Open Access Case Report

Effectiveness of Self-Administered Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation with Self-Neural Mobilization Technique in TrapeziusMyalgia: Single Subject Research

Aashi Bhatnagar, Bodhisattva Dass, Rinkle Hotwani

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 36-40
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i21A31366

Background:Trapezitis or the inflammation of the trapezius muscle is the most common condition leading to a pain and spasm in the cervical region. This is often referred to as trapeziusmyalgia. Individuals having long working hours on desktop are the most subjected to develop this condition. It could result in slight discomfort to sever pain which may lead to suboccipital muscle tightness as well.

Investigations: On the day of examination patient presented with severe pain and spasm in the muscles of upper back and neck. The range of motion was found to be reduced for cervical region on examination with goniometer. No radiological findings were available with the patient.

Case Presentation: A 23 years old female patient presented with a complaint of pain in right upper back and at times in the left upper back with intermittent radiation in the arm. Presenting with a history of pain on prolonged sitting, studying.

Discussion: Self proprioception neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) stretching technique along with self neural mobilization was the main physiotherapeutic intervention. The outcome measures for pain and tightness showed significant improvement.

Conclusion: Self PNF stretching was found to be effective in patients with severe pain referring to arms along with the tightness, when traditional mode of treatment cannot be performed due to presence of extremely painful condition.

Open Access Original Research Article

Expression of BCL-2 and KI-67 in Cyclical Endometrium and in Endometrial Hyperplasia

P. Shalini, Natrajan Suresh, S. Mary Lilly

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i21A31363

The Present study attempts to determine the relationship between proliferation and the inhibition of apoptosis in normal endometrium and hyperplasia, using monoclonal antibodies against the proliferation marker, Ki-67 and the anti-apoptotic protein, Bcl-2 and to determine the expression of B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl – 2) and Ki – 67 in cyclical endometrium in proliferative and secretory phase. The Present study includes the expression of Bcl – 2 and Ki – 67 in endometrial hyperplasia.

Open Access Original Research Article

Synthesis and Antimicrobial Activity of Some New Coumarin Incorporated Pyridine-3-carbonitrile Derivatives

Abhishek Kumar, Pankaj Kumar, Prashant Nayak, D. S. Sandeep, Sneh Priya, Jainey P. James, H. Shravya

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 12-20
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i21A31364

Drug resistance causes serious difficulties in the routine therapy for curing common microbial infections. Thus it is very essential to develop new antimicrobial agents which can offer alternative treatments. The development of potent and effective antimicrobial agents is of utmost importance to overcome the emerging multidrug resistance strains of bacteria and fungi. The technique involves Knoevenagel reaction between substituted salicylaldehyde and ethyl acetoacetate in presence of piperidine as catalyst to give 3-acetyl coumarin. The intermediate coumarinyl chalcones was synthesized by condensing with various substituted benzaldehyde in presence of ethanolic KOH. The final synthesized pyridine-3-carbonitrile derivative was prepared upon refluxing with coumarinyl chalcones with malononitrile in presence of ammonium acetate. All the newly synthesized compounds were assigned on the basis of IR, 1H NMR and mass spectral data.  The finalsynthesized compounds were screened for their antibacterial activity tube dilution method. Most of the compounds showed promising MIC by tube dilution method as compared to standard Cephalosporin.

Open Access Original Research Article

Role of Immunohistochemistry Versus he Stain in Helicobacter pylori Detection in Gastric Lesions

Ayushi Narain, P. Karkuzhali, R.Vinoth Kumar, J. Thanka

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 21-35
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i21A31365

Helicobacter pylori are a spiral campylobacter like bacteria which infects the stomach causing chronic active gastritis. This can result in peptic ulcer disease, gastric adenocarcinoma, and mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma. In 1989, studies involving 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing and others revealed that the bacterium does not come under the genus Campylobacter. Hence the bacterium was classified under a unique genus named Helicobacter. This term is taken from the Greek language with helix meaning - "spiral" or "coil" and pylori meaning- gatekeeper (pylorus of stomach). This bacterium is said to penetrate the pylori or mucoid lining of the stomach. When infected during the early stages of life, people develop intense inflammation that may be followed by atrophic gastritis which serves as a risk factor for gastric ulcer, gastric cancer or both. Being infected during later stages of life changes the gastric system leading to duodenal ulcer. The present study analyzes the role of Immunohistochemistry versus Hematoxylin and Eosin and special stains in detecting Helicobacter pylori in gastric lesions.

Open Access Original Research Article

Comparison of Efficacy and Safety of Atorvastatin Versus Combination of Atorvastatin - Ezetimibe in Newly Diagnosed Dyslipedemic Patients

Sanitha Philip, Arul Amutha Elizabeth

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 41-49
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i21A31367

Hypercholesterolemia is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol is an established risk factor for atherosclerotic disease, particularly coronary artery disease (CAD); therefore, management of high serum LDL-C levels is the most important goal in the treatment of dyslipidemia. Since therapy with statins alone fails to achieve the targeted LDL-C values with lesser side effects it is better to try a combination therapy having high efficacy and safety profile. This study compared the efficacy and safety of the combination of Atorvastatin 10 mg +Ezetimibe 10 mg versus Atorvastatin 10 mg alone in lowering LDL-C in newly diagnosed dyslipidemic patients. Besides, it compared the efficacy of the two drugs in lowering the TC, TG, and TC/HDL-C and LDL/HDL-C ratio. We also compared the increase in HDL-C in the two groups at the end of 12 weeks. This study was conducted on 60 hypercholesterolemic patients in SreeBalaji Medical College Hospital. The patients were randomly divided into two groups of 30each. Group 1 was given Atorvastatin 10 mg +Ezetimibe 10 mg while Group 2 was given Atorvastatin 10 mg. The Lipid Profile, biochemical and hematological tests, clinical examination were done on Day 0, 6th week, and 12th week and these results were compared the group and between groups from 0 to 6th week and 6th week to 12th week and 0 to 12th week. The results from our study indicated that Combination therapy with Atorvastatin 10 mg + Ezetimibe 10 mg is superior to Atorvastatin 10 mg alone in reducing LDL-C, TC, TC/HDL-C ratio and raising the HDL-C levels at the end of 12 weeks. Thus the study implies that combination therapy is superior to monotherapy in the high-risk group of dyslipidemia patients.

Open Access Original Research Article

Study of RBC Histograms and Its Correlation with Etiopathogenesis and Other Parameters in Various Anemias

A. P. Gokula Kannan, R. Govindarajan, J. Thanka

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 66-82
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i21A31369

The pluripotent stem cells which are present in the bone marrow renew by its own and differentiate into mature cells. These stem cells undergo division by the presence of erythropoietin, where the nucleus is extruded out from the cell during the end of differentiation, thereby retaining cytoplasmic RNA to form a reticulocyte. The reticulocyte i s a precursor to red blood cell and on losing the RNA it matures into a Red Blood Cell. The present study aimed to analyze the correlation between the automated histogram patterns along with morphological features of RBC‘s prepared from peripheral smear examination in different types of anemia. viz., MCV, MCH, MCHC & RWD- CV.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Hepato-protective and Nephron-Protective Potential of Euphorbia nivulia Buch.-Ham. Against Carbon Tetrachloride-induced Toxicity in Sprague Dawley Rats

Muhammad Younus, Muhammad Mohtasheemul Hasan, Khalil Ahmad, Ihsanul Haq, Rizwan Ahmad, Bakht Nasir, Adnan Amin, Jafir Hussain Shirazi, Muhammad Hanif, Ghazala Shaheen, Syeda Abida Ejaz, Ume Habiba

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 83-100
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i21A31370

Background: Euphorbia nivulia Buch.-Ham (En) is one of the members of Euphorbiaceae family that is rich in phytochemicals including flavonoids, triterpenes and polyphenolics.

Purpose: To evaluate hepato-nephronprotective potential of Euphorbia nivulia.

Study Design: Sprague Dawley rats were used as animal models in the study.

Methods: En hydro alcoholic extract was standardized and managed in high dose (300 mgkg−1 body weight (BW) and low dose  (150 mgkg−1 BW) to Sprague Dawley rats, administered with CCl4 (1mlkg−1BW). Silymarin (50 mgkg−1 BW) was taken as positive control. The treatments were given thrice a week. Consequently, blood and hepatic homogenates were collected after 4 weeks of treatment. While the situation of kidney was explored through measurement of serum creatinine, serum urea, sodium and albumin levels. Hepatic and renal samples of rats treated with both 150 and 300 mg/kg of the extract were used for tissue pathological study.

Results: En extract revealed dose dependent moderate level of shelter against CCl4 intoxicated hepato-nephrotoxicity as directed from the acquired results. The decrease of the albumin levels by the maximum dose of the extract exceeded similar to that attained with Silymarin, and the protecting effects of the extract against oxidative destruction were evaluated. Examination of serum show significant (p < 0.05) elevation in the level of aspartate transaminase(AST), alkaline phosphatase(ALP), alanine transaminase(ALT), whereas decline were noted for albumin in CCl4 treated rats. Histopathological cuts and damages were seen in hepatic cells and kidney of rats managed by CCl4. But, co-administration of En extract, dose dependently, improved the CCl4-carried hepatic harms in these limits.

Conclusion: These effects propose that the phyto-ingredients of En extract with known polyphenols were able to improve the oxidative stress brought along with CCl4 and may be a useful healing mediator to manage oxidative stress related disorders like hepato-nephro toxicity.

Open Access Original Research Article

Analytical Study of Diagnostic Role of Her2/Neu Expression In Gastroesophageal Lesions

Abid Ashraf Sheikh, R. Vinoth Kumar, G. Bheema Rao, S. Mary Lilly

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 101-111
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i21A31371

Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma is one of the common types of malignant lesion and has its highest prevalence round the world.  Though it is a common disorder, many of the patients only diagnose it in its advanced stage and these results in poor prognosis of the disease. In later stage, these lesions may severely develop in to lymph node metastasis and has more chances to spread across any of the vital organs. Barrett‟s esophagus, herpes simplex esophagitis, candidial esophagitis, leiomyoma, hyperplastic polyps are few of the benign and premalignant type of lesions.  The advancement in endoscopy has opened many opportunities and diagnosis of all esophageal lesions became simple and effective. As the surgical procedures associated with the targeted therapy have become promising option for the treatment, many patients are being benefited out of technological advancement. The surplus of malignancies such as esophagus, esophago- gastric junction and stomach have become a significant health problem and threatening the people all over the world. Delayed diagnosis on these disorders particularly resulting in high mortality ratio and warrant for a systematic evaluation in patients.  In this context, the present study analyse the association and prognostic significance  of HER2/ neu in gastroesophageal lesions with other factors like age, size, histological type and grading and  the incidence and distribution of gastroesophageal lesions in patients.

Open Access Original Research Article

Antimicrobial Activities of Mint Lemonade Plant Extracts from Salt and Heavy Metal Stressed Plants

Asima Khan, Qurban Ali, Muhammad Awais Javeid, Arif Malik

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 112-122
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i21A31372

Aim of present research was to evaluate the anti-bacterial, anti-fungal, anti-oxidant and multi-stress activities of a medicinal plant Mint Lemonade plant extract. Fresh mint was purchased from the nearest market. The samples were cleaned with distilled led water and its leaves, stem and roots were separated them all. The material was dried in shade at room temperature (24ºC). The three types of extracts were prepared for each sample of mint plantviz, ethanol, n-hexane and water. The antibacterial and antifungal activities of ethanolic, n-haxene and aqueous mint extract was determined on Escherichia coli, Bacillus cereus, Pseudomonas, Aeromonas hydrophila, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavous and Rhizopus stolonifer respectively. From the results of the antibacterial and antifungal activities it was clear that the aqueous extract showed no inhibitory effect on test these microorganisms. In ethanolic extract of antibacterial activity Escherichia coli showed the maximum zone of inhibition with diameters of 3.90 cm at 50 µl dose. Bacilluscereus showed the zone of inhibition diameter 4.9 cm. Pseudomonas showed the maximum zone of inhibition in diameter 3.86mm.Aeromonas hydrophila expressed the maximum zone of inhibition in diameter 3.86mm. The n-hexane extracts antibacterial activity of E. coli, Bacillus cereus, Pseudomonas and Aeromonas hydrophila showed the zone of inhibition 3.86 cm, 4.5 cm, 7.90 mm and 4.71 cm respectively, while the positive control showed inhibition zone about 0.0 cm. The antifungal activity in n-haxene extract showed the maximum result in Aspergillus flavous 18 cm of the area of inhibition. In ethanol extracts antifungal activity showed the maximum result in Aspergillus flavous 4.8 cm of the zone of inhibition. The inhibitory action of mint plant extracts indicated that the plant may be used as potential antibacterial agent.

Open Access Review Article

Toxicological Effects of Antituberculosic Chemotherapy in Adults: An Integrative Literature Review

Viviane Ferraz Ferreira de Aguiar, Dayara de Nazaré Rosa de Carvalho, Dandara de Fátima Ribeiro Bendelaque, Lorena Nayara Alves Neves, Celice Ruanda Oliveira Sobrinho, Paula Sousa da Silva Rocha, Rafael Everton Assunção Ribeiro da Costa, Cidianna Emanuelly Melo do Nascimento, Susi dos Santos Barreto de Souza, Marcela Raissa Asevedo Dergan, Mioni Thieli Figueiredo Magalhães Brito, Juarez Antônio Simões Quaresma

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 50-65
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i21A31368

Objective: To analyze the toxicological effects of anti-tuberculosis chemotherapy in adults in national and international literature in the period from 2015 to 2020.

Methodology: It is a qualitative descriptive research, of the type Integrative Literature Review (ILR). In the VHL databases PubMed / Medline, Arca, Web of Science, Microsoft Academic and Cochrane Library. Data analysis was performed with the aid of the IRaMuTeQ software.

Results: 36 articles were found in which the following categories were created: 1) Association of hepatotoxicity and appearance of liver damage; 2) The incidence of adverse events related to antituberculin therapy; 3) Risk factors of regular consumption of antituberculins; 4) Intensive renal treatment for patients with nephrotoxicity.

Conclusion: in our review we identified that the elderly, HIV positive and alcohol users are more likely to have toxicological effects during treatment, which can lead to a possible abandonment of treatment.