Open Access Short Communication

Study of Naturally-derived Biomolecules as Therapeutics against SARS-CoV-2 Viral Spike Protein

Pitambar Khanal, Udeep Chawla, Shagufta Praveen, Zeenat Malik, Sheeba Malik, Mohd Yusuf, Shafat Ahmad Khan, Munesh Sharma

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 211-220
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i28A31524

The SARS-CoV2 virus, the causative agent for COVID-19 disease has to lead to more than 3.1 million deaths and crossed 146 million infections worldwide so far. Although vaccines development and emergency authorization has been approved by several governments, there has been great concern about its side effects for the long term and its effectiveness against new mutated strains. A resurgence of COVID-19 or related disease can be catastrophic. There is an urgent need to look for effective antiviral agents for many coronavirus strains with minimum side-effects, and maximum efficacy globally. Several, naturally-derived biomolecules have proved their excellent effect on several infectious diseases in a multi-mode fashion by targeting several pathways as well as increasing efficacy with high safety profile. Integrate computational prediction design was used in the study to examine the pharmacology of bioactive compounds of natural origin against SARS-CoV2 spike protein. Keeping these facts we have computationally examined 16 naturally occurring compounds using to evaluate their effectiveness against the SARS-CoV2 virus using the molecular docking technique. Hesperidin derivatives are known to ameliorate diabetes, co-morbidity for coronavirus, as well as help in preventing post coronavirus complications. We found the binding free energy of Hesperidin with spike protein to be -7.57 kcal/mol, the aglycone derivative to be -6.93 kcal/mol, hesperidin monoacetyl derivative to be -7.82 kcal/mol, and hesperidin pentaacetyl derivative to be -8.39 kcal/mol. Our findings revealed that acetylated derivatives of hesperidin showed significant improved remarked binding affinity while aglycone derivative hesperetin showed a decrease in binding affinity. Our studies give a new direction where natural bioactive compounds and their derivatives can be modulated and used after clinical trials to effectively inhibit coronavirus infection as well as diabetes simultaneously with a high safety profile.

 

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Open Access Original Research Article

Hepatitis C Treatment by Directly Acting Antiviral Agents and Its Impact on Glycemic Control

Darshan Kumar, Ahsan Mobin, Hafeezullah Shaikh, Syed Mohammad Kashif, Zunaira Nawaz, Muhammad Arif Iqbal, Ubedullah Shaikh

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 31-35
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i28A31507

Objective: To evaluate Hepatitis C treatment by directly acting antiviral agents and its impact on glycemic control.           

Study Design: This is an observational study.

Setting: This study was conducted in Medicine department Civil Hospital Karachi from March 2018 to December 2019.

Materials and Methods: Patients visiting the outpatient department of the hospital having documented HCV infection having type 2 diabetes mellitus were included in the study. All participants were given directly acting antiviral treatment for 12 weeks. After treatment they were assessed for achievement of sustained virological response (SVR). Pre-treatment and post treatment fasting blood glucose levels and HbA1c levels were checked. SVR is defined as serum HCV RNA which is undetectable (<50IU/ml) after 12 weeks of antiviral treatment.

Results: Around 332 patients matched our inclusion criteria. Amongst these there were 219 males and 113 females. The mean age of patients was 39.44 ± 2.19 years. All the selected participants started therapy on Sofosbuvir-velpatasvir (pangenotypic NS5A-NS5B inhibitor single-pill combination regimen that has potent activity against hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotypes 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6.) plus ribavirin. After treatment with directly acting antiviral therapy 231 (69.57%) patients achieved sustained virological response. Patients who achieved SVR showed improved glycaemic control than those who didn’t. Patients with cirrhosis showed decreased chances of attainment of SVR. Fasting blood glucose levels and HbA1c were also decreased, decreasing the amount of insulin required for diabetes control. 

Conclusion: Our study showed that treatment with directly acting antiviral treatment improved glycaemic control in HCV infected patients. Other factors like BMI, presence of cirrhosis, mean serum HCV RNA levels and adherence to treatment were major predictors for achievement of SVR.

Open Access Original Research Article

Scanning Electron Microscopic Evaluation of Marginal Adaptation of Three Endodontic Sealers: An Ex-Vivo Study

Neeta Padmawar, Viddyasagar Moapagr, Vinay Vadvadgi, Jayshree Vishwas, Sourabh Joshi, Meghna Padubidri

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 49-57
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i28A31510

Introduction: To avoid the entry of micro-organism or their products, sealer should completely adapt to the root canal wall so that no gaps will be present. AH plus is the most routinely used sealer. EndoRez is methacrylate resin-based self as well as light cured sealer. Endosequence BC RCS is the recently introduced bioceramic based sealer.

Aim: To evaluate the marginal adaptation of Endosequence BS RCS, EndoRez and AH plus as a root canal sealer to root dentin under electron scanning microscope.

Methods: Total 75 freshly extracted permanent maxillary central incisors with single canal were included in this study. All the teeth were decoronated till twelve millimeter and access cavity was prepared. All the teeth were prepared with rotary protaper till# F3 with intermediate copious irrigation with 3% sodium hypochlorite and 17%EDTA.Teeth were randomly divided into three groups according to sealers and were obturated- Endosequence BC RCS, Ah Plus and EndoRez. Access cavity was restored with glass ionomer type II in all the groups. After seven days, teeth were vertically sectioned and evaluated under electron scanning microscope for marginal adaptation.

Results: Marginal gaps were present in all groups. Maximum number of gaps were present in Ah plus group. Endosequence BC RCS group showed least number of gaps.

Discussion: Marginal adaptation of sealer depends upon the properties like flow, viscosity, presence or absence of smear layer etc. Better adaptation of Endosequence BC RCS to root dentin is due to formation of mineral infiltration zone which results in formation of calcific tags in dentine.

Conclusion: Within the limitation of present study, newly introduced Endosequence BC RCS showed better marginal adaptability to root dentine. Further studies are required to evaluate and corelate these findings with other properties of these sealers.

Open Access Original Research Article

Formulation, Optimization and Evaluation of Ion Triggered Ophthalmic in Situ Gel

Amol Tagalpallewar, Prajvita Rai, Satish Polshettiwar, Wani Manish, Akshay Baheti

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 58-77
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i28A31511

Topical eye drop is the convenient and patient compliant route of drug administration, particularly for the treatment of anterior part diseases. Transport of drugs to the targeted ocular tissues is limited by various precorneal, active and stationary ocular barriers. The aim of developed, optimized and evaluated ion sensitive brimonidine tartrate in situ gel is patient compliance and maximum therapeutic activity in   the treatment of glaucoma. The effect of independent variables that are polymer concentration on dependent variables like the percent drug release, gelling time and viscosity was studied. The optimized formulation was further evaluated for ex-vivo study and histopathology study. Experimental study showed that optimized in situ gel formulation (F6) showed in vitro, ex vivo sustained release with polymer sodium alginate and hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose (HPMC) K4M. The optimized formulation F6 presented increased retention time upto 8 hours. The developed in situ gel can be a promising ophthalmic formulation to increase retention time of formulation and hence it will reduce the intra ocular pressure. The histopathology studies reveals the safety of prepared formulation. The stability studies revealed no significant change in the drug content and physical properties.

Open Access Original Research Article

Studies on Pancreatic Gene Expression in Diabetic Rats Treated with Moringa oleifera Leaf

Arvin Nwakulite, Emmanuel Ifeanyi Obeagu, H. U. Nwanjo, D. C. Nwosu, I. N. Nnatuanya, C. C. N. Vincent, Chukwudi Ofodile Amaechi, Ogochukwu, Mary-Theodora Barbara Ochiabu, Adaobi Maryann Ibekwe, Chukwuma J. Okafor, Getrude Uzoma Obeagu, Nkiruka Millicent Amadi

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 78-86
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i28A31512

Moringa oleifera leaf have been used for treatment of diabetes, in this work we studied pancreatic gene expression. The gene expression was done by PCR machine. The plant was harvested from garden within Madonna University and was identified in the Department of Pharmacognosy of the University by Dr P. Osuagwu. Each of the extracts was analyzed for bioactive components using Gas Chromatography–Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS). Male wistar albino rats (n=40) six weeks old weighing 150-250g were purchased from the animal farm of Madonna University Elele. From this work we observed that, there was significant increase in the expression of ADIPOQ gene in the diabetic rats treated with 300mg/kg of M. oleifera leaf (1.52±0.13), when compared with that of the non-diabetic rats (1.00±0.02). From this study, it could be inferred that M. oleifera leaf powder contains polyphenols that inhibit carbohydrate metabolism, reduced blood glucose level, enhance expression ADIPOQ genes.

Open Access Original Research Article

Determinination of the Frequency of Altered Cardiac Repolarization by Measuring the Heart rate Corrected QT Interval in COPD Patients

Shahla Roshan Memon, Muhammad Aslam Rind, Maria Nazir, Shah Jehan Memon, Muhammad Saleem Rind

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 104-110
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i28A31514

Objectives: To determine the frequency of altered cardiac repolarization by measuring the heart rate corrected QT interval in COPD patients.

Setting: Department of Medicine at LUMHS hospital Hyderabad/Jamshoro.

Study Design: Descriptive Cross sectional study.         

Duration of Study: 6 months from 01-03-2019 to 31-08-2019.

Methods: A total of 232 patients with severe acute exacerbation of COPD were included in this study. A 12 lead ECG was performed. QT intervals were measured on a resting ECG tracing in lead II. The QT interval was measured manually from the starting point of the QRS complex to the terminal point of the down slope of the T wave.

Results: A total of 232 patients with COPD were included in this study. Most of the cases were above 50 years of age. The average age of the patients was 53.74±4.35 years. There were 92.67% (215/232) male and 7.33% (17/232) female. Out of 232 patients, 21.14% were current smoker and 75.86% were ex-smoker. A QTc interval >0.44 seconds was considered abnormally prolonged. Frequency of altered cardiac repolarization by measuring the heart rate corrected QT interval in COPD patients was 31.47% (73/232). Rate of altered cardiac repolarization was not significant among different age groups (p=0.641). Rate of altered cardiac repolarization was significantly high in male as compare to female (33.5% vs. 5.9%; p=0.018). This was not significant between obese and non-obese groups (p=0.100). Rate of altered cardiac repolarization was significantly high in former smoker (p=0.0005) and those patients whose duration of COPD was above 15 years (p=0.0005).

Conclusion: Patients with hypoxic chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) have evidence of a subclinical parasympathetic autonomic neuropathy, with apparent preservation of sympathetic function. Measuring heart rate corrected QT interval (QTc) test is repeatable, easy to perform and a sensitive indicator for autonomic dysfunction in breathlessness individuals with COPD.

Open Access Original Research Article

Phytochemical Screening and High-performance Thin-layer Chromatography Quantification of Vitex trifolia Leaves Hydro-alcoholic Extract: Potential Anti-inflammatory Properties

Ahmad Tamim Ghafari, Aisyah Hasyila Jahidin, Yuslina Zakaria, Mizaton Hazizul Hasan

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 111-121
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i28A31515

Aims: The present study aims to evaluate the phytochemical composition of Vitex trifolia (V. trifolia) leaves hydro-alcoholic extract and to report for the first time, its phenolic content using a validated high-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) method.

Study Design:  Qualitative phytochemical analysis and HTLC densitometric quantitative analysis.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was carried out at the Faculty of Pharmacy, Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM), Malaysia, from March 2020 to December 2020.

Methodology:  The preliminary phytochemical screening was carried out qualitatively. The HPTLC analysis was performed on glass-backed 60 F254 silica gel plates using a two steps gradient elution method of the mobile phase. In the first step, methanol was used to develop the plates until 40 mm of developing distance, while in the second step, plates were developed with n-hexane:ethyl acetate:acetic acid (20:9:1, v/v/v) until 80 mm of developing distance. Detection and quantification were performed by densitometric analysis at 254 nm. The method was validated as per the International Council for Harmonization of Technical Requirements for Pharmaceuticals for Human Use (ICH) guideline in terms of linearity, precision, accuracy, the limit of detection (LOD), and the limit of quantification (LOQ).

Results: The preliminary phytochemical screening of V. trifolia leaves hydro-alcoholic extract showed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, phenols, phytosterols, and terpenoids. The developed HPTLC method was proved to be linear, precise, and accurate. The LOD and LOQ of the method were determined to be 2.01 µg/band and 6.08 µg/band, respectively. The total phenolic content of the extract was calculated from the standard gallic acid calibration plot and found to be 136.94 ± 4.02 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/g of dried extract.

Conclusion:  This preliminary study revealed that V. trifolia has a considerable amount of phenolic compounds, which can potentially contribute to its anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and anticancer activities. Further pharmacological investigations are being carried out to support the folkloric claims.

Open Access Original Research Article

Folding Behaviour and Antibacterial Activity of Ionic Complementary Peptide EAK-16

Abdul Majid, Farah Naz, Hatim Ali Jamro, Sham Lal, Inayatullah Soomro, Sanaullah Abbasi, Safdar Ali Ujjan

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 122-130
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i28A31516

Aim: A major challenge in the development of new antibiotics is the biocompatibility within biological environment. Ionic complementary peptide (EAK-16) from amyloid protein, have the ability to adopt secondary structure conformation at membrane interfaces. This study aimed to investigate the effect of membrane on EAK-16 peptide folding and their antibacterial applications.

Methodology: We studied secondary structural conformation of EAK-16 using circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy in an aqueous environment and at membrane bilayers interfaces. Initially, the antibacterial efficacy was investigated against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Membrane mimicking models were synthesised with dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC) and dimyristoylphosphatidylserine (DMPS) lipid vesicles using calcein leakage assay.

Results: EAK-16 showed transition in secondary structural conformation. In aqueous environment, it was predominantly β-sheets and at membrane interfaces, it was mainly α-helical. EAK-16 peptide was highly active against bacteria (at minimum concentration applied) and membrane leakage was found to be > 60%. This effect was confirmed with both anionic lipids (DMPS) and neutral lipids (DMPC). The helical transition of EAK-16 could be a major factor to disrupt the membrane and bacterial death

Conclusion: The secondary structural conformation and calcein leakage data suggest that EAK-16 has potential to kill bacteria by adopting helical tilted conformation and membrane perturbation via lysis. This study revealed structure-function relationship of peptide and lipid bilayers to further investigate the mode of pore formation and mode of action of EAK-16 in membrane perturbation and antibacterial efficacy.

Open Access Original Research Article

Pseudo Vaginoscopy: A Modified Vaginoscopy Technique for Outpatient Hysteroscopy in Cases with Difficult Access

Fouzia Rasool Memon, Nusrat Fozia Pathan, Asma Naz, Hazooran Lakhan, Shahida Baloch, Umer Farooque Memon, Arslan Ahmer

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 131-136
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i28A31517

Background: Outpatient hysteroscopy is a safe, reliable and cost-effective alternative to hysteroscopy under a general anaesthetic for the diagnosis of abnormal uterine bleeding. Objectives: The objective of this study was to introduce new technique of pseudo-vaginoscopy for better movement of hysteroscope and less procedural pain. Also to assess acceptability of patients for outpatient hysteroscopy when appropriate analgesia was given prior to the procedure. Methodology: A prospective study was conducted of 74 women attending for outpatient hysteroscopy at the West Cumberland Hospital over a period of one year. Selection criteria include very narrow and atrophic vagina and failed speculum examination in gynaecology outpatient clinics. Results: Of the women studied, 95.5% stated that they would recommend the procedure to friends in future, whilst 5.8% would not want to go through it again. The type of anaesthetic administered during the procedure seem to influence whether women would attend for outpatient hysteroscopy in future.

Conclusion: Our pseudo-vaginoscopic approach allows more freedom for the scope movements not limited by the speculum with the advantage of prior cervical preparation.  It was certainly at value for operative outpatient hysteroscopy in patients with very high BMI where access was difficult owing to depth.

Open Access Original Research Article

Comparative Study of the Efficacy of Prebiotics and Probiotics as Dietary Supplements in Rats with Gastric Ulcer

Ahmad Ali Al-garni, Fares K. Khalifa, Mustafa Adnan Zeyadi

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 137-145
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i28A31518

Gastric ulcer is considered as main problem of gastrointestinal disease, presenting one of the most important health issues in all societies. This comparative study designed to explore the anti-ulcerogenic role of probiotics and prebiotics and to evaluate the most potent effect against gastric ulcer. Sixty rats were distributed into 6 groups : G1 Healthy control; G2 gastric ulcer (GU), ulcer was induced by four oral doses of Aspirin 200 mg/kg b.w./week ;G3 Prebiotics (PreB) administered orally group ( 0.5 g/day); G4 Probiotics (ProB) administered orally group ( 0.5 mg/day); G5 Prebiotics (Therapeutic): prebiotics was administered orally at dose ( 0.5g/day) for 30 days after induction of gastric ulcer (GU+PreB); G6 Probiotics (Therapeutic): probiotics was administered orally at dose ( 0.5mg/day) for 30 days after induction of gastric ulcer (GU+ProB). Oxidative stress parameters and inflammatory markers were measured. Results revealed that: aspirin caused gastric ulcer associated with increased MDA, TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-10 and decreased gastroprotective mediators SOD, GSH, CAT, and PGE2compared with control rats. Treatment with prebiotics or probiotics efficiently reduces gastric injury, oxidative stress and proinflammatory cytokines. Comparing treatment groups showed that, Probiotics as a therapeutic group was the most potent demonstrated a hopeful role against gastric ulcer.

Open Access Original Research Article

Conformational Epitope Prediction of Birch Betv 1 and Hazel Cor A1 Towards B-Cells

Namratha Boddakayala, Sreedhar Bodiga, Vijaya Lakshmi Bodiga, Pavan Kumar Tummala, Srikanth Vemuru, Rajeswari Setti, Anupama Ammulu Manne, Suryanarayana Veeravilli, Praveen Kumar Vemuri

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 146-159
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i28A31519

Background: White birch and hazel allergens, namely Bet v1 and Cor a1 are known allergens, but their allergen specificity is not yet characterized.

Objective: To map the antigenic determinants responsible for IgE binding utilizing in silico modelling and docking of the peptides against IgE antibody.

Methods: The antigen sequences were cut into peptides are docked against the IgE antibody and those with the highest docking scores are further studied for the bond interactions. The overlapping sequences of the high score peptides are observed in the whole antigen model to predict their position. The residues at bond interactions also been reported for these overlapping peptide sequences.

Results: The validation is done by antigen-antibody docking studies to confirm the predicted epitope. 25% of the world population suffers from allergic rhinitis and 15% of them develop asthma. Conclusion: Negative binding energies of the studied pollen allergens with IgE confirm their allergenicity. Based on the results of overlapping peptides PF 3,4 and PF 16,17 to play a key role in the allergenic response of white birch and Common hazel.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of β-Aescin Effect in Streptozotocin Induced Diabetic Model: Diabetic Hepatotoxicity Study

Saumya Gupta, Megha Tiwari, Vishal Dubey

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 160-168
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i28A31520

Objective - Diabetic hepatotoxicity involves complex events which include kupffer cell activation, formation of reactive oxygen species, cytokines release (TNF-α, IL-1β), and finally leads to hepatocyte death. “β- Aescin showed anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, gastroprotective and anti-oedema properties. The present study investigated the protective effect of β- Aescin in streptozotocin induced diabetic hepatotoxicity.

Method - Female mice were divided into six groups, the first group served as the control, the second to sixth group received single i.p. dose of 90 mg/kg of STZ, the second group served as the untreated diabetic group, the third, fourth and fifth group received β- aescin intra-peritoneally at the dose of 0.9 mg/kg, 1.8 mg/kg and 3.6 mg/kg body weight respectively. The last sixth group was treated with 10 mg/kg glibenclamide i.p. for 14 days. A significant decrease in the blood glucose level was showed in β-aescin group as compared to the control group.

Result - A significant increase of blood glucose level was observed in high and mid dose of β- aescin (3.6 mg/kg and 1.8 mg/kg respectively), standard drug (glibenclamide 10 mg/kg) groups as compared to control group. ROS generation was evaluated by using DCF-DA estimation method for the acute toxicity in liver tissue. Streptozotocin group showed more ROS generation in comparison to β- aescin group (3.6 mg/kg). Serum biochemical markers showed a significant decrease in β- aescin treated diabetic mice compared to untreated diabetic mice. Histopathological evaluation showed severe changes in untreated diabetic liver tissue marked by large number of inflammatory cells such as lymphocytes along with hepatic sinusoidal inflammation and hepatocyte necrosis whereas treated diabetic mice with β- aescin showed reduction in hepatotoxicity marked by regeneration changes of hepatocytes and mildly hepatocyte degeneration.

Conclusion - In the study, β- aescin showed beneficial effects on the efficient properties of the liver and microscopic improvements in diabetic hepatotoxicity.

Open Access Original Research Article

Counseling Practices of Pharmacists at Medical Stores/Pharmacies in Karachi Pakistan

Nayel Syed, Mirza Tasawer Baig, Adeel Arsalan, Aiman Syed, Abid Khan, Uzma Shahid, Uzma Basit, Bushra Imtiaz Ali, Shahzada Azam Khan

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 169-173
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i28A31521

Introduction: Dispensing medicines means delivering complete knowledge about the medicine being dispensed to that patient. Patient’s counseling regarding their medications play a very important role to achieve the high efficacy and proper constancy on therapy. The aim of the study was to evaluate the counseling practices of pharmacist from customers’ perspective.

Methodology: This was a descriptive cross sectional study, conducted among who were selected at random at pharmacies/ medical stores, while purchasing medications for them and/or for their loved ones. The study finally included 365 patients or attendants of the patients. The data obtained were analyzed using appropriate statistical analysis through SPPS version 25.

Results: 289 (81.37%) patients were counseled when they purchased antibiotics about the completion of the therapy and to take the doses timely. Only 4 patients were told about missing a dose.

Conclusion: There were different results of candidates majority of them were satisfied with on-going pharmacy service but some were not. Candidates also told about the lack of information given by the health care professional /pharmacist prior to dispensing.

Open Access Original Research Article

Awareness, Knowledge and Risk Perception of COVID -19 among Dental Health Care Professionals and its Impact on Clinical Dental Practice and Oral Healthcare Delivery in the Western Region of Saudi Arabia

Shreya Shetty, Lama Saleh Alhazmi, Juman Alhusain Alrifai, Raghad Khalid Abuarab, Nada Sami Hamdi, Soumya Ponnan

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 174-190
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i28A31522

Introduction: The outbreak of novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has influenced every aspect of life. Healthcare professionals, especially dentists, are exposed to a higher risk of getting infected due to close contact with infected patients primarily through aerosol generated procedures. This study aimed to assess the awareness and risks of getting infected among dentists in the western region of Saudi Arabia, while working during the current novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic. In addition, dentists’ knowledge about various practice modifications to combat COVID-19 cross infection and spread were evaluated.

Materials and Methods: A total of 329 participants including 123 males and 196 females responded to an online questionnaire consisting of 30 questions, which was circulated among all kinds of dental healthcare professionals through social media and e-mails after obtaining approval from the institutional ethical committee.

Results: Chi square tests revealed significant differences when comparing the responses of the participants based on qualification with regard to key responses related to awareness and practice perceptions such as HEPA filters, pulse oximeter, wearing an N-95 mask, using a face shield, a High volume suction and rubber dam.(p<0.05)

Conclusion: Although, there were variations in responses among the various dental professionals, it can be concluded that it is important to ensure increased knowledge and awareness of covid -19 risks and transmission which is absolutely essential in dental practice to ensure optimal oral care during the ongoing pandemic.

Open Access Original Research Article

Development of Tropisetron Hydrochloride Orodispersible Tablet using Natural Superdisintigrants

Rupalben K. Jani, Gohil Krupa, Aanal Gandhi, Vijay Upadhye, Roshani Pragnesh Amin

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 191-210
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i28A31523

The foremost objective of this research was to compare and evaluate natural super disintegrants with synthetic super disintegrants for the preparation of the orodispersible tablet. Tropisetron hydrochloride is widely used as an antiemetic drug, which is a potential drug candidate for developing an orodispersible tablet for quick onset of action. Various formulations were prepared using different concentrations (5%, 7.5%, and 10%) by direct compression method of natural super disintegrants (Banana power and Cassia tora powder) and synthetic super disintegrants (Croscarmellose sodium, Crospovidone, and Sodium starch glycolate). The compatibility studies between the drug and excipients were carried out using FTIR spectroscopy before tablet formulation. The pre-compression parameters were evaluated for additive properties. Standardization of banana powder was done by various parameters like extractive value, ash value, loss on drying, TLC identification test, etc. Post-compression parameters like hardness, weight variation, friability, thickness, the time required for disintegration, wetting time, the release of drug in-vitro, and in-vitro dispersion time of the tablets were evaluated. The disintegration time and in-vitro drug release of optimized formulation (F2) were found to be 4.66±1.15 secs and 99.25±0.15%. The optimized formulation (F2) was subjected to stability studies (40 C& 75 % RH) for one month. The results were shown that natural super disintegrants require less disintegration time as compared to synthetic super disintegrants. Hence present study reveals that the orodispersible tablets prepared using Banana powder and Cassia tora powder is super disintegrants that shown better appearance and rapid disintegration time.

Open Access Original Research Article

Impact of Diabetes Continuing Education on Knowledge and Practice of Diabetes Care among Health Care Professionals in Yemen

Salmeen D. Babelgaith, Mansour Almetwazi, Syed Wajid, Saeed Alfadly, Ahmed M Shaman, Mohamed N. Al-Arifi

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 221-230
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i28A31525

Background: This study aimed to evaluate the Impact of diabetes continuing education on knowledge and practice of diabetes care among health care professionals in Yemen.

Methods: A quasi-experimental study was carried out among health care professionals. The original questionnaire consisted of 22 multiple choice questions. A total of 73 HCPs received continuing education (CE) intervention.  Knowledge attitude and practice (KAP) was assessed using a validated questionnaire. 

Results: The result showed that majority of the HCPs has a good general knowledge on diabetes and its managements prior to the CE program. Evaluation of the general knowledge score of the HCPs found some improvement in the knowledge score, however the improvement was not significant (p=0.31). The result of this study found that HCPs has good knowledge on monitoring the sign, symptoms and laboratory parameters.

Conclusion: Evaluation of the knowledge score on Goal of Diabetes Management of HCPs found significant (p=0.024) improvement in the knowledge score. The results indicated that the lab values were rated as the most important in the goal for the treatment of diabetes patients.  The study also found no significant difference in practice score after CE program among HCPs.

Open Access Original Research Article

Treatment Response of Botulinum-A Toxin Intradetusor Injections for Overactive Bladder (OAB) and Neurological Detrusor Overactivity (NDO) Refractory to Anticholinergics and Beta3-Adrenoceptor Agonists

Fouzia Rasool Memon, Muhammad Ali Suhail, Anwar Ali Jamali, Mohammad Matar, Sikander Ali Sial, Shahzeb Rasool, Umer Farooque Memon, Arslan Ahmer

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 231-238
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i28A31526

Introduction: Overactive bladder (OAB), defined as urinary urgency, usually accompanied by frequency and nocturia, with or without urgency urinary incontinence, in the absence of urinary tract infection or other obvious pathology.

Methods: A retrospective review of patients getting intradetrusor onabotulinumA injections for OAB and NDO over a 6-year time frame was conducted. The principal outcome measures involved patient’s subjective improvements in OAB and NDO symptoms and the duration of symptomatic relief following every treatment. The secondary results measured relation of patient’s age and duration of each effective treatment cycle.

Results: One hundred and thirty-Eight (138) consecutive patients who met the inclusion criteria were included in the study. The average age of women was 59.43 years. Eighty four (61%) of participants were still receiving botox injections while 54 women stopped treatment. The average time period between botulinum A injection and its efficacy in controlling OAB symptoms varied from 3 -8.5 months. There was no decrease in efficacy of the treatment with more cycles of treatment. The average age of women who received one, two, three and four or more cycles were 61.7, 53.87, 63.03, and 56.75 years respectively, which showed with advanced age efficacy of botulinum toxin does not decrease.

Conclusions: Our results suggest that in patients who respond to intradetrusor botulinumA treatment, the duration of response does not decline with more treatment cycles, suggesting it as a safe long term treatment option for controlling OAB symptoms. Also there is no relation between advanced age and subsequent efficacy of botulinum A intradetrusor injections.

Open Access Original Research Article

Studies on Molecular Docking of Moringa Oleifera Leaf Phytochemical Constituents on Alpha Glucosidase, Alpha Amylase and Dipeptidyl Peptidase

Arvin Nwakulite, Emmanuel Ifeanyi Obeagu, H. U. Nwanjo, D. C. Nwosu, I. N. Nnatuanya, Richard Eze, Getrude Uzoma Obeagu, C. C. N. Vincent, Chukwudi Ofodile Amaechi, Chukwuma J. Okafor, Vivian Ezeoru, Ufuoma Chukwuani, Mathew E. Adu

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 239-245
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i28A31527

Moringa oleifera leaf have been used for treatment of diabetes, in this work we studied pancreatic gene expression, trace elements, enzymatic antioxidants, kidney injury biomarkers in streptozocin induced diabetic rats treated with M. oleifera  leaf powder and molecular ducking of M. oleifera  leaf ethanolic, ethyl acetate, hexane and aqueous extracts phytochemicals into protein bank, focusing on the ligands that possesses inhibitory affinity closer to the co-crystalline ligands of alpha amylase, alpha glucosidase and dipeptidyl peptidase-4, for detection of active polyphenols that aid glucose reduction. Molecular docking methods used for predicting binding modes to proteins and energies of ligands [1]. Using the Autodock vina program compiled under Ubuntu 14.04 LTS, the compounds were docked into the target protein to get the respective binding affinity.  The proteins were viewed on pymol to show the amino acid sequence and the co-crystallized ligandsStevioside Stigmaste, γ-Sitosterol and Campesterol has affinity energy (-6.893,-5.500, -5.294, -5.260) respectively, close to the co-ligand of α-amylase (-7.811). 2-Butyloxycarbonyloxy-1 has affinity energy (-5.583) closer to the co-ligand of DPP-4 (-6.102). Butanoic acid has affinity energy (-4.239) close to the co-ligand of α-glucosidase (-6.488). Ethanolic and ethyl acetate extract contains 24 compounds; hexane extract contains 22 compounds while aqueous extract contains only 6 compounds.

Open Access Original Research Article

Optimization of Cultural Conditions for Maximum Production of Fibrinolytic Enzymes from the Local Marine Bacterial Isolates and Evaluation of their Wound Healing and Clot Dissolving Properties

K. Gowthami, R. Jaya Madhuri

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 246-255
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i28A31528

Fibrinolytic enzymes find necessary applications to treat and prevent cardiovascular diseases.  In this study, optimal conditions for enhancing the production of fibrinolytic enzyme from local marine bacterial strains were evaluated. The present study also focuses on screening of wound                  healing efficacy of the isolated fibrinolytic enzymes.Various physical parameters such as temperature, pH, incubation time and medium components viz. inoculum size, substrate (nitrogen and carbon) concentrations were optimized. A cultivation medium was designed using optimized conditions for mass production of fibrinolytic enzyme and specific activity of enzyme was analyzed. The maximum enzyme production was observed at 37 °C temperature, 8.0 pH,substrate concentration with 3 ml inoculum size and 32 h. of incubation time. Among the different carbon sources tested, Mannitol showed maximum enzyme activity i.e 538 U/ml.  yeast extract was found to be the best nitrogen source with an enzyme activity of 498 U/ml.  The best substrate for the production fibrinolytic enzyme was found to be kernelwith high  activity of 1056U/ml. The crude enzyme displayed potent activity and digested blood clot completely in in vitro condition and exhibited potent activity on wound healing property in macrophages.

Open Access Original Research Article

Exploration of Antioxidant and Anticancer Activity of Stephania japonica Leaves Extract

Md. Dobirul Islam, Ariful Islam, Naoshia Tasnin, Syeda Farida Akter, Md. Salim Uddin

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 256-272
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i28A31529

Aims: The demand for antioxidants from the natural source has drawn promising attention to outturn desired pharmacological effect by subsidizing the adverse effect for treating cancer. This study evaluated the antioxidant activity of Stephania japonica leaves extracts to explore the anticancer activity.   

Methods: Antioxidant potential of crude extracts were evaluated using various methods which include total antioxidant activity, ferric reducing antioxidant assay, DPPH free radical, ABTS free radical, nitric oxide and superoxide anion radical scavenging assay. Anticancer activity was determined in vitro by MTT assay and in vivo on mice against Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) cell.

Results: Phytoconstituents with free radical scavenging capacity were quantified in terms of inhibitory concentration (IC50) with the values of 17.00±3.22 µg/mL, 33.30 ± 5.45 µg/mL, 43.70±5.26 µg/mL and 52.30±1.07 µg/mL in DPPH, ABTS, superoxide anion radical and nitric oxide free radical scavenging assay, respectively as the highest quencher, acetone extract of S. japonica leaves (ASJL). ASJL and methanol extract (MSJL) showed low lethal dose (LD50) values of 21.76 and 26.63, respectively indicating higher toxicity.  In vitro anti-proliferative activity (MTT assay), ASJL and MSJL were exhibited 15.44±2.96 to 80.94±2.87 and 11.76±3.74 to 74.25±1.49 percent of cell growth inhibition, respectively at the concentration of 10.28 µg/mL to 833.33 µg/mL. In in vivo test, ASJL and MSJL at the dose of 100 mg/kg/day and 200 mg/kg/day (i.p.) showed cell growth inhibition of 58.25±4.24% to 79.09±2.45% and 46.26±2.68% to 61.74±4.41%, respectively on EAC cell tumor-bearing mice. The life span of intraperitoneal induced EAC cell bearing mice was increased to 29.05% and 57.02% on the treatment of ASJL with 100 and 200 mg/kg/day, respectively.

Conclusions: The free radical scavenger of S. japonica leaves extract was stimulated the host immunity and inhibited the EAC cell growth through initiating the apoptosis cell death program. Therefore, S. japonica leaves might be utilized as a potent anticancer natural source.

Open Access Original Research Article

Pharmacological and Toxicological Appraisal of Promising Enzyme-tyrosinase Isolated from Soil Bacteria-an Update

Asma Ahmed, Kinza Rashid Gill, Hassan Akbar Khan, Sitwat Aman, Javed Anver Qureshi, Rafia Mehmood

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 273-288
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i28A31534

Aims: The membrane associated tyrosinase is an enzymatically active monomeric glycoprotein which is purified to only a low degree. It has gained importance in the present era due to its antioxidant and immunomodulatory properties as well as applications in industry. Moreover its role in the synthesis of melanin in skin for protection from UV radiations also paved the way towards the better understanding of this enzyme.

Study Design: Biochemical and molecular characterization of tyrosinase producing soil bacterium had been followed by the assessment of its antioxidant, cytotoxic and anti-cancer activities.

Place and Duration of Study: Whole work had been completed at the Microbiology and Molecular biology labs of IMBB during 2018- 2019.

Methodology: Tyrosinase producing species were identified by biochemical characterization followed by their genomic DNA sequencing and BLAST analysis while crude tyrosinase was characterized by Bradford's methods, tyrosinase activity and total protein activity, followed by their molecular characterization on SDS-PAGE. The antioxidant and free radical scavenging properties of tyrosinase were evaluated via DPPH, ABTS and FRAP assays and cell proliferation inhibition and the cytotoxicity was calculated via antitumor and MTT assays.

Results: P. putida, B. cereus, B. mycoides, M. luteus, K. pneumonia were found to be tyrosinase producing species while their SDS-PAGE analysis showed that the molecular mass of crude tyrosinase was about 39 kDa. Protein contents, total tyrosinase and specific tyrosinase activity was found to be highest in tyrosinase from B. mycoides [0.008±0.06 mg/ml, 1500±0.06 U/ml and 346820.8±0.03 U/mg of tyrosinase respectively]. The results of biological activities of crude tyrosinase vary from bacteria to bacteria. Tyrosinase from P. putida showed higher antioxidant [66.4±0.01% in DPPH assay, 32.04±0.06%in ABTS assay and 320.6±0.06 in FRAP assay], antitumor [67.8±0.01%] and cytotoxic activity [39±1.0% cell viability], followed by B. Cereus tyrosinase [64.7±0.06% antioxidant power in DPPH assay, 53.41±0.03% in ABTS assay and 159.6±0.06% in FRAP assay, 46.46±0.01% antitumor and 43±0.75% cell viability].

Conclusion: The study revealed that tyrosinase isolated from different bacterial strains depicted optimal percentage of anti-oxidative, anti-proliferative and cellular viability and can be used in the near future for medical and industrial purposes.

Open Access Review Article

An Overview of Different Methods for Aminoglycoside Residue Determination

Sarah Morovatdar, Bahman Khameneh, Zahra Khashyarmanesh, Bibi Sedigheh Fazly

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-30
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i28A31506

Aminoglycosides (AGs) are chemical substances that exist in the bacteriologic category of traditional antibiotic (AB) therapy. The importance of the determination of AG as has been described in many situations by researchers. Because of the narrow therapeutic ranges of AGs, considerable efforts have been attributed to the analysis of AGs in pharmaceutical preparations, serum, and urine specimens for therapeutic drug monitoring purposes. Residues of ABs in many different cases like environment and human food, causes a major concern, as prolonged exposure to ABs is a serious health hazard, related to both side effects of prolonged use and the risk of developing bacterial resistance to various ABs. The major challenge is finding a sensitive and reliable method to determine AGs in a complex matrix. The microbiological assay was a simple and old method for the determination of AGs. Chromatography and spectroscopy methods are the main instrumental methods for analysis that have been employed for these purposes. Biosensor based instrumental systems have been recently used to determine the AG residues in many cases. Each of these methods has its advantages and disadvantages. This review summarizes different ways (microbiological methods, instrumental methods, and biosensor) for the determination of AGs in all cases. Different databases including PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science with the words of AGs determination and related words for antimicrobial keywords searched without time limitation.

Open Access Review Article

Diabetes Mellitus: An Overview and Management with Herbs

Ghazala Shaheen, Iqra Fatima, Raessa Noor, Muhammad Younus, M. Sajid-Ur-Rehman, Saira Ghaffar, Shafqat Rasool, Farah Zafar, Mohsin Abbas Khan

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 36-48
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i28A31509

Diabetes mellitus (DM) could be a typical disturbed throughout the globe. As of late, there are changed sorts of examinations and overview works region units considered. The individuals' Republic of Pakistan is that the place where there is magnificence while the common plants have selective meditative ayurvedic movement against inside emission Subordinate Diabetic Mellitus (IDDM) and Non-Insulin Subordinate Diabetic Mellitus (NIDDM). Among a few meds furthermore distinctive different meds, numerous herbs are praised to fix and the board diabetes; to boot they need no aspect impacts inside the prior some of the years, there must be an exponential development inside the arena of prescription then increasing quality each inside creating including created nations owing to their common source and fewer feature impacts during this audit work, we will in general essentially observe some potential plants therapeutic medication movement in the Individuals' Republic of Pakistan. A far-reaching audit of this paper is preliminary to a rundown of the plants with hostile to diabetic and associated valuable impacts beginning from entirely unexpected parts of the world. History indicated that meditative plants are utilized in old recuperating around the world for an all-inclusive chance to manage diabetes; here is frequently because of such herbs must manifestation characteristics moreover distinctive valuable features, while announced into logical writing. This effort increased this since quite a while ago run analyzers for extra exploration of the potential utilization of meditative plants having therapeutic medication potential just as indication action, inward emission mimetic movement, and cancer prevention agent action.

Open Access Review Article

One Size Does Not Fit All: An Overview of Personalized Treatment in Cancer

Sohini Kulavi, Chandreyi Ghosh, Moumita Saha, Sirshendu Chatterjee

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 87-103
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i28A31513

The last few decades have witnessed 'one size fits all' kind of conventional treatment strategy i.e. a similar line of treatment or usage of the same drug to treat a particular disease. This approach is not associated with specific personal characteristics but with individual genetic constitutions. Precision oncology holds great opportunities to improve prediction, treatment and follow-up care for the benefit of cancer patients. In this study, many pieces of literature and various clinical data have been surveyed to understand how multiple genes are responsible for a particular cancer type and tabulate them. Having the genetic information of a patient and knowing the genes that are susceptible to mutation can help in the diagnosis. That in turn help to get the most tailored medicines, which will decrease the chances of treatment failure, which is quite common in cancer therapies. This review focuses on providing an idea of the genes whose mutation directly or indirectly can lead to cancer and other diseases also, and hence might be helpful to design separate treatment strategies for each individual in future.

Open Access Review Article

Antiviral Potential of Medicinal Plants and Plant Lectins: Use in COVID-19 Pandemic Era

Eda Büker, Ibrahim Adnan Saraçoğlu

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 289-299
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i28A31535

At the time of writing the research paper, the world is faced with an acute respiratory syndrome pandemic that is named as coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). This pandemic is also called Covid-19, is a respiratory disease based on the lungs caused by the new coronavirus the SARS-CoV-2. In the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic period, decreased food intromission, inflammation concerned catabolism, decreased mobility owing to extend hospital stay as well as older age and comorbidities hence patients can be under hazard of malnutrition. It is understood from the nutrition guidances suggest the nutritional methods and cure take into account as a complementary role of the way to these patients. In any acute, pandemic or chronic disease ideal nutritional care accommodate to life-support cure has probable to develop the results of patients influenced by this life-menacing disease, bearing better and shorter healing from the acute phase. For this reason, in pandemic of the SARS-CoV-2 before and after get be sick, quality and species of chemical secondary metabolites of foods in nutritional care are very important in terms of healing. In this paper, we tried to explain how some lectins and some medicinal plants like a Salvia officinalis and Malva slyvestris are effective against the SARS-CoV-2 in human metabolism.