Open Access Systematic Review Article

Covid-19 Impact on Telemedicine

Ankit Singh, Ajeya Jha, Shankar Purbey

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 20-29
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i36B31948

In healthcare,the delivery has become challenging as the affected patients need to be cured, and at the same time, other patients and communities need to be protected. The traditional healthcare delivery modes need to be revised as it has a higher probability of human contact and transmission of infections.This study aims to review the existing work in the literature related to care delivery in the COVID 19 era and to suggest alternative modes and practices to reduce the transmission of infection and to improve the accessibility of healthcare to the population. This research was conducted through a comprehensive review of research articles available in the research databases "PubMed" and "Science Direct"searched with the keywords "Coronavirus" and "COVID-19" till March 19, 2020. This conceptual study analysis the best practices for adoption by the government to contain COVID 19. At the same time, it also analyses the conceptual model proposed in a study done in Taiwan. Moreover, the current study proposes a new healthcare delivery model with the integration of Telemedicine, Healthcare, and Institutional Care. This study concludes that at the primary level of healthcare, the Use of Telemedicine should be considered and promoted, similarly at the secondary level of care, Home healthcare should be the preferred mode, and last, at the tertiary level of healthcare requires hospitalization should be preferred.

Open Access Systematic Review Article

Systematic Review of effects of Shodhana & Shmana Chikitsa in Ayurveda in the Management of Diabetes Mellitus Type-II (Prameha)

Punam Sawarkar, Gaurav Sawarkar, Jayashri Hadke

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 36-53
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i36B31950

Introduction: Diabetes mellitus is a complex metabolic clinical condition. It induces some irreversible pathological changes in the body, which rise to multiple complications. Moreover, the side effects of the established anti-hyperglycemic agents in contemporary science on their long-term use make it more worst. Considering the higher incidence rate of Diabetes mellitus due to faulty lifestyle, it is essential to think over various safe but effective measures in alternative science. i.e., Ayurveda. In Ayurveda, diabetes mellitus can be correlated with Prameha or Madhumeha due to similarity in signs & clinical features.

Aim & Objective: The prime aim of this study is to study the efficacy and safety of different Shodhana & Shamana Chikitsa in Ayurveda for glucose control & improvement in clinical features during the management of Diabetes Mellitus Type II(Prameha W.S.R).

Materials & Methods: This is a meta-analysis of Ayurvedic interventions in Shodhana, or Shamana Chikitsa used to manage Prameha (Diabetes mellitus type II). On extensive Review of the literature, 42 clinical studies (R.C.T. & N.R.C.T.) fulfilling inclusion criteria & conducted with 1743 participants at different places were critically analyzed. Adequate details of the individual studies were tabulated and discussed.

Observations & Results: It is reflected that the combinations of both these interventions are more effective than only Shaman Chikitsa in the management of Diabetes mellitus.

Conclusion: All of these interventions in Ayurveda reviewed through this study are appeared to be generally safe and effective, having a prime or adjuvant role. However, Ayurvedic physicians should prescribe them based on their clinical judgment, patient’s references, type of pathology, chronicity of the disease & strength of the patient.

Open Access Case Study

Contribution of Ayurveda in the Management of Ksheena Shukra Vikara with Special Reference to Asthenozoospermia: A Case Report

Manju Mohan, Sawarkar Punam, Sawarkar Gaurav

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 140-149
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i36B31961

Background: Male Infertility is one of the burning issues now a day’s nevertheless disregarded reproductive health problems in India. Incidences of this issue expands day by day because of the disturbing lifestyle pattern. Almost 30-40-% of infertility cases found to be related to male factor. Asthenozoospermia is the most common identifiable anomaly related to male infertility found in semen analysis having reduced motility of sperm.

Aim and Objectives: To assess the efficacy of Ayurvedic management (Shodhana and Shamana Chikitsa) in the management of Ksheena Shukra Vikara w.s.r. to Asthenozoospermia.

Methods: It is a single case study. A 33-year-old male patient who was already diagnosed with Asthenozoospermia for three years approached to Pancharkarma OPD. Sperm motility was only 12%. The patient was treated with Shodhana Chikitsa (Vamana and Virechana with Mahatiktaka Ghritapana and Dashmooladi Niruha Vasti and Uttarvasti with Vidaryadi Ghrita followed by Shamana Chikitsa (Tab Neo Charak Pharmacy, Tab Addyzoa, Chandraprabha Vati, Paripathadi Kashaya, Ashwagandhadi Yamaka, Avipattikar Churna) approximately 3 months. After 3 months, patient-reported improvement.

Results: Assessment of the patient with clinical symptoms and sperm analysis report was done following 3 months. Sperm motility increased up to 40% with increment in sperm count. 

Conclusion: This case report provides us a guideline that infertility associated with Asthenozoospermia can be treated successfully by adopting basic Ayurveda Siddhanta's.

Open Access Study Protocol

Protocol of an Observational Study Based on the Prevalence of Essential Hypertension in Different Types of Prakruti in Wardha City, India

Disha Bhatero, Punam Sawarkar, Vaishnavi Paraskar, Gaurav Sawarkar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 161-166
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i36B31963

Background: In 2000, 26.4% people of the society were suffering hypertension in the globe and around 29.2% are considered to have hypertension till 2025. Coronary Heart Disease, Stroke and other vascular disorders are the adverse effects of hypertension. Hypertension is taxonomically adjacent to UchchaRakta Tapa in Ayurveda. Prakrutiis the morphological, physiological, and psychological basic traits, manifested in the intrauterine life and is said to be unchangeable throughout life.

Objectives: The present study aims to observe the Prevalence of Essential Hypertension in different types of Prakruti to differentiate Systolic blood pressure and Diastolic blood pressure according to various Prakruti in the population of Wardha city and contribute to knowledge in this population regarding Essential Hypertension and its relation with Prakruti.

Materials and Methods: Wardha. Data collected in from the hypertensive patients in Wardha district by personal interviews based on the Prakruti Questionnaires.

Results: The results will be concluded on the basis of observations drawn from the collected information.

Open Access Study Protocol

Assessment of Perception of Palliative Care among the Patients of Palliative Therapy

Saba Khan, Nikhil Dhande

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 180-186
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i36B31966

Background: The assessment of the good health and well-being of palliative care patients is summarised in this protocol analysis. It will bring about the financial and physical wellbeing of patients. The standard of life of patients and their families has been reviewed.

Methods: It is a cross-sectional analysis involving selected villages in the Wardha district. A sample of 95 participants will be taken from Wardha Palliative Care. Patients will be randomly allocated to the survey by the Jawaharlal Nehru Medical College of Wardha District Department of Community Medicine. A pre-designed multidimensional survey questionnaire will be prepared and pre-tested for quantitative data collection . The pro forma used to gather the data will include their current disease and disease management and will integrate the psychosocial and moral elements of hospital care. The motive of this research is to understand the interpretation of palliative care in the lives of affected patients. The goal of this study is to know the conception of a compromised patient living.

Results: Using descriptive and inferential statistics using the chi-square test, the result will be obtained by attributing the baseline and terminal consequences.

Conclusion: The purpose of this research is to define the predictive, mediating and moderating functions of select variables: self-efficacy, disease, psychosocial, spiritual caregiver. The findings of this study will influence the interpretation of the resilience of patients with palliative care and will enhance functional outcomes for emotional, mental and spiritual health. This change in attitude would be beneficial to them in their lives. And the patient's quality of life will improve.

Open Access Study Protocol

Assessment of Common Mental Health Problems among General Population

Dharti Meshram, Pooja Kasturkar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 210-217
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i36B31970

Background: Around 7.3 per cent of the global disease burden was due to mental and behavioral problem. The majority of the load is correlated with unipolar depressive condition and certain conditions of mental health, including depression, anxiety, eating disorder, and substance use. Roughly 450 million persons are currently suffering from these disorders, and It is assessed that at some stage in their lifetime, one-four individuals in the world will be affected by mental health conditions. Mental health condition rank among the world's principal reasons of illness or impairment. Persons with most depressing condition or schizophrenia were 40 to 60 per cent more likely than the general population to die prematurely.

Aim: To identify common mental health problems among general population.

Objective: This study is planned with the objective. 1. To assess common mental health problems among general population. 2. To compare the common mental health problems among rural and urban general population. 3. To associate common mental problems, score among general population with their demographic variables.

Methodology: lt is community based cross-sectional study. Sample will be general population i.e., Male and Female of Nalwadi, Arvi Naka wardha city will be involved in this study. Sample will be selected for study as per inclusion criteria and sampling technique will be N on-Probability y convenient sampling technique. Data will be collected by demographic variables of participants Global mental health assessment Marathi tool will be distributed for assessing mental health problem need 20 min for each participant.

Conclusion: The conclusion will e drawn from the statistical analysis.

Open Access Minireview Article

Challenges of Applying AI in Healthcare in India

Verda Nizam, Avinash Aslekar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 203-209
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i36B31969

With the advent of digitalization, upcoming technologies like Artificial Intelligence (AI) are being utilized by healthcare services to manage various healthcare services to mimic human cognitive functions. This technology is expected to bring about a massive change in healthcare. Patient management, clinical decision support, patient tracking, and health care services are the four main AI-enabled fields of the healthcare industry. The method carrying out the study was based on secondary research by the themes of the studies performed earlier using Artificial intelligence in healthcare sector, through observations, interviews and valid documentations from prominent databases, by means of challenges and its analysis and the last by the issues associated with the study and the target groups are the front line workers in healthcare sectors. The AI applications in health care have gathered much attention, but AI's adoption issues have not been significantly tended. There are several challenges of its implementation, such as resolving the unequal relationship between trained physicians and patients and increasing physicians' efficiency to be more effective in their work; providing AI-enabled healthcare equipment in rural communities; and educating physicians or doctors in handling it. AI technologies have the potential to enhance patient outcomes. Still, they may also pose significant risks in terms of inadequate patient risk assessment, medical error, and suggestions for treatment, privacy violations, and others.

Open Access Original Research Article

Biotechnology of Microorganisms Growing– Fundamentals for the Development of a Litter Biodestructor

Anna Nikolaevna Gneush, Albina Vladimirovna Luneva, Nadezhda Leonidovna Machneva, Yury Andreevich Lysenko, Maria Vladimirova Aniskina, Marina Nikolaevna Verevkina, Magomed Hizrievich Kilyashanov, Sergey Nikolaevich Povetkin

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i36B31946

The purpose of the research work was to select the optimal conditions for the cultivation of microorganisms. As a result of the conducted research work, the modes of growing a nitrogen-fixing culture and a microorganism with high enzymatic activity were selected and worked out. At the same time, the optimal conditions for the cultivation of Azotobacter sp were determined – the temperature optimum for cell accumulation was 30°C, for increased polysaccharide production 20 °C, aeration within 5-10 l/l/min, agitator speed-150 rpm, pH value within 6.0±0.2 units, which allowed to achieve a cell titer of at least 1.0×109 CFU/ml. A cost-effective nutrient medium was selected for growing Pseudomonas sp. molasses-autolysate medium and optimal conditions for growing the culture: cultivation temperature 30-32 °C, aeration 1.0-1.5 l/l/ min, agitator speed 150-200 rpm, pH 6.8-7.2 units, sub-titration 5.0 % KOH, defoaming with adecanol, cultivation time-72 hours, which allowed to achieve a cell titer of at least 1.0×109 CFU/ml.

Open Access Original Research Article

Comparison of Complications of Extraction among Partially Impacted Mandibular Third Molars with or without a Buccal Flap

M. Ahmed Khan, Tahera Ayub, Bibi Gulsama, Azizullah Muhammad Nawaz Qureshi, Aosaf Anwar Memon, Syed Ghazanfar Hassan, Taimoor Ali Khan

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 12-19
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i36B31947

Objective: To compare the complications of extraction of partially impacted mandibular third molars with or without a buccal flap.

Materials And Methods: A comparative cohort study was performed at Department of Oral & Maxillofacial Surgery, Institute of Dentistry, Liaquat University Hospital, Hyderabad from September 2020 to March 2021. Sixty-two patients of either gender, having age 15-50 years and recommended for extraction of partially impacted mandibular third molars were selected by non-probability consecutive sampling technique and distributed into flapless group (31 patients) and buccal flap group (31 patients). Patients were treated with standard procedures of flapless and buccal flap, operating time was noted and follow up was done at 1st day, 2nd day post-operatively for pain, swelling, trismus, whereas periodontal pocket distal to second molar was measured at 1 month and 3 months follow up interval.

Results: In flapless and buccal flap group male patients were 17 (54.8%) and 18 (58.1%) and female patients were 14 (45.2%) and 13 (41.9%) respectively with mean age of 27.4 ± 9.6 and 26.7 ± 8.4 years. Statistically significant difference was obtained in flapless and buccal flap groups in terms of operative time, pain score, swelling score, pocket depth and trismus.

Conclusion: Flapless technique is more effective in conditions of operative time and post-operative complications. So, flapless technique can be used frequently for elimination of incompletely impacted mandibular third molars.

Open Access Original Research Article

Clinical, Socioeconomic, and Psychosocial Profile of COVID 19 Patients at a Tertiary COVID Designated Hospital in Pune, India

Madhu Bansode, Pankaj Bansode, Manasi Nagarkar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 30-35
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i36B31949

The COVID 19 pandemic continues its havoc over the last six months in India. The present study of the initial phase of illnesses in mild to moderate cases of SARS-COVID is the rampant community transmission. This observational and cross-sectional study aimed to analyse and correlate the socioeconomic and demographic parameters with clinical and psychosocial presentations of the COVID disease through a questionnaire-based interaction Mild and moderate COVID positive patients with stable hemodynamic were enrolled for the study. The findings revealed that of the 179 patients, the majority of patients were adults below 60 years of age group, followed by the older age group above 60. Males had a slightly higher preponderance than females. The majority of people in their families were medium to big and overcrowded, lacked social distance and poor hygiene practises were partially attributable to bad social economic conditions. Most of the patients originated from the red area, i.e. high-risk zone, as well as the high level of transmission of COVID illnesses to human beings. The majority of patients were in the poor and lower middle classes (Kuppuswamy modified scale).Most of the occupations of COVID patients involved the lower strata labour jobs. Fifty percent of patients had no symptoms at onset and remained asymptomatic throughout the illness. There were many issues and insecurities in most patients relating to the current illness, future well-being of families, job and financial concerns that warrant strategies to be implemented during and in post COVID era.

Open Access Original Research Article

Modelling the Enablers of Green and Sustainable Practices in Indian Pharmaceutical Industry- An ISM Approach

Miloni Raiyarela, Smita Mehendale

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 65-74
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i36B31951

Rising environmental issues and production of hazardous waste by the pharmaceutical industry has created a harmful impact on society, the environment, and pharmaceutical companies' reputation. It has given rise to the need to adopt and integrate green and sustainable pharmaceutical company’s practices to mitigate environmental degradation's negative effects. The aim is to identify hierarchical interrelationships between these variables and determine their significance through MICMAC analysis and Interpretive Structural Modelling (ISM). The study identified ten significant enablers by exploring literature review and consultation with the industry experts from the Indian Pharmaceutical sector, which led to an understanding of their interrelationships. A four-level model was derived through the ISM technique. Pressure from the customer was found to be the most important enabler, followed by top management commitment and regulation. These enablers carry high driving power. The model developed through this study will help the pharmaceutical companies and their managers to implement green processes systematically.

Open Access Original Research Article

Knowledge, Awareness and Practices of Saudi Females about Osteoporosis

Bushra Dhuhayyan Alhazmi, Mohammed Kanan Alshammari

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 75-87
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i36B31953

Introduction: Osteoporosis is a common skeletal disease that is characterized by reduction of bone mass and loss of bone microarchitecture leading to increased risk of bone fractures.

Objective: To assess knowledge, awareness and practices of Saudi females about osteoporosis.

Methodology: Cross-sectional study for 3 months (November, December 2019 and January 2020) on random sample of 537 Saudi females, the data was collected by using a questionnaire in Arabic language, data were analyzed by means of Descriptive statistics.

Results: Among the participants, there were 43% in the age group of (18-25 years) and 19% in the age group of (26-35 years), 41% completed university education. The main source of information about osteoporosis was friends and relatives (33%). Mean score of participant’s sufficient knowledge about risk factors of osteoporosis was 52%, mean score of participant’s sufficient knowledge about prevention and treatment of osteoporosis was 67%, mean score of participant’s sufficient knowledge about signs & symptoms of osteoporosis was 43%, mean score of participant’s sufficient knowledge about diagnosis of osteoporosis was 17% and the overall mean score of sufficient knowledge about osteoporosis was 45%. About 55% of study participants previously got vitamin D screening, 46% previously got calcium screening in blood, 8% previously got screened with DXA.

Conclusion: The results of the present study indicate that the knowledge and awareness about osteoporosis among Saudi females are poor. The participants lacked knowledge relating to risk factors, signs and symptoms, diagnosis and prevention of osteoporosis and the practice regarding the prevention and detection of osteoporosis is poor.

Open Access Original Research Article

A Split Mouth Study on Crestal Bone Architectural Changes by Flapped and Flapless Implant Surgical Procedures

Preet Jain, C. M. Ravi Kumar, Meetu Jain, Punit Fulzele, Amit Porwal, Rahul N. Gaikwad

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 103-111
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i36B31956

Background: Rehabilitations by dental implants have often been utilized as an efficient procedure for restoring missing teeth. For implant placement two types of surgical methods are well documented. Conventional surgical approach involves raising a mucoperiosteal flap to gain access and see the underlying alveolar bone, instead there is this procedure which does not involve the reflection of the flap. Both the techniques are known to have their individual benefits and shortcomings. The present study was aimed to evaluate the longitudinal comparison and evaluation of hard tissue changes around endosseous implants placed using flapped as well as flapless surgical procedures in mandibular first molar region.

Materials and Methods: A total of 10 healthy patients with bilateral mandibular first molar were involved in the study and 20 endosseous implants were inserted (10 in each group). Radiographic assessment was done for deviations in the marginal bone levels on both mesial and distal side and their average value was calculated at 1 month, and 3 months. All these parameters were statistically analyzed using the paired Student t test, and two-way ANOVA test and were considered to be significant if the p value was ≤ 0.05.

Results: During the 3 months observation period, the change in crestal bone height around the implants placed by flapless and flap surgery were statistically significant. The flapless group showed less reduction in the crestal bone height compared to the flap group.

Conclusion: Both flap and the flapless techniques of endosseous implant placement had statistically significant effect on peri-implant bone loss over the 3 month period.

Open Access Original Research Article

Use of Timed Up and Go Test to Predict Risk of Fall in Indian Elderly

Palani Kumar, Prutha Jani, Lata Parmar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 112-119
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i36B31957

Background: Although the TUG has been recommended as a key test for screening the risk of fall, the optimal cut-off value to detect older adults who are at an elevated fall risk remains controversial as wide range of threshold values have been reported in the literature. The validation of TUGT is yet to be performed for the Indian population.

Objective: To determine cut off value for TUG to predict risk of falls among Indian population.

Methods and Measures: In this cross sectional study, 121 participants, meeting inclusion-exclusion criteria and willing to participate were included. On the basis of BBS scores, participants were divided in risk of fall group (BBS< 45) and no risk of fall group (BBS2 >/=45). TUG Test was performed and time was measured using stop watch.

Results: Pearson correlation between BBS and TUG had shown statistically significant negative correlation (r= -0.852), (p=0.000). Considering the different sensitivity and specificity, the best predictive value to predict risk of fall was 14.5 seconds at 97.4% sensitivity, 96% specificity.

Conclusion: Best cut off value to predict risk of fall is 14.5 Sec for older adults in India. Increasing age, Knee pain and sedentary life significantly affects TUG Scores and increased Risk of fall.

Open Access Original Research Article

Awareness about Nanotechnology among Upcoming Clinicians in Vidarbha, Maharashtra

Swati Maldhure, Vaibhav Sonwani, Ranjeet Ambad, Dhruba Hari Chandi

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 126-131
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i36B31958

The making of new things at an incredibly small “nano” scale (100,000 times smaller than the human hair) is called nanotechnology and it is one of the most exciting and fast-moving technology in today’s world. Scientists and engineers have been working hard to make the maximum utilization of this knowledge towards applications like cure for certain diseases, to create certain renewable sources of energy and to bring human race safety into next millennium, thus nanomedicine being one of the most important evolution of nanotechnology.

In this research, we have done a cross sectional observation, knowledge, perception and attitude study among 56 residents of various clinical departments of Datta Meghe Medical College. According to our survey, it was evident that only 48.21% of the residents were aware of the science of nanotechnology. Television was the source for most of them to know about it. Approximately 35.71% knew the size of nanoparticles which is really low. Of all the residence who knew about nanotechnology, most of the (42.86%) them knew about its application in healthcare whereas comparatively less (28.57%) were aware of its applications in areas besides healthcare. As expected very few (14.29%) had practically used this advanced science in health care. And hardly any knew about limitations or long-term side effects of nanotechnology in health care but most of them supported it.

With our limited analysis and discussion, we could conclude that awareness and knowledge about nanotechnology among residents who are our upcoming clinicians, was deficient in more than half of them and inadequate among those who had. Universities need to add this subject in their curriculums and have an interdisplinary approach towards this recent advance so that all the medical students and upcoming clinicians have awareness and adequate knowledge regarding nanotechnology & nanomedicine which is going to be the future of medicine having significant impact on our health, comfort and lifestyle.

Open Access Original Research Article

Comparative Study of Physiological and Haematological Parameters among Mild and Severe COVID-19 Patients Admitted in Tertiary Care Hospital of Pune District, India

Suchita Sachin Palve, Pallavi Sachin Chaudhari

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 132-139
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i36B31960

Background: The COVID-19 pandemic has put global health at stake by creating havoc all over the world, due to which the world, as well as health agencies, are experiencing the greatest challenges. This disease is a health emergency due to its high level of infectiousness and the non-availability of any specific treatment [1].

Objectives: To determine and compare the significance of physiological and haematological parameters in the diagnosis of COVID 19 infection and compare the association of physiological and haematological parameters among mild and severe COVID-19 patients.

Methodology: The present comparative, observational study was carried out in a designated tertiary care hospital, where admission of COVID19 patients in Pune district, India. Various parameters like age, height, weight, BMI, various physiological variables, haematological parameters, and CRP levels were assessed among 202 Mild and 50 severe COVID 19 diagnosed patients on day one of the hospital's stays.

Results: Pearson’s correlation coefficient showed a significant correlation among physiological and haematological variables compared to both groups, especially physiological parameters like SBP and DBP. The results showed that TLC, CRP, NLR, PLR, among COVID 19 patients cans work as important biomarkers to understand the disease prognosis.

Conclusion: Study of physiological and haematological parameters and their interrelation will help in understanding the impact of COVID 19 infection on the reactive inflammatory responses and help in understanding the prognosis of the disease among mild and severe patients.

Open Access Original Research Article

Result of Ankle Fracture Fixation, Our Hospital Experience

Ghazanfar Ali Shah, Nizam Ahmed, Aftab Alam Khanzada, Tanveer Afzal, Muhammad Rafique Joyo, Niaz Hussain Keerio, Syed Shahid Noor

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 120-125
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i36B31959

Aims and Objectives: The goal of this study was to see the outcome of open reduction and internal fixation for ankle fractures.

Methods: A prospective analysis of 40 ankle fractures of adult patients handled surgically using diverse approaches in the period from January 2019 to January 2020 at the Orthopedic department of SMBBIT, Dow University of Medical and Health Sciences. Karachi Pakistan. The ankle grading system developed by Baird and Jackson was used to assess the functional result.

Results: We achieved 87.5 percent outstanding to good outcomes, 6.3 percent fair outcomes, and 6.2 percent bad outcomes in our study. The findings were comparable to those of other researchers around the world.

Interpretation and Conclusion: In 87.5 percent of patients, the operational results were satisfactory, with good to outstanding functional outcomes. With stable fracture fixation, excellent outcomes are attained. Cancellous screws are better for internal fixation of the medial malleolus, while Malleolar screws are superior for that task. For ankle fractures treated surgically, patients may expect to have satisfactory function thereafter.

Open Access Original Research Article

COVID-19 Pandemic’s Impact on Medication Dispensing and the use of Health Services in Makkah, Saudi Arabia

Alaa S. Tulbah

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 150-160
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i36B31962

Aims: March 2020, WHO revealed that COVID-19 was a pandemic. Coughing, sneezing, close contact with infected individuals speeds up the disease spread. Saudi Arabia's government and the Ministry of Health sought to spread social awareness of the importance of quarantine and restriction, but unprecedented challenges and obstacles emerged. Therefore, in this study, the effect of COVID-19 on the dispensing of medication and the use of health care services evaluated.

Study design: This survey, cross-sectional, was performed in Makkah city individuals.

Place and Duration of Study: This survey was run out in Makkah city, Saudi Arabia for seven days, starting from June 15, 2020, to June 22, 2020.

Methodology: Survey of 112 applicants (33 men, 79 women; age range 16-56+ years) had been performed to explore COVID-19 impact on medication dispensing and the use of health care services regarding sociodemographic data in Makkah city residents, Saudi Arabia.

Results: This study demonstrated that most of the survey respondents coped well with COVID-19 changes. A significant correlation was found between coping with COVID-19 changes and the age of participants (F(df) = 7.846 (4,107), P-value 0.006) and (F(df) = 4.025 (4,107), P-value 0.047), respectively. Of all the participants, 68.75% had been able to dispense a prescription medication during COVID-19 restrictions. Among them, 30.36, 21.43, and 16.96% dispensed a prescription once, twice, and more than three times, respectively. The data showed that 67.86% of the participants successfully purchased medication from a community pharmacy during COVID-19 restrictions. There was no change in medication availability or price, at about 61.61% and 76.79%, respectively. A significant correlation between medication availability-price (F(df) = 4.025(3,105), P-value 0.047) was found. During COVID-19 restrictions, 51.79% of the respondents were able to access health care services such as hospitals that provide health checking, or substance use for disease treatment. Interestingly, 25% of the participants had the same accessibility to health care services.

Conclusion: This research revealed that through the COVID-19 pandemic, the dispensing, availability, and price changes of medication and the use of health care services were running in a good manner. This would show that although there were restrictions due to COVID-19, access to medication or health care services was running smoothly.

Open Access Original Research Article

Study of Glutathione S Transferases and Malondialdehyde Levels in Male Smokers from Vidharbha Region, India

Ranjit S. Ambad, Suryakant Nagtilak, Ankita Kondalkar, Ashish Anjankar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 167-172
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i36B31964

Introduction: Free radicals are compounds having two unpaired electrons. Free radicals oxidize macromolecule in the body, including proteins, nucleic acids, and lipids.

The body uses antioxidants to fight free radicals. Antioxidants may come from the diet or be generated internally (endogenous). Endogenous antioxidants include superoxide dismutase, glutathione (GSH), catalase, and glutathione peroxidase.

Aim: To study of glutathione s transferases and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in male smokers from Vidharbha region attending Datta Meghe Medical College

Materials and Methods: A minimum sample size of 80 was used with 40 smoking males and 40 non-smoking males. This was a cross-sectional analytical observational analysis conducted in the medical study.

Result: The mean GSH concentrations of the smoking and non-smoking research participants were 1.69 ± 0.97 mol/L and 2.20 ± 1.40 mol/L, respectively, when plasma GSH concentrations were measured. Smokers had lower plasma GSH concentrations than non-smokers, but the disparity was not statistically significant (p=0.1885) suggests that smoking has no discernible effect on GSH levels.

Conclusion: Smoking tends to reduce plasma GSH while rising plasma MDA levels in men. Owing to a loss of antioxidant potential and a higher oxidative load, smokers are more susceptible to oxidant stress. Young smokers, in particular, should quit smoking as soon as possible before developing health complications in order to reap the full benefits of quitting.

Open Access Original Research Article

Analysis of Blood Serum Bilirubin Concentration among Moderate Intensity Exercise Performers; A Randomized Control Trails

Adnan Khan, Alamgir Khan, Muhammad Zafar Iqbal Butt, Shahzaman Khan, Samiullah Khan, Zeliha Selamoglu, Muhammad Jamil, Abdul Manan

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 173-179
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i36B31965

Purpose: A randomized control trails were conducted to evaluate the effects of moderate intensity exercise on blood serum bilirubin level.

Methods:  A participants of the study were divided in two groups i.e. experimental group (EG= 10) and control group (CG=10).  5ml blood were taken from all the subjects and each blood sample was marked with separate identification code. Twelve weeks exercise (moderate intensity exercise) protocols was employed on the selected subjects. The collected blood samples were tested and thus the collected results were processed through Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS, Version, 24) by applying Mean and Standard deviation etc.

Result: Based on analysis the researcher concluded that moderate intensity exercise has significant impact on Serum Bilirubin Concentration of the subjects. In addition significant difference was found in pre and post test result of experimental group  (t4= 1.000, Sig. = .374 > α= 0.05).

Open Access Original Research Article

Satisfaction Affecting Factors of Mohalla Clinic Services in the Times of COVID -19 Pandemic: A Cross-Sectional Study

Akshay Parmar, Ankit Singh, Sammita Jadhav

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 187-194
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i36B31967

The Delhi government has launched the Mohalla clinic concept in the year 2015 to make health universal and strengthen the primary care system of Delhi. The basic aim was to provide primary care to people located in remote and poor areas of Delhi. This study was conducted from April 2020 to July 2020 to determine the community dwellers' perception and satisfaction level towards Mohalla clinics and their role in the situation of the COVID-19 pandemic. An online survey was conducted with pretested and validated questionnaire. The questionnaire consisted of 28 items, which were identified with the help of a literature review. The responses were collected from 100 respondents selectively from the ones who have availed the Mohalla clinic's service. The analysis of the results revealed that the perception of the community toward the Mohalla clinic is positive. Moreover, out of all the identified factors impacting satisfaction, the availability factor, which includes the availability of doctors and medicines, had the highest influence on the perception of satisfaction from Mohalla Clinics. Additionally, 58 % of the current users have shown willingness to utilize the Mohalla clinic services, even in the times of COVID-19. This is an important finding. It postulates that the Delhi government should focus on the availability of medicines and medical staff to improve satisfaction and render healthcare services in COVID-19.

Open Access Review Article

Work Related Musculoskeletal Disorders in Brick Kiln Workers: A Review

Patel Niketa, Arati Paresh Kumar Soni, G. P. Kumar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 54-64
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i36B31952

Background: Musculoskeletal disorders (MSD) have become very common condition. Brick kiln workers are a profession which is not spare from MSDs. The workers in such industries have no knowledge of ergonomics and health problems which add on to the existing MSDs. The aim of this study is to present a summary review of the current state of knowledge about musculoskeletal disorders in brick kiln workers.

Methodology: The literatures were searched using various search engines and databases. Search engines were used are Google Scholar, Pub Med, Science Direct and Databases are COCHRANE, CINHAL, MEDLINE, PEDRO etc. The Source of the data has been electronic sources (Databases, Electronic libraries, Electronic Journals, Google Scholar) and print sources (Journals, Textbooks, Hand searching, Follow-up reference).

Result: Articles were tabulated revealing their title, author, year, study design. A total of 150 papers and reports were identified from the database search. These papers underwent title and abstract screening. 57 had full text screening, of which 13 articles did not include information on the prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders in brick kiln workers and were therefore excluded. So, total 44 articles were included for the review.

Conclusion: Brick making is a multitask activities where specific workers are involved in specific processes. Not to forget that all the brick making manufacturing processes requires time and is a heavy manual work load with repetitive movements in awkward posture due to which MSDs are but obvious to occur. Also, the workers in such industries are uneducated with almost no knowledge of ergonomics and health problems which add on to the existing MSDs.

Open Access Review Article

Overview on Sclerodermal Renal Crisis

Mahdi Ali M. Alyami, Jalawi Talal A. Alotaibi, Shahad Saad A. Aljoaid, Tariq Bander F. Alanazi, Waleed Farhan D. Alshammari, Nuwayr Hamdan D. Albalawi, Reema Abdulrahman A. Alanazi, Abrar Ali M. Aldhameen, Muflih Abdullah S. Albalawi, Mona Khalid M. Alqubali, Marawn Fahad H. Altemani, Abeer Abdulrhman. Basmih

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 88-95
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i36B31954

Usually, malignant high blood pressure and severe renal damage are main characters in SSc. SRCs is a relatively rare condition, found in approximately 5% of all SSc patients. This study was carried out to summarize the contemporary evidence regarding the causes, risk factors, manifestations, management and prognosis of Sclerodermal Renal Crisis‎.‎ a simple review was carried out, searching databases PubMed, Google Scholar, and EBSCO. The authors extracted the needed data and stated that SRCs continues to be a rare diagnosis affecting up to six percent of SSc patients, but has a high morbidity and death influence. SRCs presentation is varied, with hypertension, normal BP and renal insufficiency. Medics should be minded by potential SRCs presentations. Early detection and initiation of aggressive ACEi antihypertensive medication in ED could enhance patient outcomes and around 60% of SRCs patients need dialysis.

Open Access Review Article

A Review on Pregnancy during COVID-19 Pandemic

Snigdha Prern

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 96-102
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i36B31955

The World is going through a tough situation and that is a pandemic caused by the Novel Corona virus which originated in the Wuhan Province of China in December 2019. During this tough and critical situation, one of the major concerns is dealing with pregnant women across the globe. As we have been noticing in the past one year of observation in our country, the number of active pregnancies has been increasing during the period of lockdown in the country. Pregnant women getting affected by COVID-19 can be a risk to them and their babies. They may show symptoms or can be asymptomatic, which makes it difficult to diagnose in the very first place. In the whole scenario, patients undergoing this situation expect distinguished attention from the medical fraternity. So, to deal with this pandemic, it is important to meet up to the increasing demand of emergency medical services so that the situation remains under control and helps in providing the necessary medical treatment required to pregnant women of the society.

Open Access Review Article

Myths and Facts on Corona, Myths Related to Cure, Drugs, Measures

Yash Jaiswal

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 195-202
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i36B31968

As of late toward the finish of 2019, another illness was found in Wuhan, China. This illness was analyzed to be brought about by another kind of Covid and influenced nearly the entire world. Chinese scientists named this novel infection as 2019-nCov or Wuhan-Covid. Notwithstanding, to try not to misjudge the World Health Organization commotions it as COVID-19 infection while interfacing with the media COVID-19 is new internationally just as in India. This has upset peoples and group minds. There are different gossips and tidbits about the Covid in Indian culture which causes alarm in neighborhoods and people group minds. It is the need of society to know legends and realities about Covid to lessen the frenzy and make the correct preparatory moves for our security against the Covid. Subsequently, this article attempts to bring to the open fantasies and present current realities to the ordinary citizens. We have to confirm fantasies spreading through online media and keep our selves prepared with realities and be confident of what we know and do at this COVID 19 era at individual levels. Fitting these activities in individual minds across nations is bound to benefit the whole world.