by breathlessness and wheezing, which differs in severity spontaneously or as a result of treatment. Asthma is caused by bronchial wall inflammation and constriction due to the hyper-reactivity of their smooth muscle, resulting in a series of spasmodic wheezing attacks and shortness of breath (SOB).

Case description: The patient was a 35 year old female presented with a complaint of dry cough with mucoid expectoration and chest pain since 3 weeks. The cough was progressive and aggravating while walking or while doing any sort of activity and it use to relieve at rest. She also complained of Modified Medical Research Council (MMRC) grade 2 breathlessness along with palpitation while doing household work. She had chest pain while coughing on left side over the 2nd intercostal space which was gradually progressive and 7/10 on VAS. She also had low grade fever, cold with chills and night sweats. The patient had a history of seasonal variation, dust allergies and biomass exposure. She was given medications but was not relieved so she was referred for physiotherapy. Physiotherapy treatment was started. Patients sleep was disturbed. The patient had no past history. Family history is not present.

Diagnosis: The patient was diagnosed with bronchial asthma.

Outcomes & conclusion: This case study showed that breathing exercise, postural drainage and proper relaxation of the patient may reduce the symptoms associated with bronchial asthma also the peak flow values may increase with breathing retraining. Pain reduces with reduction in cough and episodes of dyspnoea. Also educating the patient about prevention of asthmatic episodes help the patient in many ways. Along with bronchodilators physiotherapy plays an integral part in treating the patient with bronchial asthma.

Open Access Systematic Review Article

Deep Margin Elevation for Indirect Restorations: A Systematic Review

Khaled Alghulikah, Nada Abdulrahman Alsulaiman, Haya Saad Al Ibrahim, Rama Mahmoud AlYamany, Najla Haif Alqahtani

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 23-30
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i37B32016

Background: The evolution of adhesive dentistry has increased the demand for improving the clinical outcomes of indirect restorations. There are several challenging factors in restoring teeth with deep interproximal lesions. Surgical crown lengthening has been the primary procedure to avoid violation of the biological width. In recent years, deep marginal elevation (DME) has been proposed as an alternative procedure for maintaining biological width in cases with subgingival defects. The aim of this review was to search for the best available evidence concerning the clinical outcomes of DME.

Methodology: A comprehensive online search was performed using three different databases (using PubMed, the Cochrane Library, and the American dental association library for evidence-based dentistry). Four independent authors reviewed studies, collected data, and assessed the risk of bias.

Results: The initial search revealed 1,763 studies. Duplicates were removed, and an extensive review was performed. Only six studies met the inclusion criteria and were accepted in the review.

Conclusions: The systematic review advocates that DME is a reasonable, predictable, and reliable clinical procedure. There is a limitation of clinical studies in this field; therefore, more clinical studies with long-term follow-up periods are necessary.

Open Access Case Study

Surgical Outcome of Hirschsprung’s Disease in Male Child: A Rare Case Report

Pallavi Dhole

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 54-58
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i37B32020

Introduction: This disorder characterized by absence of particular nerve cells (ganglions) in a segment of the bowel in an infant. Ganglion cell absence allows the muscles of the intestines to lose their capacity to pass faeces across the peristalsis of the intestine. This condition affects the large intestine and causes problem with passing stool. The condition is congenital. In around 1 out of 5000 live births, Hirschsprung disease occurs and is three times more frequent in boys than girls. About 12% of cases are due to genetic disorders.

Patient history: A 2 years old male was admitted in A.V.B.R. Hospital in paediatric ward. His chief complaint was inability to pass stools on his own, fever, vomiting, constipation.

Paediatric history: This male child was born by Lower segment caesarean section. At the age of 17 months, the complaint started with inability to pass stool on his own. After that his parents approached A.V.B.R. Hospital and Doctor advised for further medical and surgical management.

Main symptoms and importance of clinical findings: The patient had undergone various investigations like blood tests, USG, Physical examination and. rectal biopsy and per abdominal x-ray.

Medical Management: Patient was treated with trans-anal endorectal pull through surgery under general anaesthesia

Nursing management: Administered fluid replacement i.e. DNS and RL, monitored all vital signs checked 8 hourly.

Conclusion: The 2 years old male was admitted in A.V.B.R. Hospital in paediatric ward. His chief complaint was inability to pass stools on his own, fever, vomiting, constipation etc. after undergoing investigation he was diagnosed as Hirschsprung’s disease.

Open Access Case Study

A Successful ART Treatment of Severe Asthenoteratozoospermia with Donor Sperms: A Case Study at Wardha Test Tube Baby Centre, India

Akshay Tayawade, Akash More

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 64-69
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i37B32022

Introduction: Approximately about 15%-20% of couples are affected by infertility. By the means of diagnosis and treatment both the partners male and female must be evaluated simultaneously, since male contributes as a factor for infertility in 40-60%. The primary step to diagnose male’s infertility in any case scenario is qualitative semen analysis. Urological evaluation and physical examination of male should be carried out as there are many factors which can affect semen quality. Widely, in assisted reproductive technology (ART) treatment, couples diagnosed with grievous male infertility (Non-Obstructive Azoospermia/OATz syndrome) as well as female patient deprived of male partners eager to have pregnancy are recommended to opt cryo-preserved donor spermatozoa.

Main symptoms and important clinical findings: Qualitative semen analysis showed poor motility (94%-96% Immotility) and morphology (98% abnormality).

The main diagnoses, therapeutic interventions, and outcomes: The couple was diagnosed with male factor infertility (Asthenoteratozoospermia), the couple was counselled and suggested for treatment of Intracytoplasmic Sperm Insemination with self-oocytes and donor sperms and Freeze all strategy for embryo transfer. Wife conceived in first treatment cycle.

Conclusion: Frozen embryo transfer of 03 Grade A day 4 morula was done in March 2020, and patient conceived in 1st cycle. Later in November 2020 couple was blessed with a baby girl.

Open Access Case Study

A Case Study on Ayurveda Management of Shwitra

Shallu Sharma, Swapnil Raskar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 90-97
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i37B32025

Shwitra is a condition characterised by white patches on the body. It's possible that it's linked to Vitiligo in modern science. In Ayurveda, all skin illnesses are classified as Kustha Roga. It is caused by Tridosha vitiation. It is an autoimmune disease that can be linked to other autoimmune diseases such as diabetes mellitus, pernicious anaemia, and Addison disease. Leukoderma affects one percent of the population. For the patient, this sickness becomes a source of social disgrace as well as a financial hardship.

Aim: To Evaluate The Efficacy of Ayurvedic Treatment In Shwitra.

Study Design: Simple Single Arm Study

Place: Parul Ayurved Hospital, Parul University,Limda, Vadodara, Gujarat.

Duration of study: 2 Months

Methodology: Kosthashuddhi With Internal Medication And Rasaaushidhi For External Medication.

Which provides a fresh hope for providing efficient and safe treatment. It was in much better shape than before.

Open Access Case Study

A Case Study on Multiple Myeloma

Rakesh Kumar Jha, Dhruba Hari Chandi

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 131-135
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i37B32032

Introduction: Multiple myeloma (MM), also known as plasma cell myeloma and simply myeloma, is a cancer of plasma cells, a type of white blood cell that normally produces antibodies. Often, no symptoms are noticed initially. As it progresses, bone pain, anemia, kidney dysfunction, and infections may occur. Multiple myeloma is a hematologic disease characterized by an increase in plasma cells in the bone marrow and, more commonly, the presence of monoclonal immunoglobulin in the blood and / or urine. It is the second major hematologic attack found to have an annual occurrence with an increase in the United States of nearly 15,000 and approximately 45,000, respectively. The condition is higher with age (age between acquisitions of 67 yr). This case report describes a multiple myeloma patient presented with muscle sclerosis and was suspected of having myotonic dystrophy type 2 and illustrates the aspects of differential diagnosis, the use of laboratory and imaging for diagnosis.

Conclusion: Despite the fact that periodontal illness has a detrimental impact on one's quality of life, those benefits are often ignored. As a consequence, periodontal consultation can be a key component of MM care. Treatment for periodontal disease should begin as soon as possible.

Open Access Study Protocol

Correlation of p53 Immunoexpression with Depth of Tumor in Microinvasive Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma

Archana Sonone, Swati Patil, Alka Hande, Madhuri Gawande

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 98-103
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i37B32026

Introduction: “Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC)” is a major health issue in India, the incidence of OSCC is 3-7 times more in developing countries than developed countries. OSCC is the ‘3rd most common cancer’ in India followed by “cervical and breast cancer”. One side  of OSCC that  has not much explore is the ‘microinvasive squamous cell carcinoma’ which is an early stage neoplasm  without infiltration in the deeper tissues. There is no particular definition of “microinvasive oral squamous cell carcinoma (MIOSCC)” There are no specific guideline are present to categories the “microinvasive squamous cell carcinoma (MIOSCC)”. Most of the time the infiltrating neoplastic cells are masked under the background of the inflammatory cell infiltrate present connective tissue stroma. So this study is humble attempt to recognized and measured depth of invasion of infiltrative neoplastic cells to categories MIOSCC and to find better management protocol for it

Aim: This study aims to: Measure p53 immunoexpression  in “microinvasive oral squamous cell carcinoma, evaluate the depth of invasion in MIOSCC  in H & E stained section, and correlate the  p53 immunoexpression with  the depth of tumor in it.

Methodology: The  25 cases of  “microinvasive oral squamous cell carcinoma” will be selected  and 10 cases of “normal oral mucosa (NOM)” will be   obtained from “gingiva and vestibular mucosa” as controls  after extraction of impacted teeth. “The depth of tumor”  will  be measured from the “basement membrane or in areas of basement membrane loss, from an imaginary line reconstructing the basement membrane from the adjacent epithelium to the deepest point of invasion in connective tissue” by  Leica DMLB2 research microscope with Leica Q-win standard software (Switzerland).

Results: The results  show that   the depth of invasion in MIOSCC, will be  categorized the lesion and give the better guidelines for histological grading and treatment protocol for MIOSCC

Conclusion: There are no definite guidelines for histological grading and final treatment protocol for MIOSCC. The assessments of depth of tumor through p53 immunoexpression may be one of the criteria for grading in MIOSCC. Thus the correlation of p53 immunoexpression with the depth of tumor in MIOSCC helps to determine the treatment modalities of MIOSCC.

Open Access Short Research Article

Study of Serum Pancreatic Amylase and Lipase Enzyme in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes

Gangaram Bhadarge, Pratibha Dawande, Nandkishor Bankar, Raunak Kotecha

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 197-201
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i37B32039

Introduction: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a metabolic disorder that is greatly exacerbated by a complete lack of insulin or insulin resistance. The pancreas is a multicellular organ, the exocrine half accounting for 84% of its volume and the endocrine half accounting for only 2%. Since these two parts of the world have a close relationship with structure and function, the disruption of one can affect the other. Hemoglobin A1C (HbA1c) represents the glycemic status of the patient over the previous three months. Evidence suggests that pancreatic endocrine hormones, especially insulin, affect pancreatic exocrine function. Insulin has a detrimental effect on exocrine acinar cells. Exocrine acinar cells attached to it contain a variety of enzymes, including amylase and lipase, which help digest certain food particles.

Aim: Study of serum pancreatic amylase and lipase enzyme in patients with type 2 diabetes.

Materials and Methods: This cross sectional study was done in the Department of Biochemistry, dept. of medicine and Diabetic OPD, Datta Meghe Medical College and Shalinitai Meghe Hospital and Research Centre, Nagpur. For this study 40 diagnosed type 2 diabetic patients of both sexes with age ranging 35-60 years were selected as study group.

Results: FBS, HbA1C, serum pancreatic amylase, and lipase mean effects between control and patients showed statistically significant differences in type 2 diabetes mellitus (P <0.0001).

Conclusion: We concluded that pancreatic amylase and lipase function are impaired in type 2 patients with diabetes, and this observation is particularly important in type 2 diabetes. It has been suggested that the analysis of pancreatic enzymes in diabetic patients may be a useful parameter in determining the progression of the disease.

Open Access Minireview Article

Treating of Joint Pain - Arthritis through YOGA

Amit Telang, Subramaniam Seshan Iyer, Kunal Saoji, Vasant Gawande

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 283-288
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i37B32051

Arthritis is the swelling and tenderness of one or more of your joints. The main symptoms of arthritis are joint pain and stiffness, which typically worsen with age. Although there's no cure for arthritis, treatments have improved greatly in recent years and, for many types of arthritis, particularly inflammatory arthritis, there's a clear benefit in starting treatment at an early stage. Cartilage is a firm but flexible connective tissue in your joints. It protects the joints by absorbing the pressure and shock created when you move and put stress on them. A reduction in the normal amount of this cartilage tissue cause some forms of arthritis. Yoga is giving new lease of life to many, so to tackle chronic diseases it is providing remedies which will be effective for your entire life. It is delivered to many people by PATANJALI. Yoga can give support to patients having arthritis through its numerous relevant postures (asana’s) which can be done very simply. Yoga does not send a message that if you do it regularly you will be relieved from a particular ailment. If it is performed each day it will add vital energy for smooth life even if you are suffering from any long term ailment. In this article we will be providing 5 postures (asana’s) which can be performed at any time in the day but early morning will always be preferred (empty stomach) to get good result. Secondly this postures must be implemented after due consultation with your physician. If your physician disapproves don’t do these postures as it will be harmful for your body.

Open Access Original Research Article

Awareness of Myopia amongst Parents of School Going Children in a Survey Done in a Tertiary Care Centre in Vidarbha Region, India

Sonal Muley, Chetan Saoji, Nikhil Pande, Shruti Sanghavi

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i37B31997

Background: There is a increase in prevalence and burden of myopia in India, hence extent of myopia awareness among Indian parents is required to prepare future public health initiatives and interventions. Hence a survey was conducted.

Aim: The aim of this study was to assess the level of myopia awareness among a group of parents based in Vidarbha region of India.

Methods: This was a cross-sectional survey, 150 parents with at least one child under the age of 16 years participated in the study. Age, gender, educational qualification and number of children were asked, the amount of time a child spends on his device, the acceptable distance between the eyes and device screen, the preventive measures of myopia and awareness of symptoms of myopia in their children were collected via a written questionnaire.

Results: Eighty-three participants (55.33%) thought that the safe distance between device screen and eyes was less than 30cms. Fifteen 10% (15/150) participants were aware that outdoor activity and natural light has a preventive effect on myopia and onset and progression. 16.66% (25/150) and 63.33% (95/150) of the participants, respectively, were aware that looking into the distance and taking regular breaks from device use prevent myopia onset and progression. Hundred (66.66%, 100/150) participants reported that regular eye check-ups were important for children. Overall, only 14 participants (9.33%) were aware that all 4 strategies are important for myopia management. Majority of the participants reported that their children spent 2 hours on screen (73.33%,110/150), none of the participants reported study time of 4 hours or more than 4 hrs, 15 participants reported study time of 3 hours (10 percent), 25 participants reported screen time of 1 hour (16.66%). Majority of the participants were not aware of the rule of 20-20-20, looking into the distance in online study and prolonged screen time (73.33%,110/150).

Only twenty participants reported headache and tiredness (9.7%) in their children, no other symptoms were recognised.

Conclusion: Survey demonstrated a poor level of awareness of protective role of outdoor activity in its onset and progression. Importance of regular eye check-ups and outdoor activity and risks of smart device usage should be included in awareness programs and other health education programs.

Open Access Original Research Article

A Preliminary Report on Relationship between the Subtypes of Early Life Stressor and Clinical Depression

Debolina Chowdhury, P. S. Patil, P. B. Behere

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 16-22
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i37B32015

Background: Clinical depression can critically incapacitate one and make one question his self-worth and future. Estimates claim that out of the world’s approximately 7.6 billion population, 264 million people suffer from depression. This study was formulated to contribute data and results of the presence of adverse childhood experiences and its tendency to give rise to clinical depression in adulthood. This article presents data of the first forty cases collected for this study.

Method: Data was collected in the Psychiatric OPD of in a rural hospital, Wardha. Patients of major depressive disorder on treatment and who were above 18 years of age and willing to participate in the study were included in the study sample. Adverse Childhood Experiences – International Questionnaire, Presumptive Stressful Life Event Scale and Hamilton Depression Rating Scales were applied to the sample size.

Results: Among the forty participants 23 (57%) were female and 17 (42.5%) were male. The samples’ age group was either between 30 to 50 years old (55%). Most of the participants were married (67.5%). 52.5% had been exposed to experiencing violence in the household and 52.5% of the participants experienced violence in the community. 20%participants were found to still low to moderate depression. 60% of the total sample population perceived themselves to be withstanding severe stress in the current day-to-day life.

Conclusion: This is a preliminary report to an ongoing research project. We can see glimpses of how exposure to stressors during childhood have the ability to impact a person’s mental well-being decades later.

Open Access Original Research Article

UV Spectrophotometric Methods to Quantify Alogliptin Benzoate and Pioglitazone Hydrochloride

Dhanya B. Sen, Ashim K. Sen, Aarti S. Zanwar, Harshita Pandey, Rajesh A. Maheshwari

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 31-41
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i37B32017

Three new, precise, accurate and sensitive UV-Spectrophotometric methods namely Ratio Difference Spectroscopic Method (RDSM), First Derivative of Ratio Spectra Method (DR1) and Area Under Curve Method (AUC) were developed and validated for simultaneous assessment of alogliptin benzoate (ALO) and pioglitazone hydrochloride (PIO) in tablet dosage form. In RDSM, ratio spectra of both the drugs were recorded by dividing the mixtures using interfering drug as divisor. Then the difference between the amplitudes of obtained ratio spectra was measured at 288 and 291 nm for ALO and 236 and 245 nm for PIO. The second method DR1, where the first derivative of ratio spectra of both the drugs were recorded and the first derivative signal was measured at 290 nm for ALO and 276.8 nm for PIO. The scaling factor was fixed as 1 and wavelength interval (Δλ) as 2 for recording the first derivative of ratio spectra.  In the third method (AUC), peak area of recorded zero order spectra was measured at 276 ± 10 nm for ALO and 267.8 ± 10 nm for PIO. All three proposed methods were validated according to “International Conference on Harmonization” (ICH) guidelines parameters. For all three methods, ALO and PIO obeyed Beer’s law in the range of 0.5-5 & 1.8-18 µg/ml, respectively. The % RSD of repeatability of measurement, intra-day and inter-day precision were found to be less than 2 for all three methods. Limit of detection (LOD) and Limit of quantification (LOQ) of the drugs were calculated which proved the sensitivity of the methods. The accuracy ranged between 98-101% for all three methods. No interference from pharmaceutical excipients present in the formulation was observed.  These proposed methods were found to be simple, sensitive, accurate and precise and can be applied to the simultaneous estimation of ALO and PIO in combined tablet formulation and also appropriate for routine quality control analysis.

Open Access Original Research Article

Incidence of Vitamin D Deficiency in Patients with Female Pattern Hair Loss (FPHL)

Erum Siddiqui, Shakila Yousuf, Sumbul Nisar, Faryal Hussain Memon, Anum Sharif, Anas Ahmed Qazi

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 48-53
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i37B32019

Background: Female pattern hair loss is also observed in women without increased androgen levels. Vitamin D is a factor that has recently been considered in dealing with these patients. Deficiency of Vitamin D might be correlated with diffuse hair loss.

Objective: To determine the frequency of serum levels of Vitamin D3 in patients with female pattern of hair loss (FPHL) at tertiary care hospital Karachi.

Methodology: This cross-sectional research was conducted upon a sample of 163 female patients (chosen via non-probability – consecutive sampling) presenting to the Dept. of Dermatology, Abbasi Shaheed Hospital, Karachi from 29th July 2018 to 28 th January 2019, with a clinical diagnosis of FPHL. Data was recorded onto a structured questionnaire containing inquiries pertaining to basic biodata, sociodemographic details, and inferences obtained from blood tests (CBC, serum ferritin, TSH level and vitamin D level). Serum 25 OH Vitamin D level < 20 was taken as deficient, 21-29 was insufficient and over 30 was sufficient. Data was analyzed using SPSS. v. 21.0.

Results: The mean age was 30.39±6.36 years. Mean FPHL duration was 5.85±2.89 months. Total 63.2% patients were classified as mild, 26.45% patients were classified as moderate and 10.4% patients were classified as severe. Total 73% patients were found as vitamin D deficient, 22.1% as vitamin D insufficient and 4.9% as vitamin D sufficient. Significant association of vitamin D deficiency was observed with education status, vitamin D intake since past 6 months, and socio economic status.

Conclusion: Results showed high vitamin D3 deficiency (73.0%) among patients with female pattern of hair loss (FPHL).

Open Access Original Research Article

Outcomes Assessment between Hand Sewn and Stapled Intestinal Anastomosis

Zubair Ahmad Yousfani, Khenpal Das, Jabeen Atta, Ghullamullah Rind, Moomal Zoya, Shanti Devi

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 59-63
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i37B32021

Objective: This study was conducted at the Department of Surgery of Liaquat University of Medical & Health Sciences, Jamshoro, Sindh, Pakistan for comparing the effectiveness of both methods: hand sewn and stapled intestinal anastomosis and to find a better comparatively to be more efficient.

Methods: A total of 70 patients were encompassed who underwent intestinal anastomoses from proximal jejunum to 2/3rd of proximal distal rectum. All patients were assigned to two different groups A and B each encompassing of 35 cases. In group A, the single layer continuous and in group B single layer patients intervallic serosubmucosal anastomosis was made by implementing the stitches approximately 6 mm at a distance integrating around 5.5 mm of the gut in its stretched direction axis evading individual mucosa. The patients were observed post operatively for anastomotic fiasco such as leakage.

Results: Fourteen (14) out of 35 (2.5%) patients in group A developed anastomotic leakage . In group B, the interrupted serosubmucosal anastomoses were made in 26 patients in emergency and remaining were operated schedule wise. Five (7%) patients exhibited anastomotic leakage in group B. In group A, the continuous leakage in serousubmucosal anastomosis was 2.5% while in group B interrupted serousubmucosal anastomosis was 7%.

Conclusion: It has observed in past studies that single layer interrupted stitches leakage is higher as compared to continuous. It is clear that anastomotic failure in group A is greater than group B but it not considerably substantial and hence both are remarkably efficient.  

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Awareness Regarding Heavy Metal Toxicity in School Children

D. R. Gajbhiye, N. N. Wadnerwar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 111-116
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i37B32028

Background: Heavy metal toxicity is increasing rapidly due to the increased use of products containing heavy metals daily life. It can cause acute or chronic toxicity if they used for long term unknowingly especially by the children.

Objectives:

  • To assess whether the school children have information about products containing heavy metal which are used in daily life and their hazardous effects with the help of structured questionnaire.
  • To sensitize the school children about the products containing heavy metal which are used in daily life and their hazardous effects.

Methods: Descriptive (cross sectional) observational study was designed among 300 primary and secondary school children. The questionnaires containing fifteen questions each carrying two marks (total 30 marks) about the products containing heavy metal and their hazardous effects on human body were given to students to fill the information and answers to the questions. Next day a sensitization program was conducted which was followed by the same questionnaire. The questionaries were assessed as pre and posttest.

Result: All the students scored zero marks in the pretest. Hence, they were graded in no awareness category. After sensitization, in posttest 155 students (51.6%) scored between 21-30 marks and 144 students scored between 11-20 marks. The score of marks in posttest is highly significant.

Conclusion: Results indicate that there was no awareness in school children about the products containing heavy metal and their hazardous effects on human body. Awareness increased after the sensitization. Hence, to avoid the heavy metal toxicity in school children, it is highly recommended to make them aware regarding sources of heavy metals which are used in daily life and their hazardous effects on body. It can be done through awareness programs to be conducted at schools. It may be achieved by incorporating this point into the syllabus of the school children.

Open Access Original Research Article

Protective Role of Phoenix dactylifera Date Palm Pollen against Doxorubicin-Induced Toxicity in the Liver, Kidney, Testis and Biochemical Parameters in Male Rats

Sara Faez Hassan, Muneef Saab Ahmed, Aziz Khalid Hameed

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 158-167
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i37B32035

Date palm pollen (DPP) has a prophylactic role, known for its antioxidant effects. For this, the present study was designed to study the protective role of DPP against histological toxicity in hepatic, renal, and testicular tissues, as well as the level of (Total cholesterol, Triglyceride, Total proteins, Albumin, and testosterone hormone) in male white rats. The Iraqi date palm trees (Phoenix dactylifera L.) were selected from Salah Aldeen farms located at Salah Aldeen governorate. Pollen was collected from 20th March to 25th April 2019. This study used 20 male white rats that were distributed to four groups and weights close. All groups were given food and water continuously throughout the experiment, the second group (DPP) was given an orally administered suspension of date palm pollen (60 mg/kg) every day for four weeks, the third group intraperitoneal injections were given (10 mg/kg), and the fourth group (10 mg/kg) were given intraperitoneal injections one time per week and four weeks, in addition to that, orally-administered suspension of DPP (60 mg/kg) was given as well every day for four weeks. The results of the study showed a significant increase (P≤0.05) in the level of total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), and a significant decrease (P≤0.05) in the level of Total Protein, Albumin, and testosterone hormones, Current results suggest that the protective effect of (DPP) may by its antioxidant properties, and thus reduce the positive effects.

Open Access Original Research Article

Comparing the Effectiveness of the Treatment with Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy Followed By Interval Debulking and Primary Debulking Followed By Adjuvant Chemotherapy in Advanced Stage Malignant Ovarian Tumors: A Rural Based Study

Mounika Pottala, Shubhada S. Jajoo

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 179-190
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i37B32037

Background: Advanced epithelial ovarian cancer is also a poorly prognosed condition with elevated death rate The management of advanced ovarian carcinoma is surgical debulking which is followed by adjuvant chemotherapy. Prognosis reflects primarily on the level of cytoreduction obtained in primary surgery. In order to enhance survival, attempts are therefore being made to increase the optimal rates of surgical cytoreduction. NACT has emerged as an important treatment modality. The reasoning behind the NACT protocol is to make advanced untreatable disease operable, increase resection rates of optimal cyto reduction (R0) and promote organ preservation. The application of neo adjuvant chemotherapy will structurally reduce the load of the tumour because of the chemo sensitive nature of the ovarian tissue and enable a greater optimal cytoreduction rate for surgery and an increase in overall survival.

Methods: This observational and retrospective study was conducted from 2018-2020, including 71 patients who visited the oncology clinic of OBGY department at AVBRH. Only those who have already diagnosed as stage III and IV ovarian neoplasms and who received primary debulking surgery followed by adjuvant chemotherapy along with neo adjuvant chemotherapy followed by interval de-bulking surgery were included to study the better treatment outcome in terms of intra-operative and post-operative complications and over all and survival without progression in these patients with a follow-up of 2 years.

Results: The statistical difference in ooverall survival and progression free survival between primary debulking and NAC / IDS groups was >0.005.But intra operative findings like blood loss, residual disease. Bowel bladder injury, surgery time & post-operative morbidity were less in NAC/IDS group with P value <0.005.

Conclusion: In patients having cytoreducible disease which is non optimal or low performance status, NAC / IDS is also a reasonably secure and may be an alternative method for achieving optimal cytoreduction. Investigations aimed at appropriately selecting patients to be treated with NAC and to search for the proper opportunity to conduct IDS can have much better benefits for patients having advanced EOC. It should be underscored that the study is limited to patients with stage 3c or 4 disease.

Open Access Original Research Article

General Safety Guidelines for Ear, Nose and Throat (ENT) Practice in COVID-19 Era

Anuya S. Gupta, Roshni Mohanty

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 229-235
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i37B32044

The Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID 19) originated in Wuhan, China and has increased rapidly globally, making it a global pandemic. It is proven to spread via respiratory droplets of positive patients. As we are not aware of the COVID 19 status of all patients coming to the OutPatient Department (OPD), it is advisable to consider every patient as COVID 19 positive and take the essential precautions to avoid infection. All health care workers, especially otorhinolaryngologists, respiratory medicine physicians, and general medicine physicians, are more exposed to the virus daily, as they work closely with COVID 19 positive patients while treating them. Otorhinolaryngologists deal with patients' nasal and oral cavities daily, making them one of  the most exposed categories of health-care workers. Thus, it is extremely important to remain vigilant when examining patients in OPD wards and performing surgeries in the operating room. Hence, proper knowledge is required of the healthcare system's guidelines in each country to prevent the spread of the infection in the medical and paramedical workers. As the disease is spreading rapidly and changing constantly, these recommendations and guidelines may change as the scenario changes. It is of utmost importance to remain up to date with the upcoming guidelines for our healthcare workers' safety.

This article aims to provide an overview of guidelines for the safe practice of ENT that we follow in our tertiary care center, thus minimizing our exposure to COVID-19.

Open Access Original Research Article

Alterations in Biochemical Markers of Kidney Function of Thyroid Disorders at Vidharbha Region, India

Ankita Kondhalkar, Ranjit Ambad, Ninad Nagrale, Nandkishor Bankar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 236-241
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i37B32045

Background: The thyroid gland is a major endocrine gland in the body that is located in the front of the neck. Thyroid disorders cause problems on kidney function in a variety of ways. Hyperthyroidism causes an increase in both RBF and GFR. The expression of cardiac beta-adrenergic receptors may be influenced by thyroid hormones. The increased catecholamine sensitivity of beta adrenergic coupled cardiac responses in hyperthyroid patients may be due to the increased number of receptors. ROS may be one of the main causes of kidney failure in thyroid disorders, although this needs to be confirmed in the lab.

Aim: The aim of this research was to look at the effects of thyroid disorders on kidney function and oxidative stress markers, as well as the relationship between them.

Materials and Methods: After visiting Shalinitai Meghe hospital in Nagpur for a health check-up, a total of 350 people were chosen for the research. This was the place where the five groups were held. Subclinical Hypothyroidism: 70 subjects, Overt Hypothyroidism: 70 subjects, Subclinical Hyperthyroidism: 70 subjects, Overt Hyperthyroidism: 70 subjects. There are 70 patients in each household. Specific biochemical methods were used to quantify biochemical parameters such as T3, T4, TSH, Urea, Creatinine, and Cys C. Assay of Superoxide dismutase by Marklund and Marklund method

ResultS: In our work, we discovered a significant positive correlation between serum creatinine and TSH in hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism, and a significant negative correlation between serum Cystatin C and TSH in hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism. TSH was linked to oxidative stress markers as well. When the oxidative stress markers MDA and SOD were statistically analysed, they were found to be highly associated with markers of kidney function.

Conclusion:When the incidence of chronic kidney disease rises, all instances of hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism should be regularly tested for worsening kidney functions, and since the study indicates that oxidative stress plays a role in nephropathy, current thyroid disorders treatment methods should include oxidative stress, which will aid clinicians in better managing kidney dysfunction.

Open Access Original Research Article

A Synthesis of Substituted 1,3,4-Oxadiazole, Pyrazole Deravatives and It’s Biological Activities

Alphonsus D’souza, Prashant Nayak, Prasanna Shama Khandige, Pankaj Kumar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 260-269
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i37B32048

Aim: Nicotine Substituted  1,3,4 Oxadiazole and pyrazole moieties were integrated by utilizing hydrazide as halfway .Oxadiazole were acquired by two techniques one is by utilizing PoCl3 within the sight of fragrant corrosive ,other is by utilizing carbon disulphide in the presence ofpotassium hydroxide as an impetus .Pyrazoles were likewise gotten by ehtylacetoacetate we acquired unrefined item and again it was recrystallized by utilizing alcohol.All incorporated mixtures were evaluated for Antibacterial activity  and enaminones showed promising action against standard medication ciprofloxacin.

Methods: TLC on silica gel G was used to check for homogeneity of the title compound. H NMR, Mass, and IR Spectra were used to characterise these compounds, and their antibacterial activity was tested.

Results: All of these compounds, including nicotine substituted ester, hydrazide, 1,3,4 Oxadiazole, and pyrazole, showed antibacterial activity. The maximum activity of enaminones was comparable to that of the standard drug ciprofloxacin (5mcg). Compound1 showed potent antimicrobial activity

Conclusion: In the zone of inhibition studies, all six samples at MIC concentrations showed reasonable antimicrobial activity Compound1 showed very good antimicrobial activity

Open Access Original Research Article

Medical Students Attitude & Knowledge of Psychiatry an Impact of Psychiatry Posting

Prakash B. Behere, Debolina Chowdhury, Aniruddh P. Behere, Richa Yadav

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 270-276
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i37B32049

India being a signatory to Alma-Ata declaration, envisaged ‘Health for all by the year 2000” and hence should look into training undergraduates in psychiatry. Medical students’ attitude towards psychiatry are determined by complex inter lacing variables. Low recruitment is a serious challenge for psychiatry worldwide. Moreover, psychiatry is poorly represented in medical education and undergraduate training in psychiatry and behavioral sciences in most medical colleges in India is unsatisfactory. Keeping these facts in mind, this study was carried out to assess the influence of psychiatry training, including direct patient contact on attitude of medical students towards mental illness. This study was conducted at Department of Psychiatry, Mahatma Gandhi Institute of Medical Science, Sevagram, Wardha, Maharashtra. Second year MBBS students were evaluated with a pre and posttest during their 2 weeks posting in the Psychiatry department. There was some improvement in attitude & knowledge of undergraduate medical students about mental health after two weeks of psychiatry posting. The improvement in male medical students is more than three times of that seen in female medical students, after two weeks of training. The existing M.C.I. recommendations need serious considerations for implementation in each & every Medical College of India. As per the current curriculum, the introduction to psychiatry is in the 1st term during lectures on behavioral sciences following which they not exposed again until the 5th semester when the undergraduate students are required to attend 40 hours lectures parallel to 4 weeks clinical posting culminating with compulsory short note questions worth 20 marks included in paper II of the General Medicine exam. Finally, another two weeks of psychiatry posting is mandatory during internship. Female medical students have shown deterioration in their attitudes & knowledge over more questions than male counterparts. Hence it can be deduced that, males tend to learn better by experience.

Open Access Original Research Article

Study of Mortality and Morbidity in Neonates with Congenital Diaphragmatic Hernia

Zainab Elahi, Seyyed Abolfazl Afje, Mohammad Kazemian, Maryam Shariati, Naeeme Taslimi Taleghani, Minoo Fallahi

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 277-282
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i37B32050

Introduction: Congenital diaphragmatic hernia may either lead to death or cause several complications such as increased pulmonary artery pressure.

Objective: The present study aimed to compare mortality and morbidity, vasopressor intake, and visceral hernia of CDH neonates with pulmonary hypertension and without pulmonary hypertension in Mahdieh and Mofid hospitals in Tehran.

Methods: This cross-sectional analytical study included 56 neonates with congenital diaphragmatic hernia who were admitted to Mofid and Mahdieh Children's Hospitals from 2014 to 2018. The sample size included 56 people selected based on census method. We compared the pulmonary hypertension and non-pulmonary hypertension groups in variables, such as gender, gestational age, birth weight, place of birth, and type of delivery and we examined relationship between pulmonary hypertension and mortality and morbidity and relationship between mortality and vasopressor intake.

Results: The OR value was calculated to be 1.106, which is significant at the level of 0.004 (p < 0.01). This finding indicated that the chance of death in the group of infants with severe pulmonary hypertension was increased by 1.106. Also, the relationship of visceral hernia (stomach, intestine, liver, kidney, and spleen) to thorax was examined by logistic regression. Only the OR value of liver hernia (9.42) was significant (p < 0.001), indicating that the chance of death was higher in infants with liver hernias. It also the OR value of dopamine, dobutamine, and milrinone was significant (p < 0.01).

Conclusion: In general, the results obtained in our study indicated that the mortality rate in the group of infants with pulmonary hypertension was significantly higher than the group without pulmonary hypertension. Also, liver hernia to thorax was associated with the severity of pulmonary hypertension, and the patients needed medication had a higher chance of death.

Open Access Review Article

Microsponge: A Novel Tool for Topical Drug Delivery of Anti Rheumatoid Drugs

Dipti Gohil, Krupa Patel, Kruti Patel, Shivani Tiwari, Priyank Patel, Nirmal Shah

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 7-15
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i37B31998

Microsponge is developing field of technology which can achieve goal of site specific as well as controlled drug delivery. Physicochemical properties of microsponge like Particle size, particle size distribution, porosity, surface morphology plays a major role in selection of type of dosage form and route of administration for delivery of drug. Microsponge is also emerged as novel tool for delivering of drug by topical route. Topical route is having added advantage of formulation flexibility, greater patient compliance, improved safety and efficacy of formulation and aesthetic properties. Rheumatoid Arthritis is immunomodulatory disease which requires long term treatment for management of disease. Available oral formulation may cause liver toxicity upon long term use. Topical route can be suitable alternate route for delivery of drug with enhanced stability of drug, reduced side effects, and reduced frequency of administration. Due to porous and spongy structure of Microsponge, it has the capacity to entrap large amount of dose and can modify drug release too.

Open Access Review Article

Vegan Diet and Mutliple Health Outcomes: A Review and Meta-analysis

Ashwini Bisen, Rakesh Kumar Jha, Nandkishor Bankar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 42-47
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i37B32018

A recent development in social protest literature involves cultural activism centered largely on the subject of veganism; its health benefits and responses to diseases that already exist among us. This article brings you the data relating health benefits with the entire plant-based diet, based on numerous studies done around and about this subject, taking into account the health-related, social, and ethical aspects.

Aim: Vegan Diet and Multiple Health Outcomes: A Review and Meta-Analysis

Conclusion: Plant-based nutrition is something so simple, yet so profound and so inexpensive that one can ‘make health a habit’ and thus, can absolutely reverse most of our modern day killers.

Open Access Review Article

The effect of COVID-19 over Employees’ Mental Health - A Review

Nidhi Phugat, Jaya Chitranshi

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 104-110
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i37B32027

COVID-19 has been classified a WHO very hazardous pandemic, with millions of people being infected deceased in only a few months. Many pharmaceutical developers are researching a viral vaccine however there has been no reporting of progress. At the global level, the financial market is seriously affected by the virus and the government preventive actions. These preventative measures have resulted in numerous organizations throwing their staff away or imposing wage reductions. Dread of being infected with the virus, as well as fear that jobs will be lost and the future financial difficulties would degrade the mental health of the employees. This article also examines various settings in situations where different employees feel uneasy as a result of the COVID-19 outburst.

Open Access Review Article

Beneficial Effects of Vestibular Exercise Along with Yoga on Diabetes Mellitus: A Review

P. P. Sheela Joice, M. S. Athira

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 126-130
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i37B32031

Diabetes Mellitus (DM) is becoming one of the major growing health issues due to an unhealthy lifestyle. DM can be controlled through regular yoga practice. Yoga has a therapeutic effect on DM and other metabolic disorders. Vestibular exercises (VE) are a type of exercise concerned with the stimulation of the vestibular system. Studies show Vestibular stimulation will prevent DM and associated complications. Vestibular exercises are also a part of yoga but it is not using in yoga therapy for DM. The inclusion of Vestibular exercises in diabetic yoga may effective for DM patients. Regular yoga practice can prevent or delay the development of DM by increasing glucose uptake by cells, reducing oxidative stress, improving physical fitness, reducing stress, etc... Vestibular stimulation also reduces the chance of DM by increasing insulin secretion through vagal stimulation and sympathetic inhibition, reducing stress, modulation of autonomic activity, promoting sleep, etc. A combination of Vestibular exercise and Yoga postures may give a combined effect of both. So it is beneficial rather than Vestibular exercise alone or yoga postures alone.

Open Access Review Article

Trends in Cosmeceuticals Based Nanotechnology: Up-to-Date

Piyushkumar Sadhu, Pooja Hawaldar Singh, Mamta Kumari, Dillip Kumar Dash, Shivkant Patel, Nirmal Shah, Avinash Kumar Seth

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 136-149
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i37B32033

The American physicist Richard Phillips Fenyman, first proposed the concept of nanotechnology in the year 1959. However, the researcher and professor (Tokyo University of Sciences) who actually coined the term ‘nanotechnology’ was Norio Taniguchi, in 1974. Now, to improve the efficacy of cosmetic and therapeutic applications in this field, the cosmetic industry is significantly embracing nanotechnology. The application of nanotechnology in the field of cosmeceuticals makes cosmetics very effective, providing better protection against UV rays, deeper penetration into the skin, long-lasting effects, higher colour, quality of finish and more. This review critically collects the latest updates regarding the use of nanomaterials for the preparation of cosmetics for pharmaceutical applications. In addition, this review provides a brief overview of almost all nano forms as cosmetic formulations different types, of cosmetics based on nanotechnology and patents.

Open Access Review Article

COVID-19, a Pandemic Situation: Symptoms and its Prevention Scenario

Daksh Hardaswani

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 150-157
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i37B32034

The corona virus COVID-19 is the pandemic due to global health crisis among the world and greatest challenge that we have faced in 21ST century. The novel corona virus disease COVID-19 has become the 5th pandemic which is reported in Wuhan, China and gradually spread into worldwide. This virus is a spillover of an animal virus and then also adapted the ability of transferring human to human. This virus is highly contagious due to rapid spread and constantly evolves in the human population. This virus has spread to every continent of the world and the death ratio is staggering. The COVID-19 pandemic is a lot more than just a health calamity, but it is also socio-economic because people are losing jobs and income. The COVID-19 disease affects physical and mental health due to isolation. Moreover, more and more countries are affecting the cases of COVID-19 which are rising very rapidly day by day. Therefore, every country needs to several actions which accelerates their safety health, balance between the protection of health, prevent economic and social disruption due to this pandemic. In the spirit of the solidarity, we all need to be contributing our self to protect this situation. However, every country is equally responsible for determining the measures to prevent or decrease the viral transmission. Government authorizes also trying to act for reduce disease’s trajectory and they focus on develop the vaccination and therapeutic drugs.  

Open Access Review Article

Covid - 19: Government Intervention and Post Covid Complications in India

Akhilesh Tiwari, Jainab Sandalwala, Megha Joshi, Anil Kumar Gupta

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 168-178
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i37B32036

Most discussing topic in the year 2020 is nCovid-19, popularly known as Covid-19 in which most anticipated debates are going on for concluding the justification of lockdown. Present work reveals that India where large population lives in very dense localities are still struggling for improving its healthcare facilities. From very beginning government of India has taken many important steps to protect the country from this pandemic. The Government has taken the decision of lock down and face criticism for imposing lock down. But now we can understand that at very initial stage where the modern science and technology failed to explain all aspects of this pandemic, in that situation the lockdown was a good decision, It provided sufficient time for government and healthcare departments to be ready to deal with this pandemic. This paper is also explain the post Covid-19 complications.

Open Access Review Article

Ancient Overview of Modern Genetics as Per Ayurveda: A Review

Shyny Thankachan, Bhagavan G. Kulkarni, H. Dayana

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 191-196
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i37B32038

The human genome studies reveal that most of the diseases have a genetic component. Genetic mutation occurs either randomly or due to an environmental factor. Genetic disorders may or may not be hereditary. WHO data illustrate that the congenital anomalies are the reason for 17%–43% of infant mortality. If parent’s genetic configuration is vulnerable to some diseases, their children and grandchildren are more susceptible to such illness. This suggests that their genes or chromosomes possess aberrant changes and are carried over into next generation and results in congenital or hereditary diseases. Ancient ayurvedic acharyas had the idea that the genetic materials are transmitted from generation to generation. The expression of these can be understood with regard to prakriti. An individual’s unique physical characteristics and psychic behaviors (phenotype) depends on the prakriti. Genetics emerged in mid to late 19th Century. But centuries before itself, ancient Ayurvedic literature documented the union of sukra and shonita, concept of beeja, beejabhaga and beejabhagavayava, inheritance, congenital anomalies, and genetic disorders. Ayurveda also gave importance to personalized or individualized concepts of understanding and treating diseases. Ayurvedic concepts like garbhasambhavasamagri (factors necessary for formation of garbha) and garbhotpadaka bhava (six procreating factors), dinacharya, ritucharya, sadvritha, dharaneeya, adharaneeyavega, ritumaticharya, & garbhinicharya assures the regulation of gene sequencing and gene expression and thus can-do wonders to the challenging issues.

Open Access Review Article

Yoga for Pregnant Women-A Practical Approach

Babita Roy, V. Asokan, Karishma U. Pathan, . Sonam, K. Manjula

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 202-206
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i37B32040

Pregnancy is a very special time in women’s life and yoga provides the opportunity and tools to optimize the enjoyment of this miraculous period. Nature has given a great responsibility i.e., pregnancy to human body. Many couples become parents without much preparation for this important responsibility. Yoga in pregnancy is multidimensional; physical, mental, emotional and intellectual preparation to answer the challenges faced by a pregnant woman [1]. Yoga requires a mindful coordination of body movement and breath with a focus on self-awareness. The challenges of pregnancy are revealed by the state of happiness and stress while yoga is a skill to calm down the mind and relax the body. Pregnancy in a woman is a condition in which woman changes both from inside as well as outside. maternal prenatal anxiety is negatively associated with prelabour self-efficacy for child-birth and labour pain.

Open Access Review Article

Evolving Trends and Changing Perspectives in ANCA Associated Vasculitis– A Review

Monali Rajendrakumar Sahu, Tanvi Dilip Wairagade, Sonali Dilip Wairagade, Ranjit S. Ambad, Dhruba Hari Chandi

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 207-212
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i37B32041

Anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA) associated vasculitis (AAV) is a group of conditions characterized by inflammation and destruction affecting small to medium vessels accompanied by excess morbidity and mortality. These diseases present as multisystem diseases with variety of signs and symptoms. Earlier AAV were considered fatal diseases, however recent advances have changed them to chronic illnesses associated with morbidity& relapses. This review analyses recent developments in the pathogenesis, treatment and follow up of ANCA associated vasculitis.

Open Access Review Article

Effectiveness of Lifestyle Modification on Reproductive Health among Young Women: An Integrative Review

Princey Shaji, Maharaj Singh, Bharti Sahu

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 213-223
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i37B32042

Background: The present review focuses on the effectiveness of lifestyle modification on reproductive health among young women. Obesity causes various physical and psychological health risks in women’s reproductive health and overweight, obesity are increasing and have become an epidemic worldwide.

Objective: This article investigated the outcome of a lifestyle modification package on the reproductive health of young obese and overweight women.

Methods: The literature published in English from 2010 to 2020 was reviewed using PRISMA guidelines. Scientific articles were searched in the electronic data base (Scopus, Medline, Google scholar, and PubMed central) on the lifestyle modification on reproductive health.

Results: After reviewing the literature, it showed that the outcome of lifestyle modification had improved the reproductive health of women in infertile women in many ways.

Conclusion: The review highlights the need for specific interventional studies on reproductive health which can improve the health of young women. 

Open Access Review Article

Significance of Immune System to Fight COVID-19 and its Co-relation with Physical Exercise and Nutrition

Nisha Bharti, Neha Bhatt, Swarupa Chakole

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 224-228
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i37B32043

The proliferation of covid-19 has caused extensive damage worldwide and brought global movement into a state of complete stagnation. By the year 2019, another type of infection came into the world knowledge that followed its origins in the bats of Wuhan, China. Coronavirus was declared a global epidemic by the World Health Organization and thinks that the Earth  is fighting the inevitable danger posed by humans. As we may be aware that this infection  is a new phenomenon, so no vaccines or drugs are available for treatment and the medication currently being used gives our body time to build up its defenses against COVID-19.  Immune system is a combination of different organs and cells where each person performs   their function in a consistent manner to protect the host from any non-particulate matter for example infections, microbes, growths, parasites, etc. Our body needs a large   variety of micro (such as sugar, protein,fats) add to the synthesis of different types of safe cells. In this article, I have tried to explain the role of the immune system in the fight  against covid-19 virus and how exercise and proper diet can help build strong immune systems.

Open Access Review Article

Efficacy of Garbhasanskara for Good Progeny in Present Scenario

Sujata K. Shamkuwar, V. Asokan, V. N. K. Usha, Yogita Shrivas

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 242-250
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i37B32046

During intrauterine life, the fetus is completely dependent on the mother. As a result, the health of the fetus directly depends on the health of the mother.Not only maternal nutrition, but maternal psychology, during pregnancy, has a significant effect on the health of the offspring and mother,too.Whatever emotional perceptions a woman has during her pregnancy are transmitted to the fetus. Ayurveda is an ancient science where all the measures are described under the title of Garbhasanskara to geta healthy and well- cultured child.

The word Garbhasanskarais composed of two words ‘Garbha‘and Saskara’.Garbha means the fetus and Sanskara means Parivartana in Guna i.e., change in character. Thus, GarbhaSanskara is basically aimed at providing fundamental care for good physical as well as mental set up of a child. It includes three stages viz pre-conceptional care to get healthy Beeja i.e. sperm and ovum, care during pregnancy for development of the fetus and postnatal care i.e.Balasanskara. The present paper, expresses the concept of Garbhasanskara and its relevance in the present modern era.

Open Access Review Article

Covid and Regional Anaesthesia

Pratibha Deshmukh, Parag Sable, Priyanka Deshmukh, Vivek Chakole

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 251-259
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i37B32047

Currently we are at the peak of the second wave of pandemic.  Availability of beds & oxygen is at nadir. The patients coming to us for surgery are the ones where surgery cannot wait. Mainly the load is obstetric. As a matter of COVID pandemic policy we are using regional anaesthesia unless contraindicated or the surgery demands general anaesthesia. The aim is to avoid/reduce aerosolization which is part & parcel of GA, despite the efforts to minimise it. The policy is to protect the anaesthesiologists, surgeons, OT staff & other patients as well. The present manuscript is to review the role of regional anaesthesia & its safe performance.

Open Access Review Article

Causes and Management of Gastric and Duodenal Ulcer in Adolescents

Bader Maiedh Mohsen Aladainan, Mahdi Turki Bin Ali Alfataih, Alhassan Ahmed Mohammed Aldundur, Rashed Saleh Mohammed Balhareth, Eisa Yazeed Ghazwani

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 289-297
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i37B32052

Many etiological hypotheses have been suggested to explain the development of peptic ulcers during the last 300 years (including gastric ulcer and duodenal ulcer). In the last two decades, significant progress has been made in understanding the pathophysiology of peptic ulcer disease, particularly with regard to the involvement of Helicobacter pylori and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory medications (NSAIDs). This study will attempt to review literature on etiology and management of gastric and duodenal ulcers among adolescents.

Open Access Review Article

COVID-19, T Cells, Cytokines and Immunotherapy: Review

Nesrin I. Tarbiah

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 70-82
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i37B32023

In December 2019, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), a novel coronavirus (COVID-19), materialized in the city of Wuhan and quickly spread to form a global pandemic. An essential role in the immune system is undertaken by lymphocytes, which defend against bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites. Previous study found that very severe COVID-19 patients had suppression of the immune response enabling the virus to spread and cause more damage. This was evident by the changes in their white blood cell and lymphocyte count. Early clinical findings suggest that those suffering from severe COVID-19 have reduced numbers of lymphocytes, monocytes, and other granulocytes. One of the most efficient responses for a variety of viral infections is cellular immune response activation, especially via T cells. Viruses can be eliminated by T cytotoxic (CD8+) (Tc) in the host body, these secrete a variety of molecules, including interferons (IFNs), granzyme, and perforin. T helper (CD4+) (Th) cells help by assisting cytotoxic T cells and B cells to eliminate viral infection. CD8+ and CD4+ work together in a coordinated immune response with other constituents to primarily resolve acute viral infections, and after to produce protection against any reinfection.

Also, COVID-19 causes dramatic changes in cytokine profiles and serological markers. Therefore, the subsets of immune cells and the level of the pro-inflammatory cytokines are crucial evidence to determine the severity of COVID-19. The disease severity has already been proved to be associated with the disruption in the proinflammatory chemokine response, this eventually leads to a cytokine storm and progression of cytokines release syndrome (CRS). This review aimed to demonstrate a full understanding of the alterations to the immune response by determining the T-cell expression and cytokine levels against the pathological processes of COVID-19, which can be a significant step in early treatment and diagnosis of this disease, in reduction of COVID-19 mortality cases, and to emphasize the most recent and current studies to try to identify new immuno-therapeutics for COVID-19.