Open Access Case Report

Primary Malignant Fibrous Histiocytoma of Proximal Humerus with Pathological Fracture- Case Report

Malkesh D. Shah, Ajinkya Arun Naik, Sai Sabharish Reddy, Sarvang M. Desai

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 148-153
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i32A31728

Malignant fibrous histiocytoma (MFH) is a tumor of late adulthood that occurs in men more commonly than women. Proximal humerus involvement in PMFH is comparatively rare. A 45 year old female presented with complain of pain and mild swelling over the left shoulder with restricted range of movement since 15 days. Radiography of the affected part was suggestive of an osteolytic eccentric lesion with a pathological fracture. A trucut needle biopsy showed minimal tumour tissue with abundant necrosis and showed giant cells with pleomorphic mononuclear cells. So intralesional curettage followed by osteosynthesis with PHILLOS plating and bone cementing was done. Intra operative specimen sent for histopathological examination showed presence of fibroblast cells arranged in storiform pattern s/o MFH along with occasional multinucleated giant cells. Postoperatively patient was started with adjuvant chemotherapy. Patient had good results functionally and clinically with no signs of recurrence till follow up of 1.5 years.

Open Access Case Study

Qualitative and Quantitative Assessment of Vata Dosha in a Case of Gridhrasi (Sciatica) by Nadi Tarangini Device – A Case Study

Pradeep G. Desai, Mukund P. Dhule

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 188-197
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i32A31741

Aims: To evaluate the qualitative and quantitative assessment of vata doshain a case of gridhrasi by nadi tarangini device.

Introduction: Ayurveda has an unique method of patient examination by ashtavidha pareeksha. i.e. nadi, mutra, mala, jivha, shabda, sparsha, drik and akruti. Amongst which examination of nadi becomes prominent examination which helps in better diagnosis of a disease/vyadhi.

Gridhrasi is shoola pradhana vataja nanatmaja vatavyadhi, affecting the back involving lower limb which hampers patient’s daily routine activity. Line of Management of gridhrasi includes siravyadha, bastikarma and agnikarma. Siravyadha and agnikarma are considered as instant pain relieving methods. Raktamokshana by siravyadha is considered to be ardha chikitsa according to Sushruta. Siravyadha is specially indicated in case of gridhrasi. It is a simple OPD level procedure affordable/economical to all categories of patients and time saving.

As siravyadha gives instant relief and gridhrasi is vataja nanatmaja vyadhi, it is easy for the assessment and understanding of reduction in symptoms by nadi tarangini device. Hence, in this case study an attempt is made to assess the quantitative and qualitative analysis of vata dosha before and after the procedure of siravyadha.

Case Study: A patient, 45 years old; he showed the main clinical signs and symptoms of gridhrasi came to our OPD, had a history of 2 years, and had worsened in the past two days. He underwent a careful examination and we recorded a detailed medical history. With all purva, pradhana and paschat karma, siravyadha procedure was done and nadi tarangini readings were taken before, after and on 10th day of siravyadha procedure.

Place and Duration of the Study: Study was conducted in ‘Sri Jain AGM Ayurved Medical College & Hospital, Varur-Hubballi (Karnatak). Study duration was 10 days.

Results: Patient got marked relief in subjective criteria i.e. stambha, toda, ruk, toda, spandana, gaurava and also in objective parameters i.e. straight leg raise test, lassegue’s test and Oswestry low back pain score. It was seen that, there was visible difference in the analysis of nadi tarangini report.

Conclusion: It can be concluded that, siravyadha gives better relief in gridhrasi. And it was found that nadi tarangini can be used to assess the dosha dushti and many other parameters.

Open Access Minireview Article

Expression of S100, HMB45 and Melan A in Oral Mucosal Melanoma

Nikhil I. Malgaonkar, Noura Turki Alotaibi, Noura Mohammed Alharbi, Reema Faleh Alsawat

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 88-92
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i32A31719

Background: Malignant melanomas of the oral cavity are rare tumours. The diagnosis of mucosal melanoma can be difficult especially when it presents itself in its amelanotic form.

Methodology: An electronic search was carried out on Pubmed and Medline database to find studies addressing this question published between Jan 2001 and April 2020. Multiple studies are done to determine the staining and positivity of the above mentioned three markers were found. A total of 4 studies were finally selected for this review which tried to determine the efficiency of these three markers in the diagnosis of oral mucosal melanomas.

Results: The patient’s data that stained positive S100, HMB45 and Melan A from 4 studies were selected.           

Conclusion: S100 continues to remain the most sensitive marker for melanoma with its promising ability in diagnosing the desmoplastic variant. The lack of specificity is still a drawback of S100.

Open Access Original Research Article

Pharmacological and Phytochemical Evaluation of Ethonalic Extract of Ixora brachiata (Roxb) Leaves

Vairakkannu Sivasakthi, Kuppusamy Selvam, Settu Loganathan, Palanisamy Prakash

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i32A31711

Objective: Current scientific investigations have evidenced that there is increased attention in developing novel drugs from bio source for the human health concern. This study's main objective was to intervene phytochemical constituents present in the ethanol leaf extract of an aromatic plant, Ixora brachiata (Roxb) and to evaluate their ability on antioxidant, anticancer and larvicidal properties, using invitro models.

Methods: Antioxidant assay was performed by scavenging behaviour of DPPH, ABTS, H2 O2 and Reducing power screenings. The phytochemical composition was also screened using GC-MS technique. Cytotoxicity effect was determined by employing MTT Assay, the larvicidal potential was predicted by following the protocol described by WHO. In phytochemical screening higher concentration of alkaloids, flavonoids, phenolic and diterpenoids were detected in significant content. Geranyl linalool was the profound compound present, and it has been reported, used in various treatments for cancer ailments, similar to Taxol.

Results: The cytotoxicity values of ethanol extract were found to be 11.57 to 55.95% against the cancer cells (A549) and 12.36-63.8% range was observed against HeLa cancers cell line. Larvicidal effects of the extract showed minimum LC50 value 14.69mg/ml against Aedes aegypti  and 10.43mg/ml was recorded, against Culex quinquefasciatus, indicating, a promising capability of larvicidal action against mosquito larvae.

Conclusions: This study envisaged that ethanol extracts of I.brachiata are a bright and capable therapeutic agent, to combat in the battle of life threatened diseases, and infectious emerging threats.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Enhanced Beneficial Effect of Extra Virgin Olive Oil Over Evening Primrose Oil on Oxidative Stress, and Liver Function in Male Arthritic Rats

Mohamed A. Kandeil, Sana’a O. Ebrahim, Basant M. Mahmoud

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 14-26
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i32A31712

Aims: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is characterized by the onset of oxidative stress. This study aimed to evaluate the enhancing of extra virgin olive (EVOO) and Evening primrose oil (EPO) on oxidative stress and liver enzymes in male Wistar rats and compare between them.

Place and Duration: Faculty of Science biochemistry department, Between July 2018 and August 2018.

Methodology: A Subcutaneous injection of 200 µl of Freund's complete adjuvant into a footpad of the right hind leg of Wistar male rats at two consecutive days induced RA. Rats received EVOO and EPO daily by oral gavage needle with gauge 18 at doses of 5 mg/kg b.wt./day. for 10 and 21 days. No loss was recorded in the experimental rats.

Results: A significant depletion in serum Reduced glutathione content (GSH), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), and glutathione s transferase activities (GST) in arthritic rats compared to normal rats after 10 and 21 days of induction which improved significantly after 10 and 21 days of EPO and EVOO treatments. EPO and EVOO treatments for 21 days increased the GSH and GPX compared to 10 days treatments while no difference in GST activity. EVOO treatment improved GSH and GPX after 10 and 21 days than EPO treatment. The elevated uric acid levels in arthritic rats were markedly ameliorated as a result of EVOO and EPO treatment administration. Increased lipid peroxidation products (MDA), rheumatoid factor, and liver enzyme (Alanine transaminase ALT and Aspartate transaminase AST) were recorded in arthritic rats and they significantly progressed after EPO and EVOO treatments for 10 and 21 days but EVOO had the best effect at 21 days.

Conclusion: EVOO and EPO showed significant antioxidant efficacies and improved affected liver enzymes due to rheumatoid arthritis onset. When comparing olive oil has more antioxidant properties than evening primrose oil, so we recommend more studies on olive oil combination with anti-arthritic medications to improve their efficacies with less toxicity.

Open Access Original Research Article

Nurses Perception towards the Care of Patients with Terminal Illness in University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Enugu State, Nigeria

Pat Uzo Okpala, Emmanuel Ifeanyi Obeagu, Lizzy Agunwah, Clementina Eze, Edith Ifeyinwa Ogwa, Chekwube Catherine Agu

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 38-47
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i32A31714

Background: Part of becoming a good nurse is being able to understand one’s own perception of death and dying, which can affect the quality of care a patient with terminal illness will receive. This study was carried out to assess the nurses perception towards the care of patients with terminal illness in University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Enugu State, Nigeria Part of becoming a good nurse is being able to understand one’s own perception of death and dying, which can affect the quality of care a dying patient will receive.

Methods: A descriptive survey method was used, and the population of 284 nurses was used, the instrument used for data collection was questionnaire and checklist developed based on the objectives of the study. The data collected were analyzed and presented using descriptive statistics of frequency and percentages.

Results: The result of the study revealed that Nurses at UNTH have a positive perception of deaths with the most prevalent nurses perception being death is the cessation of all life processes (100%), In caring for the dying patients; 97.6% agreed that it is a good thing to care for the dying, 98% agreed that the rights of the patients should be protected even till death, 97.3% nurses should aim at achieving a peaceful death in all patients at the end of life and 97.6% agreed that it is good to involve the family members in the care of the dying patient. The study revealed religion (65.8%), belief (84.6%), previous experience with a dying patient (79.1%) and loss of a loved one (79.4%) as personal factors which influenced the perception of nurses towards the care of the dying. Furthermore, 78.7% and 72.8% of the respondents identified Euthanasia and Advance directive as legal and ethical factors influencing the care of the dying (x-0.728 with a p-value of 0.502).Also, in examining the relationship between nurses perception of death and their years of experience the result showed that the years of experience did not significantly influence nurses care of the dying (x=4.653, with a p-value of 0.166).

Conclusion: It is however recommended that basic knowledge and continuing educational program on palliative care should be made available for student nurses and practicing nurses respectively.

Open Access Original Research Article

Study of Antiemetic Potential of Ruta graveolens Extracts by Copper Sulphate and Brassica campestris Induced Emesis in Chicks

Sara Nazir, Javeria Arshad Malik, Mahrukh Malik, Muhammad Usman Gondal, Muhammad Shoaib Muhammad Shoaib Akhtar, Alia Erum

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 48-56
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i32A31715

The antiemetic effect of aqueous and methanolic extracts of R. graveolens in young chicks was investigated. In addition, the phytochemical screening of the test plant and its acute toxicity studies were also conducted. Different doses of the extracts were tested for their antiemetic properties and were compared with the positive control antiemetic drug Chlorpromazine (150 mg/kg), Metoclopramide (50 mg/kg) and an untreated control (normal saline) against copper sulphate and Brassica-induced emesis. The phytochemical screening of R. graveolens showed that it contains certain alkaloids and flavonoids. It was found to be safe up to the dose of 2000 mg/kg body weight. The aqueous extracts in 50 and 150 mg/kg doses produced 41.49% and 66.49% inhibition of emesis, respectively by copper sulphate-induced emesis, while 34.66% and 57.95% inhibition of emesis, respectively by B. campestris-induced emesis. The methanolic extracts of Ruta graveolens in 50 and 150 mg/kg doses produced 46.80% and 70.20% inhibition of emesis, respectively by copper sulphate-induced emesis while 31.95% and 61.94%, respectively in Brassica campestris-induced chick emesis model. These results have suggested R. graveolens possess significant antiemetic properties that implicate its use as traditional medicine to treat emesis. However, further studies are needed to isolate the active principle(s) i.e. flavonoids contained in the plant drug tested and its real safety and efficacy as antiemetic agent.

Open Access Original Research Article

Computational Screening of Natural Compounds for the Discovery of Potential Aromatase Inhibitors: A Promising Therapy for Estrogen-Dependent Breast Cancer

Misbahuddin M. Rafeeq, Ziaullah M. Sain, Norah A. Alturki, Ahmad Alzamami, Saeed A. Asiri, Mutaib M. Mashraqi, Amany I. Alqosaibi, Mashael M. Alnamshan, Abdulrahman Almutairi, Abdulkhaliq Munawir Alanazi, Qamre Alam

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 72-78
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i32A31717

Aromatase plays a significant role in the progression of estrogen receptor-positive (ER-positive) breast cancer. The adverse side effects of currently used aromatase inhibitors (AIs) necessitate the development of new AIs that are more active, selective, and less toxic. This study used a computational approach to screen 503 natural compounds ZINC database against the aromatase active site. The best scoring hits ZINC69482055, ZINC69482510, and ZINC406719 exhibited strong binding with aromatase, with binding energy values of -8.45, -10.35, and -8.75 kcal/mol, respectively, which is comparatively higher than that of the control compound Anastrozole (-6.43 kcal/mol). Docking analysis showed that the selected hits interacted with the crucial residues of the aromatase active site. This study suggested that these compounds could be used as possible AIs in the cure of breast cancer. Hands-on bench work validation is needed to optimize these compounds as AIs.

Open Access Original Research Article

Inhibitory Perspective of New Synthesized Compounds against Angiotensin Receptor: Schrodinger-based Induced-Fit Molecular Docking

Sethy Silky, Dhiman Neerupma, Garg Arun

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 79-87
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i32A31718

Angiotensin is a hormone that plays a key role in the development of hypertension. Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme (ACE) inhibitors and Angiotensin Receptor Blockers (ARBs) are now the most often prescribed drugs to treat hypertension. The present in silico study involves exploring the antihypertensive potentials of substituted benzimidazoles and indazole compounds ARC 36, ARC 38, ARC 45, ARC 76, and ARC 77 against the most prominent molecular target Angiotensin Receptor (PDB ID: 4YAY, XFEL structure of Human Angiotensin Receptor)using the software Schrodinger Maestro .Based on glide score, ARC 45, ARC 76 and ARC77 were having the docking score of -7.461 Kcal/mol, -7.947 Kcal/mol and -6.683 Kcal/mol which is comparable to the standard drug (Telmisartan) -5.036.The compounds were further screened for Lipinski’s rule for drug-likeliness, and ADME properties. In this study we reported compounds ARC 76 and ARC38had comparable in silico parameters to the standard dug Telmisartan and hence necessitating further in vitro and in vivo studies.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Causality, Preventability and Severity of Cutaneous Adverse Drug Reactions: A Prospective Observational Study

Rajesh Hadia, Sunil Baile, Dhaval Joshi, Trupal Rathod

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 93-97
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i32A31720

Background: All drug regulatory authorities have to ensure the safety, efficacy and quality of all the marketed products. Quality and efficacy can be determined by the data from preclinical and clinical trials. In clinical trials at the pre-marketing stage, it is challenging to identify rare Adverse reactions (ADR) and delayed side effects or effects due to long-term exposure because of lack of follow-up. In this case, pharmacovigilance comes into picture where it plays a significant role in marketed drugs safety profile establishment.

Aim: This study helps in safety profile establishment for drugs.

Methodology: It was conducted by the Department of pharmacy practice at drug information Centre in collaboration with Department of pharmacology at private multi-specialty Hospital. ADR reporting forms of the Central Drug Standard Control Organization has been used for collecting the data, and this form includes patient demographic details like clinical history, co-morbid conditions like Diabetes mellitus, Hypertension, Asthma, history of any drug allergies etc. were collected. The chance of preventability modified Schumock and Thornton criteria was found to be very less, and it was evident that most of them were not. By using Hartwig et al., scale, the severity of ADRs were of moderate severity. The reason behind this moderate severity was a history of allergy and multiple drug therapy.

Result: It was observed that preventability 86% were not preventable whereas 14% were preventable as per Schumock and Thornton scale. In these cases of definitely preventable cases were due to history of reaction upon administration of the same drug. It is advised that in such cases usage of drug alert card is preferred.

Conclusion: The major risk factor for the development of ACDR includes self-medication, patients’ lack of awareness regarding the dose and frequency of administration, polypharmacy. This can be avoided by prescribing the required drugs only and by educating     the patients regarding the drugs.

Open Access Original Research Article

The effect of Astaxanthin on Experimentally Induced Diabetic Kidney Disease

Yusra Saleh Andijani, Huda Mohammed Alkreathy, Ahmed Esmat

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 98-112
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i32A31721

Aim: To identify the potential renal protective effect produced by astaxanthin on streptozotocin-produced diabetic kidney disease in rats.

Study Design: Male Wistar rats (n=60) were separated into six groups, control, diabetic (streptozotocin 45 mg/kg single intraperitoneal injection), diabetic + ramipril (1 mg/kg oral gavage), diabetic + astaxanthin (10mg/kg oral gavage), diabetic + astaxanthin (50 mg/kg oral gavage), and astaxanthin-alone (50 mg/kg oral gavage) group.

Place and Duration of Treatment: Department of Pharmacology, College of Pharmacy, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Duration of treatment was eight weeks.

Methodology: Fasting blood glucose, and symptoms of diabetes were evaluated weekly. Kidneys were evaluated by measuring serum creatinine level, kidney index, and hematoxylin and eosin staining.

Results: Eight-week astaxanthin treatment (50 mg/kg) in streptozotocin-produced diabetic kidney disease in rats significantly alleviated the diabetic symptoms (p = 0.05), and the decrease in body weight (P = .05) compared to nontreated diabetic rats. Nonetheless, the same dose produced a nonsignificant decline in fasting blood glucose level contrasted to diabetic rats (P = .45). Kidney index and serum creatinine of diabetic rats were significantly attenuated by both 10 and 50 mg/kg astaxanthin doses (P = .05). Additionally, renal architecture was preserved by high-dose astaxanthin treatment compared to nontreated diabetic rats.

Conclusion: Astaxanthin could protect against kidney damage associated with diabetes. Nevertheless, the impact of astaxanthin on biological markers of kidney damage in diabetes and the molecular pathways implicated in diabetic kidney disease requires additional investigation.

Open Access Original Research Article

Relationship between Body Mass Index and Flexibility in Young Adults

Ashwini Akash Gite, Neha Mukkamala, Lata Parmar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 119-126
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i32A31723

BACKGROUND: Flexibility is important for general health and fitness, athletic performance, injury prevention and rehabilitation. Sedentary behavior of students leads to decreased physical fitness levels which affects flexibility. There is little evidence regarding relationship between BMI and flexibility.

Aim: To study the relationship between BMI and flexibility and BMI and physical activity in young adults.

Study Design: Observational study

Place and Duration Of Study: The study was carried out at College of Physiotherapy, Sumandeep Vidyapeeth, Vadodara from September 2019 to March 2020.

Methods: Males and females between 18 to 30 years were included in the study. BMI, Sit and Reach Test for low back and hamstring flexibility, Active Knee Extension Test (AKET) for hamstrings and Global Physical Activity Questionnaire (GPAQ) for physical activity levels were assessed.

Results: 570 participants with mean age of 20.23±2.07 years were included. Mean BMI was 21.83±4.81 kg/m2. Number of females were 462 and males were 108. There was no significant correlation between BMI and flexibility of low back (P=.247) and hamstring (Rt) (P=.668) (Lt) (P=.354). BMI and GPAQ showed a statistically significant association (P=0.02). There was a weak positive correlation which was statistically significant between GPAQ and SART (P =0.000) and a weak negative correlation which was statistically significant between GPAQ and Rt AKET (P=0.004).

Conclusion:  There was no significant correlation found between BMI and flexibility. There was a statistically significant association between BMI and physical activity, a weak negative correlation between GPAQ and hamstring flexibility and weak positive correlation between GPAQ and SART.

Open Access Original Research Article

Outcome of Surgical Excision for Managing the Oral Pyogenic Granuloma

Ameer Gul, Muhammad Shahzad, Ali Raza Abbasi, Tariq Hussain Shaikh, Taimoor Ali Khan, Bashir Jalbani

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 127-133
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i32A31724

Objective: To determine the outcome of surgical removal of oral pyogenic granuloma in terms of post-operative pain (POP), post-operative healing and post-operative infection.

Materials and methods: This observational study was conducted at Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery department, Liaquat University of Medical and Health Sciences Jamshoro/Hyderabad, from October 2018 to March 2019. Patients of oral pyogenic granuloma, 18-45 years old and either of gender were included. Surgical process of oral pyogenic granuloma were done under local anesthetic by giving infiltration surrounding deep oral pyogenic granuloma by 2% Xylocaine along with adrenaline. Patients were followed for three weeks on weekly basis to access post-operative complications including post-operative healing. Data was collected via study proforma.

Results: Total 37 patients took part in the study; their mean age was 47.86+7.61 years. On 1st week assessment all patients were noted with history of mild pain, moderate pain and severe pain (19, 10 and 8 cases respectively), while healing was achieved in 19 patients. On second week assessment 25 patients exhibited mild pain and 6 exhibited moderate pain and healing was achieved by 16 patients. On 3rd week assessment, only 09 patients exhibited mild pain and mostly were healed few cases showed minor infection.

Conclusion: It was concluded that surgical removal is valuable procedure for the management of pyogenic granuloma of oral cavity with lower rates of post-operative infection and pain, and highest rates of post-operative healing.

Open Access Original Research Article

The effect of Topical Application of Honey Based Gel Containing Zingibar Officinale for Non Surgical Periodontal Maintenance

Sneha Puri, Rashmi Bele, Akhilesh Shewale, Rajvir Malik

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 134-139
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i32A31725

Introduction: Ginger and honey have shown to be effective against pathogens routinely encountered in periodontal infection. However, none of literature has shown antibacterial effect of ginger and honey on the levels of dental plaque when used as a gel. 

Aim: To compare the effect of honey with ginger extract on the dental plaque levels and gingival health. 

Methodology: Fifteen systemically healthy patients were randomly allocated to either the test group [G1(ginger and honey gel = 15 sites)] or the control group [G2 (Chlorhexidine gel = 15 sites]. Full mouth Gingival Index (GI) Full mouth Plaque Index (PI) were evaluated at baseline and on 7th day.

Results: The mean PI at baseline was 0.23 ± 0.02 (G1) and 0.29 ± 0.01 (G2) which was increased to 0.36 ± 0.01 (G1) and 0.37 ± 0.01 (G2) on 7th day. However, mean GI at baseline was 0.30 ± 0.04 (G1) and 0.34 ± 0.02 (G2) which was increased to 0.38 ± 0.03 (G1) and 0.43 ± 0.03 (G2) on 7th day. 

Conclusion: The results of this study suggest that the chlorhexidine gel and Natural gel containing Honey and Zingibar officinale both are effective in controlling plaque during the periodontal maintenance period.

Open Access Original Research Article

Pharmaco Economics Analysis of COVID-19 Vaccines in Ukraine

Tsekhmister Yaroslav Volodymyrovych, Stepanenko Viktor Ivanovich, Konovalova Tetiana, Tsekhmister Bogdan Yaroslavovych

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 140-147
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i32A31727

Aims: To evaluate pharmacoeconomics for the vaccination of COVID-19 vaccine and analyze the cost-effectiveness for the vaccine in Ukraine.

Study design:  we have analyzed using models for the economics of coronavirus vaccine.

Place and duration of study: Sample: population of Ukraine, data used from the official website of Ministry of Health, Ukraine. April - May 2021

Methodology: We have used the transmission model to analyze the vaccine strategy. Data were collected from official sources. We structured an age group model for evaluating high transmitters. Four strategies were organized and analyzed for analyzing the cost-effective strategy vaccination for everyone, no vaccination, and vaccination for old age only, high transmitters’ vaccination.

Results: we have analyzed country specific cost-effective strategy for Ukraine depends upon the pandemic and economics of the country. Vaccinating older people was found to be the economically effective for Ukraine. In these study influences of discount rate analysis on QALY in Ukraine was done. When we vaccinate, high transmitters’ ratio was found to be 8.8% higher than for the elderly. This analysis suggests that vaccinating first the elderly group would not be so cost-effective. While doubling the cost for the vaccine, if the vaccine is available early with the scenario of pre-existing immunity has shifted cost-effectiveness for high transmitters than for the elderly in Ukraine

Conclusion: we conclude from our pharmacoeconomic research study that cost effective analysis depends on pandemic and vaccinating elderly would be effective economically.

Open Access Original Research Article

Sports Participation, Demographic Factors and Knee Symptom Severity in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

Moaath A. Alamir, Abdulaziz F. Altammami, Faris H. Binyousef, Ahmed A. Alharbi, Feras A. Alrakaf

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 154-167
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i32A31729

Aims: to explore the prevalence of knee symptoms in the general population of Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, and evaluate the impact of sports participation and other demographic variables on the progression of knee symptoms in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

Study design:  Cross-sectional study

Place and duration of study: A self-administered online survey was conducted in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia between September 2020 to March 2021.

Methodology: A total of 589 participants age 18 or older who reported concerns of knee symptoms and provided written informed consent were enrolled in the study. We excluded respondents who had undergone knee surgery (n = 16) and those diagnosed with rheumatoid arthritis or other types of arthritis (n = 25). We collected demographic information (eg, age, gender, types of engaged sports, sports participation hours, and frequency of participation per week) and knee symptoms and severity using the Lequesne index tool.

Results: Advanced age was significantly associated with a higher severity score (P < .001). We found a statistically significant association between body mass index and knee symptom severity. We noted no severe knee symptoms in participants engaging in weightlifting. Most participants (64.7%) reported that walking was their most frequent exercise, and knee symptoms were common. Of respondents who walk as their primary sport, 10.6% of them are considered disabled with a severe form of knee pain according to the Lequesne index (which uses the term “handicapped” rather than disabled).

Conclusion: Older and overweight respondents had a high prevalence of knee symptoms. Interestingly, the prevalence rates of individuals without knee symptoms did not differ regarding sport participation. Sports participation frequency did not change the prevalence or severity of knee symptoms, while longer exercise duration was associated with lower knee symptom severity rates.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Low-Energy Shockwave Therapy Versus Platelets Rich Plasma Therapy in Patients with Erectile Dysfunction

Kumail Sajjad, Muhammad Sohail, Hafiz Abdul Momin, Raja Asim Shafique, Muhammad Nazir, Shabbir Ahmad, Afzal Bashir, Muhammad Asim Rana, Qurban Ali, Muhammad Mansoor Hafeez

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 168-172
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i32A31730

Phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitors (PDE5Is) and low-energy shock wave therapy (LESWT) have created a revolution in the treatment of erectile dysfunction (ED).  However, they are not able to restore the actual changes in the penis. An emerging new therapy called platelet-rich plasma (PRP) is believed to be more beneficial in treating ED.  The objective of this study is to evaluate and compare the efficacy of LESWT and PRP in treating ED. A total of sixty participants of pathological ED was included in the study and divided into two groups. Group A received the LESWT, whereas Group B received the PRP. The benefits were measured by the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF), an erection hardness score (EHS) and Self-Esteem And Relationship (SEAR) questionnaires. The results of this analysis demonstrated a larger effect in treatment group B in percentage terms, but there were no statistical differences in the two groups. In the near future, PCP may be a new modality for treating ED, especially PDE5I non-respondents with organic ED. However, more extensive preclinical and applied research needs to be conducted.

Open Access Original Research Article

Chitosan and Hydroxy Propyl Methyl Cellulose as a Carrier for Aceclofenac for Prolonged Release

R. G. Katedeshmukh, A. V. Yadav, J. S. Dhumal, A. B. Kumbhar, P. V. Rane, R. N. Chintamani

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 173-182
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i32A31731

Numerous natural polymers either alone or in combination with other polymers were found effective in controlling the drug release. In this study the attempts were made to combine chitosan (degree of deacetylation 84.14 %) and as hydroxylpropyl methylcellulose (HPMC K 15M) to retard the release of aceclofenac in tablet formulation. The tablets were prepared by wet granulation and evaluated for pre and post- compression parameters. All the pre-compression parameters were found within the limit.  Hardness and friability values were found in the range of 4.30-4.89 kg/cm2 and 0.1-0.6% respectively. These results proved the good mechanical strength of the formulations.  The drug content was found in the range of 97.56 – 99.10 %.  Weight variation was found within the official limit. The percent drug release and swelling index was found to be dependent on the concentration of polymer. With increasing the concentration of both the polymers the swelling index was increased and drug release decrease. Highest concentration of both the polymers was found to retard the drug release up to 8 h.  The effect of Chitosan and HPMC on drug release was evaluated by design expert software to achieve the optimized formulation. The response of the drug release after 4h was considered to check the drug release. It was found that the enhanced concentration of both the polymers had negative effective on the drug release. The formulation containing highest concentration of the chitosan and HPMC was found be fit in the limits of optimized formulations. The optimized formulation was found to be stable at accelerated stability storage conditions.

Open Access Original Research Article

Studies on Relative Growth Rate and Doubling Time of Publications Productivity of Nuclear Medicine Research

N. Rathika, S. Thanuskodi

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 198-211
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i32A31732

Scientometrics is a branch of the library and information science. Scientometric tools can be used to quantify and compare the scientific activities at various levels of collection including institutions, sectors, provinces, and countries. They can also be used to measure research collaborations, map scientific networks, and monitor the evolution of scientific fields. Scientometric indicators give policy-makers objective, reproducible, and therefore verifiable information that goes away from the unreliable. Scientometrics is anxious about the quantitative features and characteristics of science and scientific research. Scientometrics is a restraint, which uses statistical and computational techniques to realize the structure and changing aspects of science. The study shows that the Authorship Pattern in Nuclear Medicine literature fluctuates from single-authored publications to 78 authored publications during the study period 1991-2020. As per the analysis of the table, the highest number of research output by single-authored was 14.06% with 1776 contributions followed by double authored contributions was 13.07% (1651) and three authored contributions were 12.59% (1590).

Open Access Original Research Article

Impact of Electronic Prescription on Prescribing Errors

Ameen M. Almohammadi, Huda M. Al-Dhahri, Shroug H. Al-Harbi

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 212-220
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i32A31733

Aims: There are series of medical errors that can be prevented by taking precautions.             Therefore, the study evaluates the impact of the electronic prescribing system on prescription errors.

Study Design:  A pre-post study design was conducted.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted at outpatient pharmacy services of a teaching hospital in Jeddah city.

Methodology: Prescriptions were evaluated for the presence of the essential prescription elements such as patient information, drug name, dose, frequency, strength, and other prescription completeness parameters.

Results: In the pre-intervention study, 1182 handwritten prescriptions were evaluated, and 6627 errors were detected from these prescriptions. The length of the pre-and post-intervention period was two weeks each. The most prevalent prescribing errors were that of medications written without defined dosage forms were recorded 1653 (55.90%) time followed by prescriptions written by trade names 1493 (22.5%), without route of administration 1266 (19.1%), and without specified duration 1009 (15.2%). However, 1512 prescriptions were evaluated in the post-intervention study, among which 339 errors were detected. The errors included prescriptions written without diagnosis (5.09%), or without doctor’s name or stamp (1.52%), written by trade names (4.49%), without defined dosage forms (4.29%), and without specified duration (2.84%).

Conclusion: The study concluded that E-prescribing eliminated prescription errors that resulted from handwritten prescriptions.

Open Access Original Research Article

Preparation and Evaluation of Extemporaneously Compounded Aspirin Capsules from Crushed Aspirin Tablets

Iman M. Alfagih, Lama S. Aljaliel

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 221-228
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i32A31734

Aims: Extemporaneous preparations of medications might bring about technical and clinical consequences due to formulation failures. Therefore, all such prepared formulas should undergo valid and reliable procedures supported by solid data. Otherwise, patients can experience significant risk due to microbial contamination or physical or chemical changes during the preparation process. Thus, effective extemporaneous preparation relies on correct calculations to avoid extra and serious harm. Therefore, because 50-mg aspirin capsules are not available in Saudi Arabia, this study aimed to formulate 50-mg capsules from available 100-mg aspirin tablets.

Methodology: Quality control tests of the preparations were carried out at the time of preparation and after one month of storage at 25 °C and at 40 °C and 75% relative humidity. All tests were carried out according to the British and United States pharmacopeia monograph of aspirin.

Results: The drug content assay and uniformity test indicated that the aspirin capsules were within the pharmacopeial limits. The disintegration time for all aspirin capsules was within the pharmacopeial limits of 30 minutes. The aspirin release profile showed that approximately 90% of the aspirin dissolved after 10 minutes.

Conclusion: The results indicated that the extemporaneous preparation of ASA capsules complied with the quality control tests for freshly prepared capsules and after one month of storage at room temperature and at 40 °C and 75% relative humidity. The dissolution profile of these capsules indicates immediate and high release of ASA, which is essential to ensure the required absorption. This study is of great importance for patients who need to take this dose of ASA. Pharmacists can prepare good-quality capsules with the desired ASA content using a 100-mg ASA tablet as a source of the active ingredient.

Open Access Original Research Article

Prevalence of Malignancy in MNG: Final Histopathology Perspective

Abdul Waheed, Ghulam Shabir Mehar, Muhammad Razzaq Dogar, Junaid Hussain, Amrat Kumar, Ahmed Hussain Pathan

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 183-187
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i32A31740

Objective: To determine the malignancy in multinodular goiter by doing final histopathology of specimen.           

Study Design: This is an observational study.

Setting: Study carried out in the department of ENT, Head & Neck Surgery of Khairpur Medical College Hospital Khairpur, from August 2016 to July 2019.

Materials and Methods:  All those patients with MNG with or without thyrotoxicosis were selected and advised for Thyroid function tests, ultrasound thyroid and serum calcium level. FNAC was performed only in cases with suspicious nodule. All the patients under went total/near total thyroidectomy after all base line routine investigations along with thyroid function tests. Histopathological evaluation was also conducted.

Results:  Out of total 70 patients with MNG, 17 (24.3%) cases were suspected of malignancy. Out of 17 suspicious cases, FNAc showed colloid goiter in 8 (47%), follicular in 7 (41%) cases and papillary in 2 (12%) cases. Final histopathology showed total 5 (29%) cases as malignant and remaining 12 (71%) cases were benign. Out of 5 malignant cases, 4 (80%) cases were papillary and 1 (20%) cases were Follicular cell carcinoma. While other 53 (75.7%) cases under went for near total thyroidectomy and specimens sent for histopathology, among these only 1 (2%) case found as Papillary cell Carcinoma. Total 6 cases were malignant out of which in which 5 cases were Papillary cell Carcinoma and one was Follicular cell Carcinoma. 

Conclusion: We conclude that multinodular goiter is the most prevalent thyroid disease found in female. Follicular thyroid carcinoma is the most frequent cancer seen in this study.

Open Access Original Research Article

A Cross-Sectional Study to Assess the Risk Factors for Hypoesthesia after Repair of Facial Fractures

Zainbganayah Hasan Sulimani, Manal Abdulaziz Murad, Hoda Jehad Abousada, Raidaa Ali Gharawi, Shahd Abdulaziz Alghamdi, Yusra Faiz Malaikah, Shahd Mansour Yanbawi, Abdullah Saeed Alghamdi, Nawal Muhaysin Alrushnudi, Mohammed Ahmed Al Qadhi, Mahmoud Abbas Eskandrani, Abdulla Khalid Sagga, Abdullah Saad Alhammad

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 229-237
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i32A31751

Background: Hypoesthesia occurs as a result of injuries resulting in injury to the nerve fibres. The causes of injury include direct harm from the needle injections, around the nerve fibres, mechanical injuries resulting in an indirect pressure into the mandibular canal, during the dental surgical procures, as well as the toxicity of the local anaesthetic agents.

Methods: This cross-sectional research was conducted by recruiting N=79 adult individuals (>18 years), who had visited the district hospital for acquiring clinical assistance and treatment of facial muscles or nerve-related complications in August 2020. Data collection for this research was carried out by using a specially designed questionnaire, which facilitated in acquiring data related to aetiology of trauma, identification of the hypoesthesia area, as well as the clinical complications experienced by the respondents. The clinical reports of the patients were also collected for analysing the hypoesthesia area. SPSS was utilised for data analysis, and statistical tests were conducted for assessing the risk factors for hypoesthesia after repair of facial fractures.

Results: The statistical tests revealed that only a small percentage of the sample population, i.e., (N=9) or 11.8% experienced the facial bone fracture, male respondents had more exposure to the facial bone fractures, as compared to the females (Mean=1.81, SD= 0.397), and the individuals below 25 years of age had high exposure of facial bone fracture (Mean=1.78, SD= 0.428). A significant majority of hypoesthesia cases were at mandible, and orbit region.

Conclusion: The dental treatment resulting in nerve manipulation results in nerve elongation, nerve compression, contributing to transient hypoesthesia. Hypoesthesia might also lead to other clinical complications.

Open Access Review Article

Scientometric Study on Dyslipidaemia

Rekha Phull, Vaishali Deshpande, Gaurav Phull

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 27-37
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i32A31713

Dyslipidaemia an ever increasing menace emerging out of present lifestyle, is one of the major risk factors for developing Cardio-vascular abnormalities like Coronary Artery Disease (CAD), Myocardial infarction (MI), Cardiac arrest and is often associated with other metabolic disorders. Clinicians across the globe are trying hard to combat it. We have presented a Scientometric analysis of dyslipidaemia which includes Ayurvedic perspective also.

Objective: In this study we intended to study detailed Scientometric and Bibliometric study on dyslipidaemia literature.

Materials and methods: The data was collected using databases of Science- direct and Scopus, using the keywords ‘Dyslipidaemia’, ‘Dyslipidaemia in Ayurveda’, ‘Dyslipidaemia in India’,‘Medoroga in Ayurveda’ and ‘Medoraga in India’.

Results: A total of 85,500 items were retrieved from ‘science direct’ website, where majority of them were research articles and maximum publications were from the last decade indicating the recent enhancement in prevalence and awareness. A volley of research papers have come up with multiple approaches which include modern pharmacological measures, Ayurveda remedies and other herbal medicines along with non-pharmacological approaches like Yoga and Pranayama. Newer therapeutic agents like Ezetimibe, proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) monoclonal antibodies, PCSK9 small interference RNA (siRNA), and bempedoic acid, when added to the commonly used statin therapy have shown additional improvement to CV outcomes. Recent advances have come up with hepatocyte-specific targeting modifications and have shown promising lipid lowering effects.

Conclusion: Our study was probably the first such kind of work in field of dyslipidaemia which includes publications related to Ayurveda and other herbal remedies also. It shows the ever rising trends in the publications related to dyslipidaemia and its relation to other metabolic disorders in recent years. The major concern is the progression in cases of dyslipidaemia and its cardiovascular outcomes despite of having substantial research work and awareness in different streams of medicine. We must focus on the multifactorial approach encouraging behavioural, dietary and pharmacological control of cholesterol and sensitize the masses about its serious consequences. A cumulative approach including modern advances with much safer herbal remedies and practice of Yogasana and Pranayama is the need of hour and may probably bring the best solution.

Open Access Review Article

Oral Health: A Guide for Your Health as a Periodontist’s Point of View

Vinay H. Vadvadgi, Amit Mani, Neeta S. Padmawar, Lingraj Harihar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 57-71
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i32A31716

Dental caries and Periodontitis are the most commonly reported dental diseases. These can lead to loss of tooth structure and compromising the functions of teeth like mastication and thus affecting the overall health. Periodontitis is inflammation of periodontium resulting in loss of periodontal ligament attachment, bone destruction, tooth mobility and ultimately tooth loss. This is caused by the microorganisms present in the oral biofilm. One cubic millimeter of dental plaque contains about 100 million bacteria. At present almost more than 500-600 different varieties of bacteria have been identified in the oral cavity. Key perio-pathogens are the group of

perio-pathogens that are responsible for the commencement and progression of periodontal disease as well as failed periodontal therapy. A. actinomycetemcomitans, Tannerella forsythia and Porphyromonas gingivalis are the established key-pathogens in the various periodontal diseases. Through blood stream, these micro-organisms can be transported to various organs or system in the human body and causing and affecting overall health negatively. Endotoxins produced by these key perio-pathogens are associated with the non-oral diseases. It is a proven fact that periodontal health plays an important role in general health status in mankind. Periodontal pathogens can affect the systemic diseases and conditions adversely and can lead to unfavourable outcomes. Patients with cardiovascular diseases showed pathogens having same DNA as periodontal pathogens. In periodontitis patients, inflammatory mediators produced can trigger the hyperglycaemia. In pregnant women, premature birth and low birth weight is found linked with poor periodontal health. This paper highlights the role of periodontal health in various systemic diseases and conditions for better treatment planning and prevention of the adverse outcomes.

Open Access Review Article

Overview of Bacterial and Yeast Systems for Protein Expression

Maheswara Reddy Mallu, Siva Reddy Golamari, Sree Rama Chandra Karthik Kotikalapudi, Renuka Vemparala

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 113-118
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i32A31722

Over the past decade the variety of hosts and vector systems for recombinant protein expression has increased dramatically. Researchers now select from among mammalian, insect, yeast, and prokaryotic hosts, and the number of vectors available for use in these organisms continues to grow. With the increased availability of cDNAs and protein coding sequencing information, it is certain that these and other, yet to be developed systems will be important in the future. Despite the development of eukaryotic systems, E. coli remains the most widely used host for recombinant protein expression. Optimization of recombinant protein expression in prokaryotic and eukaryotic host systems has been carried out by varying simple parameters such as expression vectors, host strains, media composition, and growth temperature. Recombinant gene expression in eukaryotic systems is often the only viable route to the large-scale production of authentic, post translationally modified proteins. It is becoming increasingly easy to find a suitable system to overexpress virtually any gene product, provided that it is properly engineered into an appropriate expression vector.