Open Access Case Study

A Pioneering Physiotherapeutic Approach to the Treatment of a COVID Affected Patient – A Case Report

Vaishnavi Siroya, Lynn Fernandes, Om C. Wadhokar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 17-24
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i31B31683

The Coronavirus (SARS-CoV-19) originated from Wuhan, China and has affected globe since 2019. The virus spread to India in January, 2020. It is highly contagious. In its severe form, the victims of the virus suffered from symptoms such as breathing difficulties, fever, weakness, loss of taste and smell, amongst others. Patients were put on mechanical ventilators and as a result, the requirement of the role of cardio-respiratory physiotherapists became more and more essential. Even after weaning off from the ventilators and being detected Coronavirus negative, the role of the physiotherapists still remained indispensable in order to bring about improvement in the muscle strength of the affected weakened muscles, especially for patients whose movements were limited for extended periods of times due to being dependent on the ventilators; physiotherapists were also required to bring about improvement in the lung capacities and function, to teach gait training for those who find it difficult to walk, to improve in-coordination and overall allow the patients to come back to normal and carry out all the ADL independently and well. He had a severe difficulty in breathing and coughing, along with a generalized weakness all over his body, specifically both his lower limbs. He was admitted in the ICU immediately and was on mechanical ventilator. After all the physiotherapy sessions, the patient was able to carry out his activities of daily living independently; he regained his muscle strength and improved his coordination and ability to walk with a proper gait. He was also able to breathe independently with adequate respiratory muscle strength; and did not feel fatigued as quickly as he used to when he was detected positive for Coronavirus.

Open Access Study Protocol

Pharmaceutico-Analytical Study of Muktashukti Pishti and Muktashukti bhasma and Comparative Evaluation of their Relative Oral Bioavailability

Shweta Kamble, Anita Wanjari, Bharat Rathi, D. Rajput

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i31B31680

Background: Shukti (Oyster) is a very commonly occurring calcium form. It is rich source of calcium & minerals. As per text it can be converted into two forms which are bhasma (calcinated ash) and pishti (powdered form without agni).These forms may have different rate of absorption. This needs to be studied.

Aim: To study Pharmaceutico-analytical study of Muktashukti pishti & Muktashukti bhasma and comparative evaluation of their relative oral bioavailability.

Materials and methods: The two formulations will be prepared from shukti (oyster). By triturating with Gulabjala Muktashukti pishti will be prepared and by traditional puta method Muktashukti bhasma will be prepared. The prepared formulations will be assessed for Bhasma Pariksha mentioned in Ayurveda. Organoleptic characters, physicochemical parameters and Particle size distribution analysis, SEM-EDX (Scanning Electron Microscopy, Energy Dispersive X-Ray Analysis), FTIR (Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy), XRD (X-Ray Diffraction), GCMS (Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry) will be evaluated. To assess the relative oral bioavailability of Muktashukti pishti & Muktashukti bhasma study will be conducted in healthy volunteers and will be compared with the standard calcium supplement. The study will be conducted in between two test groups and standard group.

Observation and results: The analytical parameters will be assessed and compared in Muktashukti bhasma and Muktashukti pishti. For relative oral bioavailability Blood serum calcium will be assessed in all three groups. By applying unpaired “t” Test, One-way ANOVA the statistical significance can be measured.

Conclusion: The pharmaceutical & analytical study of Muktashukti pishti and Muktashukti bhasma will provide the standard parameters and clinical comparative evaluation with standard will generate evidence for better bioavailability.

Open Access Study Protocol

A Comparative Study on the Efficacy of Kantkari and Vasa Lozenges in Children with Kasa (Cough)-Study Protocol

Sabir Ali, Renu Rathi, Bharat Rathi

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 25-33
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i31B31685

Background: Kasa is the outcome due to release of obstructed Vayu resulting in the production of abnormal sound, which may be productive or dry. Kasa is one of the primary diseases of Pranavaha srotas, and can cause disturbances in other body functions. Prevalence of cough in India is 5% to 10% while acute cases of cough is 39% and chronic cases of cough is 29% reported in Maharashtra. This research drug is taken to check its efficacy on both the types of cough, dry as well as productive with acute or chronic origin. It has a good palatability and liked by children as it appears as candy. Many studies have been carried out on Kasa with different formulations so far like vati, churna, ghrita but they have no fast and long lasting action with different level of efficacy. Many lozenges are also available in the market but no studies have been done.

Objective: Comparative Study on the efficacy of Kantakari lozenges with Vasa lozenges in the clinical features of Kasa by subjective criteria such as Peenasa-(running nose), Kasa, Aruchi-(taste impliedness), kanthkandu(throat itching), kaphnishthivan (Sputum) and objective criteria as adventitious sound and AEC-absolute eosinophil count, TLC-total leucocytes count, and DLC-differential leucocyte count.

Materials and Methods: The present study is designed as a Double Blind, Randomized Controlled Study in which total 60 patients will be enrolled. Patients will be randomly divided (by computer generated sequence method) in two with 30 patients in each group. In group A, Vasa lozenges and in group B Kantkari lozenges will be given for 7 days. Assessment of the patients will be done on 3rd and 7th day during study after intervention and post treatment follow up will be taken on 14th& 21st day from the enrolled date.

Results: Efficacy of both the lozenges will be observed in subjective and objective outcomes. Conclusion: Kantkari lozenges (trial group) is expected to be more effective than Vasa lozenges (control group) in the management of Kasa as Vata, Kapha are more dominant in the pathology of Kasa in children and Kantakari is a good Vatakaphahar drug added with Pippali to act synergistically.

Open Access Study Protocol

Comparative Pharmaceutical Standardization and Oral Bioavailability Study on Praval Pishti and Praval Bhasma

Megha Satpute, Bharat Rathi, Anita Wanjari, Mujahid Khan

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 54-60
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i31B31690

Background: Praval (coral) is a very usually occurring calcium form. It is rich source of calcium & minerals. As per text it can be converted into two formulas which are bhasma (calcinated ash) and pishti(powdered form without agni).These forms may have different rate of immersion. This needs to be studied.

Aim: Pharmaceutical Standardization study of Praval Pishti & Praval Bhasma and comparative evaluation of their relative oral bioavailability.

Materials and methods: The two formulations will be prepared from Praval (coral). By triturating with Gulab jala Praval Pishti will be prepared and by traditional Puta method Praval Bhasma will be prepared. The prepared formulations will be assessed for Bhasma Pariksha mentioned in Ayurveda. Organoleptic characters, Physicochemical parameters and Particle size distribution analysis, SEM –EDX (Scanning Electron Microscopy, Energy Dispersive X-Ray Analysis), FTIR (Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy), XRD (X-Ray Diffraction), and GCMS (Gas Chromatography Mass Spectroscope) will be evaluated. To assess the relative oral bioavailability of Praval Pishti & Praval Bhasma study will be conducted in healthy volunteers and will be compared with the standard calcium supplement.

Observation and results: The study will be assessed for its relative oral bioavailability in healthy Volunteers by using unpaired “t” Test, One-way ANOVA.

Conclusion: The pharmaceutical study of Praval Bhasma and Praval Pishti will provide the standard parameters and comparative evaluation with standard will generate evidence for better bioavailability. 

Open Access Study Protocol

Atlanta Classification for Acute Pancreatitis- A Study Protocol

Varun Singh, Rajasbala Pradeep Dhande, Gaurav Mishra

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 61-68
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i31B31691

Background: Acute pancreatitis is one of the most common abdominal pathologies having variable outcome ranging from self limiting abdominal pain to high mortality and morbidity due to organ failure, over the past five decades, various classification systems have emerged to classify pancreatitis according to its severity , and the associated complications have emerged to classify acute pancreatitis and its various complications, such as Apache Scoring , Ct Severity , Modified Ct Severity ,Ransen  and Atlanta Classification.

Objectives: We in our study will be classifying patients suffering from acute pancreatitis according to the revised Atlanta classification to divide them into interstitial edematous pancreatitis and necrotizing pancreatitis. The local complications will be classified according to CT imaging findings into acute necrotic collection, psuedocyst, acute necrotic collection and walled of necrosis. Organ failure will be assessed according to modified marshal scoring system into transient or persistent organ failure.

Methodology: We will be carrying forward our study on   Siemens 16 slice computer tomography machine over a sample of 140 patients coming to the outpatient department of our hospital which will be followed by a routine clinical follow up of the patient to find out their prognosis.

Results: Will be tabulated at the end of the study using SPSS version 26 software.

Conclusion: The revised Atlanta classification for acute pancreatitis, in conjunction with the Modified Marshall Scoring System for organ failure, if found useful, in our series in improving the prognosis of the patients, then it can be incorporated in management.

Open Access Study Protocol

Pharmaceutical Development, Standardization and Clinical Evaluation of Efficacy of a Polyherbal Hair-Pack and Hair Gel in Dandruff Control

Poonam Madan, Bharat Rathi, Renu Rathi, Sonali Wairagade, Dhiraj Zade

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 69-78
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i31B31692

Introduction: Dandruff is a commonly found hair problem affecting all age groups with high recurrence and is considered a social stigma. In Ayurved it is compared with Darunak falling under the category of kshudrarogadhikar and is caused due to the vitiation of vaat and kapha. Traditionally the treatment comprises of application of oil, steaming, applying packs, washing of hair etc. According to modern science dandruff is a non-treatable disease condition which is prevented by use of anti-dandruff shampoos, creams and hair masks. The available products are expensive and results are not very satisfactory and recurrence is common. Currently treatment available for dandruff is found to be expensive with unsatisfactory results in terms of recurrence of symptoms.

Aim and objective: Pharmaceutical development, standardization and clinical evaluation of efficacy of a polyherbal Hair pack and Hair gel in dandruff  control

Materials and methods: Hair pack will be made with selected drugs like Amalki, Bibhitaki, Haritaki, Japa, Yashtimadhu, Musta, Brahmi and it will be converted into gel form. Analytical study for standardization of powder and gel dosage form will be done. Clinical evaluation of both dosage forms for efficacy will be done.

Observations and results: Observation will be done on the basis of photographic evaluation of the condition of pre and post severity of symptoms and duration of recurrence time of dandruff will be noted. Results will be drawn on the basis of observations and applying suitable tests. It will be noted and presented in form of table, charts, graphs etc.

Conclusion: Currently available treatment for dandruff does not provide complete remission of symptoms for long duration and it is very expensive too. Thus the newly designed herbal formulation is aimed to provide significant result in controlling dandruff and its associated symptoms and modified dosage i.e. gel will overcome the limitation of powder and provide a cost effective cosmetic product in controlling dandruff.

Open Access Original Research Article

Outcomes of Newly Diagnosed Patients of Peripartum Cardiomyopathy at Liaquat University Hospital, Hyderabad, Sindh, Pakistan

Atiya Razzaq, Shahid Hussain Memon, Zain Islam Arain, Suhayb Ahmad Khushk, Anwar Ali, Abdul Qadir Bhutto

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 10-16
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i31B31682

Objective: To determine the outcomes of newly diagnosed patients of peripartum cardiomyopathy at Liaquat University Hospital, Hyderabad.

Methodology: Total 91 patients of peripartum cardiomyopathy were included. A detailed medical history and base line equitable investigations were done. Patients were kept under observation for 7 days during their hospital stay and study outcomes were recorded. Descriptive statistics were calculated. Stratification was done and post stratification chi square test or fisher exact test was applied. Two sided P-value ≤0.05 was considered as significant.

Results: The overall mean age was 29.06±4.71 years. Total 73.6% patients were belonged to urban and 26.4% belonged to rural areas. 52.7% patients had normal delivery while 40% had C-section and 6.6% had instrumental assisted deliveries. As far as outcomes are concerned, 65.9% patients had congestive heart failure, 12.1% patients had arrhythmias, 35.2% patients admitted in ICU, 64.8% patients admitted in recovery and 7.7% patients were died.

Conclusion: In a prospective cohort with PPCM, most women recovered; however, rates of CHF were observed significantly in patients with diabetes mellitus and hypertension. In-hospital mortality was comparatively less frequent but it was significantly associated in women having age less than 30 years.

Open Access Original Research Article

Semibarbula orientalis (Web.) Wijk. and Marg: A Potential Source of Bioactive and High Value Phytochemicals

Vinod Deora, G. S. Deora

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 34-43
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i31B31688

Aims: Present study aims to evaluate the presence of bioactive compounds of Semibarbula orientalis (Pottiales: Pottiaceae), a bryophyte whole plant methanolic extract by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) which are important medicinally as well flavouring and colouring agents.

Study design: Qualitative preliminary phytochemical and GC-MS analysis.

Place and duration of study: The study was carried out at Department of Botany, Center of Advanced Study, Jai Narain Vyas University, Jodhpur-Rajasthan (India) from January 2017 to December 2020.

Methodology: The Preliminary phytochemical screening of S.orientalis was carried out qualitatively following the standard methods of Harbourne, Trease and Evans. GC-MS analysis was performed by GC-MS-QP 2010 Shimadzu, Japan equipped with thermal desorption system TD 20.

Results: Preliminary phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of carbohydrates, proteins, phenols, sterols, flavonoids and terpenoids. GC-MS analysis of methanolic extract of whole plant revealed the presence of 49 bioactive phytoconstituents which include mainly n-Hexadecanoic acid, Cis-vaccenic acid, Azulene, Hexadecanoic acid metyl ester, 1,3-Propanediol, 2-(hydroxyl methyl)-2-nitro, 9-12 Octadecadienol chloride (z,z), Octadecanoic acid etc.

Conclusion: Preliminary phytochemical and GC-MS profiling of methanolic extract Semibarbula orientalis whole plant showed the presence of high value bioactive compounds with important medicinal properties and other uses in food industries as flavouring and colouring agents.

Open Access Original Research Article

Enhancement of Solubility and Dissolution Rate of BCS Class-II Fluvoxamine Tablets using Solvent Evaporation Solid Dispersion Technique

Martha Srinivas, Anoop Singh

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 44-53
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i31B31689

Aim: This research work was aimed to formulate Enhancing the solubility of Poorly soluble drug i.e. Fluvoxamine tablets by the solvent evaporation method, Fluvoxamine medicament is a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) antidepressant agent.

Purpose: The BCS class II drug Fluvoxamine consist low aqueous solubility and low oral bioavailability, for this reason to improve the biological performance of Fluvoxamine drug by solid dispersion mechanism.

Methodolgy: The drug Fluvoxamine was formulated by using solvent evaporation technique, solid dispersions of Fluvoxamine were prepared with different carriers in different ratios of PEG 6000 & Mannitol (1:1, 1:2 and 1:3).

Results: Results of prepared solid dispersions of Fluvoxamine by solid dispersion method Finally by comparing all the formulations, formulation (SF3) containing Fluvoxamine and PEG 6000 (1:3) shows better results.

Conclusion: Here we concluded that the poorly soluble drug solubility improving by solvent evaporation solid dispersion mechanism, and also developed six Fluvovamine formulations (FDF1-FDF6) during this FDF4 shows maximum (98.9±0.8%) drug release at the end of time.

Open Access Original Research Article

Correlation of Glycosylated Hemoglobin and Complexity of Coronary Artery Disease among Aged ≥45 Years Population with Diabetes Mellitus

Faraz Farooq Memon, Muhammad Kashif, Zain Islam Arain, Syed Ahsan Raza, Mehboob Ali, Muhammad Tahseen Raza, Feroz Memon

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 79-85
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i31B31693

Objective: Cardiovascular diseases are 1.7 times more prevalent in patients with diabetes mellitus. The aim behind this study was to examine the correlation of glycosylated hemoglobin and complexity of coronary artery disease among middle aged population with diabetes mellitus

Patients and Methods: This was a clinical prospective hospital-based comparative study carried out in the department of the cardiology department of Isra University Hospital Hyderabad for 10 months. 153 participants with diabetes mellitus having age ≥45 years both male and female and undergoing their first coronary angiography were included. Data were entered and analyzed by using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 21.0.

Results: A total of 153 patients were finally analysed. Patients were divided into two groups; group I (HbA1c <6.5%, normal) and group II (HbA1c >6.5%, impaired). The mean age was slightly higher in group II 54.60 as compared to group I 53.65 years, respectively. The Syntax score was correlated with HbA1c levels in patients older than 45 years of age (r = 0.001; p >0.05). Moreover, the higher HbA1c levels were observed in every three categories of Syntax score but they were insignificantly associated with each other in patients with diabetes mellitus and having age more than 45 years.

Conclusion: The HbA1c is insignificantly correlated with the complexity of coronary artery disease in diabetic patients having age more than 45 years. While only two factors, hypertension and increased triglycerides are significantly different among the HbA1c groups.

Open Access Original Research Article

Quality of Life after Ablation vs Medication Therapy in Patients With Supraventricular Tachycardia

Abdul Mueed, Nandlal Rathi, . Shahzad, Jibran Ashraf, Salman Ahmed, Lajpat Rai

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 86-93
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i31B31694

Objective: Supraventricular tachycardia (SVT) is the most common presentation of patients at cardiac emergency department. This study aims to determine the quality of life in patients with supraventricular tachycardia after they treated with medicines vs. ablation therapy.

Methods: This prospective clinical comparative study was held at the National Institute of Cardiovascular Diseases (NICVD). Patients 18 years or older of either gender presenting with the two most common variants of SVT i.e. Atrioventricular nodal reentry tachycardia (AVNRT) and Atrioventricular reentry tachycardia (AVRT) were eligible to be included into the study. Once stabilized at the emergency department (ED) the patients were given the option to undergo electrophysiology study and radiofrequency ablation (EPS and RFA) (group A) or opt for medications only (group B). Quality of life (sense of personal well being, impact on social life, fear of mortality or anxiety about the disease, recurrence of episodes of arrhythmia, and visits to ED) was assessed through a questionnaire filled after six months of receiving treatment.

Results: A total of 120 patients were included into our study. Group A and group B were evenly divided with 60 patients each. The overall mean age of the participants and duration of cardiac illness were 44.67±18.91 and 5.42±3.13 years, respectively. Patients who received EPS and RFA (group A) had superior and statistically significant scores (better QoL) for sense of personal well being, impact on social life, fear of mortality or anxiety levels, recurrence of arrhythmia, and visits to the ED as compared to those who received medications alone, p<0.05.

Conclusion: EPS and RFA vastly improved the quality of life in patients with SVT post treatment. Medications alone are associated with a high number of post treatment sequels and adverse events; therefore they are best avoided in patients with SVT.

Open Access Original Research Article

Medical Students’ Attitudes and Beliefs toward Chronic Low Back Pain (CLBP) at King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

Reem Alyoubi, Afnan Alotaibi, Haifa Mohamed, Lama Alghamdi, Nouran Alhumaidi, Roaya Alsulami, Shehana Tayyeb

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 94-101
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i31B31695

Background: Low back pain (LBP) is one of the most common reasons for long-term disability among the world. Up to 70–85% of people develop a back pain during the course of their lives. It affects people of all ages and is generally caused by sedentary jobs, obesity, smoking and low socioeconomic status. Chronic low back pain (CLBP) harms one’s work effectiveness, psychological condition and social responsibilities, such as family life. LBP is considered an indication for medical rehabilitation and is increasingly becoming a significant factor in rising healthcare costs. The current LBP guidelines recommend health care professionals to encourage patients to conduct daily physical activity, which includes remaining in purposeful work and staying active daily. Health care practitioners (HCPs) who hold negative beliefs toward CLBP are likely to suggest advice against the present guidelines, including longdays absence from their jobs.On the other hand, HCPs holding positive beliefs are more likely to appreciate the guidelines.

Objective: We aimed to evaluate the beliefs and attitudes toward CLBP among medical students in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia at the King Abdulaziz University (KAU), between June–July 2018.

Methods: We conducted a qualitative cross-sectional study among 370 medical students at the KAU using an online HC-PAIRS questionnaire. We entered the data using an Excel sheet (2013)and then analyzed it using SPSS (version 23). We used chi-square, one-way ANOVA and summary and independent t-tests.

Results: In this study, we used the mean and standard deviation of the total score to compare our study (µ = 64.43 ± 11.34) with a previous study that focused on functional restoration HCPs at the Tufts University, USA (µ = 38 ± 7) using summary t-test (t = –25.316). The p-value was significant (<0.001).

Conclusion: We demonstrated the differences between KAU students and HCPs at Tufts University regarding the HC-PAIRS questionnaire score, which revealed a higher mean score among our participants. This led us to conclude that KAU medical students hold negative attitudes and beliefs concerning the application of CLBP guidelines. In light of this, we recommend raising awareness about CLBP guidelines among the medical students and the society at large.

Open Access Original Research Article

Use of Virtual Reality (VR) as an Audio-Visual Distraction Tool in the Reduction of Dental Anxiety during Local Anesthesia

Jalison Jacob Cheruvatoor, Lim Kaini, Mohamad Adib Bin Mohd Ali Hanafiah, Muhammad Azizuddin Bin Sihabubdin, Vinay Marla

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 102-108
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i31B31696

Aims: Dental anxiety is a relatively common problem and it leads to undesirable distresses, such as postponement or avoidance of dental treatment thereby resulting in poorer quality of treatment and reduced oral health related quality of life. Dental anxiety is especially seen in patients undergoing dental injections. To evaluate the effectiveness of audiovisual distraction in the reduction of dental anxiety during la injection.

Study design:  Cross-sectional study.

Place and duration of study: Patients visiting Penang International Dental College, Malaysia, between June 2017 and July 2018.

Methodology: A total of 176 patients (88 female and 88 male) requiring endodontic therapy or tooth extraction were recruited for this study. A 14-question long questionnaire using Hamilton anxiety rating scale; and a separate feedback questionnaire was used to evaluate patients’ anxiety level and the severity of anxiety symptoms. Paired t-test was used to analyze the data.

Results: There was a significant reduction in the anxiety scores (p<0.001) of the patients following the use of VR distraction during the la procedure. On an average, the pre-test scores were 1.932 points higher than post-test scores.

Conclusion: Virtual reality could be used as a possible non-pharmacologic means of reducing dental anxiety in patients receiving local anesthesia.

Open Access Original Research Article

Study of Relationship between Self-rated Health and Objective Health in Different Socio-economic Groups of Tehran in 2014

Fatemeh Khalili, Saharnaz Nejat, Kazem Mohammad, Kamran Yazdani, Ghasem Yadegarfar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 109-117
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i31B31697

The evaluation of health by an individual or self-rated health is a popular international index which is widely practiced for evaluating the individuals’ health in the public health researches and epidemiology. Many studies have revealed that self-rated health is a reliable predictor of mortality, illness, and loss of physical capacity. In addition, it has close correlation with the objective health indexes. The findings of this study have revealed the strong relationship between self-rated health and objective health. As self- rated health can be used as a reliable tool in the evaluation of objective health, this questionnaire can be used as a probable tool of screening the individuals’ health in the society and determining the individuals who need care. Further studies are suggested to be done in other regions for studying the quality of the questionnaire and also the factors affecting the self-rated health.

Open Access Original Research Article

Frequency and Clinical Presentation of Colorectal Carcinoma among Patients with Lower Gastrointestinal Symptoms

Shahnawaz Khatti, Riaz Ahmed Memon, Abdul Salam Memon, Fazila Hashmi, Sandesh Kumar, Shahida Khatoon, Faryal Hussain Memon, Ahmed Hussain Pathan

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 136-142
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i31B31699

Objective: To determine the frequency and presentation of colorectal carcinoma (CRC) among the patients presenting with lower gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms.

Study Design: Observational study

Place and Duration: Department of Surgery, Liaquat University of Medical and Health Sciences, Jamshoro/Hyderabad from January 2013 to February 2014.

Methodology: A sample of 105 patients complaining of lower GI symptoms was selected. Data regarding the age, sex, presenting symptoms and signs, local examination and location of lesions were noted in a pre-structured proforma. Patients were examined by digital rectal examination (DRE), proctoscopy, colonoscopy; computerized tomography and biopsy. Data analyzed on SPSS 21.0 at 95% CI (P≤ 0.05).

Results: Age of the patients was 53.17±14.90 years (95%CI: 51.28 to 55.05). Of 105 subjects; 65 (61.9%) were males and 40 (38.09%) were females. The CRC was observed in 11 (10.47%) patients of ≤ 40 years, 77 (73.3%) patients of 40 – 59.9 years and 17 (16.19%) cases were ≥60 years of age. Anemia 81 (77.14%), weight loss 74 (70.47%), abdominal pain 60 (57.14%), bleeding per rectum 79 (75.23%), tenesmus 55 (52.38%) and constipation 48 (45.71%) were common presenting symptoms of the CRC patients. Adenocarcinoma was found in 87 (82.85%), carcinoid tumor in 11 (10.47%), lymphoma in 5 (4.76%) and squamous cell carcinoma in 2 (1.9%).

Conclusion: Colorectal adenocarcinoma was most common tumor found in males in their sixth decade of life. Anemia, weight loss, abdominal pain and bleeding per rectum were common clinical symptoms and rectum was common tumor site.

Open Access Original Research Article

Microwave-Assisted Synthesis of Some New Mixed Ligand Ni(II) Complexes Its Characterization and Its Antimicrobial Study

Jitendra M. Pawara, Sunil S. Patil

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 143-152
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i31B31700

Nickel(II) complexes of the type [Ni(P)(L).2H2O] has been synthesized by using 2-amino-6-methyl pyrimidine-4-ol (HP) and amino acids (HL). Complexes synthesized by conventional as well as microwave methods. Results indicate that complexes synthesized by the microwave method are more efficient than the conventional method. In the microwave method preparation time is short (4-7 min.) compared to the conventional method (45 min.). Moreover, the microwave Assisted method gives a very high yield (90%) of the complexes. The microwave method used for the synthesis of the complexes has been found easier, convenient and eco-friendly. Complexes have been characterized by FTIR, Elemental analysis, Gouy experiment, Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA) and Differential Thermal Analysis (DTA). Complexes have shown significant antimicrobial activity.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of the Bleeding Complications in Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy in a Tertiary Care Hospital: A Cross-Sectional Study

Muhammad Kamran Ansari, Inayat Ali Zardari, Shazia Awan, Shahnawaz Laghari, Naeem Karim Bhatti, Maimoona Baloch, Arslan Ahmer

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 170-175
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i31B31705

Objective: To determine the frequency of various sources of bleeding in laparoscopic cholecystectomy with special preference to gallbladder bed excluding port site.

Methods: This cross-sectional study was consisted of 163 patients admitted through the outpatient department from Peoples Medical College Hospital Nawabshah. Ultrasound of abdomen was done as diagnostic modality and for assessment of gallstone disease. Finally the cases of gallstone were operated through laparoscopic cholecystectomy procedure and observed for sources of bleeding.

Results: Out of 163 patients included in this study 138(84.7%) were female and 25(15.3%) patients were male; with female to male ratio of 5.52:1. The mean age was 41.85±7.83 years. Common sources of bleeding in laparoscopic cholecystectomy from liver bed side were 44(27%) cases followed by cystic artery in 17(10.4%) cases, hepatic artery and mesenteric vessel in 1(0.6%) case was observed.

Conclusion: Bleeding during laparoscopic cholecystectomy are almost equally common and can prove to be lethal if not identified and managed during the operation. Good surgical technique, awareness and early recognition and management of such cases are keys to success when dealing with this problem.

Open Access Original Research Article

Surface Modification of Optimized Asenapine Maleate Loaded Solid Lipid Nanoparticles Using Box-Behnken Design

A. Rekha Devi, M. Vidyavathi, S. P. Suryateja

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 176-193
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i31B31706

Aim: The aim of the present study was to design and evaluate solid lipid nanoparticles of Asenapine maleate (<2% bioavailability) to enhance its oral bioavailability and surface modification for brain targeting.

Methods: A modified solvent injection method was used to produce Asenapine maleate loaded solid lipid nanoparticles. A RSM 3-factor, 3-level Box-Behnken design was applied to study the effect of three independent variables, concentrations of lipid (A), drug (B) and surfactant (C) on three dependent variables, particles size (Y1), entrapment efficiency (Y2), and drug release (Y3). 3-D surface response plots were drawn and optimized formulation was selected based on desirability factor. Then it was coated with tween 80 for ease of permeability through blood brain barrier due to intact absorption of solid lipid nanoparticles.

Results: The results of coated optimized formulation showed average particle size of 108.9 nm, entrapment efficiency of 78.62%, and in vitro drug release of 98.88±0.102% at 36 hr at pH 7.4. Morphologically, particles were almost spherical in shape with uniform size distribution. Targeting of coated optimized formulation to brain after oral administration was confirmed by fluorescence microscopy studies on male albino wistar strain rats. This research also envisaged that there is a >85% cell viability up to 125µg/ ml concentration of coated solid lipid nanoparticles by MTT assay.

Conclusion: Thus, the current study successfully designed, developed an optimized SLN formulation of Asenapine maleate using a 3-factor, 3-level Box-Behnken design for brain targeting to treat Schizophrenia by bypassing the first pass metabolism with enhanced oral bioavailability.

Open Access Original Research Article

A Newly Developed Reverse Phase-High Performance Liquid Chromatography Method for the Assay of Dexmethylphenidate and Serdexmethylphenidate with PDA

Subrahmanyam Talari, V. Anuradha, S. N. Murthy Boddapati, Komala Sai Prathuyasa Ayithabotla

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 203-211
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i31B31707

Aims: The present application is a Newly Validated Reverse Phase-High Performance Liquid Chromatography Method for the Assay of Dexmethylphenidate and Serdexmethylphenidate with PDA.

Study design: Mentioned study is a quick, rapid, economical, precise, and accurate reverse phase- high performance liquid chromatographic method for estimating Dexmethylphenidate and Serdexmethylphenidate.

Place and duration of study: The present assay was carried out at the Shree icon Pharma laboratories, Vijayawada, AP, and India, from December 2020 to February 2021.

Methodology: The stationary phase Agilent C18 column with dimensions of 150x4.6mm, 3.5 was used for chromatography and pH-2.5 ammonium acetate buffer with orthophosphoric acid: acetonitrile in a 50:50 ratio used as a buffer. The detection wavelength was 265nm, and the flow rate was 1mL/min. The strategy was justified according to ICH guidelines

Results: Dexmethylphenidate and Serdexmethylphenidate had retention periods of 4.258 and 5.629 minutes, respectively. For the estimation of Dexmethylphenidate and Serdexmethylphenidate, the method has been validated for linearity, accuracy, precision, stability tests, and forced degradation studies including acid, base, hydrolysis, peroxide, and thermal degradation. By multiplying the quality six times, the system's suitability parameter was investigated, and they were well within reasonable limits. The regression coefficient of the two drugs was found to be 0.999 during the linearity study, which was performed at 10% to 150 percentage points. Precision results for Dexmethylphenidate and Serdexmethylphenidate were 0.54 and 1.24, respectively. The drugs were recovered at a rate of 98-102 percent, which is within the acceptable range.

Conclusion: The validation results were found to be satisfactory. It was clear that the proposed method was suitable for routine quality control and analysis of pharmaceutical preparations.

Open Access Original Research Article

Overweight and Obesity Prevalence and Predictors in People Living in Karachi

Sadaf Ibrahim, Zuneera Akram, Aisha Noreen, Mirza Tasawer Baig, Samina Sheikh, Ambreen Huma, Aisha Jabeen, Muneeza Lodhi, Shahzada Azam Khan, Ajmal Hudda, Uzma Shahid, Nayel Syed

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 194-202
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i31B31708

Objective: This study was aimed to establish the prevalence of overweight, obesity and related its factors among the citizens of Karachi.

Methodology: From Jan 2018 to August 2018. This cross-sectional analysis was conducted to obtain information from 772 persons using a validated questionnaire and traditional height and weight evaluation methods have been used. Overweight and obesity were described by South Asian cut-off points as 23 ≥ BMI (Normal), 25.0 - 29.9 BMI (Overweight) and 30 ≤ BMI (Obese) respectively. For data processing, version 21.0 of SPSS was used.

Results: In this sample study men was 44.5% and women was 55.5%.Age group 20-39 was the most numerous group which was 55.70%. Among Overweight and obesity were found to be higher in men than in women. About 23.3% of the people were smokers, 1.42% was alcohol consumer, while 20.3% had vegetarian diet, 55.8% had semi-vegetarian diet, and 23.8% had non-vegetarian diet. The prevalence of overweight and obesity among individuals with co-morbidities is 33.96 %, p=0.000. There were 38.5% of people who performed physical activity for at least 30 minutes every day.

Conclusion: Overweight and obesity prevalence was found to be high among Karachi individuals, particularly in men than in women. The predictors of obesity were sedentary lifestyle, including diet and lack of physical exercise, smoking, alcohol intake, and presence of co-morbidities. Preventive steps to avoid overweight and obesity may be recommended for people.

Open Access Original Research Article

A Cross-sectional study on Metamemory in Primigravid Women of South Indian population

A. Sangeetha, G. Priyanka, M. Kumaresan, T. Harshitha, B. Vijayalakshmi

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 212-216
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i31B31709

Introduction: Metamemory awareness refers to our feelings or experiences of our own memory. For example, if a person feels certain that he or she will remember later something just learned now, that person is having a metamemory experience. Metamemory is a subarea of metacognitions.

Aim: The aim is to assess metamemory in primigravid individuals.

Materials and methods: A study was conducted among 120 pregnant female of south Indian population. The participants were asked to complete a self-reported questionnaire on metamemory. It includes multifactorial memory questionnaire (MMQ), developed to assess separate dimensions of memory ratings that are applicable to clinical assessment and intervention, includes scales of Contentment, Ability, and Strategy.

Results: Association between corresponding subscale scores and gestational period indicates a weak correlation for satisfaction (r = -.09), ability (r = -.12) and strategy (r = -.17). In addition, the MMQ subscales and the total score showed good internal consistency (αs = 0.81-0.89). Conclusion: The results would conclude metamemory components were found to be generally poorer in pregnancy particularly less in third trimester. These impact in pregnant female on quality of life and everyday functioning requires further investigation.

Open Access Original Research Article

Design, Synthesis and Evaluation of Core Scaffold Pyrazolone Fused Thiazolidinone Derivatives as Anticancer Agents

Sumathy Arunachalam, Suresh Ramalingam, Gowrishankar Narayanasamy Lachmanan, Srinivasan Nagarajan

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 217-227
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i31B31710

Background: Cancer is the world's second leading cause of death, accounting for an estimate of more than 10 million deaths annually. The most common type of cancers in women are breast, endometrial, cervical, ovarian, colorectal, lung, and skin cancers.Among these, breast cancer is the most common in women of all ages. Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 breast cancer is widely seen in women which test positive for the protein HER2. This protein is present in one-fifth of every breast cancer cell, which promotes the growth of cancer cells. There are several compounds available for the treatment of HER2 breast cancer in the market with varying promise in their efficacy and safety on HER2 treatment.

Objective: To design synthesis and evaluation of core scaffold pyrazolone fused thiazolidinone derivatives as anticancer agents.

Methods: In this study, the core scaffold pyrazolone fused thiazolidinone derivatives were designed, synthesized, and analyzed for the anticancer activity using breast carcinoma cell line (MCF-7), against the standard drug Doxorubicin.

Results: Many thiazoles, fused thiazole, and pyrazole derivatives have been found to have anti-cancer and other properties. In this study, the compound 1-phenyl-3-methyl-5-pyrazolones was allowed to react with diverse benzoyl chloride as well as primary amine derivatives and transformed into ’A series of Pyrazolone fused Thiazolidinone derivatives 4A1-4A10 and 4B1- 4B10. Computational studies by Schrodinger Glide XP using the Protein 3RCD which act on the human epidermal growth factor receptor’’ was performed on the selected scheme initially and further from the docked score data the synthesis of pyrazolone fused thiazolidinone was performed.

Conclusion: Among the compounds synthesized, five compounds (4A6 − 3.4 kcal/mol, 4B4 − 3.0 kcal/mol, 4A3 − 2.2 kcal/mol, 4B2 − 1.6 kcal/mol, and 4A9 − 1.3 kcal/mol) shown promising binding affinities against epidermal growth factor receptor kinase. The cytotoxic potential of the compounds was examined using a breast carcinoma cell line (MCF-7), which shown cytotoxicity close to Doxorubicin (standard drug). Our findings are an important step forward in the development of novel anticancer agents.

Open Access Review Article

Cubosomes as Potential Nanocarrier for Drug Delivery: A Comprehensive Review

Simran Deep Kaur, Gurdeep Singh, Gurpreet Singh, Keshav Singhal, Shubham Kant, Neena Bedi

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 118-135
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i31B31698

Lyotropic liquid crystalline cores are characterized as soft nanoparticles and referred as cubosomes.  They are prepared to activate the natural self-assembly capability of lipids (e.g., monoolein or phytantriol) in water. Cubosomes are crystalline isotropic lipidic nanoparticles stabilized by Poloxamers such as F127, F108. It is made up of a network of two separate aqueous channels formed by a three-dimensional, non-intersecting lipid bilayer imposed over an indefinite periodic minimum surface of cubic symmetry. Cubosomes constitute unique features such as their special cubic structure which permits to incorporate highly lipophilic, hydrophilic, and amphiphilic drugs. Also, the lipids excipients used in the preparation of cubosomes such as monoolein, phytantriol are biodegradable and biocompatible so these cubic nanoparticles are referred as safe carrier for drug delivery. Cubic lipid nanoparticles have a highly stable cubic shape that allows for a slower rate of dissociation, improved drug retention, and site-specific drug delivery. The architecture of cubic particles provides suitability in the drug delivery as compared to other lipids-based drug delivery systems such as solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN), liposomes due to their drug expulsion to the surface of nanoparticles. Cubosomes with these loaded features/architectural composition led to an array of desired performance. Solvent evaporation, ultrasonication, hydrotrope, spray drying, melt dispersion emulsifying methods are used to prepare these carrier systems.

Open Access Review Article

An Emerging Era for Targeted Drug Delivery: Nanosponges

Akrutiben A. Shah, Ezekiel O. Kehinde, Janki Patel

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 153-160
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i31B31703

Many forms of Pharmaceutical product like nanosponge, nanoemulsion, nano-micelles, and nanosomes have been developed using nanotechnology. The size of Nanosponges is like that of a virus. They are very tiny in size and can permeate through the skin easily. Nanosponges can be distributed throughout the body until they reach their specific target area, where they adhere to the surface and the drug is released in a controlled manner, rather than circulating throughout the body. Nanosponge is a promising strategy to overcome problems associated with formulations such as poor bioavailability, drug toxicity, drug degradation, drug solubility and site specificity of drug. Both lipophillic and hydrophilic drug are incorporated in nanosponge. They can also act as biocatalysts and carrier for enzymes, antibodies, protein and vaccines. The use of a biodegradable polymer can help to maintain a constant drug level by allowing the drug to be released in a controlled way. Technologies employed in nanosponge formulations have been widely studied for drug delivery by topical, oral as well as parenteral administration. Improvement of solubility of poorly water soluble drug is another significant characteristic of Nanosponges. The primary goal of this review article is to provide a basic understanding of nanosponges, including their preparation process, advantages and disadvantages, as well as methods of evaluation and applications.

Open Access Review Article

Drug Repurposing: A Review

Rani Teksinh Bhagat, Santosh Ramarao Butle

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 161-169
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i31B31704

The drug development is a very time consuming and complex process. Drug development Process is Expensive. Success rate for the new drug development is very small. In recent years, decreases the new drugs development. The powerful tools are developed to support the research and development (R&D) process is essential. The Drug repurposing are helpful for research and development process. The drug re-purposing as an approach finds new therapeutic uses for current candidates or existing candidates or approved drugs, different from its original application. The main aimed of Drug repurposing is to reduce costs and research time investments in Research & Development. It is used for the diagnosis and treatment of various diseases. Repositioning is important over traditional approaches and need for effective therapies. Drug re-purposing identifies new application for already banned or existing drugs from market. In drug design, drug repurposing plays important role, because it helps to preclinical development. It reducing time efforts, expenses and failures in drug discovery process. It is also called as drug repositioning, drug redirecting, drug reprofiling.