Open Access Original Research Article

Synovial Fluid Analysis and Biopsy in Diagnosis of Joint Diseases

Veena Singh, Hemalatha Ganapathy, J. Thanka

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i22B31393

Worldwide, Arthritis is a communal clinical incidence of joints, and very predominant chronic disease in India. To evaluate to affect 1% of world’s adult population. Biopsies of Synovial fluid are being done as an adjuvant technique to assist in the diagnosis of arthritis. It offers a non-invasive method to diagnose any condition of the joint like traumatic, non-inflammatory/ inflammatory. Cytomorphological examination of Synovial fluids received   in   the   Department   of   Pathology, Sree Balaji Medical College and Hospital, Chennai. To examine the   gross,   microscopic, biochemical and    microbiologic variations in   the   synovial fluid in percutaneous synovial biopsy along with synovial fluid analysis was studied in 102 enrolled cases of arthritis. The liquefied was subjected to physical, biochemical and cytological analysis. To correlate synovial fluid cytology with biopsies whenever possible to increase the accuracy   of diagnosis. Synovial fluid analysis plays an important role in categorizing various arthritis and thereby helps in arriving at a diagnosis early.

Open Access Original Research Article

Smoking May Increase the Risk of COVID-19 Infection: Evidence from In Silico Analysis

Qazi Mohammad Sajid Jamal, Saif Khan, Mahvish Khan, Awais Abrar Ansai, Jalaluddin Mohammad Ashraf, Mahmoud Habibullah, Abdullah Farasani, Aymen Mohammed Madkhali, Mohtashim Lohani

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 12-21
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i22B31394

Introduction: SARS-CoV2, first reported in December 2019 in Wuhan as COVID-19 causing respiratory illness, rapidly evolved into a pandemic owing to its very high infectivity. There is insufficient evidence about if and how smoking affects the risk of COVID-19 infection, and the reports on whether smoking increases or reduces the risk of respiratory infections, are contradictory. Therefore, the current study was designed to determine the effects of nicotine consumption on the infectivity of COVID-19.

Methods: We performed in silico computer simulation-based study. The structures of SARS-CoV2spike ectodomain, and its receptor ACE2, were obtained from PDB. The structure of nicotine and its metabolites NNK and NNAL were obtained from the PubChem chemical database. After optimization, they were interacted using AutoDock 4.2, to see the effect of nicotine, NNK, or NNAL presence on the docking of viral spike protein to its receptor ACE2.

Results: ACE2 vs spike protein interaction results were used as a control (ZDOCK score 1498.484, with four hydrogen bonds). The NNK+ACE2 vs spike protein docking formed 10 hydrogen bonds with the highest ZDOCK score of 1515.564. NNAL+ ACE2 vs spike protein interaction formed eleven hydrogen bonds with the ZDOCK score of 1499.371. Nicotine+ACE2 vs spike protein docking showed the lowest ZDOCK score of 1496.302 and formed 8 hydrogen bonds. Whereas, NNK+spike vs ACE2 interaction had a ZDOCK score of 1498.490 and formed eight hydrogen bonds. NNAL+spike vs ACE2 docking formed eleven hydrogen bonds with a ZDOCK score of 1498.482. And Nicotine+spike vs ACE2 interaction showed a ZDOCK score of 1498.488 and formed 9 hydrogen bonds.

Conclusions: The binding of nicotine to either spike of virus or its receptor ACE2 is not affecting the viral docking with the receptor. But binding of NNK, a metabolite of nicotine, is facilitating the viral docking with its receptor indicating that smoking may increase the risk of COVID-19 infection.

Open Access Original Research Article

Liquid Based Cytology versus Conventional Cytology for Evaluation of Cervical PAP Smear

Vishakha Chandwani, K. Saraswathi, G. Bheema Rao, Vindu Sivastava

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 22-37
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i22B31395

The cervix is the narrow inferior segment of the uterus which projects into the vaginal vault.  Conventional cervical cytology is a simple, cost effective method that has been in use for more than 50 years and is still a highly effective cervical cancer screening procedure. Liquid-based, thin-layer preparation of cervical cytology specimens was a subsequent modification in technique. The present study was split-sample study was to compare Thin Prep Liquid-based Cytology with Conventional Pap Smear, relying on a laboratory with long term experience of the former. In our study most of the Conventional preparations showed cell overlapping, inflammatory cells, blood and mucus that obscure the epithelial cell  morphology  which  was much reduced in Liquid based preparations.

Open Access Original Research Article

Frequency of Erectile Dysfunction in Patients Receiving Pegylated Interferon and Ribavirin for the Treatment of Chronic Hepatitis C

Prem Kumar, Chaman Das, Kapeel Raja, Muhammad Arif Nadeem, Muhammad Nasim Akhtar, Shabnam Rani

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 38-43
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i22B31398

Objective: The purpose behind this study was to determine the frequency of erectile dysfunction in patients receiving pegylated interferon and ribavirin for the treatment of chronic hepatitis C.

Study Design: Prospective observational study.

Setting: Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Medical Unit III, Services Hospital, Lahore.

Period: Six months from 10st July 2017 to 9th January 2018.

Materials and Methods: We have evaluated a total of 130 patients through a consecutive sampling technique who were admitted or visited Out-Patient-Department (OPD) with an underlying diagnosis of hepatitis C virus infection and advise to take anti viral regime (Pegylated interferon and ribavirin combination therapy) for HCV treatment and followed after 12 weeks and 24 weeks for erectile dysfunction.

Results: A total of 130 patients with HCV infection were included. The overall mean age of the patients was 37.4±9.6 years. The overall frequency of erectile dysfunction was 83.07%. Among them, equal percentage of patients at 12 and at week 24 did not have erectile dysfunction (N = 76, 58.5%). While severe erectile dysfunction was surprisingly more common at week 12 (14.61%, N = 19) than at week 24 (13.07%, N = 17) of treatment. Significant association of severe erectile dysfunction was only observed at week 12 in age group 40 – 60 years (p <0.05).

Conclusion: Erectile dysfunction is more common and potential side effect of patients being treated with pegylated interferon and ribavirin but duration of therapy did not affect the prevalence of sexual impairment although with increasing age, the prevalence of sexual dysfunction is significantly increased.

Open Access Original Research Article

Clinicopathological Correlation of Germ Cell Tumours in Gonads

V. Lokeshwari, Shanthi Vijayalakshmi, S. Mary Lilly

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 44-61
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i22B31397

Ovaries are paired pelvic organs located on thesides of the uterus. Although it is rare in the general population, between the age group of 20-40 years in males,Testicular germ cell neoplasms are the most common form of malignant tumour reported. In young women ovarian tumours rank second among the ovarian germ cell tumors and in males, the testicular germ cell tumorsserves as the leading percentage of tumors among all the testicular tumors seen in the early and late adulthood (3rd and 4th decade) of life. The people of reproductive age group are most vulnerable to gonadal germ cell tumours.Curing this age group without affecting their fertility is a challenging task. The risk of malignancy increases in existence of cryptorchidism/ undescended testis as in our study, 1 case of classical seminoma presented with undescended testis. To study germ cell tumors in gonads in relation to age, parity and mode of presentation and the correlation of biochemical markers and immunohistochemical markers at places in gonadal germ cell tumors.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Detailed Study of CD10: A Stromal Marker in Breast Carcinoma

Huidrom Jyotsna Devi, P. Karkuzhali, P. K. Baskaran, S. Mary Lilly

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 62-70
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i22B31399

Breast carcinoma is one of the most frequently occurring cancers among women with one million cases. Breast cancer is the primary cause of death in women around the world. It is one of the major concerns in public health due to its high occurrence and growing tendency.   This complex functional structure develops from a highly modified apocrine sweat gland in the female, but remains rudimentary in male. Breast develops embryological into two lines along milk lines extending from axilla to groin. CD-10 is a 90- to 110-kDa cell surface zinc dependent metalloproteinase which is known as “Common Acute Lymphoblastic Leukaemia Antigen” (CALLA). CD-10 acts  as a stem cell regulator in the breast and  prevents uncontrolled proliferation on stem cells The present study is designed to study the expression of CD-10, a breast carcinoma stromal marker and its correlation with ER, PR and HER2/neu status in breast carcinoma.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluating the Effect of Amine-geldanamycin Hybrids on Antiviral Activity against Influenza Virus

Thongchai Taechowisan, Tipparat Samsawat, Chanjira Jaramornburapong, Weerachai Phutdhawong, Waya S. Phutdhawong

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 71-82
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i22B31400

Aims: The purpose of this study was to synthesis novel amine-geldanamycin hybrids (AGH) and evaluate their biological properties.

Study Design: Experimental study.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was carried out at the Department of Microbiology and Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Silpakorn University, from December 2019 - November 2020.

Methodology: Three new amine-geldanamycin hybrids (AGH); compounds 2 to 4 were synthesised by nucleophilic substitution of geldanamycin (1). The solubility, cytotoxicity, antiviral activity and molecular docking analyses were carried out.

Results: The solubility of AGH in water was 1.918-5.571 mM, higher than that of compound 1. Compound 2 exhibited weak cytotoxicity activity against Vero and LLC-MK2 cells, with IC50 values of 229.19 and 330.58 µg/ml, respectively. All compounds inhibited influenza virus propagation in embryonated chicken eggs at the lowest amount of 1.25 µg per egg. They interacted positively with Hsp90, showing a binding free energy (DG) of -112.00 to -116.34 kcal/mol, which indicated lower Hsp90 affinity compared with that of geldanamycin (-133.06 kcal/mol) and 17-dimethylamino ethylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin (-136.55 kcal/mol), despite being bound in the similar active site. For the viral absorption, only AGH inhibited hemagglutination at a concentration of 25 µg/ml.

Conclusion: The study findings revealed, through molecular docking analysis, that the development of AGH improved the antiviral activity. The AGH inhibited not only influenza virus propagation, but also viral absorption. Therefore, AGH could be considered a new choice for antiviral agents.

Open Access Original Research Article

A Study of Non Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Metabolic Syndrome Patients

Pinky Karam, V. S. Kalaiselvi, B. Shanthi

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 83-93
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i22B31401

The study aims to determine the association of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in metabolic syndrome patients to find out the prevalence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in the already diagnosed metabolic syndrome patients selected from the South Indian population. Find out the correlation and general characteristics of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in patients with metabolic syndrome. To determine the potential risk factors for developing steatohepatitis in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease cases with metabolic syndrome and establish the risk categories for developing steatohepatitis in these patients. There is an increased prevalence of all the factors of metabolic syndrome and changes are seen in biochemical markers in nonalcoholic fatty liver cases.

Open Access Original Research Article

Antibacterial and Antifungal Activity of Plant Extracts from Spinacia oleraceae L. (Amaranthaceae)

Firza Shafique, Uzma Naureen, Annam Zikrea, Sohail Akhter, Tanzila Rafique, Rumana Sadiq, Mehwish Naseer, Qaiser Akram, Qurban Ali

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 94-100
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i22B31410

Spinach (Spinacia oleracea L. SO) leaves represent an important dietary source, have high nutritional value and antimicrobial properties. Spinach leaves have been used in the treatment of human diseases since ancient times. Here, the aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial and antifungal activities of ethanolic extract of Spinach oleracea leaves by determining the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) using well diffusion method against bacterial        species Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus and Klebseilla pneumonia and fungal species Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus niger,        Candida albicans and Fusarium oxysporum. We evaluated from present data that ethanolic extract of root showed zone of inhibition ranges from 6 mm to 21 mm, ethanolic extract of stem showed zone of inhibition ranges from 8 mm to 21 mm and ethanolic extract of leaf showed zone of inhibition ranges from 9 mm to 22 mm from concentration 25 mg/ml to 100mg/ml. Leaf extract has high antibacterial and antifungal activity against bacterial and fungal species while root extract has low antibacterial and antifungal activity against bacterial and fungal species. Activity of plant extract was increased by the increasing concentration of extracts. Very low zone of inhibition was found at concentration 25 mg/1 ml DMSO which ranges from 6 mm to 14 mm while very high zone of inhibition was found at concentration 100 mg/ml which ranges from 6 mm to 22 mm. So, ethanolic extracts of Spinach oleraceae has good efficiency against bacterial and fungal species.

Open Access Original Research Article

Histopathological Study of Soft Tissue Lesions with Cytology Correlation

M. Fathimanifra, N. Shanthi Vijayalakshmi, J. Thanka

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 101-117
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i22B31403

Soft tissue can be defined as non-epithelial extra skeletal tissue of the body, exclusive of the reticuloendothelial system, glia and supporting tissu e of various parenchymal organs. FNAC is a useful tool in distinguishing accurately between neoplastic and non-neoplastic lesions. To study the utility of fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) in the diagnosis of soft tissue tumours. To correlate FNAC with histopathological examination of soft tissue tumours with immunohistochemistry and / or histochemistry wherever required and assess the overall sensitivity and specificity of FNAC in diagnosing soft tissue tumours.