Open Access Study Protocol

Protocol - Assessment about Knowledge of Panchakarma in Asha Workers and their Sensitization with Panchakarma Module in Wardha Taluka

Jagruti N. Chaple, Punam Sawarkar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i30B31633

Background: A village level community health worker " Accredited Social Health Activist " (ASHA)’acts as a bridge between community & health care facilities. The ASHA workers act as catalysts in promoting various programmes of the foundation and encourage people to avail the available benefits.

Aim and objectives: To study the assessment about Knowledge of Panchakarma in ASHA Workers & Sensitization to them with Panchakarma module in Wardha taluka Objectives are 1.To design Panchakarma questionnaire module and then to assess the existing knowledge and awareness in ASHA Workers of Wardha Taluka. 2.To sensitize ASHA Workers about Panchakarma procedures with the help of demonstration videos and lectures ,then post test and compare pre & post assessment score about Knowledge and awareness about                 Panchakarma.

Methodology: The study will be Interventional study. Permission will be taken from the institutional ethical committee. Data will be collected in Wardha taluka by Pre and Post test interview of ASHA. All the subjects will be personally interviewed on the basis of questionnaire .Questionnaires administered by an interviewer are used to survey socio demographic factors, Knowledge, awareness and attitudes regarding Ayurveda (AYUSH Programme) . Before taking the Pre test the verbal consent of the subject will be taken.

Results: ASHA will be as a facilitator for promoting awareness in the community about Panchakarma.

Conclusion: Conclusion will be on the basis of observation and analyzed data.

Open Access Study Protocol

Study of Nidan (Etiological Factors) Responsible For Manyastambha With Respect To Cervical Spondylosis in Present Era – A Study Protocol

Mayuri Jain, Shweta Parwe, Vinod Ade, Milind Nisargandha

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 59-64
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i30B31640

Background: In Ayurveda, Manyastambha is defined as Manyahakriyahani. It is the clinical entity in which the back of the neck becomes stiff, and the neck movement is impaired. Manyastambha is explained one of the Vataja Nanatmaja Vikara by Acharyas. Manyastambha occurs in Urdhwajatru pradesha. It can be correlated with cervical Spondylosis in modern medicine. Cervical Spondylosis is a condition in which degenerative changes are found in the cervical spine. The bony overgrowth of adjacent vertebrae is usually associated with age-related changes in intervertebral discs. In today's era, because of stressful and fast lifestyle, people suffering from various degenerative diseases. Manyastambha is one of the lifestyle disorders which is caused due to excessive use of motor vehicle, travelling, constantly sitting and functioning for a longer duration, lifting heavy weights, lack of exercise or yogas, taking unhealthy foods. Ruk (pain) and Stambha (stiffness) are the main symptoms of Manyastambha. So to prevent the increasing rate of Manyastambha patients, we need to rule out the exact cause from the Nidanas given by Acharyas and correlate it with cervical Spondylosis. Manyastambha (Cervical Spondylosis) is one of the most everyday orthopaedic problems faced by the primary problem.

Aim: Studying Nidan (etiological factors) responsible for Manyastambha concerning cervical Spondylosis in the present era.

Methods: This study will be observational; subjects mainly diagnosed for manyastambha will be recruited in this study and observe the causative factors responsible for that particular subject.

Results: The Result will be based on observation and analyzed data.

Conclusion: The Nidana, which are most likely to cause Manyastambha in patients, provides proper guidelines to the patients.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Antibacterial Activity and GCMS Analysis of Zanthoxylum Ovalifolium Fruit Extracts

P. Pavani, Raja Naika

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 7-17
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i30B31634

Herbal medicines have played a vital role in the evolution of humanity and civilization. The fruits of the plant Zanthoxylum were collected from the study field, washed, dried in the shade and powdered. Soxhlation method was used to make different solvent extract of fruit. The different fruit extracts were examined against P. aeruginosa, P. syringe, S. aureus, S. typhi, K. pneumonia and E. coli by agar well diffusion method and for the detection of biochemical components present in the Zanthoxylum fruit, methanolic fruit extract was analyzed using GC-MS. Results showed that, the methanolic extract of fruit is found to be exhibit activity against P. aeruginosa, P. syringe, S. aureus, S. typhi, K. pneumonia and E. coli when compared to the hexane and ethyl acetate. The discovery of 46 bioactive compounds in methanolic fruit extract was verified by their molecular formula, molecular weight, and area peak percentage. In which 6 bioactive compounds such as 6-octadecanoic acid, Pentadecanoic acid, Ethyl oleate, 9-octadecenoic acid (Z)-, methyl ester, Glycerin and 1, 2-dimethoxy-4-(2-methoxyethenyl) benzene compounds showed highest peak area percentage of 26.14, 13.61, 8.56, 6.12 and 6.08% respectively. The compounds found in this research may be responsible for some of the medicinal action of the Z. ovalifolium fruit and may be useful in the development of new medicines.

Open Access Original Research Article

Exraction of Secondary Metabolites Using Bacillus endopyticus and Its Applications

S. Kalima, K. Thanga Mariappan, Jesteena Johney, R. Ragunathan

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 18-24
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i30B31635

Bacillus Species was isolated from a soil sample, the isolate was cultivated, identified and its culture medium was extracted. Specific media called Gibbon’s media used for the cultivation and confirmation of the bacteria. 16S rRNA study was done for the morphological identification of the isolate. The crude which was collected from Bacillus endopyticus was purified by column chromatography. The antibacterial activity of the crude extract was identified by agar diffusion test by measuring the minimum inhibitory concentration by dilution assay. The purified extract was active against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cerues, Escherichia coli. The study suggest that Bacillus Sps have the potential to produce antibiotics and can be used to control the growth in future. The further work was able to bring the microbial strains under control. The percentage of cell death was calculated the cell death was 97.95%.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Yoga Basti in the Management of Sandhivata a Clinical Study

Anagha Anigol, Arun Vaidya, Prasanna Mathad, Amit Upasane

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 25-33
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i30B31636

Yoga basti a type of basti explained to treat many diseases in Ayurveda when basti given for 8 days in respective diseases like Sandhivata, Janusandhi vata  and sarvanga vata.. Basti is one among the panchakarma procedure, there are many references of bastis are available in veda, purana, yogic and samhita, where the medicated oil or decoctions or other medicated preparations introduced through the anus or urethra or vagina. Panchakarma -5 purificatory procedures of body, which helps to cure the diseases and prevents the further progress of diseases. Basti is called ‘chikitsardham’ because vata dosha is independent dosha which is responsible for all activities in body, the site Vata dosha is basti (Bladder region) pradesha. The diseases where vata dosha is mainly vitiated in such condition basti chikitsa is the choice of treatment to treat the disease without any complications. In basti chikitsa    the medicines are pushed through anus or urethra or vagina which reaches basti Pradesha and where it will exhibits its effect to cure the diseases and the medicines inserted will not remain in body, it is expelled out from the body. According to modern science recent researches identified as Gut is the second brain in the body. Which helps for the absorption medicine and initiate necessary healing process to overcome from the disease. In this study the effect of Yogabasti in the patient suffering from sandhivat is assessed.

Open Access Original Research Article

In-Hospital Outcome of Patients with Acute ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction Who Did Not Receive Reperfusion Therapy at Our Institute

Shahid Hussain Memon, Ghulam Fareed Shah, Gul Hassan Brohi, Abdul Ghaffar Memon, Jagdesh Kumar, Anwar Ali

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 34-39
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i30B31637

Objective: This study aims to determine the in-hospital outcome of patients with acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction who did not receive reperfusion therapy at our institute.

Methodology: Cohort of patients recruited from Emergency Department of Liaquat University Hospital, Hyderabad affiliated with Liaquat University of Medical & Health sciences, Jamshoro, Sindh, Pakistan from August 2nd, 2019 to 1st July 2020. All the patients who were diagnosed as a case of acute STEMI belongs to any age group of either gender and who did not receive reperfusion therapy either percutaneous or pharmacological therapy due to any cause were included in our study to assess their in-hospital outcome.

Results: Total of 106 patients were enrolled having mean age and SD of 51.09 ± 13.50 years in which 67.92% were males. Significantly higher proportion of patients who did not receive reperfusion therapy died during hospitalization (27.35%, N = 29). The most common risk factors associated with higher mortality rates were increasing age, increased mean duration of hospitalization from the onset of chest pain, raised RBS, diabetes mellitus, and smoking, p <0.001.

Conclusion: Almost one third of patients with acute STEMI who did not receive reperfusion therapy were died during hospitalization. Among those, unfortunately the higher mortality was observed having modifiable risk factors.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Catalase and Manganese in Type 2 Diabetic Patients in University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital

Arvin Nwakulite, Emmanuel Ifeanyi Obeagu, Richard Eze, C. C. N. Vincent, Ejike Felix Chukwurah, Chukwuma J. Okafor, Adaobi Maryann Ibekwe, Calista Ndidi Adike, Ufuoma Chukwuani, Bart I. Ifionu

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 40-45
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i30B31638

This study was carried out to evaluate catalase and manganese in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients. A total of 40 subjects Were included in this study. This comprised of equal number of male and female subjects respectively. Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method was used for this study. The result showed that there is a significant increase (P < 0.05) in the fasting blood sugar level of male diabetics (11.3±3.1) when compared with male non diabetics (4.0±0.4), and female diabetics (9.4±0.8) when compared with female non-diabetics (3.8±0.3). There is no significant increase (P<0.05) in the mean catalase value of male diabetics (77.3±137.7) when compared with male (256.3±207.6) and female non diabetics (225.1±233.9) But there is significant increase in female diabetics (27.8±14.7) when compared with controls (77.3±137.7) and female non diabetics (225.1±233.9).There is also significant decrease (P<0.05) in the mean Manganese value of male diabetics (0.5±0.6) when compared with male non diabetics (0.9±0.3) and female diabetic(0.2±0.1) when compared with female non-diabetics (0.3±0.1).The result shows that serum catalase level and manganese is decreased in diabetic patients. It is therefore suggested that type 2 diabetes patient should consume meals and supplement rich in catalase and manganese.

Open Access Original Research Article

Differences in Surgical Outcome in Near Total Thyroidectomy for Benign Nodular Goiter: A Comparison of LigaSure Vessel Sealer versus Conventional Clamp Knot Tie Technique

Shiraz Shaikh, Champa Sushel, Ahsan Ali Laghari, Qamber Ali Laghari, Zameer Hussain Laghari, Aisha Memon

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 65-69
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i30B31641

Objective: To compare the efficacy of LigaSure Vessel Sealer in Near Total Thyroidectomy versus Conventional Clamp Knot Tie Technique in terms of bleeding, operative time and postoperative drainage.

Methodology: This comparative cross sectional study was conducted at Department of Surgery, Liaquat University of Medical and Health Sciences, Jamshoro. Study duration was one year from November 2019 to October 2020. All patients of any age with benign multinodular goiter and either of gender were included. The study subjects were grouped into two categories by randomization (odd / even). The odd numbers were given to patients operated for ligasure and even numbers were given to patients operated with conventional clamp knot tie technique.  Outcomes were observed with respect to post-operative calcium level, intra-operative bleeding, operative time, post-operative pain & post-operative hospital stay. All the data was recorded via study proforma. Data was analyzed by using SPSS version 20.

Results: Total 55 patients were observed. Mean age was 33.25±10.60 years in clamp knot tie procedure group and 35.16±07.96 years in ligasure technique group; without significant difference (p-0.448). Pre and post-operative calcium levels were statistically insignificant among both groups (p-0.358 and 0.163), while loss of blood, hospital stay, post-operative pain and operative duration were significantly greater in clamp knot tie technique group in comparison to ligasure technique group (p-<0.001).

Conclusion: LigaSure Vessel Sealer is a feasible and reliable surgical technique and significantly more effective as compared to conventional clamp knot tie technique in terms of post-operative bleeding, operative time, post-operative pain and post-operative hospital stay. However, calcium level was statistically insignificant.

Open Access Original Research Article

Potential of Topical Cosmeceuticals Cream Functionalized with Biogenic Metallic Nanostructured Material as Antibacterial Agents

Rajesh Dodiya, Mrunal K Shirsat, Jitendra K Patel

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 80-96
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i30B31643

Aims: In this study, the phytochemical analysis of Eucalyptus globulus leaf was analyzed and  used in synthesis of silver nanoparticles. The silver nanoparticle incorporated antimicrobial cosmeceutical cream was developed and characterized for physicochemical parameters, antimicrobial properties, and biocompatibility was evaluated.

Methodology: E. globulus aqueous leaf extract was preliminary analyzed for the presence of phytochemical and confirmed using thin layer chromatography techniques. Further, a green synthesis of silver nanoparticle was accomplished using aqueous leaf extract of E. globulus. The formation of nanoparticles was confirmed and characterized by UV-vis spectrophotometer, transmission electron microscopy, dynamic light scattering, zeta potential, X-ray diffractometer, field emission scanning electron microscopy, and fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The nanoparticles were incorporated in cream and the antimicrobial property was evaluated using agar well diffusion method.

Results: The phyto-chemical evaluation of E. globulus aqueous leaf extract showed the presence of phenolic, tannins, saponnins, carbohydrate, and glycoside. Moreover, Eucalyptus globulus aqueous leaf extract exhibited antioxidant activity in a dose dependent manner. The surface plasmon resonance peak was 424 nm and functional group such as hydroxyl, carboxyl, alkyl halides, amines, carbonyl, amide groups, and phenolic compounds were present which was important for the bio-reduction, stabilization, and capping of the silver nitrate into nanoparticles. Energy dispersive x-ray (EDX) analysis showed silver as the main element present and the nanoparticles were oval in shape and 19-60 nm in size with effective diameter of 90 nm. The test cream exhibited surface roughness of ≈ 30 nm, contact angle of ≈ 100, and surface energy of ≈88 mN/m. The formulated creams were consistent, with satisfactory pH, viscosity and spreadability.

Conclusion: The results demonstrated an eco-friendly and cost-effective approach to synthesis biogenic silver nanoparticles using aqueous extract of E. globulus. Eucalyptus globulus aqueous leaf extract stabilized and capped silver nanoparticles incorporated topical cream exhibited potent antimicrobial efficacy against Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

Open Access Original Research Article

Protective Role of Fisetin in STZ Induced Diabetic Nephropathy in Rats

Savita Kumari, Anjoo Kamboj, Manish Wanjari, Anil Kumar Sharma

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 97-111
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i30B31644

Objectives: Chronic diabetes mellitus associated with devastating complication the diabetic nephropathy, that further progress to ESRD,a major cause of morbidity and premature mortality in many countries worldwide. Accumulated evidences demonstrated that long standing hyperglycemia induced oxidative stress, inflammatory cytokines, and fibrosis plays a significant role in DN. Fisetin, a bioflavonoid, exhibited variety of promising pharmacological properties such as, anti-diabetic, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-hyperlipidemic ,and anti-carcinogenics. Hence, the present study was hypothesized to investigate, the effect of fisetin on streptozotocin-induced diabetic nephropathy in rats.

Materials and Methods: Sprague Dawley rats were divided into 6 groups (n=6) as normal control, diabetic control (vehicle), Glimepiride (0.5 mg/kg, orally) and Fisetin treatment (2.5, 5 and 10 mg/kg, orally) groups. After the confirmation of diabetes, vehicle/drug treatments were started and continued for 6 weeks. Serum glucose, body weight, were measured on weekly basis.Thereafter, on the last day of treatment protocol, ie 42 day, serum insulin, HbA1c in blood, lipid parameters, creatinine, albumin and urea in serum and in urine creatinine excretion, albumin were measured along with urine volume and creatinine clearance. In addition, weight of kidney and histopathological studies were carried out.

Results: Fisetin treatment significantly attenuated reduction in body weight. Also, it significantly decreased the blood glucose level, ameliorate lipid profile and HbA1c (p<0.05) value, but serum insulin level were not much influenced. It also increased albumin in serum, decreased serum urea and creatinine and in urine, it reduced the urine volume, albumin with marked improvement in creatinine excretion and creatinine clearance. Further, the fisetin (10mg/kg) treatment attenuated oxidative stress and cytokines TNF-α (p<0.01), IL-1β (p<0.01), and IL-6 (p<0.05) level in kidney tissue along with amelioration of histopathological alterations compared to diabetic control rats. The standard drug, glimepiride also exhibited similar antidiabetic effect without much influence on oxidative stress, albumin in urine, and cytokine levels.

Conclusions: The results indicated that fisetin ameliorated diabetic nephropathy through its antidiabetic and antioxidant effect which may be attributed to inhibition of downward pathway of glycemia induced oxidative stress, inflammation and necroptosis of renal tissue.

Open Access Original Research Article

Severity of Maternal Anemia and Feto-Maternal Outcome at Tertiary Care Hospital

Raheela Rani Junejo, Nousheen Memon, Nazia Memon, Ali Faraz Shaikh, Abdul Ghaffar Dars

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 112-117
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i30B31645

Objective: To determine the severity of anemia among pregnant women and its impact on feto-maternal outcome at tertiary care Hospital.

Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study; conducted at gynae department of LUMHS; during 6 months from November 2019 to April 2020. Women with age >15 years, visited antenatal clinic and admitted for delivery and those who were admitted through emergency with labour pain and either of parity were included. A 3 ml fresh blood sample was taken from each woman and was sent immediately to the Hospital diagnostic laboratory for the assessment of haemoglobin level. Mothers having haemoglobin levels <11 g/dL, were considered as anemic. All the information regarding feto-maternal outcome, in terms of maternal and fetal complications including prolonged Hospital stays mortality were documented via self-made study proforma. Data analysis was done by using SPSS version 20.

Results: Total 150 pregnant women were enrolled. Maternal mean age was 26.83+4.13 years and mean gestational age was 35.96+2.61 weeks. Most of the women utilized an unsatisfactory diet. Out of all, 83(55.3%) women underwent C-sections and 67(44.7%) underwent normal vaginal deliveries. majority of the women 90(60.0%) underwent blood transfusion. Maternal anemia was highly prevalent (90.7%). Moderate anemia was most common in 64(42.7%) women, followed by mild anemia among 39(26.0%) women, and 33(22.0%) women were severely anemic, while only 14(09.3%) were found with normal haemoglobin level. According to maternal and fetal outcomes, 02.7% women had acute kidney injury, 02.0% had blood transfusion reaction, pre-eclampsia was seen in 06.0% women, 04.7% women were admitted in ICU and mortality rate was 04.7%. Pre-term birth rate was 35.3%, ABG was seen in 26.7% of the cases, early neonatal death rate was 02.0%, neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) admission rate was 02.7% and intrauterine death was 15.3%.

Conclusions: Severity of anemia observed to be highly prevalent in our population and found to be associated with adverse feto-maternal outcomes.

Open Access Original Research Article

Phytochemical Screening and Antibacterial Evaluation of Conventional Antibiotics, Garlic and Ginger on Isolates from Fish Pond Water Samples in Awka, Anambra State, Nigeria

O. R. Umeh, E. I. Chukwura, E. L. Okoye, E. M. Ibo, P. I. Egwuatu, B. O. Uba

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 118-132
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i30B31646

Medicinal plants are used by almost 80% of the world’s population for their basic health care because of their low cost and ease in availability. In the last few decades, many bacteria have continued to show increasing resistance against current antibiotics.

Aim: In this study, phytochemical screening and antibacterial effects of conventional antibiotics, garlic and ginger on test isolates from fish pond water samples were evaluated between May-November, 2019.

Methods: Standard methods for phytochemical screening and antibacterial analysis were employed.

Results: The results showed that amongst the antibiotics used for susceptibility test, Amoxicilin (30 µg) was mostly resisted by all the bacterial isolates except Staphylococcus aureus, Vibrio cholerae, Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Salmonella typhi while erythromycin (10 µg) was unable to inhibit Bacillus subtilis. Ciprofloxacin (10 µg) and pefloxacin (10 µg) inhibited the growth of all the isolates except Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The test isolates showed variable susceptibility to the garlic and ginger extracts (ethanol, methanol and hot water). The extracts inhibited the isolates in descending order; ginger ethanol > ginger methanol > garlic methanol > ginger hot water > garlic ethanol > garlic hot water. Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Vibrio cholerae and Staphylococcus aureus showed little resistant to the extracts while these extracts showed better activity on Klebsiella pneumoniae and Proteus mirabilis. Synergistic effect of garlic and ginger (500mg/ml) inhibited the growth of all the isolates with ethanol extracts having the highest zone diameter (29 mm) on Klebsiella pneumoniae and Proteus mirabilis while hot water extracts had the least zone of inhibition (18 mm) on Acinetobacter calcoaceticus and Vibrio parahaemolyticus. The minimum inhibitory and bactericidal concentration for ethanol, methanol and hot water extracts ranged from 31.25mg/ml to 62.5mg/ml and 62.5mg/ml to 125mg/ml respectively.

Conclusion: The outcomes of susceptibility experiment depicted that ethanol and methanol extracts of garlic and ginger (each alone and in combination) showed more inhibitory effect than aqueous extracts and also the combination of ethanol, methanol and aqueous extracts resulted in inhibitory effect greater than each of the extracts when used singly. The use of ginger and garlic for control of fish pathogens appears to be justified.

Open Access Original Research Article

Attitude and Practices Regarding Use of Direct Acting Antiviral Agents (DAAs) in the Treatment of Hepatitis C among Health Care Practitioners “A Survey-based Study”

Nadia Saifullah, Dabeeran Zehra, Ambreen Wasim, Samia Saifullah, Urooj Zafar, Akhtar Ali

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 133-140
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i30B31647

Approximately 3% of the world population has been known to be infected with HCV. Hepatitis C virus is a major etiological factor behind the development of liver diseases such as cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Interferon-based therapy has remained as the mainstay treatment for HCV for decades. Owing to the unavoidable side effects of interferon, direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) have been approved recently for the treatment of HCV-infected patient. These drugs have brought revolution in the management of HCV because of their favorable side effects profiles and enhanced rates of sustained virological response. We conducted a questionnaire-based survey study to assess the knowledge and current practices among specialists and senior post graduate trainees regarding treatment of HCV with DAAs. The questionnaire was based on latest WHO guidelines for treating HCV. The results obtained were collected and tabulated. Majority (95%) of physicians were between the age of 21-30 years and mostly (69.6%) were females. Almost three fourth of the practitioners were aware of direct-acting antiviral agents (DAAs) and 70.2% agreed that they reduce the duration of treatment along with low bill burden along with lesser side effects. In this study, we could see that the participants’ knowledge and practices regarding use of DAAs, preference over interferon therapy and recommended combinations for different age groups was appreciable, however there is still a gap of knowledge among doctors regarding treatment of HCV with DAAs which needs to be filled with the help of proper health educational programs and training.

Open Access Original Research Article

Changes in the Levels of Biochemical Markers Following Coronavirus Infection in Patients with Liver Disease, Renal Disease and Diabetes Mellitus as Compared to Control Participants: A Cross Sectional Study

Osama J. Ahmed, Estabraq A. Al-Wasiti, Dina Jamil, Hayder A. Al-Aubaidy

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 141-148
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i30B31648

Background & Aim of the Study: Increased levels of many biomarkers, including liver enzymes, blood urea and serum creatinine as well as glycemic markers have been reported following coronavirus (COVID-19) infection, leading to the development of acute disease. This study aims to measure and follow-up the following biomarkers (fasting blood glucose, blood urea, serum creatinine, total serum bilirubin, as well as the liver enzymes AST, ALT, and ALP) in otherwise healthy participants and patients with liver disease, renal disease and diabetes following COVID-19 infection.

Materials and Methods: This is cross section study, included 144 participants who were infected with COVID-19 and admitted to the Sheikh Zayed Hospital, Baghdad, Iraq. Participants were divided into 4 study groups, Group 1: 46 participants with no pre-existing medical condition (Control), Group 2: 30 patients with existing liver disease. Group 3: 28 patients with existing renal disease and Group 4: 40 patients with diabetes mellitus. Participants were followed up for 14 days following COVID-19 infection to monitor the progression of the biochemical markers.

Results: There were significant changes in serum levels of all the markers of this study between the four study groups (p<0.001). Serum ALP levels were not significantly changed within any of the four study groups. However, both ALT and AST levels were significantly changed within all the four study groups (p<0.001). The levels of TSB changes significantly within the renal group (Group 3), (p=0.017). The levels of S. Creatinine showed significant changes in all the study groups except the renal group (Group 3). The levels change significantly within all the study groups except the control group (Group 1), while fasting blood glucose levels changes significantly in the control group only (Group 1), (p=0.004).

Conclusions: Following COVID-19 infection, there were significant changes in the levels of ALT, AST, S. Creatinine and B.Urea after 14 days of the disease progression. While in patients with existing renal disease, there were significant changes in the levels of TSB, AST, ALT and B. Urea following COVID-19 infection. In diabetic patients, there were significant increase in the level of   fasting blood glucose after 14 days of COVID-19 infection. there were no significant changes in serum levels of ALP and FBG in patients with chronic illnesses (liver disease, renal disease, and diabetes) when compared to control group.

Open Access Original Research Article

Development and Validation of New RP-HPLC Method for the Estimation of Antidiabetic Drugs Metformin Hydrochloride and Gemigliptin in Combined Pharmaceutical Dosage Form

Suleman S. Khoja, Laxman J. Patel

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 149-160
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i30B31649

Metformin Hydrochloride and Gemigliptin is combination of Antidiabetic drug in tablet Zemimet SR ® Tablet (25/500 mg), a member Antidiabetic drug, is a recent drug developed by LG Life sciences for the treatment of Type 2 diabetes. A new sensitive and rapid HPLC method was developed for the determination of Metformin Hydrochloride and Gemigliptin in pharmaceutical dosage forms; it was validated according to International Conference on Harmonization and Food and Drug Administration guidelines. The analysis was performed on the HPLC system equipped with a using Gemni C18, (5 µm) (250 mm x 4.6 mm), with of Buffer (20mM Ammonium Acetate in water, pH 3.5) and Methanol: Acetonitrile 40:10 (%V/V) 60: 40 v/v with at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min, column temperature 35°C, total run time was 10 min, injection volume 10 μl, and detection was performed at the wavelength (λ) of 265 nm. The calibration plot gave linear relationship over the concentration range of Metformin Hydrochloride 20, 40, 100, 200, 400 and 500 μg/ml, and Gemigliptin 1, 2, 5, 10, 20 and 25 μg/ml, respectively. The accuracy of the proposed method was determined by recovery studies and was found to be Metformin Hydrochloride 99.0 % to 101.0 % and Gemigliptin 98.0 % to 100.0 %.The Limit of Detection were 50.56 and 14.21 μg/ml for Metformin Hydrochloride and Gemigliptin, respectively and the Limit of Quantitation were 166.85 and 43.90 μg/ml for Metformin Hydrochloride and Gemigliptin, respectively% Relative Standard Deviation of the determination of precision was <2%. The results of robustness and solutions stability studies were within the acceptable limits as well the main features of the developed method are low run time and retention time of around 2.9 min for Metformin Hydrochloride (Met) and 7.4 min for Gemigliptin.

Open Access Original Research Article

Outcome of Intramedullary Interlocking Nailing in the Management of Gustillo-I Diaphyseal Fracture of Tibia

Santosh Kumar, Faheem Ahmed Memon, Siraj Ahmed Butt, Shakeel Ahmed Memon, Iftikhar Ahmed Memon, Aamir Usman Memon

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 161-166
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i30B31650

Objective: To evaluate the outcome of intramedullary interlocking nailing in the management of Gustillo-I diaphyseal fracture of tibia.

Study Design: This is an observational study.

Setting: Study carried out at Orthopaedic Surgery department, Liaquat University of Medical and Health Sciences Jamshoro, form March 2018 to February 2021.

Materials & Methods: 72 consecutive patients of Gustillo Type-I diaphyseal fracture of tibia. All patients age between 18-60 years with traumatic fracture like Gustillo Type-I diaphyseal fracture of tibia were included in this study. Patients reported chest, abdominal and head trauma with neurovascular deficit were excluded. Patients were prepared for surgery after relevant investigation and radiographs.

Results: Out of 72 patients included in this study 11.11% were female (N=8) and 88.88% male (N=64); with mean age was 38.26±8.20 years (Range 18 to 60 years). Road traffic accident was common cause of tibia fracture (Gustillo Type-I). Postoperative mean union time of tibial fractures were 9.9±3. 2 week.Postoperatively started partial weight bearing associated with help of two axillary crutches. The patients walking with partial weight bearing allowed at 4.1±1.12 weeks. While patients walking with full weight bearing allowed at 10.8±2.4 weeks. Postoperatively 11(15.27%) patients were complaining of pain. Wound infection observed in 7(9.72%) cases. Clinically excellent results were found in 24(33.33%) patients, while good results remained in 30(41.66%) patients and fairs in 18(25%) patients.  

Conclusion: We conclude that interlocking intra-medullary nailing may be considered as a suitable option for treatment of Gustilo-I diaphyseal fracture of tibia.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effects of Health Education Program and Improving Self-care among Vietnamese Adult Patients with Chronic Heart Failure in Nam Dinh Province Vietnam

Ngo Huy Hoang, Pham Thi Hong Nhung

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 167-175
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i30B31651

This study aimed toimprove the knowledge and practice of self-care among Vietnamese adult patients with chronic heart failure in Nam Dinh province Vietnam. The one group pre-test and post-test educational intervention was conducted among 90patients with chronic heart failurein Nam Dinh General Hospital. The education programme based on the guidelines for self-care of heart failure by Vietnam National Heart Association 2015 and by American Heart Association2014. The evaluation knowledge and practice before and after based on the Atlanta Heart Failure Knowledge Testand the Self-care of Heart Failure Index. By the scale of 22 points for self-care knowledge, the mean score of participated patients before the intervention was 10.41 ± 3.54, then went up to 19.38 ± 2.16 points right after completing the intervention and retained at 17.92 ± 2.52 points at the time of one month later (p values of 0.001).By the scale of 100 points for each field of self-care practice,the mean scores of participated patientsbefore the intervention were limited in three fields of practicewith41.52 ± 20.51 points for self-care maintenance, 35.56 ± 15.21 points for self-care management, and 50.45 ± 16.11 for self-care self-confidence, thenpositive changes in comparison with these three fields before the interventionwere seen after completing the interventionone month,including 53.90 ± 20.03 points, 52.96 ± 15.08 points, and 59.31 ± 14.68, respectively(p values of 0.001).The study revealed a reality of limited self-care knowledge and practice among Vietnamese adult patients with chronic heart failure before the intervention and showed the initial positive results in improvingboth knowledge and practice of patients with chronic heart failure through the patient educationwhich helping themto do self-caring theirconditionand needs to be implemented regularly.

Open Access Original Research Article

Characteristics of Masked Hypertension in Diabetes Mellitus Patientstype 2

Vu Thanh Binh, Nguyen Le Thuy, Le Minh Hieu

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 176-184
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i30B31652

Monitoring blood pressure with a continuous blood pressure monitor to carry around to detect masked hypertension (MH) in type 2 diabetes patients who are on outpatient treatment at Thai Binh Medical University Hospital, Thai Binh, Vietnam.

Objective: Analysis of MH characteristics in type 2 diabetic patients.

Research Methods: Cross-sectional descriptive study, sample size of 186 patients with type 2 diabetes with MH determined by blood pressure monitor 24 hours. Analysis of 24-hour blood pressure results in MH patients.

Results: 186 patients with hypertension / type 2 diabetes, including 77 men and 109 more, the average age is 62.2 ± 9.3 years old, there are 98.9% of hypertensive patients with grade I, only 1.1% of hypertensive patients degree II; MH at night accounted for the highest rate of 43.0%, of which the average systolic blood pressure was 123.8 ± 9.8 mmHg, and diastolic blood pressure was 75.2 ± 6.1 mmHg; On average, the highest increase is around 9 am and 19 pm, slightly down around 13pm and down at the deepest around 2-3am. There is a synchronous variation between systolic and diastolic blood pressure.

Conclusion: Blood pressure should be monitored continuously for 24 hours in all patients with type 2 diabetes to detect and promptly treat MH.

Open Access Original Research Article

Clinical Presentation and Surgical Outcome in Patients Presented with Peritonitis

Shahnawaz Abro, Sajjad Hussian Qureshi, Faiza Hameed, Aftab Ahmed, Sohail Yousif

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 185-190
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i30B31653

Objective: To determine the surgical outcome in patients with peritonitis at tertiary care Hospital.

Materials and Methods: This descriptive case series study was conducted in general surgery department of Peoples Medical Collage Hospital, Nawabshah (SBA). Study duration was two year from August 2014 to July 2016. All the patients aged more than 12 years and of both genders were included. Surgical management was done in all of the study subjects. Abdominal cavity was produced with midline incisions using grid iron as per investigations and clinical evaluation; the quantity and quality of intra-abdominal exudates were measured. Intestinal contents and pus were removed from peritoneal cavity with suction as well as by manual mopping, and full lavage was carried out with 3-5 liters of normal saline to all parts of the abdominal cavity. All the demographic data including clinical presentation and surgical outcome in terms of post-operative complications, Hospital stay and mortality were recorded via study proforma.

Results: A total of 100 cases of peritonitis 75% patients were male and 25% patients were female. The mean age of patients was 36.21+12.32 years. Acute generalized abdominal pain was in all  cases, followed by fever 91.0%, vomiting 66.0%, constipation 69.0% and 2.0% patients complained of passing blood per rectum. Generalized abdominal tenderness, including rebound tenderness 90%, abdominal rigidity 83%, dehydration 88%, abdominal distention 85%, absent gut sound 70%, shifting dullness was elicited in 64% of cases and jaundice in 1.0% of cases. According to post-operative complications 20.0% patients developed Septicemia and Fecal fistula, 40.0% had wound Infection only, 9.0% patients developed wound infection and septicemia, 4.0% patients developed septicemia without any wound infection. Most of the patients had prolonged Hospital stay and overall mortality rate was 16%.

Conclusion: Surgical outcome of the peritonitis resulted poor in those cases who came late and there was huge contamination of peritoneal cavity when operated, these patients developed post-operative complications i.e. wound infection, septicemia, faecal fistula and there hospital stay was longer.

Open Access Original Research Article

Identification of a New Species of the Medicinal Leeches in India using DNA Barcoding Technique - a Breakthrough

Gaurav Phull, Mukund Dhule, Rekha Phull, Manisha Gupta

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 191-199
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i30B31654

Leech therapy has always been an important treatment modality in Ayurveda. Medicinal leeches are known for their extensive therapeutic uses. Identification of leech species is an important research area to understand the mechanism of therapeutic gains and exploring more probable benefits. Researchers have done a swell job in identifying various species of leeches in different parts of Asia including India. For therapeutic purpose however, the clinicians in India have not bothered much about the exact identification of leech species being used at different centres. There is dearth of research papers in this aspect. Thus a study was planned to identify the species of leeches being used at our centre.

Materials and methods: DNA Barcoding technique was used where mitochondrial CO1 gene was amplified using LCO-HCO primers.

Results: DNA sequencing of Leech sample closely resembled to Hirudinaria Bpling species, which is a breakthrough in existing knowledge of medicinal leeches in India, as this species was recently reported to be found in Thailand in 2012 for the first time. No previous documentation of its existence is available in our country.

Conclusion: Further studies on large scale are required to explore their existence, morphological features and salivary contents in regard to their medicinal value. This will help in exploring any additional benefits to the existing knowledge of therapeutic uses of medicinal leeches. This study will pave the path to new avenues in therapeutic utility of leeches, as the newer species might have additional bioactive chemicals making them useful in wider variety of disorders.

Open Access Original Research Article

Estimation of Serum Glutathione Peroxidase in Streptozotocin Induced Diabetic Rat Treated with Bitter Leaf Extract

Arvin Nwakulite, Emmanuel Ifeanyi Obeagu, Richard Eze, Valerie Esame Ugochi, C.C.N. Vincent, Chukwuma J. Okafor, Ejike Felix Chukwurah, Bright Chukwuebuka Unaeze, Chukwudi Ofodile Amaechi, Chetachi Blessing Okwuanaso, Ufuoma Chukwuani, Bart I. Ifionu

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 200-206
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i30B31655

Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a metabolic disease in which there are high blood sugar levels. Type 2 is due to the cells of the body not responding properly to the insulin produced. The aim of this study was to evaluate the enzyme activity in glutathione peroxidase in type 2 diabetic rats induced streptozotocin Wister rats. Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) methods was used. Thirty-two (32) adult rats of Wister strain weighing between 120 g – 200 g of both sexes equally were used. Streptozotocin was used to induce diabetes after high fat diet. The rats were randomly grouped into 4 groups of 8 rats; group 1 are rats fed with only feed and water, group 2 were given 37 mg/kg of streptozotocin with feed and water, group 3 had 37 mg/kg of streptozotocin, feed, water and treated with 2ml of freshly prepared bitter leaf extract daily, group 4 had feed, water, 37mg/kg of streptozotocin and treated with 5 mg/kg of glibenclamide (anti diabetic drug). Severity of the induced diabetic state was assessed by daily and weekly monitoring of body weights and blood glucose levels. The result of fasting blood sugar shows a significant difference (P<0.05) at group 3(7.72±0.99) compared to group 4(9.93±1.22) in week 2.There is also a significant decrease (p<0.05) at group 3(7.72±0.99) compared to group 4(9.90±1.24) in week 3.There is also a significant decrease (p<0.05) at group 3(6.22±1.20) compared to group 46.50±0.70) in week 5. There is a significant increase (p<0.05) at group 1(7.63±0.71) compared to group 4(5.78±1.40), group 2(7.45±0.87) compared to group 4(5.78±1.40)in week 4.There is also a significant decrease in GPX activity in group at group 1(424.59±102.65) compared to group 2(307.34±75.66). There is no significant difference (p>0.05) at group 2(307.34±75.66) compared to group 3(204.31±46.51). There is also no significant difference (p>0.05) at group 2(307.34±75.66) compared to group 4(206.12±55.37). No significant difference (p>0.05) at group 3(204.31±46.51) compared to group 4(206.12±55.37). In conclusion, the result of this study suggest that bitter leaf extract reduced glucose level and has no  damage effect on the liver.

Open Access Original Research Article

Preclinical Appraisal of Hematinic Potential of Mandura Bhasma for Treating Anemia

Deepak S. Khobragade, Mrunali S. Potbhare, Awdhut Pimpale, Sagar B. Wankhede, Chandrashekhar R. Tempe

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 207-214
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i30B31656

Aims: To evaluate hematinic potential of mandura bhasma.

Study Design: Experimental study.

Place and Duration of Study: Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research, Wardha, Maharashtra, India. 6 Months.

Methodology: The anti-anaemic potential of Mandura bhasma in Wistar rats was investigated. Anaemia was induced in rats with phenyl hydrazine hydrochloride at a dose of 10        mg kg-1 body weight by oral administration. Anaemia was treated with mandura bhasma administered in three different doses based on body weight.

Results: In vivo investigation showed that though the dose of 6mg kg-1 body weight of mandura bhasm produced only a minimal antianaemic (hematinic) effect, oral daily dose of 11 mg kg-1 body weight and 22mg kg-1 body weight a produced a significant (P < 0.05) antianaemic effect when compared to standard drug ferrous sulphate indicating dose dependent activity.

Conclusions: The results indicate that Mandura Bhasm have very potential dose dependant hematinic activity and can be a safe and effective drug for treating anemia.

Open Access Original Research Article

Frequency of Different Bacterial Species and their Antibiogram among Patients with Chronic Otitis Media

Mohammad Farooq Bhutta, Ashfaq Hussain, Salman Baig, Asad Ullah, Sarwath Fatimee, Urooj Zafar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 215-220
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i30B31657

Aim: To find out the frequency of different bacterial species and their antibiogram among the patients of chronic suppurative otitis media.

Study Design: Descriptivecross-sectional.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted at the ENT department of Bahawal Victoria hospital between July to December 2020.

Methodology: About 50 patients presented with unilateral or bilateral ear discharge and diagnosed as a case of chronic suppurative otitis media were included in the study. The disk diffusion method was used on Mueller-Hinton Agar to detect antimicrobial susceptibility. Multipledrugs were tested for checking antimicrobial susceptibility. The data were analyzed by using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 20.

Results: The mean age of the study participants was 13.89 ± 12.37 years. The majority of participants were froma younger age group i.e. less than10 years of age with female predominance. It had been found that the majority of cases (51%) were having Staphylococcus aureus infestation followed by Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli and very few with Proteus mirabilis. On the other hand, multiple drugs were tested to find out the antimicrobial susceptibility among the cases of chronic otitis media and the results reported that all the bacterial species were susceptible to Ceftriaxone while the other antibiotics were havinga variable response for different strains of bacteria.

Conclusion: Results concluded that the Staphylococcus aureus was the most common organism followed by Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli and very few with Proteus mirabilis. It is important to identify the pathogenic organism and its sensitivity pattern before prescribing any antibiotic.

Open Access Original Research Article

Early Outcome of Mid-Shaft Radius & Ulna Fracture Osteosynthesis through Single Posterior Incision Approach

Faheem Ahmed Memon, Siraj Ahmed Butt, Shakeel Ahmed Memon, Iftikhar Ahmed Memon, Santosh Kumar, Champa Sushel

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 221-225
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i30B31843

Objective: To determine the early outcome of mid-shaft radius and ulna fracture osteosynthesis through single posterior incision approach.

Study Design and Setting: This is a retrospective study carried out at Orthopaedic Surgery department, Liaquat University of Medical and Health Sciences Jamshoro, from September 2019 to December 2020.

Material and Methods: In total 14 patients were operated out of which 9(64.29%) were male and 5 were females through posterior single incision approach (Thompson approach). Demographic data regarding the pattern of fracture and the complications after the surgery at 2,6 and 12 weeks was collected respectively.

Results: The total number of cases operated from September 2019 to December 2020 were 14, out of 14 patients 9(64.29%) were males and 5(35.71%) were females. The average age of patients was 26.5 years ranging from 16-40 years .The average time of surgery was 61 minutes ranging from 50-70 minutes. The patients were discharged on 3rd post-operative perficial wound infection which was treated with antibiotics after culture and sensitivity There was no neurovascular deficit in all patients. All the fractures were united within 3 months time, and there was no radio ulnar synostosis observed within mean time.

Conclusion: To conclude we can say that the single posterior incision approach for treatment of mid-shaft radius ulna fractures osteyosynthisis is effective and safe provided the surgical expertise and good anatomical knowledge for identification of the vital structures are there.

Open Access Review Article

Molecular Docking in Drug Discovery

Rani T. Bhagat, Santosh R. Butle, Deepak S. Khobragade, Sagar B. Wankhede, Chandani C. Prasad, Divyani S. Mahure, Ashwini V. Armarkar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 46-58
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i30B31639

In last few years the Computer Aided Drug Design and Discovery is many success rates. In academics and many pharmaceutical industries for drug lead discovery they adopt the Computational Drug Design. The modern era of drug discovery and development structural information play an important role. For visualization of 3D-structure of molecule different docking program are developed. The docking score is analysed by using computer-based drug design software. It is structure based virtual screening method for the orientation, conformation, position into a structure of target molecule. Ligand and Protein docking is new concept. Molecular docking method complication is optimization of lead molecule, biological pathway evaluation and de Novo drug design.

Open Access Review Article

Traditional uses of Ethno-medicinal Plants in Chittagong Hill Tracts (CHTs), Bangladesh: A Review

Kanchan Chakma, Md. Morshedul Alam, Dhusarika Chakma, Robiul Hasan Bhuiyan

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 70-79
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i30B31642

Objective: Traditional medicines are of great importance to villagers and also now a day to modern drugs. Scientists are trying to explore new drug resources along with the modern drugs to support drug treatment strategy to be more effective and merely natural. Nature is the rich source of many essential bioactive compounds with more specificity and less side effects and thus, traditional medicines are got attention to the pharmacists. There are lots of medicinal plants with scientific evidences in Chittagong Hill Tracts (CHTs) region, but all that information have not yet been compiled as a review. Keeping this in mind, a review attempt has been taken by focusing on traditional medicine used mostly by the indigenous population of Chittagong Hill Tracts region, which is also a rich source of biodiversity of Bangladesh.

Methods: Research articles based on various traditional medicines focusing CHTs region were taken in consideration to compile the data sources in this review article.

Results and Conclusion: Peoples in CHTs are using various types of medicinal plants obtained from their surroundings and have been using from long since with traditional reputation. In this review, we focused on such medicinal plants along with their scientific evidences, which would attract lots of scientists to work more to unveil a new research avenue in drug development.