Open Access Original Research Article

Correlation between IL-10 as Cancer Biomarker and Demographic Characteristics of Colorectal Cancer Patients

Rahin Sh Hamad, Bushra H. Shnawa, Shereen J. Al-Ali

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i26B31477

Colorectal cancer (CRC) is classified as one of the most prevalent cancer types worldwide, with high morbidity and mortality rates. Patients of CRC have been shown to express a detectable cytokine in serum which contributes to cancer pathogenesis. Therefore, the serum interleukin 10 (IL-10) level in CRC patients was investigated in this study. Patients' medical records with CRC admitted to the Rizgary and Nanakali hospitals, Erbil, Iraq was analyzed as the study group compared to the healthy volunteers' control group. Seventy-one serum samples were collected, thirty-one from diagnosed CRC patients and forty from healthy controls. The concentrations of IL-10 in the sera were assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The present finding showed that IL-10 Was significantly elevated in CRC patients' sera compared to the control group, suggesting confirmation of its usefulness for detecting CRC patients' prognosis. A non-significant Pearson correlation was detected between IL-10 serum levels and the CRC group's age, gender, and body mass index. Herein is the first study on the evaluation of IL-10 levels in CRC patients in Kurdistan, Iraq.

Open Access Original Research Article

Impact of the Emerging COVID-19 Pandemic on the Consumption of Multivitamins (C, D and Zinc) by the Saudi Arabian Population

Duaa Mohamed Bakhshwin, Abdulaziz Bakhshwin

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 11-20
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i26B31476

Background: On March 11, 2020, the World Health Organization (WHO) announced the Coronavirus outbreak officially as a pandemic. This pandemic has led to new measurements to prevent viral spread. The measures included decreasing the person’s mobility outside homes with subsequent changes in the lifestyles, particularly in physical activity and eating habits. It has been noticed that consumption of some vitamins may help in preventing or reducing the symptoms of viral infection. Those vitamins include vitamin C, D and zinc. There is a common observation that the general public believes that the use of vitamins, especially vitamins C, D and zinc, reduces the chance of acquiring COVID-19.

Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine the impact of COVID-19 pandemic on taking vitamins supplements by the Saudi general population in order to explore their believes regarding the protective value of these vitamins against COVID-19 infection.

Subjects and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted using a self-administrated questionnaire that was designed, uploaded to the Google form and distributed online to the general Saudi population through the social media (Whatsapp, Twitter) as well as through email between August and December 2020. Statistical Packaged of Social Sciences program (SPSS) for Windows (version 17.0., Chicago: SPSS Inc) was used to analyze the data. A significant difference was considered when the p value is < 0.05. Student t-test and Chi-square (χ2) test were used to compare the studied variables as appropriate.

Results: A total of 1043 participants were included in this study (64.9% females, 35.1% males). The mean age for them was 35.3±14.78 years. Only 9.3% (97 participants) were diagnosed to have COVID-19. About 28% of the participants were in contact with COVID-19 cases. Among participants diagnosed to have COVID-19 infection, (13% versus 29%) were taking vitamin C and (2% versus 15%) were taking zinc supplements daily during the 6 months before and after the pandemic, respectively, while (20% versus 25%) were taking vitamin D supplements weekly during the 6 months before and after the pandemic, respectively. Among participants who were in contact with COVID-19 cases, (8% versus 20%) and (3% versus 11%) were taking vitamin C and zinc supplements daily during the 6 months before and after the pandemic, respectively, while (14% versus 16%) were taking vitamin D supplements weekly during the 6 months before and after the pandemic

Conclusion: The interest of taking multivitamin by Saudi population, such as vitamins C and D, zinc increased during and after the pandemic compared to that before it. There is no scientific evidence based on previous studies confirmed the role of dietary supplementation and multivitamins in preventing COVID-19 infection, therefore, effective education on the rationale use of vitamins during COVID-19 pandemic should be emphasized at local and/or national levels.

Open Access Original Research Article

Facile Green Synthesis of Iron Oxide Nanoparticles Using Phoenix dactylifera L. Seed Extract and Their Antibacterial Applications

Abdul Majid, Farah Naz, Hatim Ali Jamro, Bilal Ansari, Sanaullah Abbasi, Sham Lal, Safdar Ali Ujjan

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 21-29
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i26B31478

Aim: The synthesis methods of iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) have got great attention in recent years, due to their variety in physicochemical properties and applications. This study aimed for the green synthesis of the IONPs using an aqueous extract of P. dactylifera L. seeds for its antibacterial applications.

Methodology: IONPs were prepared in an aqueous seed extract of P. dactylifera L. The physicochemical characterisations were performed with transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to study the shape of obtained nanoparticle, energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) for elemental confirmation of iron and oxygen, dynamic light scattering (DLS) for particles size measurement, vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) for saturation magnetisation, Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) for chemical confirmation of function groups and X-ray diffraction (XRD) for crystalline nature. The polyphenols contents were also determined; we suggest that the presence of phenolic compounds is the key element involved in the formation and the stabilisation of IONPs. Antibacterial activity was determined using disc diffusion assay and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the IONPs were determined by broth dilution assay.

Results: The biosynthesised IONPs showed crystalline magnetite spherical morphologies with average diameter 30 nm. Discs with all the concentrations of IONPs tested in this study (10 - 100 ug.mL-1) showed antibacterial activity against bacterial strains tested (Staphylococcus epidermidis, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa). MIC values were found to be 30 ug.mL-1, 50 ug.mL-1 and 60 ug.mL-1 for S. epidermidis, K. pneumoniae and P. aeruginosa respectively.

Conclusion: The biosynthesis of IONPs has provided, reliable, safe, simple and eco-friendly method. Hence, this study has focused on biological method of synthesis of IONPs. The IONPs synthesized in this study can be used as the therapeutic agents against bacteria.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Daily Burden and Factors for Overcrowded Emergency Department at Tertiary Care Hospital of Karachi

Arsala Faridi, Farah Ahmad, Areej Zehra, Afreen Fazal

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 30-35
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i26B31479

Background: When in emergency room there is no enough area left to serve or to admit the subsequent sick patients who may require urgent attention and observation the setting is called as the overcrowded emergency room. Due to overcrowded emergency department the quality of services provided by the staff and doctors is compromised ultimately patients with severe diseases are ignored and this may be one of the causes for causalities.

Objective: To assess the daily burden and factors responsible for overcrowding at emergency department of tertiary care hospital of Karachi.

Methodology: It was a cross sectional study conducted at tertiary care hospital of Karachi from October 2020 to January 2021. Data of patients coming to adult emergency department of either gender were collected.  Patients age <14 were excluded as these were referred to pediatric emergency department. Data collection was done according to Canadian emergency department triage and acuity scale (CTAS).

Results: Total number (N) of patients who visited emergency department in study duration was 13434. The mean number of patients who visited ED was 141±13during our study duration. There was no any significant difference in presenting complaint. Delay in investigations was found to be a reason of prolong stay and overcrowding in ED in our setting.

Conclusion: Overcrowding of patients in our ED of our setting was a common problem. The number of staff, doctors and beds were not matching the number of patient flow in the department. The main reason of prolong stay in ED was delay in investigations.

Open Access Original Research Article

Experience and Perceptions of Medical and Dental Interns on the Effects of the COVID- 19 Pandemic on their Internship Program- A Questionnaire Based Study in Makkah Region of Saudi Arabia

Karunakar Shetty, Othman Wali, Abdulaziz Talal M. Maleh, Zaid Naif Alharthi, Mahmoud Hani Zahran, Maged Mhmdnzar Khairudein

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 42-53
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i26B31481

Introduction: COVID-19 is a highly infectious disease caused by an RNA virus belonging to a large family of coronaviruses. WHO declared COVID-19 as a public health emergency and classified it as a pandemic. The COVID-19 pandemic affected the medical education globally.

Aim of the Study: The aim of the study is to evaluate the impact of COVID-19 on the internship program.

Materials and Methods: A cross‑sectional study was conducted among the medical and dental students of various universities in Makkah region of Saudi Arabia. A questionnaire consisting of 15 close ended, pre-tested questions was developed to determine the experiences and perceptions of medical and dental interns due to COVID-19. The data were tabulated and analyzed using SPSS version 21. Chi-square test was used to assess the experiences and perceptions among the Medical and Dental interns. P-value of less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: The study included 453 participants, out of which 253 were dental interns and 200 were medical interns. 231 (51%) of male interns participated in this study and 222 (49%) female interns participated. 140 (55.6%) and 138 (69.3%) of the participants of the dental and medical interns respectively felt COVID-19 affected options to select specialties of their interest for post-graduation, whereas, 112 (44.4%) and 61 (30.7%) of the dental and medical interns felt other way. Conclusion: Majority of the participants reported that COVID-19 did not affect them psychologically. In addition, most of the medical and dental interns felt covid -19 affected opinions to select specialties of their interest for post-graduation.

Open Access Original Research Article

Comparative Evaluation of Salivary pH with Honey and Vinegar Mouth Rinse in Diabetic and Healthy Adults

Akhtar Ali, Lubna Farooq, Anum Mahmood, Shaikh Nadeem Ahmed, Asif Ahmed, Sumreen Mujahid

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 54-59
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i26B31482

Background: Salivary fluid creates a particular environment of oral cavity that helps in mastication, lubrication of food and mucosa and in speech. Intake of food and different liquids (drinks, juices, milk) causes modulation in pH of saliva that lead to change in the environment of oral cavity.  The pH of saliva decreases to acidic side when bacteria breakdown the carbohydrates and start releasing acids, these acids damage the structure of tooth and leads to cavity formation i.e. dental caries.

Objective: The current study is aimed to evaluate the salivary pH of diabetic and healthy individual before and after using honey and vinegar mouth rinses.

Methods: It was a pre-clinical experimental study conducted in dental OPD of Baqai medical college Karachi from 1st January to 15th February. The calculated sample size N=80 was divided in 4 groups, Group A, n=20 healthy participants who rinsed with honey mouth rinse, Group B n=20 diabetics patients who rinsed with honey mouth rinse. Similarly, Group C, n=20 healthy participants who rinsed with vinegar mouth rinse and Group D, n=20 diabetic patients who rinsed with vinegar mouth rinse. 2 ml of saliva was collected by asking the participants to collect it in the floor of the mouth and swallowing for one minute was prohibited and after that they were asked to expectorate it into the sterile container. Then they were given the mouth rinse according to group distribution and after rinsing they were asked to wait for half an hour after that saliva was again collected from same participant to identify the rinse induced change in pH of oral cavity.

Results: There was no any significant change in healthy participants of either group however in diabetic individuals significant change was observed by honey mouth rinse (p-value = 0.033) followed by vinegar mouth rinse (p-value = 0.043).

Conclusion: Honey and vinegar mouth rinses are effective in maintaining the salivary pH in diabetic individuals.

Open Access Original Research Article

Phytochemical Evaluation and Antimicrobial Potential Assessment of Some Spices on Selected Pathogenic Microorganisms in Alex Ekwueme Federal Teaching Hospital, Abakaliki, Nigeria

D. O. Okata-Nwali, C. V. Uzoh, C. O. Okeh, B. Ugwu, O. J. Owolabi, A. M. C Isirue, M. M. Egwu-Ikechukwu

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 60-68
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i26B31483

The antibacterial activity of Monodora myristica, Xylopia aethiopica, Piper guineense, Tetrapleura tetraptera against selected human pathogens like Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumonia, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhi and Streptococcus mutans were ascertained using standard microbiological procedures. The herbaceous plants were sun dried and ground into powdery form. Fifty grams (50 g) each of the herbaceous plants were submerged into three (3) different extraction solvents (Ethanol, Methanol and Aqueous) in a conical flask, the flask were shaken intermittently for 24 hours. The herbaceous plants were sieved using whatman number one filter paper. The sieved extracts were allowed to air dry and the dried extracts were stored in a sterile sample bottle in the refrigerator until use. Agar well diffusion technique was used to determine the antibacterial activity/efficacy of the herbaceous plants. The antibacterial activity of ethanol, methanol and aqueous extracts of Azadirachta indica were determined. The result showed that aqueous extract had antimicrobial activity against all the test bacteria, ethanol extract had activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli, but showed no activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Streptococcus mutans and Salmonella typhi. Methanol extract had activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli. Aqueous extract had activity similar to that of ethanol and methanol except that Streptococcus mutans which showed resistance to ethanol and methanol extracts was susceptible to aqueous extracts. Phytochemical analysis conducted shows that the herbaceous plant extracts contains substances such as alkaloids, saponin, tannin, flavonoid and phenol. The result obtained from this study revealed that these herbaceous extracts possess bioactive substances which had antibacterial activity on the test bacterial used in the study. Ethanol, methanol and aqueous extracts of Azadiractha Indica, Monodora myristica, Xylopia aethiopica, piper guineense, and Tetrapleura tetraptera had a remarkable activity against Staphylococcus aureus, E.coli and Klebsiella pneumonia while Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Streptococcus mutans and Salmonella typhi were resistant to both ethanol and methanol extracts. However, further in vitro and in vivo studies should be carried out to identify the active constituents responsible for their antibacterial activity.

Open Access Original Research Article

Synthesis, Characterization, Anti-Mycobacterial Evaluation and In-Silico Molecular Docking of Novel Isoxazole Clubbed Pyrimidine Derivatives

Nagaraju Pappula, Ravichandra Sharabu

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 69-79
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i26B31484

In the present research, we tend to ready a series of novel pyrimidine-linked isoxazole derivatives (11-20). The molecular structure and the elemental composition of these compounds were confirmed by spectroscopic studies and elemental analysis. MABA (Microplate alamar Blue Assay) assay was employed for assessing the antitubercular activity against the Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv strain. Among the ten synthesized compounds, 18 and 20 showed excellent anti-tubercular activity than the reference (MIC-3.125 µg/ml) at 0.78 µg/mL. The compounds were found to possess good binding affinity than a standard against thymidylate kinase enzyme (PDB-1MRS) as evidenced by the molecular docking studies. Additionally, the bioactivity was conducted by Mol-inspiration software tool and the drug-likeness property was evaluated on Lipinski's rule of five by SCFBio online software. The lead compounds identified through these studies could be useful for the furtherance of the drug discovery process in the area of antitubercular research.

Open Access Original Research Article

Development and Optimization of Controlled Release Formulation and Process of Levetiracetam with Hot Melt Coating Technology

Nilam Patel, Rupal Jani

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 80-102
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i26B31485

Conventional coating processes are based on aqueous or organic solvent system, resulting in the lengthy and tedious processes where use and removal of solvents consumes lots of energy and resources. Also, solvent disposal is a critical issue considering environmental hazard.Hot melt coating process avoids use of solvent and is short and energy-efficient process. Here, Hot-melt coating process (HMCP) is being developed to formulate lipid based oral controlled release formulation system to deliver highly water soluble Biopharmaceutical Classification System (BCS) class-I drug Levetiracetam. Pellets containing Active ingredient in the core portion were prepared by extrusion spheronization process with use of appropriate filler and binder. These core pellets were then coated using hot-melt coating technology with different levels of lipid and a hydrophilic component. Formulation and Process parameters were optimized to achieve targeted drug release profile and other target product profile with particular focus onHMCP. Quality by design (QbD) with DOE approach was used for designing and development of the formulation, by putting risk assessment Failure Mode and Effect analysis (FMEA, Fish-bone diagram), screening (by Plackett Burman), and optimization by Central Composite Design (CCC) studies. Appropriate ‘design space’ was proposed based on the optimization studies. The results demonstrated that the level of Low melting coating component and a hydrophilic component influenced the drug release rate from the formulation, and the rate of release could be optimized by varying the amount of these components in the formulation. Processing parameters like Temperature of the coating solution and atomization air, Atomization air pressure and Spray rate also affects the drug release rate and other parameters like coating efficiency and mean particle size. For optimized formulation, dissolution data model fitting was also carried out which adequately fits to Higuchi model suggesting that the drug release occurred predominantly by diffusion.

Open Access Review Article

Immunological Features and Hypotheses: Do SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV-Reported Individuals have Immunity against SARS-CoV-2 Infection

Rafat Zrieq, Najoua Haouas, Reem M. Ali, Hamoud F. Alshammari, Fahad D. Algahtani

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 36-41
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i26B31480

COVID-19 spreads abnormally compared to its counterparts in the same family "beta-coronaviruses". Today, we count more than 130 million affected humans affected by the COVID-19. Therefore, the study of means of prevention and treatment is an urgent need. Interestingly, the novel virus (SARS-CoV-2) has some similarities with SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV. It is known that heterologous immunity is well recognized within species of the same family. The use of previously recognized effective antibodies for SARS and MERS virus may prevent the COVID-19 pandemic. The objective of this study is to compare between SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV, and SARS-CoV-2 genomic and proteomic identity/similarity and their cross-immunity as well as their immunological features in the context of COVID-19 diseases prevention and treatment methods.