Open Access Original Research Article

Clinical and Echocardiographic Profile of Rheumatic Heart Disease: A Cross-Sectional Study

Abdul Qadir Khan Dall, Muhammed Kashif Shaikh, Syed Zulfiquar Ali Shah, Tarachand Devrajani, Abdul Salam Memon, Imran Karim, Samar Raza

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i27B31496

Background: Rheumatic Heart disease (RHD) is the leading cause of acquired heart disease and more prevalent in developing countries. The objective of the study was to determine the clinical and echocardiographic profiles of patients with rheumatic heart disease (RHD).

Materials and Methods: All patients above the age of 12 years of either gender diagnosed with Rheumatic heart disease from January 2018 to December 2019 at tertiary care hospital, Hyderabad were enrolled in the study. Detailed patient data was obtained from the hospital records. Information regarding gender, age, Electrocardiogram findings, clinical and echocardiographic manifestations was obtained.

Results: Throughout the two-year study period, a total of fifty patients with RHD were studied. The mean age of the population was 33.71 years. Females (64%) outnumbered males and 60% were rural population. The clinical features observed were fever (80%), joint pain (64%), palpitation (60%), breathlessness (90%) and chest pain (50%), tachycardia (60%), raised JVP (10%), hypertension (20%). The common echocardiographic findings observed were mitral stenosis (50%), mitral regurgitation (24%) and pulmonary hypertension (36%), left atrial enlargement (56%), and right atrial enlargement (16%) whereas the majority of the patients (70%) have ejection fraction between 40-50% and thrombus was identified in 15 (30%) patients respectively.

Conclusion: Common clinical findings observed were breathlessness and fever while the common echocardiographic findings were mitral stenosis and regurgitation, pulmonary hypertension, and left atrial enlargement. Population-based screening by echocardiography could be a potential route for early screening of rheumatic heart disease.

Open Access Original Research Article

Obesity as a Predominant Factor in Covid-19 Mortality; Relationship between Increased BMI and Mortality in Covid-19

Ali Qureshi, Syed Azhar Bin Syed Sulaiman, Pir Abdul Ahad Aziz Qureshi, Mehwish Bhutto

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 8-15
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i27B31497

Severe Acute Resperatory Syndrome Corona Virus 2(SARS-CoV-2) is related to a class of virus that affects respiratory system to cause respiratory distress and can lead to harmful consequences. It has been estimated that there could be various predisposition factors that may precipitate these poor outcomes. Obesity is one of the factors that elevate the risk of respiratory complications.  A retrospective cohort study was performed, to figure out the relationship among COVID-19 related mortality and obesity. Information on 7036 patients was meet inclusion criteria. The prime focus of this study was to check the rate of mortality and extent of illness in relation to body mass index (BMI).Out of a total of 127 mortalities, 25.2% of deaths had normal weight ranges, whereas 33.9% of deaths were overweight and 40.9% were at obesity of different levels (p-value < 0.001), which shows the strong correlation between obesity and chances of mortality. Logically, in light of all the above mentioned facts, it can be concluded that the outcomes of this pandemic would have proven more dreadful and life threaten in societies where people have any of the above mentioned factors, specifically, increased BMI.

Open Access Original Research Article

Protective Effects of Alcoholic and Aqueous Extracts of Lyophilized Kiwifruit on Acute Kidney Injury (AKI) Induced by Glycerol in Male Albino Rat

Rawiyah M. Hakami, Fares K. Khalifa, Asmaa A. Alharbi

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 23-33
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i27B31499

Objectives: The study aimed to evaluate and compare the protective effects of alcoholic and aqueous extracts of lyophilized kiwifruit on acute kidney injury (AKI) induced by glycerol in male albino rats.

Methods: Rats were divided into four groups: negative control healthy group, acute kidney injury group (administered glycerol), AKI rats treated with ethanolic kiwifruit extract group, and AKI rats treated with aqueous kiwifruit extract group. Kidney biomarkers, oxidative stress, and inflammatory markers were measured and histological examination was performed.

Results: We observed that glycerol induced acute renal injury and as a result there was an increase in the levels of blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, Na+, K+, Cl-, uric acid, cystatin-C, neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin, C-reactive protein, tumour necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6, and malondialdehyde as well as a decrease in the levels of reduced glutathione and superoxide dismutase compared to that in the negative control group. Ethanolic and aqueous kiwifruit extracts improved all the kidney biomarkers in AKI rats. Histological examination showed acute tubular necrosis in the AKI group.  However, there was an improvement in the renal tissue, represented by epithelial cell regeneration, in rats that were administered both the extracts.

Conclusion: Kiwifruit extracts have a positive effect on serum biochemical parameters and renal tissue, which can be beneficial in the treatment of AKI. The treatment with the ethanolic extract is more potent than with the aqueous extract.

Open Access Original Research Article

To Evaluate the Frequency of Diabetes Mellitus Patients with Hepatitis C at Tertiary Hospital of Sindh, Pakistan

Kuldeep Kumar Mewaram, Faraz Qurban Rajper, Khalida Unar, Mirza Tasawar Baig, Mirza Tasawar Baig, Ayaz Ali Unar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 34-38
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i27B31500

Objective: The major theme of the research was to evaluate the frequency of diabetes mellitus patients with hepatitis C infection at tertiary care hospital of Sindh, Pakistan.

Methodology: Descriptive cross sectional study was conducted at tertiary care hospital of Sindh, Pakistan for the period of 08 months; total 374 sample size was calculated by using Rao soft sample size calculator at the prevalence rate of 58.3% and confidence level 95% and margin of error 5%. Data was collected from patients of sero-positive HCV-RNA (Hepatitis C Virus-Ribose Nucleic Acid) visiting outpatient department or admitted at tertiary care hospital of Sindh, Pakistan and Informed consent form was also filled from all included subjects and data was analyzed by using SPSS software version 24.00.

Results: From the 374 patients 209 were males and 165 females and all participants were divided in to various age groups as 15 patients were in the age group of 20-25 years, 67 patients were in 26-30 years, 48 patients included in 31-35 years and 109 patients were included in to age group of 36-40 years. Only 12 patients were included in the age group of 50 years and above. Total 164 (43.85%) were diabetic and 229 (61.22%) were diagnosed with Hepatitis C RNA (Ribose Nucleic Acid) positive. Patients had various range of HbA1c as 93 patients had range between 6-7mmol/dl. 107(28.60%) included in 7-9mmol/dl, 145(38.77%) included in 9-11mmol/dl and only 29 patients were having HbA1c (Glycated Hemoglobin) level above 11mmol/dl.

Conclusion: It was concluded that there were increased number of diabetic patients with hepatitis C in worsening condition, so the proper programs should be conducted in order to reduce the complication of co-morbid disease.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Drug Resistance and Treatment Outcomes among TB Patients with Diabetes Mellitus at Tertiary Care Hospital of Sindh, Pakistan

Kahaf Khan, Ayaz Ali Unar, Khalida Unar, Faraz Qurban Rajper, Mirza Tasawar Baig

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 39-46
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i27B31501

The objective of the study is to evaluate of drug resistance and treatment outcomes among tuberculosis patients with diabetes mellitus at tertiary care hospital of Sindh, Pakistan.  Tuberculosis (TB) is considered as very dangerous infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis orother tubercle bacilli pathogen affects the lungs and it can be spread from person to person through very minute droplet released by infected person via coughing or sneezing.

Descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out at different Tuberculosis setting located at tertiary care hospital of Sindh, Pakistan for the period of 10 months. Tuberculosis OPD is considered as major health care facility for the TB, MDR-TB and XDR-TB patients for the local population and peripheries. Total 389 samples were collected through purposive sampling techniques. From the given data, there were 209 Males and 180 females, all participants belong to different areas, so 216 patients belong to rural areas, 121 study participants were house wives, 134 were employed and 41 were have their own business. From the clinical data, 229 participants shown positive response with TB smear test, whereas; 156 participants had positive results with TB culture test. 247 patients had previous history of Tuberculosis, 120 had developed drug resistance and 24 had developed multi-drug resistance (MDR). 312 patients were recently diagnosed with Diabetes mellitus and they had one year of duration of diabetes. Complication of tuberculosis developed among 113 patients and complication of diabetes developed among 194 participants. 39 people were using oral therapy for the management of diabetes and 341 participants had successfully completed their therapy and cured whereas 2 patients were died due to complication

It was concluded from the current research that there were many chances for developing drug resistance and multi-drug resistance among the patients suffering from co-morbid including tuberculosis along with Diabetes mellitus. Proper counseling should be conducted, in order to reduce the complication of either type of disease.

Open Access Original Research Article

Comparitive Study of Bactrial Flora among Diabetic and Nondiabetic Perimenopausal and Postmenopausal Women

T. Sukanya, . Yuvarani

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 47-57
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i27B31502

Bacterial vaginal infections are one of the least understood infections in perimenopausal and postmenopausal age group. This is the cross sectional study undertaken done to determine the prevalence of bacterial flora perimenopuasal and postmenopausal diabetic and non diabetic women attending Sree Balaji medical college and Hospital.  Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus were significantly more in poorly controlled diabetics than those who were under control.  Our present study provided important information regarding the vaginal ecology of perimenopausal and postmenopausal women with and without diabetes. The relative depletion of lactobacilli among the women with increased prevalence of pathogens like E.coli, staph aureus supports the importance of lactobacilli as a potential barrier against pathogens.

Open Access Original Research Article

Pharmacognostical Standardization, Chromatograhic and Spectral Analysis of Methanolic Extract of Echinops echinatus Linn. Roots and Fractions

Muhammad Younus, Farrakh Zia Khan, Muhammad Mohtasheem ul Hasan, Jafir Hussain Shirazi, Qazi Adnan Jamil, Zahid Khan, Ghazala Shaheen, Muhammad Hanif, Muhammad Abuzar Ghaffari, Muhammad Abdullah, Imran Nazir

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 67-76
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i27B31503

Echinops echinatus Linn. (Fam. Asteraceae) possesses medicinal value a good deal. The plant is a nerve tonic that stimulates liver and increases appetite, and is effective as anti-inflammatory and in jaundice. Objective of the current study was to standardize  Echinops echinatus (E. echinatus), both macroscopically and microscopically. Pharmacognostic standardization with the help of different physicochemical parameters and fluorescence analysis was performed according to the WHO guidelines. Qualitative phytochemical analysis of crude methanolic extract (EME) and various fractions was done. TLC and column chromatographic techniques were employed for presence of various phytoconstituents. Five compounds were isolated from EME using column chromatography, which were characterized by techniques like FTIR and UV. The isolated purified compounds showed different hRf values ranging from 67 to 94. Results of this study may serve as biochemical markers for this medicinally important plant in the pharma industry and plant systematic studies. The current work will help in identification of the species pharmacognostically and anatomically; and phytochemical analysis may help in screening of active constituents responsible for the activity.  The study will serve as a reference for correct identification and in checking any type of adulteration. This may also help in differentiating this species from closely related species of the same genus and family.

Open Access Original Research Article

Formulation Evaluation and In- Vitro Antioxidant activity of Microparticles of Syzygium Cumini Plant Extract

Sweta Srivastava Koka, Pravin Kumar Sharma, Vaishali Sharma, Jaya Verma, G. N. Darwhekar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 77-85
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i27B31504

Sygygium cumini, commonly known as Malabar plum, Java plum, black plum, jamun or jambolan, is an evergreen tropical tree in the flowering plant family Myrtaceae. The present study the antioxidant effects of microparticles of S. cumini plant extract were evaluated using in vitro, 2, 2-diphenylpicrylhydrazine photometric assay, total antioxidant activity and super oxide free radical scavenging activity. The microparticles showed different levels of radicals scavenging activity in a dose-dependent manner over the range of 50–150 µg/mL concentration, indicating the high antioxidative capacity of the extract. In all the experimental screening models microparticles of aqueous extract show the maximum inhibition of free radicals comparison of other experimental model at different concentrations. These findings suggest that the seed of Syginium cumini has potent antioxidant activity which may be responsible for some of its reported pharmacological activities and can be used as antioxidant supplement.

Open Access Original Research Article

Neurotoxic Assessment of Chronic Abuse of Pregabalin in Wistar Rats

Neveen A. Salem, Amani M. Alsaedi, Bedor G. Alasmari, Razan Z. Almarghalani, Shahad M. Algobe, Nahd H. Alesawy

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 58-66
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i27B31505

Pregabalin (Lyrica) is an analog of the gamma-aminobutyric acid neurotransmitter,   approved for the treatment of epilepsy, generalized anxiety disorder, neuropathic pain, and fibromyalgia. The possibility for abuse and/or dependence on pregabalin has risen recently. Pregabalin is controlled in many countries including Saudi Arabia. However, unofficial use of this substance is also on the increase. The purpose of this study is to assess the potential neurotoxic effects associated with overdose prolonged pregabalin supplementation. Forty male Wistar rats were divided into Group (1) normal control received distilled water, Group (2) received pregabalin (150mg/kg), Group (3) received pregabalin (300 mg/kg), and Group (4) received pregabalin (600 mg/kg). pregabalin consumption in different doses resulted in significant dysregulation in neurotransmitter release, upsurge oxidative stress markers via enhancing lipid peroxidation and depleting antioxidant markers. Also, pregabalin doses evoked brain tissue inflammation through elevating TNF-α, IL-1β, and MCP-1, Moreover promoted brain tissue apoptosis by activating caspase -3 and suppressed Bcl2. Pregabalin effects on the aforementioned parameters were dose-dependent. These findings could highlight the potential neurotoxic effect of prolonged abuse of pregabalin supplementation through dysregulating brain neurochemical, inflammatory, oxidant/antioxidant, and apoptotic mediators.

Open Access Review Article

Interaction System of the State and Business in the Regime of Public-Private Partnership in the Pharmaceutical Complex of the Russian Federation

Natalia S. Klunko, Anastasia E. Lobanova

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 16-22
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i27B31498

The issue of interaction between the state and business in the mode of public-private partnership in the pharmaceutical complex of the Russian Federation is investigated. The concept of "state" and "business" is defined, the forms of interaction between the state and business are considered, the concept of "public-private partnership" is defined, the main features of public-private partnership in general and in the pharmaceutical complex in particular are identified, the goals and investments of partners in public-private partnership in the pharmaceutical sector, studied the prospects for the development of public-private partnership in the pharmaceutical sector of the country as a form of interaction between the state and business. The researcher also researched economic, legal and organizational partnership. One of the types of economic partnership in this area of activity is а public-private partnership. Public-private partnership in the pharmaceutical sector of the Russian Federation is а cooperation for a specified period between the state and the private sector on the basis of which, by combining the experience and expertise of the state and business, sharing financial risks and benefits, socially significant programs and projects in the pharmaceutical sector is implemented. It has been established that the subjects of interaction between business and the state in the form of public-private partnership are public and private partners, who, when participating in this type of interaction, set different goals and play different roles. It has been revealed that this type of partnership has great development prospects, which will contribute to increasing the competitiveness of the pharmaceutical sector, modernizing the health care system, improving the quality of health services delivery and access to medicines. The development of public-private partnerships as a form of interaction between the state and business in the pharmaceutical sector is an effective mechanism for the modernization of the industrial national sector.