Open Access Systematic Review Article

A Systematic Review of the Clinical Studies in Humans for the Treatment of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2: Clinical Manifestation, Diagnosis and Clinical Trials

Girum Tefera Belachew, Paramesh Hanumanthaiah, Fekede Meshesha Namo, Bitaniya Abera Tekelemariam

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 62-79
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i19B31339

Background: In December 2019 Chinese higher officials have acknowledged a number of cases of pneumonia happened in Wuhan, China with those patients who used the seafood from market selling live animals. At the end of December 2019, a kind of new pneumonia feast quickly in Wuhan, China, a novel coronavirus (2019-nCov).

Objective: Systematic analysis of the completed clinical trials in humans due to coronavirus disease in 2019 between January 12, 2020, to May 30, 2020 in 11 countries and possibly to recommend the ways to overcome the COV-2 pandemic.

Methods: Clinical studies completed in humans for the treatment of coronavirus disease in 2019 were looked for two databases, namely PubMed and Scopus. Based on the search terms, a total of 369 articles were downloaded. Of the total 369 articles, 38 duplicate articles were removed and 331 articles were screened with objective criterion. From the 331 articles, 168 articles were screened for excluded based on abstract screening and left with 163. Based on the exclusion criteria, 82 review articles, 51 articles not related to SARSCOV- 2 and 4 articles not written in English, in total 137 articles were excluded. Eventually, 26 articles were reviewed with required parameters for conclusive remarks.

Results: Of all the completed human clinical trials conducted in 11 countries obtained from, the total patients included in the clinical trials from January 12, 2020 to May 30, 2020 were 6130. Out of them 1060 (17.29%) were only females and the rest 5070 (82.71%) were both males and females. From all patients studied, 163 patients were 30-70 years old, 60 patients were 60 years old, 2531 patients were of all age groups and the rest 3376 patients were ≥ 18 years old. Of all the completed clinical trials in 11 countries, eight different interventional models and four study types were used.

Conclusion: From the analysis of segregated results it is apparent that there was inclusion of patients with varied age group in the studies conducted with very less amount of patients from ≤ 18 years old, old age group and only females. The prime reason for least percentage inclusion of different age groups could be the weaker inherent immune response for the pandemic. COVID-19 can cause a conceivably deadly infection in humans. The most typical clinical manifestations reported by patients with coronavirus disease in 2019 were fever, cough, and expectoration. Approval of vaccines for control of COVID-19 is yet to be officially done, although now few vaccines are administered. Knowing the way to enter the cell and the mechanism on how to escape the immune system can be the potential targets to develop a novel SARS-COV-2 treatment protocol.

Open Access Original Research Article

Strength Development, Muscle and Tissue Damage in Different Training Models

Taner Akbulut, Vedat Çinar, Salih Öner, Ramazan Erdoğan

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i19B31332

Purpose: The aim of this study was to determine the effects of during six weeks core and weight lifting trainings on strength development, muscle and tissue damage which may occur.

Method: The research group consisted of sixteen volunteers who participated in the same age group. Participants were divided into two groups, core training group (n: 8) and weight lifting training group (n: 8). Participants continued to the program for the group to which the belonged lasted for three days a week for six weeks. Participant’s performance measures (Back and leg strength, hand grip strength, vertical jump) were taken and blood samples were taken twice at rest before and at the end of the training sessions. AST, ALT, LDH, CK and CK-MB levels were determined in the blood samples taken. SPSS 22 package program was used in the analysis of the obtained data. Paired samples t test was used for intra-group comparisons.

Results: When intra-group analyses are made; there were significant differences in the leg strength, vertical jump, CK and CK-MB values of the weight lifting training group, it was determined that only differences in back and leg strength values occurred in the core training group(p<0,05).

Conclusion: As a result, both core and weight lifting training have led to some improvement in strength parameters. It can be said that especially weight lifting training also causes muscle damage as well as strength development.

Open Access Original Research Article

Knowledge, Perception, Attitude, Practice, and Barriers towards COVID-19 Infection among Saudi Residents in the Period of Rapid Outbreak of the Disease: A Cross Sectional Survey

Md Salahuddin Ansari, Faisal Al-Otaibi

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 7-21
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i19B31333

The adherences to protective actions are subjective to knowledge, perception, attitude, practice and barriers towards COVID-19 by Saudi residents. The self-design questionnaires were used as a cross-sectional online survey for assessed their social and behavioral parameters during the agonizing time. The cross-sectional study used data collected via an online self-reported questionnaire from 2216 Saudi residents. SPSS software and chi-square test were applied to analyze and categorize significant differences among sectional variables of the parameters. More than 95% of responders were well aware about the main clinical symptoms of COVID-19 infection and had sufficient knowledge about the protocols of five steps to stop the spread of coronavirus. Apositive perception towards COVID-19 was observed, about 55% participants strongly agreed that the coronavirus outbreak could impact the global economy and infection could be successfully controlled by imposing lockdown and by staying at home. The majority of respondents had good practices regarding COVID-19 infection. A high percentage of participants favored wearing masks, cleaning hands and frequently using hand sanitizer. A large number of participant (83.2%; n=1844) agreed that misinformation and rumors are spreading more quickly than the current outbreak of the new coronavirus. The findings suggested that Saudi residents are possessed good knowledge, optimistic attitudes, and appropriate practices towards COVID-19 during the rapid rise of the COVID-19 outbreak. Hopefully, under the combined efforts of WHO, Ministry of Health, Saudi Arabia, all Saudi residents surely will win the battle against COVID-19 very soon.

Open Access Original Research Article

Prevalence of Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors among People in Hail City, Saudi Arabia

Mona Madbouly Mohammad Shahin, Madiha Rabie Mahmoud, Hanan Odah Salem Al-Shmaily, Salma Rshed Mohammed Altamimy, Lama Abdulaziz Saud Alanzi

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 22-32
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i19B31334

Background: Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are the number one cause of death globally, and representing 31% of all global deaths according to WHO. So, this study may be useful to detect the risk factors of CVDs and how to prevent them to help in reducing the rate of deaths due to these diseases.

Aim: To estimate the prevalence of CVD risk factors in Hail region, Saudi Arabia (KSA).

Methods: The study was carried out through an observational cross-sectional study on 300 participants from Hail region including both genders (females 231 [77%] & males 69 [23%]) with age group range from 18 years-old and above. The study was conducted using an electronic questionnaire, and the data was analyzed using Software Statistical Package for the Social Science (SPSS) version 23.

Results: The highest risk factor for CVDs was obesity, the total number of overweight, obese and extremely obese was 171 (57%) which was more pronounced with peoples at the age of 31-45 years old. Other risk factors that were found in our participants were hypertension (8.3%), diabetes mellitus(DM, 7.3%),family history of diseases (80.4%), consuming insufficient amounts of fruits and vegetables (62.7%), always drinking coffee (60.9%), physical inactivity (34.7%), consuming fast foods more than one time per week (32.4%) and smoking 10.3%.We can conclude that many risk factors for CVDs were prevalent among Hail population either non modifiable (family history of diseases) or modifiable (obesity, physical inactivity, fast foods, insufficient amounts of fruits and vegetables) showed a considerable percentage which needs awareness programs for Hail population.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Effects of Topical Olive Oil on the Pain Intensity among Patients with Knee Osteoarthritis

Abas Ghaysouri, Golbahar Iri, Amirhosein Meisami, Milad Borji, Behrouz Soltany

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 33-38
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i19B31335

Given the importance of relieving pain and disability experienced by the patients, the present study aimed to study the Effects of topical olive oil on the pain intensity among patients with knee osteoarthritis. The patients were randomly assigned into the experimental (28 patients) and control groups (27 patients). Firstly, in tropical olive oil (TOO) group, a high-quality olive oil, branded as Famila was used and in the control group, Diclofenac gel was applied. In experimental groups, 5 drops of herbal oils were applied to the knee thrice a day at morning, noon and evening and the knees were covered with a nylon sheet for more absorption. The patients were followed up for 4 weeks and their capability and pain intensities were evaluated prior the study, during the first week, the second week and the fourth week with Visual Analogue Scale. Data were analyzed using descriptive and analytical tests by SPSS V. 16 software. According to the findings, also the Mean (SD) pre-intervention Pain score in experimental group A was 8.10(0.91), which decreased to 1.78(0.78) after the intervention and in the control group from 8.55(0.69) to 3.85(0.98). Due to the greater effect of olive oil compared to Diclofenac gel on reducing pain of patients with KOA, it is recommended that patients use olive oil. Further studies are also recommended.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Neuroscience behind the Mechanism of Placebos: Placebo Effect

Preksha Sharma

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 39-45
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i19B31336

The science behind any kind of medical treatment is oriented around the effects of the psychology of humans with the corresponding therapeutic mechanism of the treatment. The human mind and its psychology is always an interesting and complex matter of discussion for researchers. The human mind is so powerful that it is even capable of healing the mental and physical health of the human body. To study this psychological concept of a healing mechanism, the Placebos effect is studied. This paper discusses the placebo effect and the physiology neuroscience involved in the whole concept of the Placebos and its mechanism. Because the placebos and its mechanism are so powerful that it is capable of even manipulating the human mind and the body as well the study discussed all the facts in an evidential manner.

Open Access Original Research Article

Preliminary Phytochemical Analysis and Spectroscopic Analysis of Methanolic Extract of Asteracantha Longifolia (Nees.)

D. Veerakumar, M. Muthulingam

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 80-87
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i19B31340

The present investigation was focused on the preliminary phytochemical, UV-VIS spectrum and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectral analysis of Asteracantha longifolia. The Methanolic extract from the leaves of Asteracantha longifolia  were tested for the availability of alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, saponins, proteins, Terpenoids, Phenols, Steroids, Glycosides and Carbohydrates. The UV-VIS profile demonstrated various peaks ranging from 400-700 nm with various Extract respectively. The FT-IR spectrum confirmed the presence of secondary alcohols, alkanes, alkynes, aromatics, alkenes, sulphur, phosphorus, esters, hydrocarbons, nitrogen compounds (amines) in methanolic extract. The results of this study offer a platform of using Asteracantha longifolia leaves as herbal alternative for various diseases including diabetic, cardiovascular etc. The results of this study offer a platform of using Asteracantha longifolia leaves as herbal alternative for various diseases including cancer and diabetic.

Open Access Original Research Article

Haemopoietic Potential of Tannin Fractionates of Vitex doniana Leaf on Nitrosobis (2-Oxopropyl) Amine Comobidity in Docetaxel-Induced Myelosuppression in Wistar Rat

Godson Emeka Anyanwu, Ifeanacho Ezeteonu Abireh

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 88-94
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i19B31341

Aim: This study investigated the haemopoietic potential of tannin fractionate of Vitex doniana leaf against nitosobis (2-oxopropyl) amine comorbidity in docetaxel-induced bone marrow suppression.

Study Design: This is an experimental research.

Place of Research: University of Nigeria, Enugu campus.

Methodology: The male Wistar rats used in this experiment were twenty-eight in number, and they were grouped into 7, with each group having four rats. Group 1 served as control, and received 1ml of normal saline, while groups 2-7 were treated with Nitrosobis (2-oxopropyl) amine 5 mg/kg daily for 2 weeks. Then groups 3-7 were treated with 8 mg/Kg of docetaxel weekly for 2 weeks. And groups 4, 5 and 6 also received 250 mg/Kg and 500 mg/Kg and 1000 mg/kg of tannin, respectively, daily for 2 weeks. Group 7 received 40 mg/Kg of fesolate daily for 2 weeks.

Results: The haemoglobin concentration and white blood cell count of rats in the groups treated with Nitrosobis (2-oxopropyl) amine alone (group 2) and Nitrosobis (2-oxopropyl) amine plus Docetaxel (group 3) showed statistically significant reduction (p=.05) in number when compared with the group treated with normal saline (group 1). The haemoglobin concentration and white blood cell count of the rats in the groups treated with 250 mg/kg, 500 mg/kg, and 1000 mg/kg of the tannin fractionate, in addition to the Nitrosobis (2-oxopropyl) amine and Docetxel (i.e. groups 4, 5, and 6, respectively) showed statistically significant dose dependent increase in number, with the group treated with 1000mg/kg showing the highest increment (p=.05). The cells in the bone marrow show significant reduction in number in the rats treated with Nitrosobis (2-oxopropyl) amine (group 2) and Nitrosobis (2-oxopropyl) amine plus docetaxel (group 3) when compared with the rats in group 1 (treated with normal saline). With the addition of graded doses of the tannin fractionate, 250 mg/kg, 500 mg/kg, and 1000mg/kg (i.e. groups 4, 5, and 6, respectively), the number of cells in the bone marrow showed statistically significant increase when compared to group 3 (treated with Nitrosobis (2-oxopropyl) amine plus docetxel), with the rats in the group treated with 1000 mg/kg of tannin fractionate (group 6) having the highest increment (p=.05).

Conclusion: Tannin obtained from Vitex doniana leaf extract increases the haemoglobin concentration in dose dependent manner. It also increases the white blood cell count, and number of proliferating bone marrow cells, following suppression by Nitrosobis (2-oxopropyl) amine and Docetaxel. So, this tannin obtained from Vitex doniana leaf extract may be useful in clinical practice to cushion the myelosupression, anaemia and leukopenia that are associated with use of docetaxel in treatment of malignancies.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Histopathological Study of Gastrointestinal Polyps

Vidhya Subramanian, G. Bheema Rao, J. Thanka

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 95-107
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i19B31342

Polyps covered by non-neoplastic squamous epithelium may develop anywhere in the esophagus. Squamous polyps may be divided in to two types: Inflammatory polyps and squamous papillomas. To study the incidence and morphology of Gastro Intestinal Tract polyps from specimens received at Sree Balaji Medical College and Hospital, Chennai. To analyze the incidence and morphological features of malignancies associated with polyps. Of the 102 cases, intestinal cancer was found predominately 51(50%) followed by stomach. The ages ranged from 17 to 77 yrs and average was 44 yrs. The female ratio was 0.77.  Expression of P53 was varied with the property of the polyps and it could be a useful marker for determining the treatment regime.

Open Access Review Article

Drug Penetration Enhancement Techniques in Transdermal Drug Delivery System: A Review

Joshi Hrushikesh Anantrao, Pandye Aaditya Nath, Patil Rajendra Nivrutti

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 46-61
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i19B31337

Transdermal Drug Delivery System (TDDS) is described as a self-contained or discrete dosage form that is applied to the intact skin. This rout of drug administration of drugs through the skin for therapeutic use is an alternative approach to oral, intravascular, subcutaneous, and transmucosal routes. The delivery of drugs through the skin to the systemic circulation provides a convenient route of administration for a variety of clinical indications. Transdermal Drug Delivery System allows continuous drug administration, use of drugs with short biological half lives, avoids increases hepatic first pass elimination and rapid termination of medication by removing the transdermal drug delivery system from the skin.  Various transdermal technologies may be applied for different categories of pharmaceuticals used for the treatment of disorders of the skin or for systemic effects to treat diseases of other organs. Several transdermal products and applications include hormone replacement therapy, contraception, pain management, angina pectoris, smoking cessation, and neurological disorders such as Parkinson's disease. The most commonly used transdermal system is the skin patch using various types of technologies. Stratum corneum is the outermost layer of the skin and it is the main barrier layer for permeation of drug in transdermal delivery of drugs. So, to circumvent the barrier properties of stratum corneum and to increase the flux of drug through skin membrane various penetration enhancement techniques are used in transdermal drug delivery system. The review presents different physical and chemical methods in penetration enhancement approaches and to optimize the transdermal delivery system.