Open Access Original Research Article

Screening of Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor 2 (HER2) Extracellular Domain for Potential Epitopes by Using Immuno-informatics Tools

Hasanain Abdulhameed Odhar, Salam Waheed Ahjel, Zanan Abdulhameed Odhar, Suhad Sami Humadi, Ali Mahmood Rayshan, Ahmed Fadhil Hashim

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i22A31383

The human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) is a well-studied oncoprotein that is overexpressed in a considerable proportion of breast cancer patients. The increased expression of this tyrosine kinase receptor is usually associated with poor clinical prognosis in female patients with breast cancer. In these patients, specific response of immune system against HER2 had been observed. This suggests that immunotherapy approaches can be employed for enhancing the response of tumor infiltrating lymphocytes against HER2 in susceptible tumor microenvironment. In this regard, peptide vaccines are considered one of the most affordable immunotherapy modalities due to their low production cost and long-term effect. For this purpose, we have screened the extracellular domain of HER2 crystal for potential B-cells and T-cells epitopes by using different immuno-informatics tools. The output peptides were then refined and filtered according to their antigenicity, allergenicity and vulnerability to selected proteases. Here, we present multiple B-cells and T-cells epitope candidates against HER2 extracellular domain with high antigenicity, low allergenicity and good resistance for selected proteolytic enzymes. These filtered epitopes can be used for design and construction of anti-HER2 peptide vaccine for potential use in HER2 positive breast cancer patients. Additionally, the sequence of linear B-cells epitopes can be used for the design of monoclonal antibody variable region against HER2 extracellular domain.

Open Access Original Research Article

Study of Association of AgNOR vs Ki-67 in Thyroid Lesions

C. Hamsini, V. Ramamoorthy, S. Mary Lilly

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 14-23
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i22A31384

The thyroid is an important endocrine gland, which plays a major role in the functions of almost all normal metabolic processes. In present study, by focusing the sections at very high magnification (100x, oil immersion level) AgNOR dots are visible as black dots inside the nucleus. Our studies which have reported that thyroid lesions with less AgNOR counts are more likely to regress as compared to those with high AgNOR counts and that showed its prognostic significance. Thus, the AgNOR technique can be useful as a supportive tool in both the prognosis and therapeutic value in thyroid lesions most commonly in malignant lesions that are stained by routinely performed haematoxylin and eosin. The Present Study is aim to find out the prevalence of thyroid lesions in the patients and also to Study and find out the different types of neoplastic and non- neoplastic thyroid lesions and their relation with AgNOR and Ki-67 proliferation makers. The Present Study focuses on to evaluate the association of AgNOR vs Ki-67 in the prognostic value of thyroid lesions.

Open Access Original Research Article

Emergency Treatment of Patients of Thoraco Abdominal Trauma in Surgical Ward According to Advanced Trauma and Life Support (ATLS)

Ahsan Ali Laghari, Shiraz Shaikh, Shahnawaz Abro, Muhammad Ali Suhail, Gulshan Ali Memon, Ghulam Akbar Khaskheli, Arslan Ahmer

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 24-29
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i22A31385

Objective: To determine the emergency treatment of Patients of Thoraco abdominal trauma in surgical ward according to Advance trauma and life support (ATLS).

Methodology: Prospective observational study was conducted for two years from April 2018 to March 2020 at Liaquat university of Medical and Health Sciences Jamshoro/Hyderabad Hospital. The study comprises 50 patients. All were admitted from Emergency department. The patients were evaluated fully after history & clinical examinations. Results were analyzed by using statistical package for social sciences (SPSS) version 23.

Results: In this study of 50 patients of Thoraco abdominal trauma, the maximum numbers of patients were in age group 15-70 years. Out of 50 patients 25 patients were presented with Trauma in Thorax, in which 5 patients were presented with penetrating injury & 20 patients were presented with Blunt trauma, 10 patients were presented with combine Thoraco abdominal trauma in which 2 patient were presented with penetrating injury & 8 patients were presented with Blunt trauma. Related to chest trauma 10 patients were treated needle thoracotomy with chest intubation, 5 patients were treated endotracheal intubation, 3 patients were treated thoracotomy and 2 patients were treated cardiosentesis, 5 patients were treated cricothyroidotomy. Better out were seen in 45 patients and mortality were seen in 5 patients.

Conclusion: Advance trauma and life support (ATLS) has a vital role in thoraco abdominal trauma intervention. 90% of successful interventions were obtained using advance trauma and life support.

Open Access Original Research Article

A Clinico-pathological Study of Skin Tumours

P. Rekha, Vindu Srivastava

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 30-39
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i22A31386

Skin cancers are relatively uncommon malignancies worldwide, but the incidence of skin cancers has progressively increased over the last few decades. The distinction between benign and malignant neoplasm are more difficult to define when they appear in skin than when found elsewhere and histopathological examination is frequently required to establish a definitive diagnosis.  The present study was the incidence of various benign and malignant tumours of skin and its adnexa. Histopathological examination remains the gold standard in diagnosing most skin  tumours. Thus diagnosis of any skin tumor can be done by correlating clinical features and histological features, which in turn can be supported by histochemistry, immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy. Most of the skin tumours were Nodular lesions (34.3%), followed by papular lesions (28.4%) and by ulcerated lesions (9.8%). Malignant tumours commonly presented as ulcerated lesions. Head and neck region was the most common site of occurrence followed by extremities and trunk. Keratinocytic (31.4%) tumours were the commonest group among all skin tumours.

Open Access Original Research Article

Gynecological Problems, Health Behaviors and Health Promotion among Women: Does it Matters in Pakistan?

Madeeha Malik, Emmama Jamil, Shazana Rana, Azhar Hussain

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 40-52
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i22A31387

Introduction: Poor socioeconomic status, lower education background, social stigma associated with sharing gynecological issues, paucity of early detection program, limited access to health care facilities, less number of qualified gynecologists and lack of technical equipment in Pakistan are the major factors affecting diagnosis, adequate control and prevention of gynecological problems in Pakistan. The importance of health promoting lifestyle and quality of life has been recognized in developed world for more than two decades, however, this concept is still in infancy in developing countries including Pakistan. Health promoting behavior especially among women is an unexplored area of research in Pakistan.

Objective: The present study was designed to assess health promoting lifestyle behavior among women with different gynecological problems in Pakistan.

Methodology: A descriptive cross-sectional study design was used. A pre validated questionnaires i.e. HPLP-II was self-administered to a sample of 383 women with different gynecological problems selected using convenience sampling technique. After data collection, data was cleaned, coded and entered in SPSS. Non-parametric tests Kruskal Wallis and Mann Whitney tests (p ≥ 0.05) were performed to find out the differences among different variables.

Results: Significant difference (p ≥ 0.05) in health promoting life style behavior was observed among patients of gynecological problems residing in different setting, having different marital status, different types of gynecological problem and educational background. Patients with gynecological problem residing in rural settings, married, who had ovary cyst and more educated had comparatively improved health promoting lifestyle behavior.

Conclusion: The results of this study revealed low health-promoting behaviors among women with gynecologic problems in Pakistan. Furthermore, the women’s score of spiritual growth, stress management, and interpersonal relations was higher than that of nutrition and physical activity. Therefore, it appears necessary to perform health education programs emphasizing nutrition and physical activities and establish counseling centers for teaching the health-promoting behaviors to  the women for improving their overall quality of life.

Open Access Original Research Article

Expression OF p16INK4a Gene in Premalignant and Malignant Lesions of Oral Cavity

R. Vijay David Raj, S. Marylilly

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 53-62
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i22A31388

Squamous cell carcinoma is the summits malignant neoplasm of the oral cavity. Tobacco and alcohol is identified as risk factors, but squamous cell carcinoma can occur in patients with no known risk factors. Oral cancer is the sixth most common malignancy and is one of the major causes of cancer morbidity and mortality worldwide. Cancer is caused due to a series of alteration in genetic and epigenetic factors that occur in multiple steps and is influenced by the genetic predisposition of the individual and by exogenous environmental factors. These factors result in a series of molecular alteration, including inactivation of tumor suppressor genes expression of p16 has been proposed as a marker for malignant transformation. The p16 staining was correlated between the control and study groups and p 16 was shown to be increasing expressed in premalignant and less expressed in malignant category and was found to be statistically significant by Fischer’s exact test. This study concluded that p16 was increasingly expressed in premalignant lesions and less expressed in malignant lesion. In the present study 9 of the control cases were p16 negative and one case showed sporadic staining. The study group I showed 1 case of sporadic staining, 6 cases of focal staining and 8 cases of diffuse staining. The study II showed 14 cases of sporadic staining, 6 cases of focal staining and 5 cases of diffuse staining. Hence variations cannot be accurately assessed, but it plays a crucial role in assessing pre-malignant lesions progressing to malignancy. To confirm this, a larger sample study is required. As advances in research have leads to greater understanding of potentially malignant lesions in the oral cavity.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Nephroprotective Effects of Moringa Oleifera Extract against Contrast Induced Nephrotoxicity

Ruaa Ali Altaee, Qayssar Joudah Fadheel

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 63-70
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i22A31389

Objectives: The present research has been conducted  to assess the Nephroprotective effects of the Moringa Oleifera Extract against contrast -induced nephrotoxicity in  male rabbits.

Study Design: Experimental design

Place and Duration of Study: it was carried out in the Faculty of Pharmacy/University of Kufa, Iraq/Al-Najaf Town .The study began at October 2020 and end at March 2021.

Methodology: Twenty one adult (male rabbits) weighing range(1.2-1.5kg). Rabbits are divided in a random manner into three equal groups each group including seven rabbits. Group1:control group administered DW, Group2:has been treated with Iodide contrast(2.5mg/kg) of (370mg/ml),group 3: dosed alcoholic extracts of Moringa 250 mg/kg and contrast (2.5mg/kg).By accounting data on the MDA levels ,Glutathione level and features of kidney histopathology. All efforts have been made to reduce the suffering of a  animals prior to and throughout the experiment and sampling.

Results: The alcoholic Moringa extract at 250mg/kg body weight doses orally considerably protected contrast induced toxicity of the kidneys in the rabbits through the increment of the level of  GSH and reduces the level of MDA. In the Histological data, the extract activities also protect the damage of the kidney, which is induced by the contrast that has been represented by the de-generation of some tubules and atrophy of glomerular, glomerular tuft congestion and expanded Bowman’s Space.

Conclusions: This study proposed that Moringa’s alcoholic extract results in the enhancement of the defense status of the oxidative stress against the renal toxicity.(Moringa Oleifera have Nephroprotective effect against contrast induce Nephrotoxicity).

Open Access Original Research Article

Histomorphological and Immunohistochemical Analysis of Gliomas

K. R. Mukilarasi, Bheema Rao, S. Mary Lilly

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 71-88
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i22A31390

In the present study, important parameters like frequency distribution of Gliomas, age group of Glioma patients, common sex involved, commonest site of occurrence, clinical presentations, radiological histopathological correlation, p16INK4a expression of the glial tumors are compared with other similar studies. The aim is to find out common age group of Glioma occurrence and it includes higher grades of Astrocytomas. The present study focuses on common symptoms  such as head ache, histopathologial correlation and common tumor etc and to study the Histomorphology of Gliomas to evaluate p16INK4a expression in Gliomas to correlate the p16INK4a expression with the WHO grading of Gliomas. Various parameters like age, sex, site, clinical symptoms, radiological correlation and WHO Grading were analysed.p16 IHC was expressed as positive and negative according to its nuclear staining of >25% cells in 10 continuous fields in 40x and it was found that p16 expression was Positive in all Grade 1 Astrocytoma, 3 out of 5 Grade II Astrocytoma and only in one Grade IV Glioblastoma. p16 expression was negative in 2 Grade II Astrocytomas and in 17 Grade IV Gioblastomas and in 2 cases of Myxopapillary Ependymoma.

Open Access Original Research Article

Comparative Study of Antioxidant Property of Coffee and Its Additives

Deepti Bajaj, Suhas Ballal

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 89-96
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i22A31391

Coffee, one of the most commonly consumed beverages is a very rich source of antioxidants alongside various other health benefits. The roasted beans of coffee are the seed of berry obtained from coffea species. These roasted coffee beans are utilized to prepare coffee. India is today producer of 16 unique varieties of coffee most of which originate from southern India. The goodness of coffee and Ganoderma can do wonders to human health. This study is aimed to have an analysis of antioxidant properties of instant coffee, filter coffee, coffee with Ganoderma extracts and ginger coffee by estimating the Ascorbic Acid equivalents (AAE). The essence of the study is the presence of additions and the antioxidant activity of the coffee samples in their presence. The two infusions used in the study are extracts of Ganoderma and ginger. The study also aims to have a inter group analysis of antioxidant properties of all the samples. The study was conducted using basic colorimetric techniques.

Open Access Original Research Article

A Correlative Study of Endometrial Glycogen Content in Female Infertility

Archana Rajan, B. O. Parijatham, Vindu Srivastava

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 97-109
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i22A31392

Infertility is a global problem. It has been viewed as a discredit and social humiliation thrust upon healthy young adults. The present detects the glycogen content in the endometrial glands of infertile women in the age group of 18 -39 years. This study aimed to compare infertility and the glycogen content in the endometrial glands of fertile women of the same age group. The endometrium is the tissue of attention because it is the site for implantation of ovum. The current study was done to evaluate the glycogen content in the endometrium of infertile patients and compare it with that of fertile patients. This study was done on 60 cases and 20 controls. Our study showed that large masses of glycogen (++++) was seen in only 7 secretory endometria in infertile cases (14.9%) when compared to 14 secretory endometria infertile subjects (77.7%). Also, endometrial glycogen grading in the secretory phase in infertile patients showed glycogen depletion (Grade 0) in 13 cases (27.7%) whereas it was nil in the fertile group. Glycogen is an essential and straight source of nutrient for the primary concepts and also helps in the successful implantation of blastocyst and continuation of pregnancy.