Open Access Minireview Article

Crestal Bone Loss: Causes and Medical Correction

Anatoly Mukhamedovich Shogenov, Milana Arturovna Bakhova, Zarema Kerimovna Abazova, Milana Aslanovna Bereketova, Malika Tagirovna Magomadova

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 69-76
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i25B31463

To maintain the long-term stability of the implant, it is important to minimize the loss of bone tissue around the implant. Several clinical studies have shown that the average loss of the crestal bone around the implants is 1.5-2%. mm during the first year after prosthetics has been done. In this article, the author suggests a number of hypotheses related to the loss of crestal bone. He comes to the conclusion that stress and overstrain are the main factors that lead to the loss of crestal bone during the first year of implant functioning.

The author notes that in the hypotheses presented in the article there are causes that can influence the loss of bone around the implant in one way or another. At the same time, it is necessary to carry out the appropriate medical correction of the oral cavity through antibiotic therapy and anti-inflammatory drugs, which will also prevent the process of losing the crestal bone.

Open Access Original Research Article

A Study of Microvascular Density in Carcinoma of Breast with CD34 Immunostaining

Bijoya Debnath, Mary Lilly

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i25B31456

Introduction: Tumor agiogenesis is generally classified in to two types, namely, sprouting and intussusceptive angiogenesis. The formation of new blood vessels from the already existing is termed as sprouting angiogenesis.  Many growth factors including endothelial growth factor (VEGF) contribute the formation of new vessels at the tumor sites. On other hand, the tumor able to split the existing blood vessels, this type is termed as intussuscepted angiogenesis and discovered in human colon adenocarcinoma xenograft.  In intussuscepted angiogenesis, an existing blood vessel splits into two new blood vessels by formation of trans vascular pillars.

Objective: The present study aimed to analyse the nicrovascular density on breast cancer patients using CD 34 immunostaining method.

Results: This mis-regulation may lead to the development of cancers. Histological grading with Grade II were more with 19 (63.3%) cases followed by Grade I with 4 (13.3%) and Grade III with 3 (10%) cases. There was increase in mean vascular density in Grade II when compared with Grade I and Grade III. However no significant correlation was observed statistically with a P value of 0.176. Using different antibodies such as CD34, CD31, Factor VIII and CD105 to microvessels differentiation was highlighted.

Conclusion: The results showed that the anti-CD34 monoclonal antibody is more sensitive than the anti- CD31 antibody in calculation of MVD in breast cancer as mentioned in previous studies.

Open Access Original Research Article

Study on the Prevalance, Identification and Antibiogram of Enterococci Isolated from the Heterogenous Clinical Samples in a Tertiary Care Hospital

Binish Gulzar, Chitralekha Saikumar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 26-34
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i25B31458

The rise in Pantone-Valentine leucocidin (PVL) and gAMMA-haemolysin (Hlg) producing Enterococcus spp., among the people is a serious concern on evolution of antibiotic resistance. Recent reports suggested that the synergistic association of PVL toxin and necrotic lesions that lead to infections in skin and mucosa.  To study the prevalence of Enterococcus isolated from the various clinical samples from both inpatient and out - patient department at a Tertiary care hospital. The resistance to Pantone-Valentine leucocidin (PVL) and gAMMA-haemolysin (Hlg) is further tested by using E-test strips for gentamicin test showed 26.8% of isolated populations had resistance to cell wall active agents. In our study all the intermediately sensitive to vancomycin isolates were found to be vancomycin sensitive by both the Epsilometer test and automated Vitek 2 system. The minimum inhibitory concentration ranging from 0.5 - 4 ug/ml. Hence my study confirmed good activity of the vancomycin, linezolid and Teicoplanin against isolated Enterococci spp.

Open Access Original Research Article

A Study of Antioxidant and Anti-bacterial activities of Borassus flabellifer

Prashant Nayak, D. S. Sandeep, Aqib Hameed, Sneh Priya, Pankaj Kumar, Abhishek Kumar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 53-60
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i25B31461

The present study was designed to estimate the antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of ethanolic and aqueous extract of Borassus flabellifer fruit, juice, leaves and sap. The antioxidant evaluation was carried out by various radical scavenging assays and antimicrobial activity by the disk diffusion method. For antibacterial activity, bacterial species such as Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus were tested for all extracts. The extract showed moderate antioxidant activity when compared to the standard vitamin C. In both DPPH and nitric oxide oxide assay when related IC 50 value, ethanolic fruit extract showed promising results of 132 and 119  µg/mL respectively with ascorbic acid as standard which showed 25 and 35 µg/mL respectively. In Ferric Thiocyanate (FTC) Method and Thiobarbituric Acid (TBA) Method the radical scavenging activity of ethanolic fruit extract showed satisfactory results of 160 and 148 µg/mL ascorbic acid being the standard which showed 94 and 97 µg/mL respectively. The total flavonoid contents were 32.7 /100g for ethanolic sap extracts and 53.9/100g in aqueous extract of sap. The fruit juice extract showed maximum inhibition zone with 31.4 and 32.1 mm against E. coli and S.aureus correlated other extracts .Ethanolic and aqueous sap extracts zone of inhibition was 25.2 and 26.8 against E. coli and zone of inhibition was 28.3 against S.aureus in both ethanolic and aqueous sap. Ethanolic and aqueous leaves extracts zone of inhibition was 28.5 and 24.1 against E. coli. Ethanolic and aqueous leaves extracts zone of inhibition was 30.4 and 25.8 against S.aureus. Herein, the results suggest that the Borassus flabellifer plant extracts have potential antioxidant and antimicrobial properties.

Open Access Original Research Article

Prevalence of Multidrug Resistant Escherichia coli O157:H7 Causing Diarrhoea in Children at District Khairpur

Samina Jatoi, Sham Lal, Pardeep Kumar, Abdul Majid Ansari, Safdar Ali Ujjan, . Sapna, Zuheeb Ahmed, Marvi Maitlo, Om Parkash

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 61-68
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i25B31462

Aim: Multidrug resistance (MDR) is a major public health problem worldwide. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence, levels of antimicrobial susceptibility and extended-spectrum beta lactamase (ESBL) production by Escherichia coli O157: H7.

Methodology: A cross sectional study was performed and a total of 116 stool samples were collected from children aged ≤ 5 years presenting diarrhoea from hospital located at district Khairpur. E. coli O157: H7 was isolated on Sorbitol MacConkey agar and isolates were initially characterized by Gram staining. Subsequently biochemical characteristics except oxidase test (which was performed manually) and drug sensitivity test was performed by using Automated MicroScan® walkaway machine. ESBL production by isolates was determined by disc diffusion method as per Clinical & Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) guidelines.

Results: Out of 116 diarrheal samples tested, 16 (13.79%) samples were positive for E. coli O157:H7. High number of E. coli O157: H7 were isolated from children aged up to 1 year followed by 2-3 years aged. Isolates were frequently found in summer season (12 times) followed by winter (3 times) and Autumn (1 time). The isolates were found 100% resistant against Nalidixic acid, Imipenem, Amoxycillin /Clavulanic Acid, Norfloxacin, Chloramphenicol, Vancomycin, Doxycycline, and Ampicillin and 90% resistant to Cifixime. ESBL production was noted in 12 (75%) out of 16 E. coli O157:H7 isolates as confirmed by CLSI protocol.

Conclusion: This study revealed that E. coli O157: H7 should be considered as major pathogenic bacterium causing diarrhea in children less than three years. The prevalence of ESBL producer MDR E. coli O157: H7 is of great concern, which requires monitoring of infection control measures through efficient antimicrobial management to ensure an uncompromised public health.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Extracts of Kigelia Africana Fruit and Sorghum Bicolor Stalk on the Biochemical Parameters of Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Rats

Nkem F. Obianagha, Chukwuma J. Okafor, Ufuoma Chukwuani, Emmanuel Ifeanyi Obeagu, Omobolanle Abioye Ogundahunsi, Steve O. Ogbonnia, Said Ali Yusuf, Emilio Stivens Galano

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 86-97
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i25B31465

Diabetes and its complication continue to remain a concern in the world population despite the introduction of various hypoglycemic agents. Biochemical changes remain the major observable, clinical, and pathological factors as a derangement in the levels of these parameters increase the risk of developing complications. Although herbal extracts for the treatment of diabetes have been scientifically validated, the scientific interaction and alteration of the biochemical parameters due to the administration of this herbal product are not thoroughly investigated in this region. Therefore, this study aims to determine the effect of the extract of Kigeliaafricana and Sorghum bicolor stalk on the biochemical parameters of diabetic-induced rats. A total of eleven groups containing five rats per group of randomly selected Alloxan-induced Diabetes Healthy Wistar rats of both sexes were used in the study, with one serving as the control group, another serving as glibenclamide treated group, and the remaining nine, extract treated groups. After the overnight fast, the control group received a dose of 0.5 ml of 2% w/v acacia solution. Glibenclamide treated group received 600 μg/kg body weight (bwt) glibenclamide. In contrast, the other nine groups received specified doses (125, 250, and 500mg/kg bwt) of Kigeliaafricana and Sorghum bicolor extracts singly and in a mixture of ratio 1:1, respectively. After receiving the specified doses once a day orally for 30 days, the rats fasted overnight, and 5 ml of blood collected via cardiac puncture into heparinized and fluoride bottles. The samples were spun and separated for biochemical profiles (plasma glucose, lipid profile, liver function test, and electrolytes urea and creatinine) using a commercially prepared kit with outlined procedures. The result showed a significant decrease (p < 0.05) of plasma glucose level in the extract-treated rats, with a remarkable increase in untreated diabetic rats compared to the control. A significant reduction (p < 0.01) in the plasma levels of triglyceride and LDL-Chol was also observed in all treated groups at various doses of extracts compared to control with HDL-Chol values marginally increased in all extract-treated groups. Urea and creatinine showed a significant decrease (p < 0.01) in all treated doses except the lowest when compared to the control, while all the electrolytes parameters (Na+, K+, Cl- and HCO3-) show no significant difference (p > 0.05) across the groups when compared to the control. Liver function showed no significant differences in all parametersexcept for the noticeable decreasing effects on AST and ALT values compared to the control. The extracts and their mixture exhibited antidiabetic and hypolipidaemic activities and cardiovascular benefits due to their considerable lowering effects on total cholesterol, LDL-Chol, triglycerides, and increase in the HDL-Chol levels. The observed biological actions may be due to the presence of different phytocomponents present in the plant extracts. There is, therefore, a need to determine which of the active constituents has the main antidiabetic and hypolipidaemic effect for their optimal usage.

Open Access Review Article

A Review of Diabetic Foot Ulcer Infections and Lyophilized Wafer Formulation

Rupalben Kaushalkumar Jani, Goswami Kaushal Puri, Shrestha Ubana

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 13-25
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i25B31457

Diabetic foot difficulties are the most usually occurring problems globally, resulting in economic disasters for the patients, families, and society. In patients with diabetes, the risk of emerging foot ulcers is 25% high. It has also been in the record that one lower limb amputation occurs every 30 seconds in patients with diabetes worldwide. Novel methods of drug delivery and wound dressing have to develop to solve the lower limb amputation crisis. One such novel method is "Lyophilized wafer formulation." It is an upcoming medicated dressing material that can enhance wound healing and the potential to ingest vast quantities of exudates from Chronic wounds. That can have been formulating by lyophilizing hydrogel of absorbent polymers such as Calcium Alginate, Carrageenan, Thiolated Chitosan, and plasticizer to enhance flexibility withstand the day to day mechanical stress, covered with some adhesive and protective backing layer. Unless it passes evaluation tests such as Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Exudate handling property, Folding endurance, In-vitro, In-vivo drug release profile, and Gamma-irradiation sterilizes wafer formulation, and it should not administrate directly. Lyophilized wafer formulation will be the most acceptable medicated dressing material in the future that will be useful to treat the normal wound. The wound formation because of diabetic foot ulcer (DFU) infections as there will be site-specific delivery of the drug, packed with an advantage to self administer and easy termination of the drug that can achieve just by removing the wafer case of drug toxicity.

Open Access Review Article

Revolutionary Approach towards Transdermal Drug Delivery: Ethosomal Gels

Ezekiel O. Kehinde, Shah Akrutiben, Janki Patel

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 35-43
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i25B31459

The human body is up of the skin which is the largest organ in the body and hence acts as a biological barrier that obstructs drug movement across the stratum corneum into the systemic circulation. The topical drug delivery system serves as a delivery system in which drugs are delivered for systemic circulation through the skin. Low diffusion rate across the stratum corneum is the main disadvantage of this system and for this limitation to be overcome, an Ethosomal formulation can be formulated which acts as a delivery system for the drug to be delivered across the biological barrier of the skin into the body. In ethosomal gel formulation, The prepared Ethosome is converted into a gel that can be applied to the skin what makes ethosomal gel formulation unique which enables drugs to reach the deep skin layers and/or the systemic circulation and enhance the delivery of active agents. In addition to this, it is also a malleable vesicular delivery carrier, soft and non-invasive. There is also a higher influx of drugs transdermally into the skin as ethosomal gel formulation allows drug to penetrate deep into the skin and enters systemic circulation. There is the development of new and novel therapies for the treatment of disease through the ethosomal drug delivery system as it is safe and effective and also easy to prepare. Topics ranging from preparation of ethosomes, Ethosomal gel, advantages and disadvantages, and characterization techniques are focused on in this review article.

Open Access Review Article

Review on Antioxidant and Hemagglutination Properties of Chia and Basil Seeds

Ayesha Saman Hawaldar, Suhas Ballal

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 44-52
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i25B31460

Medicinal plants have always benefitted the human society. Traditionally many plants and their products have been used to cure many deadly diseases. It has estimated by the WHO that more than 80% of the world population relies on the natural products for their health care. It has been reported that these natural remedies are cost-efficient, environment friendly, as well as biocompatible for the human use. Chia and Basil seeds are the two plant products that have been long known for their antioxidant properties. It has been reported that both of these seeds are abundant source of healthy omega-3 as well as omega-6 fatty acid, polyphenol and antioxidants like caffeic acid, myricetin, quicertin and others. The current study is focused on reviewing the antioxidant benefits of consumption of these seeds in the daily diet. This study will further help the researchers to carry out more extensive research to find out other benefits of these seeds on the human health. These seeds then can be further used as the main ingredient in many essential foods for the marketable application.

Open Access Review Article

A Review on Antioxidant Activity of Coffee and Its Additives

Deepti Bajaj, Suhas Ballal

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 77-85
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i25B31464

Today, coffee is the most consumed drink all around the world. It has been suggested by many researchers that consumption of coffee is associated with many health-related benefits like increasing the physical performance, lowering the risk of type 1 diabetes, Alzheimer, Parkinson’s as well as it is associated with reducing the risk of various types of cancer. It has also been noted that drinking coffee is also linked with the decreased chances of depression which is the major problem for the today’s youth. The benefits of coffee and Ganoderma are fascinating. Current study is conducted to review the benefits and the antioxidant activity of coffee and its additives. It has been proven that coffee provides the major amount of antioxidants as compared to other products like dark chocolates, cocoa, wines, fruits and vegetables. Coffee with Ganoderma is reported to have a major amount of anti-tumor as well as anti-oxidative properties as it contains triterpenoids as major bioactive compound.