Open Access Minireview Article

A Comprehensive Mini Review on Co-Crystallization Process

Ananga Mohan Das, Ruhul Amin, Satyabrat Sarma, Biplab Kumar Dey, Faruk Alam

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 211-217
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i29A31580

Co‑crystal chemistry has recently attracted supramolecular scientists. Co-crystals are comprising of hydrogen bonding assembly between different molecules. Many issues related to the performance characteristics of an active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) can be resolved using the co-crystallization approach. A proper understanding of the crystal structure of an API is required for the successful formation of co-crystals with the selected co‑former. Co-crystal chemistry has recently attracted scientists from the super molecules. Co crystals consist of the assembly of hydrogen bonds between various molecules. Many problems related to the performance characteristics of an active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) can be solved using the method of co-crystallization. Co-Crystals offer an alternate pathway where any API, paying little mind to be acidic, essential, or ionizable gatherings, might be co-gem. This aspect also helps to complement existing methods by reintroducing molecules with limited pharmaceutical profiles based on their non-ionizable functional groups.

Open Access Original Research Article

Post Stroke Depression: Determination of Risk and Frequency of the Depression in Stroke Patients

Jeando Khan Daidano, Amir Shahzad, Awais Basheer Larik, Haresh Kumar, Safdar Ali Parvez Tunio, Anwar Ali Jamali, Arslan Ahmer

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i29A31546

Objective: In this study we will determine risk and frequency of the depression in stroke patients associated with quality of life.

Methodology: Study duration was from January 2020 to December 2020. An observational Cross Sectional Study was conducted on 105 patients. Study conducted in Medical units PUMHS Hospital Nawabshah. After the consent of patient, Detailed history, complete CNS examination CT Scan Brain was done. Data were analyzed by using SPSS 15 version Depression was assessed by instrument beck depression inventory.

Results: Age ranged from 48-68 years, 58 males, 48 females, Education of the patient 66 were uneducated, 17 primary pass and 22 middle pass. occupation of the patient 41 were unemployed, 40 were housewife and 24 were self employed. Depression level was 20 patients with borderline depression, 59 with moderate depression and 26 with severe depression.

Conclusion: Post stroke depression is major problem after survival. Proper Treatment of stroke and depression can be prevented from complications and quality of life can be improved. Antidepressant drugs after acute stroke cognitive function can be improved with decreased mortality. 

Open Access Original Research Article

Comparative Analysis of Antioxidant and Hemagglutination Properties of Chia and Basil Seeds

Ayesha Saman Hawaldar, Suhas Ballal

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 33-42
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i29A31563

For many years natural remedies have played a significant part in pharmaceutical biology. Even today, many health organizations depend on the natural products, WHO estimated that more than 80% population depends on the natural remedies. Chia and basil seeds are herbs that contains several beneficial minerals, proteins, vitamins and dietary fibers. They also contain omega 3 and omega 6 fatty acids (healthy) as well as the sufficient amount of polyphenols and antioxidants, like caffeic acids, myricetin and others. Current study consists of comparing the Total Antioxidant Capacity (TAC) of Chai and basil seeds with the help of various assays. Confirmatory tests to verify the presence of phytolectins in both chia and basil seeds have been done by performing hemagglutination tests. These phytolectins are the proteins that binds to the oilgosaccharides and monosaccharides in the reversible manner. Although further studies are required for isolating and characterizing the phytolectins from the seeds.

Open Access Original Research Article

A Survey on Effectiveness of B. K.S. Iyengar Yoga Plan for Cold

Parul Baghel

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 43-49
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i29A31564

Cold is generally characterized by initial symptoms of a stuffy nose, sore throat, runny nose, mild fever, headache, mild fever. Infection of cold is a viral infection. The cold lasts for a maximum of two weeks. Cold primarily affects the nose and throat, mainly the upper respiratory tract and throat are affected. The cause of cold is a viral infection, many viruses are responsible for cold. The treatment prescribed by medical practitioners involves analgesic, antihistamine, decongestant, nasal steroids. All medicines show side effects like dizziness, drowsiness, blurred vision. Thus, there is a need to find a treatment for a cold having no therapeutic side effects. Yoga is now a days followed as a way to live a healthy life.  B.K.S Iyengar yoga focuses on precise physical ailment of the body with particular postures. Very few studies on the effectiveness of B.KS Iyengar yoga have been conducted. The current survey focuses on finding the efficacy of performing specific yoga sequences for cold.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Beverages on Release of Paracetamol Tablet by In-vitro Dissolution Method Using Modified Media

Baheti Akshay, Gothoskar Abhijit, Palkar Kanchan, Wani Manish, Polshettiwar Satish, Tagalpallewar Amol, Pandit Ashlesha

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 50-57
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i29A31558

Oral route of drug delivery is one of the most preferred route of drug administration. People often consume oral solids, especially OTC drugs, at any time before or after breakfast with water or any other available hot or cold beverages. Crocin is one of the popular OTC brands of paracetamol, which is preferred in large number. Patient consumes this OTC tablet with available beverages which may be hot or cold. However, beverages interact with paracetamol, affecting the release of drug. In view of this, work was focused on study of the effect of various beverages such as coffee, tea, milk, carbonated drink and buttermilk on release of paracetamol (Crocin tablet) tablet using USP type II dissolution apparatus.  Dissolution media used was modified phosphate buffer (pH 5.8) which was further added with beverages and was analyzed by UV spectrophotometrically. Dissolution profile revealed the maximum drug release 97.03 ± 1.29% in plain water was while minimum with tea 23.64 ± 2.00%. In conclusion, beverages consumed while administering with paracetamol tablet affects the release of drug and therefore should be cautiously used or avoided with dosage forms.

Open Access Original Research Article

Impact of Activity Therapy on Improving the Self Esteem among Women with Mental Illness

Virendra Singh Choudhary, Geeta Chaudhary

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 58-66
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i29A31559

Self-esteem is an important component of psychological health. Much previous research indicates that lowered self-esteem frequently accompanies psychiatric disorders. It has been suggested that low self-esteem is an etiological factor in many psychiatric conditions as well as in suicidal individuals. Self-esteem also plays some role in quality of life for psychiatric patients.

The objective of the study is to evaluate the effectiveness of activity therapy in improving the self-esteem of mentally ill women.

A quantitative, single-group pretest posttest design is adopted and Non- probability convenient sampling technique is used to select the 60 women with mental illness at psychiatric rehabilitation centre, Jaipur, Rajasthan, India. Samples were divided in to four groups. In pre test the level of self esteem was assessed by Rosenberg Self Esteem Scale (RSES). Each group should to select in each week and gave the activity intervention. After the intervention the post was conducted.

Demographic variables were analyzed with descriptive (mean, median and standard deviation) and clinical variables were inferential statistics (Chi- square and paired “t” Test).

In this study 70.0% of the women have low self esteem score. After activity therapy intervention 76.7% of them are having normal self esteem score, 23.3% of the women are having low Self-esteem score. Women are gained 26.3% of self esteem.

These study findings concluded that nurse’s role in managing and improving the self esteem is obligatory. Through activity therapy, women with mental illness self-esteem had got improved 26.3% that indicate the effectiveness of activity therapy in improving the self-esteem of the women with mental illness.

Open Access Original Research Article

Awareness and Lifestyle Practices among Type-II Diabetics Pertaining to the Disease Attended at Outpatient Clinics of Nawabshah, Shaheed Benazirabad

Razia Sultana, Ubed-Ur-Rehman Mughal, Muhammad Ali Ghoto, Shaib Muhammad, Jabbar Abbas, Sadaf Hayat Laghari, Zaheer Mughal, Yasmeen Qureshi, Jameela Jamali, Tooba Khan

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 67-75
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i29A31565

Diabetes is a disorder that affects metabolism of carbohydrates, fats, and proteins. It has appeared as one of the deadliest pandemics causing 3.2 million deaths per year. The objective of current study was to assess the level of awareness and practice of diabetic patients who were diagnosed with Type-II diabetes mellitus (DM). A prospective, observational study was designed, and subjects of the study were the patients visiting the clinics of Nawabshah Shaheed Benazirabad. The study was conducted from September 2019 to February 2020 among 300 Type-II DM patients with minimum of 34 years of age, who had been diagnosed according to the set criteria of World Health Organization (WHO). The criteria for the sampling were set to be done by non-probability convenient sampling technique. For the collection of the data, diabetes knowledge questionnaire was used, and SPSS 25 software was used for the analysis of the collected data. The statistical analysis generated was descriptive in nature. Majority of participants were male patients (n=158, 52.7%) and major age group was >65 (n=136, 45.33%). The patients with family history of the disease were 253 (84.3%) of the total cases. The patients having poor knowledge of the disease and those with satisfactory practice and routine follow up were 207 (69.0%) and 160 (53.3%) respectively. The results show that the patients had poor knowledge of the diabetes. The practice regarding diabetes falls under the category of average routine practice. It can be concluded from the results that for the awareness of the diabetes there should be arrangements of the campaigns for the general population and with the involvement of the clinical pharmacist and endocrinologist, and by that diabetes could be managed effectively.

Open Access Original Research Article

Olfactory Function Assessment: Standardization of a New Quantitative Technique for the Indian Population

Navya Jith Jacob, D. Rajkumar, M. Sudha, Varsha Varghese, J. K. Mukkadan

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 76-83
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i29A31566

Aim: Olfactory function assessment is often neglected in clinical settings due to a lack of appropriate cost effective techniques. We therefore aimed to develop a cost effective, reliable and culturally appropriate tool for olfactory function assessment among the Indian population and to compare olfactory functions among 63 healthy controls and 32 idiopathic Parkinson’s disease patients.

Materials and Methods: Olfactory stimuli were applied to the nostrils of the participants using an olfactometer. Five different odoriferous substances common to Indian culture were used for the study in three different concentrations: ginger (1%, 2%, 3%), cardamom (0.4%, 2%, 3%), garlic (0.8%, 1.4%, 2%), coffee (1.6%, 2%, 4%), vanilla (2%, 3%, 4%). Olfactory recognition threshold, olfactory identification score and olfactory discrimination score were observed among the control population and Parkinson’s disease population.

Results: The olfactory recognition threshold was significantly high among the Parkinson’s disease group compared to controls (Mann Whitney U test, p<0.001). Reliability was tested using the test-retest method among the control group and all olfactory variables in three different concentrations had either r value closer to 1 or 1, which shows an acceptable level of reliability. The correlation was found to be significant (p<0.001). A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve drawn for olfactory recognition thresholds at different concentrations for the five odouriferous substances and the area was determined to classify cases and controls (Determined areas: ginger = 0.928, cardamom = 0.955, garlic = 0.921, Coffee = 0.950, vanilla = 0.950). The area under the curve was found to be significant in classifying the cases and the control.

Conclusion: The newly developed olfactory assessment tool was found to be reliable and effective in assessing olfactory parameters like recognition threshold, identification score and discrimination score among the Indian population.

Open Access Original Research Article

Prognosis of EBV Infection in Children with Tonsillitis

Reza Erfanian, Saeed Sohrabpour

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 100-108
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i29A31568

Aims: Determining the prognosis of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection with in children with tonsillitis.

Methods: Totally 102 children with chronic tonsillitis admitted to our hospital between January 2017 and March 2019 were selected. Among them, 52 children with EBV infection were assigned to a case group, and the other 50 without EBV infection to a control group. All children were given targeted therapy. Then the two groups were compared in efficacy, defervescence time, alleviation time of tonsillar enlargement and pharyngalgia after therapy, immune function-associated indexes and inflammatory factor-associated indexes before and after therapy, incidence of adverse reactions during therapy, and recurrence times during therapy and 1-year follow-up.

Results: Compared with the case group, the control group showed notably better efficacy, experienced notably shorter alleviation time of tonsillar enlargement and pharyngalgia, and presented better improvement in immune function and inflammation (all P<0.05). Additionally, the two groups were not greatly different in the incidence of adverse reactions (P>0.05), while the control group experienced notably less times of recurrence during therapy and 1-year follow-up (P<0.05).

Conclusion: EBV infection will compromise the efficacy on children with tonsillitis and take its toll on their prognosis, so it is imperative to adopt a targeted and individualized therapeutic regimen for children with both diseases.

Open Access Original Research Article

Cardioprotective effect of Butanol Fraction of Rivea ornata against H2O2 Induced Oxidative Stress in H9c2 Cells: Role of its Phenolic Content and Antioxidant Effect

Akkiraju Sudheer, M. V. Jyothi, N. Devanna

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 109-123
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i29A31569

Rivea ornata used traditionally for various disease of heart. However, its protective effect against oxidative stress induced injury is unclear and unproved. So, we attempted to investigate the protective role of butanol fraction of Rivea ornata on H9c2 cardiomyocytes against oxidative stress induced by H2O2. Ethanol extract and its fractions such as n-hexane, ethyl acetate and butanol fractions were assessed for its phytochemical composition, total phenolic and flavonoid content and assessed in vitro antioxidant activity by using established assays such as DPPH, H2O2 neutralization activity, ferric reduction assays and total antioxidant capacity. Among all the extracts/fractions butanol fraction found with high phenolic (82.4 ± 4.61 mg of GAE/g) and flavonoid (105 ± 4.09 mg of QE/g) content as well as possess strong antioxidant abilities evident by comparative lowest IC50 values for DPPH (41.80 µg/mL), H2O2 neutralization assay (35.39 µg/m), highest ferric reduction at 120µg/mL and high antioxidant capacity equivalent to quercetin (72.5±2.98 µg/mL). By considering these results, only butanol fraction assessed for its protective effect H2O2 induced oxidative stress on H9c2 cardiac cell lines was assessed by MTT, LDH assay and ROS expression studies. Butanol fraction at 25µg/mL maintain H9c2 cell lines viability (in MTT assay), cell integrity (decreased LDH release) and decreased ROS expression (decrease in percentage mean fluorescence). These findings are proved antioxidant rich polyphenolic butanol fraction protective effect against oxidative stress injury observed with H2O2 by maintain cell viability, cell integrity and ROS expression.

Open Access Original Research Article

Prevalence and Characteristics of Adverse Drug Reaction among Patients in Jubail, Saudi Arabia

Hussain Alyousif, Mohammed Tarawneh, Zainab Al Madan, Abdulmuhsen Hussein

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 124-134
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i29A31570

Introduction: Adverse Drug Reactions (ADRs) often causes prolonged hospitalization and have an increased risk of mortality. Adverse drug reaction can greatly affect the quality of life. It may lead to various undesired outcomes such as use of suboptimal alternative drugs, unnecessary investigations and delayed treatment. This study aims to evaluate the prevalence and characteristics of adverse drug reaction as well as, risk factors of allergic drug reactions among hospitalized patients at the secondary care center Royal Commission Hospital (RCH) in Jubail, Saudi Arabia.

Methods: A cross-sectional study conducted at the RCH in Jubail, Saudi Arabia. The study included all patients admitted to RCH during the period from 2017 to 2019. All patients admitted to RCH during the study period were reviewed to identify those with at least one documented drug allergy incident. The data was collected by the study authors from the hospital medical electronic data system by using a structured questionnaire that consists of two sections. The main section is the one adapted from the Adverse Drug Reaction Probability Scale (Naranjo).

Results: A total of 93 patients with reported ADR were recruited in the current study, more than half (55.91%) of them were females, with a mean age of 35.79 ± 21.18. There was a statistically significant (P-value 0.042) difference in the prevalence of ADR by gender, and the "definitely" identified ADR cases were all males. Besides, the correlation was also significant (P<0.05) between the prevalence of ADR and the use of specific antagonists as well as the committee action. The suspected medications for ADR were mainly antibiotics by 54%, particularly the third generation cephalosporins at 13%, followed by the penicillin subtype at 11%. Ceftriaxone was the highest at 13.54%, followed by vancomycin at 9.38%, and cefazolin at 8.33%. This was followed by analgesic class at 14%.

Conclusion: ADRs reported in the current study were mainly probable, and the definite ones were within the reported prevalence globally. The maximum number of ADRs reported was with antibiotics. The majority of patients had recovered from the ADRs.

Open Access Original Research Article

A Video-Assisted Anal Fistula Treatment (VAAFT): A New Minimally Invasive Treatment Option for Fistula in Ano

Nawaz Ali Dal, Arshad Hussain Abro, Muhammad Anwar Memon, Ahmer Akbar Memon, Muhammad Qasim Mallah, Danish Haider Khoso, Ubedullah Shaikh

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 135-139
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i29A31571

Objective: To determine the outcome of video-assisted anal fistula treatment (VAAFT): A new minimally invasive treatment option for fistula in ano.

Study Design: This is an observational study.

Setting: Study carried out at General Surgery department, Liaquat University of Medical and Health Sciences Jamshoro, form January 2020 to June 2020.

Material & Method: Inclusion criteria for this study were patients aged 18-60 years visiting the outpatient department with primary/recurrent fistula having symptoms. Among these individuals having anal fistula due to secondary causes like IBD, tuberculosis or any malignancy were not included in the study. VAAFT was performed by experience general surgeon and post-operative follow up was done till 1 years.

Results: A total of 68 patients with fistula in ano were selected for video assisted anal fistula treatment (VAAFT) in our setup. It included 67.6% (n=46) males and 32.3% (n=22) females who agreed for the procedure. The mean age of patients were found to be 43+13 years. Post-operatively complete healing was observed in 75% (n=51) patients and 14.7% patients had persistent fistula after the procedure. 

Conclusion: VAAFT is a minimally invasive surgical intervention implied to treat primary and recurrent anal fistulas, having lesser rates of recurrence and few post-operative complications. It should be implied over large scales for treatment of primary and recurrent anal fistula as it  carries the lowest rate of anal incontinence.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effects of Different Beverages on Salivary pH and Time Taken by Saliva to Regain Normal pH among Teenagers

Haris Hirani, Nasima Iqbal, Ali Nawaz Bijarani, Unaiza Pervaiz Hashmi, Samreen Khurram, Nasir Jamal Baig

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 140-144
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i29A31572

Introduction: Status of oral health depends on diet that we consume on daily basis. Diet does not predispose tissues of oral cavity at risk but it’s the change in pH that leads to acidic oral environment causing dry mouth, tooth decay, erosion and bad breath. Potential role of various foods in enamel demineralization has been evaluated. The decreased pH for longer durations ultimately leads to enamel dissolution and lesion formation. the current study is aimed to evaluate the change in pH in oral cavity after consumption of Milk, Milk with added sugar, carbonated drink and fresh lemon juice.

Methodology: It was a cross sectional study conducted at tertiary care hospital of Karachi from November 2020 to January 2021. An elementary school was contacted for permission access to recruit the teen ager students (13-16year) of either gender. The total calculated sample size at 50% proportion of school strength was 140 students that were further divided into 4 groups i.e., 35 students / group. Recruited participants were educated regarding the study protocols and aims moreover they were divided into groups (Group A, B, C and D) randomly and milk, milk with added sugar, carbonated drink and fresh lemon juice was given to participants to drink in respective order of grouping. After consumption of specific drink pH readings were recorded after 15 minutes, 30 minutes, 1 hour and 2 hours. Saliva was obtained in sterile container for 5 times from one participant. The salivary pH was directly estimated using the digital pH meter (SIGMA pH meter: model number 131) calibrated with buffers of pH 4 and 7.

Results: The mean age of participants was 13.9 ± 2.3 years. There were 89 (63.5%) females and 51 (36.4%) males. Most of the participants were from 8th and 9th class. The decrease in pH of saliva after consumption of either drink was observed in all groups when compared to controls. The paired t test analysis revealed a significant (p-value=0.002) decrease in pH after 15 minutes and that acidic level of pH was maintained for 30 minutes (p-value=0.037). ANOVA analysis showed insignificant relation among all groups after having beverages. As after two hours salivary pH returned to normal range when compared to control.

Conclusion: There was no any difference in salivary pH after consuming milk, milk with added sugar, carbonated drink and fresh lemon juice after 15 minutes. After 2 hours pH of saliva reverts to its normal value.

Open Access Original Research Article

Comparison of Postoperative Bleeding with and without Discontinuing the Antiplatelet Drugs (Aspirin, Clopidogrel) after Tooth Extraction

Ismatullah Qureshi, Muhammad Shahzad, Uzma Bashir, Bashir Ahmed Jalbani, Abdul Salam Memon, Salman Shams

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 145-151
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i29A31573

Background: A significant percentage of people who see a dentist are on antiplatelet treatment, and the rest of them have stopped taking these medications for 3 to 7 days prior to dental surgical surgery to avoid unnecessary bleeding and the possibility of adverse thrombotic cases. This study was conducted to compare postoperative bleeding with and without stopping antiplatelet drugs in tooth extraction.

Materials and Methods: Patients were divided into two groups, Group A consists of extraction of tooth without discontinuation of antiplatelet and Group B consists of extraction of tooth with discontinuation of antiplatelet with the consent from treating physician/cardiologist. All patients underwent for extraction under local anesthesia. Postoperatively, the amount of blood lost during the operation was calculated, any oozing or bleeding was looked at the operated spot and occurrence or nonappearance of oozing, as well as active bleeding was measured.

Results: Mean age of group A patients was 55.08 years and mean age of group B was 52.92 years. After 1 hour assessment of bleeding status, active bleeding was 12% in group A and 6% was in group B, findings were non-significant (p=0.271). After 24 hours assessment of bleeding status, there was no bleeding in 42% patients of group A and 58% patients of group B, oozing was in 34% patients of group A and 26% patients of group B, while active bleeding was 24% in group A and 16% was in group B, findings were non-significant (p=0.271). Mean of bleeding (in grams) was higher in Group A as compared to Group B (p=0.041).

Conclusion: There was no significant effect on bleeding during tooth extraction with continuation of anticoagulant therapy

Open Access Original Research Article

An Experimental Exploratory Study for the Mechanism of Anti-Inflammatory Action of Mecca Myrrh (Commiphora opobalsamum)

Akram A. Al–Salmi, Mai A. Alim A. Sattar Ahmad, Lateef M. Khan

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 152-165
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i29A31574

Background: Our recent past studies accomplished the target to investigate the anti-inflammatory effect as well as toxicological profile of Commiphora opobalsamum (CO), with almost identical potency in comparison to the contemporary anti-inflammatory drugs. This inspired us to explore its mechanism of action to further strengthen its efficacy.

Aim: To investigate the mechanism of anti-inflammatory action of CO by exploration of its correlation to its antioxidant activity as well as inhibitory effect on inflammatory mediators by interaction with MDA, NO, PGE2 and TNF-α.

Methods: 10 weeks old male Swiss albino mice (30 to 40 g) were used. Carrageenan–induced paw edema method was used, pretreatment with CO alone in different doses and in combination with diclofenac was done prior to carrageenan administration, subsequently homogenate of the paw was used to quantify the levels of MDA, NO, PGE2 and TNF-α by using their specific assays. In addition, Histological examination of edema paw was performed to evaluate the anti-inflammatory effect of CO extract versus diclofenac and control investigating their impact on the inflammatory cell migration and edema formation.

Results: CO extract in the dose of 500mg/kg demonstrated maximum reduction of MDA level; hence antioxidant activity of CO could be contributed to its anti-inflammatory effect. Furthermore, notable observation indicated that CO administration significantly suppress increment in NO level in response to carrageenan, unequivocally significant inhibition of PGE2 accumulation at the site of inflammation by the pretreatment of CO extract was observed in the dose of 500mg/kg (0.001). Finally in contrast, the CO extract in the dose of 500mg/kg significantly accomplished the reduction of TNF-α in the paw in comparison to the control group (p<0.05).

Conclusion: In this study we have illustrated a pioneering perspective to elucidate the mechanism of anti- inflammatory and antioxidant action of methanolic extract of CO, attributed through suppression of MDA. NO, PGE2 and TNF-α at the site of inflammation.

Open Access Original Research Article

Design and In silico Studies of 2,5-Disubstituted 1,2,4-Triazole and 1,3,4-Thiadiazole Derivatives as Pteridine Reductase 1 Inhibitors

Shraddha Phadke, Devender Pathak, Rakesh Somani

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 166-178
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i29A31575

Aims: Design and in silico studies of 2,5-disubstituted triazole and thiadiazole derivatives as Pteridine Reductase 1 inhibitors. With a view to develop effective agents against Leishmaniasis, 2-substituted-5-[(1H-benzimidazol-2yl) methyl] azole derivatives (A1-A12) were designed against the target enzyme Pteridine reductase 1.

Methodology: The series was designed by targeting Pteridine reductase 1 which is an enzyme responsible for folate and pterin metabolism. Based on thorough study of the enzyme structure and structural features of ligands required for optimum interaction with the enzyme, a series of 12 compounds consisting of 2,5-disubstituted 1,2,4-triazole and 1,3,4-thiadiazole derivatives was designed. In silico studies were carried out which included docking studies (using V Life software) to understand binding of the compounds with enzyme PTR1, ADMET studies, drug likeness studies for physicochemical properties and bioactivity studies to understand the possible mechanism of action of the compounds. These studies were undertaken using online softwares, molinspiration and admetSAR web servers.

Results: Compounds A10 and A12 gave the best docking scores of -59.9765 and -60.4373 respectively that were close to dihydrobiopterin (original substrate). All the compounds complied with Lipinski’s rule of five. Most of the compounds displayed favorable ADMET properties.

Conclusion: The 2,5-disubstituted 1,2,4-triazole and 1,3,4-thiadiazole derivatives exhibited good binding affinity for PTR1 enzyme (PDB code: 1E92). The docking scores indicated that enzyme binding may be governed by the nature and size of the substituents on the azole ring. The compounds display well-defined drug-like and pharmacokinetic properties based on Lipinski’s rule of five with additional physicochemical and ADMET parameters. Bioactivity studies suggested the possible drug mechanism as enzyme inhibition. Hence, this study provides evidence for consideration of valuable ligands in 2,5-disubstituted 1,2,4-triazole and 1,3,4-thiadiazole derivatives as potential pteridine reductase 1 inhibitor and further in vitro and in vivo investigations may prove its therapeutic potential.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Different Brands of Cefixime Available in Pakistan by Newly Developed Spectrophotometric Method

Madan Lal Maheshwari, Ubed-ur-Rahman Mughal, Geeta Kumari, Bilawal Shaikh, Maryam Qazi, Hosh Muhammad Lashari, Muhammad Akram Khatri, Narendar Kumar, Dharam Dev, Saeed Ahmed Lakho

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 179-185
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i29A31576

A fast, simple and valued method is developed to observe the quality and quantity of different pharmaceutical brands of cefixime. A spectrophotometric method has been developed for analysis of cefixime (CFX) by reacting with 4-dimethylamino benzaldehyde (DAB) as derivatizing agent. The molar absorptivity of CFX-DAB, newly synthesized derivative was calculated as 3.2 x 105 L.mole-1cm-1 and λ maximum was 393 nm. The calibration curve was developed in range of 5-25 µg.mL-1as this concentration followed beers law. The derivatization reaction is stable and didn’t show any difference in absorbance with radiation interaction for up to one day. The percentage recovery of CFX was checked and calculated in different pharmaceuticals was within 95 to 99.5% with RSD value calculated in between RSD 0.69-0.96% (n=3), respectively. This newly developed and validated procedure was proved to be accurate and precise for the analysis of CFX. This method was successfully applied to check amount of CFX from 7 different brands of pharmaceutical preparations commercially available in Pakistan.

Open Access Original Research Article

Frequency of Sensorineural Hearing Loss among Children with Pyogenic Meningitis

Salman Baig, Muhammad Salman Khan, Nasima Iqbal, Tayyaba Mumtaz, Ashfaq Hussain, Urooj Zafar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 186-190
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i29A31577

Aim: To find out the frequency of sensorineural hearing loss among children with pyogenic meningitis.

Study Design: Cross-sectional.

Place and Duration of Study: Study was conducted at Ziauddin university hospital during the period of July 2019 to February 2020.

Methodology: About 96 participants were enrolled in the study between the age group of one month up to 12 years. Patients were included on the basis of clinical presentation and laboratory findings of pyogenic meningitis. An expert audiologist performed the brainstem evoked response audiometry test before discharging the patient from the hospital. For data analysis SPSS version-20 was used. All the quantitative variables were calculated as mean with standard deviation while qualitative data were presented as frequency and percentages. To find out association between variables, the Mann Whitney U-test and chi-square test was applied while P-value ≤0.05 was considered as significant.

Results: Mean age with standard deviation was 6.8 ±2.3.  Majority of the study participants were boys (57%). The frequency of sensorineural hearing loss was 17%. It was more among females than their male counter parts that was 64.7% and 35.3% respectively but no significant association was reported. The younger age group was having higher frequency of sensorineural hearing loss (47.1%), followed by the age group of 6-8 years (29.4%) and the very small number of participants were affected from the age group of 9-12 years (23.5%) but all the age groups were having no significant association with frequency of hearing loss.

Conclusion: It can be concluded that sensorineural hearing loss is the most common complication reported among the children with pyogenic meningitis in current setup so there is a need of early evaluation of hearing problems in all patients diagnosed with pyogenic meningitis.

Open Access Original Research Article

Antitumor Activity of Turnera subulata Sm. (Turneraceae) in Hep G2 Cancer Cell Line

P. Sri Bala Jeya Krishna Sri, M. Praveen Kumar, S. Padmavathy

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 191-199
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i29A31578

Turnera subulata are bright common garden flowers that are grown in Asian regions. Mostly flowers of several kinds have medicinal properties and applications. This is as one of a kind that contains compounds that has medicinal application. The present studies are targeted to investigate the phytochemical composition through GC-MS technique, antimicrobial activity and antitumor activity via MTT assay against Hep G2 (or HepG2), a human liver cancer cell line. Ethanol (EtOH) extracts has reasonable antitumor activity against Hep G2 for period of 24 h and 48 h and the aqueous part was non-reactive. From gas chromatography‑mass spectrometry (GC-MS), a sum of 27 identified natural compounds exhibiting against cancer cell. Some traces of flavouring agents and antifungal agent with very low GC-MS peak lengths are too observed furaneol (2,4-Dihydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furan-3-one), benzeneacetaldehyde, benzoic acid and undecanoic acid. Hence, the result that indicates the flavouring agents including flavonoids along with phenolic and other acidic compounds have important characteristic property in reducing and treating against cancer cells.

Open Access Original Research Article

Potential Therapeutic effect of Bee Venom on Cisplatin-Induced Hepatotoxicity

Shroq A. Hassan, Reem S. Alazragi, Neveen A. Salem

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 200-210
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i29A31579

The fact that cisplatin (CIS) can induce hepatotoxicity has limited its therapeutic uses, although it is recognised as a highly potent antineoplastic drug. Bee venom (BV) is an important toxin that exerts a potent anti-inflammatory effect and demonstrates significant pharmacological activities. The aim of this research was to investigate the therapeutic impact of BV administration orally on CIS-induced hepatotoxicity in a rat model when compared with individual drug therapy. Thirty albino male rats were used in this study. The rats were classified into three groups, each with ten rats (n = 10). The control group was group I, while groups II and III got CIS (a single dose of 7.5 mg/kg interperitoneally). After 24 hours, group III received BV (1 mg/kg orally), which was then administered daily for four weeks. The rats’ serum liver functions were estimated. The oxidative stress, antioxidant status, inflammatory mediators and fibrogenic and apoptotic markers were determined in the liver tissues. The results revealed that the administration of CIS induced a significant elevation in the serum aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase and bilirubin levels, which was associated with a decrease in the albumin level. Additionally, significant increases in the hepatic tissue malondialdehyde, tumor necrosis factor alpha, interferon gamma, transforming growth factor beta, fibronectin and caspase-3 levels were noted. Moreover, significant decreases in the superoxide dismutase and catalase activities as well as the glutathione level were detected in the hepatic tissues. The administration of BV resulted in the notable amelioration of the aforementioned parameters. Interestingly, these parameters were restored to almost normal levels following administration of CIS and BV. The histopathological investigation revealed multiple focal inflammation sites that appeared to be associated with hepatic necrosis in the hepatic tissues of the CIS-treated rats. The co-administration of BV preserved the normal architecture of the hepatic tissues. These results indicate that the co-administration of BV exerts potent anti-hepatotoxic and cytoprotective effects by combating oxidative stress, inflammation, fibrogenic and apoptotic markers and histopathological changes. Thus, this study provides strong evidence of the superiority of combination drug therapy when compared with individual drug therapy.

Open Access Original Research Article

Polyphenols Content and Antioxidant Activity of Bilberry Juice Obtained from Different Altitude Samples

Stoyan I. Papanov, Ekaterina G. Petkova, Ivan G. Ivanov

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 218-223
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i29A31581

There are about 30 different types of blueberries. In Bulgaria, there are 4 species of genus Vaccinium - red (vitis-idaea), black (myrtillus), blue (uliginosum) and Caucasian (arctostaphylos). Bilberries are a source of carotene, vitamin B1, vitamin B2, potassium, sodium, calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, iron, vitamin D, manganese, soluble and insoluble fibres like pectin. Blueberries contain significant amounts of anthocyanidins, antioxidants and ellagic acid. The main wealth of blueberries are the antioxidants that bind free radicals and thus prevent malignant tumors. This is why blueberry is an excellent remedy for oncology.

Objective of study was to investigate the content of total polyphenols, antioxidant activity and total anthocyanins of bilberry depending on altitude.

Systematic approach and critical analysis of the available scientific periodicals and DPPH method for determining the antioxidant activity (radical trapping activity).

It has been established a direct relationship between altitude and antioxidant activity. In the range of 900 to 1450 m the relationship between altitude and total anthocyanins is inversely proportional. After 1500 m, the dependency becomes proportional. There is no correlation between pH, total polyphenols and titratable acidity.

Open Access Original Research Article

Efficacy of Capparis spinosa Linn Leaf and Fruit Extracts on Giardia Lambia Cysts In vitro

Aram Mohamadian, Asad Mirzaei, Naser Abbasi, Razi Naserifar, Jalil Feizi, Parviz Karimi, Ali Khorshidi, Nahid Maspi, Jahangir Abdi

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 224-230
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i29A31582

Aims: Giardia lamblia (G. lamblia) is one of the most common intestinal parasites worldwide. There are some side effects and the reports of parasite resistance to metronidazole as the first line treatment of giardiasis. Therefore, it is essential to discover an effect and safe drug to treat giardiasis.

Methodology: In this study, the anti-parasitic activity of hydroalcoholic extracts of Capparis spinosa Linn (C. spinosa) leaves and fruits with different concentrations (4 to 0.125 mg/ml) was assessed against human isolates of the G. lamblia cysts and incubated at 37℃. After staining Giardia cysts with 0.1% eosin, the lethal percentage and 50% lethal concentration (LC50) of fruit and leave C. spinosa L extracts and metronidazole on G. lamblia cysts were calculated after 3, 6, 24 and 48 hours.

Results: Anti-giardia activity of fruit and leaf extracts of C. spinosa was different between concentrations and time points (p<0.005). The lethal effect of both C. spinosa L extracts and metronidazole increased significantly in a concentration - and time–dependent response (P<0.0001). The highest lethal percentage of G. lamblia cysts was observed a concentration of 4 mg / ml of fruit (100%) and leaf (44%) extracts of C. spinosa L after 48 hours, respectively. LC50 values were 0.38 ± 0.02mg/ml for fruit extract, 2.32 ± 0.1 mg/ml for leaf extract and 0.53 ± 0.03 µg/ml for metronidazole after 48hours.

Conclusion: C. spinosa can be effective in eliminating Giardia cyst of contaminated environments and water.

Open Access Review Article

A Review on Heavy Metal Contamination in Herbals

Maruti Shelar, Vaibhav Gawade, Santosh Bhujbal

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 7-16
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i29A31561

Nearly 70-80% of the world's population relies on non-conventional medicines, often derived from herbal plants, according to World Health Organization (WHO) figure. Medicinal plants are starting material for any herbal preparation such as herbal medicines, herbal teas, herbal oil etc. These preparations are being used worldwide due to their therapeutic potential and as they are considered to be safe as compared to allopathic medicines. Lead, cadmium, chromium, nickel, arsenic and mercury are the most common toxic metals that have become a matter of concern due to the reports of their contamination in various herbal preparations and herbal ingredients .Although the minimum acceptable limits have been laid out as safety concern. Heavy metal are evaluated by AAS, ICP-OES, ICP-MS, XRFS, HPLC, DPP, NAA, ASV and disposable sensor applications for achieving therapeutic efficacy and evolutions of heavy metal in herbals. 

Open Access Review Article

Phyto-pharmacological and Biological Aspects of Vitex negundo Medicinal Plant - A Review

B. Neha, R. Jannavi, Prabhu Sukumaran

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 17-32
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i29A31562

Vitex negundo Linn is an important medicinal plant belonging to the Verbenaceae family. Every part of the plant is enriched with therapeutic value; hence the plant plays a pivotal role in traditional medicine systems. The presence of secondary metabolites such as alkaloids, flavonoids, terpenoids and phenolic compounds in the various plant parts are responsible for the anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-microbial and anti-cancer properties which are being exploited in the treatment of cancer, cardiovascular diseases and so on. The major phytochemical components are Vitexin (8-(β-D-Glucopyranosyl)-4′,5,7-trihydroxyflavone), Isovitexin (5,7-dihydroxy-2-(4-hydroxyphenyl) 6[(2S,3R,4R,5S,6R)-3,4,5-trihydroxy-6-(hydroxymethyl) oxan-2-yl]chromen-4-one), Vitedoin and Negundin((7R,8S)-8-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-6, 7-bis(hydroxymethyl)-3-methoxy-7,8-dihydronaphthalen-2-ol). The scope of Vitex negundo as an adjuvant in modern medicine is huge. Therefore, this review focuses on research conducted till date to evaluate the phytochemical composition, and pharmacological activities of Vitex negundo medicinal plant.

Open Access Review Article

Systemic Review of Screening the Shapes of Ibuprofen Particles in Different Solvents

Md. Abdur Rashid

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 84-99
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i29A31567

Ibuprofen is a very popular analgesic which is mostly available in the market as tablet dosage form. The ibuprofen molecule possesses a chiral center in the propionic acid group. So, there are two enantiomers (R and S), whose chemical properties are similar, but which have optical rotations of opposite sign. The (-) form (l- or laevo-) is the R (-) enantiomer whereas the (+) form (d or dextro-) is referred to as S (+) – ibuprofen. The R (-) isomer is biologically inactive while the S (+) isomer is active. The R (-) form however is slowly converted to the S (+) active form during metabolism in the human body by the presence of the enzyme isomerase (2-arylpropionyl-CoA epimerase). Thus, a large difference in the body potency between the two enantiomers is not found.

During manufacturing of tablet, ibuprofen particle plays a significant role in flowability and compressibility etc. Theoretically particle size and shape have great impact on those sorts of mechanical properties of tablets. The morphology can influence physical properties such as packing density, bulk density, agglomeration, and dissolution behaviour as well as the mechanical strength and wet ability. Furthermore, crystal shapes have also been found to have an effect on the bioavailability of the resulting APIs. Commercial ibuprofen typically has a needle shaped morphology with rough surfaces and show poor flowability, poor compaction behavior and a tendency to stick to the tablet punches. To overcome these problems, a suitable size and shape of ibuprofen crystal is desirable that could be directly compressed with fewer operation steps but still having good product stability and therapeutic efficacy, but it can be changed through recrystallization or other methods such as spray drying, etc. Ibuprofen crystallized from solvents with a high hydrogen bonding ability like methanol will form chunky crystals and low hydrogen bonding solvents like hexane will form needle like crystals. Therefore, it was necessary to review the shapes of ibuprofen particles in different solvents.

This review paper has covered a comprehensive studies of ibuprofen particle shapes in different solvents and cosolvents.