Open Access Original Research Article

Antibacterial and Antifungal Activity of Ficus carica Plant Extract

Firza Shafique, Uzma Naureen, Annam Zikrea, Qurban Ali, Rumana Sadiq, Mehwish Naseer, Tanzila Rafique, Sohail Akhter

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i1831311

The development of antibiotic resistant bacteria causes many harmful effects on human and animal lives. In developing countries many expensive synthetic drugs are being used to cure diseases but they have many side effects. Therefore, there is need to develop new strategies to control microbial infections. Therefore, we decided to work on extracts of different parts of Ficus carica which have good activity against gram positive bacteria, gram negative bacteria and fungal species. Methanol and chloroform extracts of root, stem, leaves and fruits were prepared and zone of inhibition was measured by using well diffusion method against gram negative bacteria (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa) two gram positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus) and two fungal species Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus oryzae. methanol extract of leaves has high % yield (5.86%) and high zone of inhibition (23mm) against bacteria Escherichia coli and fungus Aspergillus niger (34mm). Bacteria Staphylococcus aureus was highly sensitive to chloroform extract with zone of inhibition 74mm while Escherichia coli was highly sensitive to metabolic extract with zone of inhibition 82mm. Chloroform extract has average zone of inhibition (56mm) and methanolic extract has average zone of inhibition (63mm).

Open Access Original Research Article

Prevalence of Antibiotic Use and Factors Associated With Self-medication among University Students in Malaysia

Ibrahim Mohamed Ali, Sami Mohammed Albawani, Rasheed Abdulsalam, Abdulmutalib Alabeed Allaq

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 24-36
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i1831313

Self-medication with antibiotics is a global menace especially in developing countries due to lack of knowledge, poor access to the proper health care, and the weakness in the government’s role in monitoring and controlling the use of antibiotics. Thus, this study was carried out to identify the prevalence of antibiotic use during self-medication and the associated factors with self-medication among the students of Lincoln University College Malaysia. A quantitative research approach (i.e. cross-sectional study) was utilized. A simple sampling technique was employed to select 240 respondents among the students. The survey was used to collect data through the process of questionnaires’ validation. Descriptive statistics were used to examine all the research hypotheses. Though the prevalence of self-medication among the respondents as well as the misuse of antibiotics during self-medication was relatively low, there is, however, an urgent need to provide university students with health education programs to help them understand the proper use of the drugs and to increase their awareness about the risk of self-medication without supervision from qualified health providers.

Open Access Original Research Article

Healthcare Professionals (Nurses') Perceived Stress and Coping: Amid COVID-19

Fatmah J. Alsolami, Pushpamala Ramaiah, Nahla A. Tayyib, Mohammad S. Alshmemri, Sanaa A. Alsulami, Grace Lindsay, Hayam I. Asfour

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 37-45
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i1831314

Background: Nurses are the frontline health professional more likely to undergo various stressors during the pandemic Covid-19 situation. The ongoing unprecedented crisis causes more stress, especially among nurses, as they are the most vulnerable group who predominantly get impacted while delivering comprehensive care.

Aim: This study explored the level of stress among nurses working in different healthcare settings.

Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study among nurses from developed and developing countries between 7 February and 7 April 2020 was adopted for this research. Sixty-four nurses working in different healthcare settings were included in the study. A self-developed online questionnaire using google documents was used to collect data that comprised baseline data, Cohen Perceived stress scale, simplified coping items, and items of psychosocial perception. Results: It was revealed that 75.64% of studied participants (N=64) had a high level of stress, with a mean anxiety score and Standard deviation of 3.52± 1.084, during the Covid-19 pandemic situation. A statistically significant association was found between the demographic variables such as experience and participation in the COVID-19 team at p<.05, whereas gender, age, and working unit do not show any significant associations.

Conclusion: Heath institutions' effective and efficient protocols are required to enhance nurses' mental strength and alleviate their lack of coping strategies, particularly during a crisis.

Open Access Original Research Article

Perinatal Outcome in Twin Pregnancy at Khaipur Medical College, Khairpur Mirs, Pakistan

Nusrat Fozia Pathan, Shazia Jamali, Maqsood Ahmed Siddiqui, Khushi Muhammad Sohu, Ameer Ali Jamali, Asma Naz, Arslan Ahmer

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 46-52
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i1831315

Objective: To determine the perinatal outcome of twin pregnancy and to find out the frequency of twin deliveries in hospital based population.

Study Design: Descriptive case series.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted over a period of 02 Year 1st January 2018 to 31st December 2019 in the Obstetrics and Gynaecology Department at KMC Khairpur Mirs, Sindh Pakistan.

Methodology: All the patients of age 20-35 years with twin pregnancies of gestational age above 30 weeks presenting in labour ward of KMC Khairpur Mirs were studied. A detailed history was taken, general physical (G.P) examination and obstetrical examination performed, targeted investigations carried out to detect various fetal complications. Patients were assessed for a mode of delivery, records for data like age, gestational age, weight of baby, APGAR score expressed in term of mean±SD and data like perinatal mortality, prematurity, intra uterine growth restriction (IUGR), the weight of baby and APGAR score expressed in terms of frequencies and percentages on SPSS version 20.

Results: In this study total numbers of deliveries were 7200, among them 83 were twin pregnancies the frequency of twin was 1.15%. Booked cases were 24.1%, unbooked was 75.9%. The highest incidence of 42.2% of twin gestation was seen in women between ages 31-35 years, the mean age of patients was seen 30.1±4.1 and regarding the parity incidence was high 54.2% in multiparous l-5. The total number of preterm deliveries was 45(55.2%), gestational age was (35-36+6dnys) weeks in 22.89% of cases, and the mean gestational age of patients was 35.7±2.5. Perinatal mortality was 38(22.9%), stillborn and early neonatal deaths (ENND) were 18.4% and 36.8% and common in twin-2.

Conclusion: Twin pregnancy is-a-high-risk-pregnancy still is a major obstetrical and perinatal challenge. The frequency of twin pregnancy seen in this study is 1.15% unbooked and unsupervised pregnancies are more common i.e 75.9%.  Prematurity is common perinatal morbidity 51.20%.  perinatal mortality is 22.9% and highest in twin-2.

Open Access Original Research Article

Design of Guggul Lipid Loaded Chitosan Nanoparticles Using Box-Behnken Design – An Evaluation Study

B. R. Srinivas Murthy, Prasanna Raju Yelavarthi, N. Devanna, D. Jamal Basha

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 53-67
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i1831316

Aim: Guggul lipid, a lipophillic antihyperlipidemic moiety, undergoes extensive first-pass metabolism and has low bioavailability. In order to address this limitation, guggul lipid loaded chitosan nanoparticles (GNPs) were designed, optimized and processed by 3- factor 3- level Box- Behnken design (BBD).

Methodology: A 3-factor 3-level BBD was employed to investigate combined influence of formulation variables on percent entrapment efficiency (EE) and percent drug release (DR) of GNPs prepared by ionic gelation method. The generated polynomial equation was validated and desirability function was utilized for optimization. Optimized GNPs were evaluated for physicochemical, morphological, release characteristics, solid state characterization and in-vitro cell line studies.

Results: Amounts of chitosan, sodium tripolyphosphate and guggul were selected as independent variables had variably influenced EE and DR. Optimized GNPs were produced with an average size of 96.5 nm, electro kinetic potential of -15.4 mV, EE of 92.98% and DR of 95.12% in 24 h with sustained release. Physicochemical and in-vitro characterization revealed existence of guggul in amorphous form in GNPs without interaction and exhibited sustained release profile following first order with Higuchi kinetics. GNPs possessed lipase inhibition activity with IC50 value of 14.72 µg/ml and better viability against various cell lines with CTC50 values (256.24 to 321.27 µg/ml).

Conclusions: Design and optimization of GNPs by BBD proved to be an effective and promising approach. High entrapment of guggul followed controlled release were the outcomes of GNPs prepared by ionic gelation with improved cell viability.

Open Access Original Research Article

Risk Factors and Quality of Life of Lung Cancer Survivors in Lahore, Pakistan

Rehan Ahmad Khan Sherwani, Sajjad Ali Gill, Saba Younus, Sana Saeed, Nadia Saeed, Hira Shahid

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 68-71
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i1831317

Introduction: The objectives of this study is to determine the risk factors of lung cancer were patients and investigate the quality of life of lung cancer survivors. The occupational, smoking, personal, environmental and family history of the survivors are investigated. The well-being of the survivors with physical and social norms not were also studied.

Methods: Risk factors and quality of life from a sample of 50 lung cancer patients investigated through a self-administered questionnaire after getting consent from the hospital management and the patients. All the analysis has been done in SPSS 21.

Results: Most of the lung cancer patients were male smokers with a strong history of smoking, and more than half of the respondents inhaled while smoking cigarettes. The significant risk factors among non-smokers are occupational history, personal history, environmental history, and family history. The impact of environmental history with smoking history is observed in lung cancer patients. The physical well-being of the patients is considerably affected by the disease and the pain in their daily activities.

Conclusion: Smoking remained the leading risk factor of lung cancer patients followed by radon. However, family history is found statistically significant in the prevalence of lung cancer. Authorities should draw and implement some guiding rules to control smoking, radon, and air pollution, particularly in residential areas.

Open Access Original Research Article

Development of Tinidazole Loaded Polymeric Nanoparticles Formulation and its Characterization

K. Tirumala Devi, B. S. Venkateswarlu

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 72-83
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i1831318

Introduction: The development of safe drug delivery systems for a therapeutic agent with less side effects and more bioavailability to the targeted site is very vital in drugs formulation. Tinidazole (TZ) is a drug used to treat giardiasis, amebiasis for colon infections and other infections also such as trichomoniasis, bacterial vaginosis. But the oral bioavailability for the current using drugs low. So, the current study was aimed to develop colon targeted drug delivery system for Tinidazole (TZ) with polymeric nanoparticles (NPs).

Methodology: The nanoparticles formulations of TZ were prepared with modified ionic gelation method using chitosan and hydroxypropyl methylcellulose phthalate (HPMCP) are in different combinations by magnetic stirring method followed by temperature modulated solidification. The solvent evaporation method applied to coat TZ nanoparticles with Eudragit S100. The prepared TZ nanoparticle were studied to evaluate physiochemical properties, In-vitro drug release, mucopenetration and In-vivo mucoadhesive studies were carried out.

Results: The results of study indicate, 1:1 ratio of chitosan and HPMCP formulation of nanoparticles provides better spatial interaction between them and TZ with spherical porous and the particles size was diverging between 202 - 236 nm. In vitro release of TZ followed Higuchi and first order equations better than zero order equation. The drug release results of nanoparticles formulations of TZ indicate that the NPs have potential as a drug delivery system compare to uncoated TZ and coated nanoparticles have comparatively less mucoadhesive detachment force.

Conclusion: In conclusion, the study was an evidence to use nanoparticles in colon targeted drug delivery systems for better bioavailability of drugs at targeted site and the biodistribution properties of drugs using nanoparticle will be depend on their composition, particle size and their adhesive abilities.

Open Access Original Research Article

Functional Limitations of Hyper and Hypothyroid Patients in INMOL Hospital Lahore, Pakistan

Rehan Ahmad Khan Sherwani, Sajjad Ali Gill, Nadia Saeed, Sana Saeed, Ayesha Habib, Hira Shahid

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 84-92
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i1831319

Introduction: Thyroid disease is extremely prevalent than heart diseases or diabetes. Hormones produced by the thyroid gland maintain the muscles, heart, brain, and other organs of the body. Improper performance of the thyroid gland leads to an overactive thyroid (hyperthyroidism) or underactive thyroid (hypothyroidism) that disturbs the metabolic system. The objective of the present study is to investigate the functional limitations of the patients under these two types of thyroid disorders.

Methods: A cross-sectional study design is used to collect the data from thyroid disease patients in INMOL hospital Lahore, Pakistan from 23rd November 2020 to 20th January 2021. A total of 201 patients (98 hyperthyroid, 103 hypothyroid) are enrolled in this study. Data is analyzed through frequencies, percentages, and chi-square test of association by using SPSS (version 23).

Results: Females over 30 years of ages, married, overweight with family sizes are less than four with a positive family history of brothers and sisters using iodized salt are more at risk of hypothyroidism and faced the problems like speedup in the metabolic system, weight gain, slow heartbeat, low blood pressure, weakness in muscles, constipation, coldness when others do not. Eventually it causes difficulties in routine activities, irregularities in the menstrual cycle and problems in pregnancy.

Conclusion: By considering all these evidences, early diagnosis and precautionary steps are needed to avoid the prevalence of thyroid disease specifically in women.

Open Access Original Research Article

Method to Develop and Stress Degradation Profile of N-(2,6-dimethylphenyl)-2-{[5-(1H-indol-3-ylmethyl)-1,3,4-oxadiazol-2-yl]sulfanyl}Acetamide Studied by UV Spectroscopy

Muhammad Shaharyar Khan Afridi, Abida Latif, Hafiz Hanzalah Fahham, Kaneez Rubab, Itzaz Aslam, Saiqa Ishtiaq

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 93-110
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i1831325

Background: Synthetic chemistry has always served as a back bone to the medicinal and pharmaceutical chemistry in terms of drug development and drug optimization. It helped in a great deal in finding new lead compounds and synthesizing new drugs. A new molecule N-(2,6-Dimethylphenyl)-2-{[5-(1H-indol-3-ylmethyl)-1,3,4-oxadiazol-2-yl] sulfanyl} acetamide, was synthesized from the fusion of  Indole acetic acid with 1,3,4-oxadiazole. This pharmacologically active entity lacks a suitable method for its analysis.

Aim: The present research aimed to develop a UV visible spectroscopic method for the purpose followed by its validation according to ICH guidelines.

Methodology: The method was developed at 225 nm (λmax). Then the accuracy, precision, sensitivity (Limit of detection & Limit of quantification), specificity, robustness and ruggedness were calculated. The analyte was exposed to multiple stress conditions to figure out method’s specificity. Results: The developed method showed the linearity within a range (0.5 – 50 µg/mL) with correlation coefficient (R2) = 0.9997. The accuracy of the developed method was figured out by recovery analysis and it was within 95.556 – 104.321 %. The precision analysis i.e. interday (0.505591 %), intraday (0.231661 %) and repeatability (0.06478 %), were within the acceptance criteria viz. % RSD less than 2 % and LOD & LOQ were found to be 0.523356 and 1.58598 µg/mL. All the validation parameters were within the acceptance limits making the method unique and acceptable. In addition to that it was found to be easy, reliable and analyst friendly (ruggedness, 0.520889 %). The analyte when exposed to stress conditions viz. acidic (0.1N H2SO4) and basic (0.1N NaOH) environment, oxidative stress (3 % H2O2), UV light and altered temperature and humidity (80 ºC+75% RH) for 24 hr, it was found deteriorated. The analyte was 65.56 % degraded in acidic, 39.63 % in basic, 45.18 % under oxidative stress and 61.85 % under altered conditions of temperature and humidity. There was a complete loss of analyte (87.78 %) when exposed to UV light.

Conclusion: The results clearly states that the method is simple, sensitive, specific, precise and accurate, thus can be employed for the quantitative estimations of the analyte.

Open Access Review Article

The Role of Immune-related NLR Pyrin Domain Containing 2 (NLRP2) Gene in the Development and Diseases

Fatemah Basingab, Asmaa Alghamdi, Safiah Alhazmi, Aisha Alrofaidi, Mona Alharbi

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 10-23
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i1831312

The Nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain, Leucine-rich Repeat, and Pyrin domain-containing (NLRP) family, including NLR Family Pyrin Domain-Containing 2 (NLRP2) gene, is defined as a critical element in regulating both apoptosis and inflammation. Although the NLRP2 protein involves in stimulating the production of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines in response to pathogens, the expression of NLRP2 gene has been reported in many diseases. Some studies indicated that NLRP2 as a Nuclear Factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB)-positive regulator resulted in the production of NF-κB-driven cytokines. Wherease other studies reported NLRP2 as an NF-κB-negative regulator that limits IκB kinase, an enzyme involved in elucidating the cellular response to inflammation. This literature review has directly evaluated the relation of both the NLRP2 gene and NLRP2 protein in the development and different diseases based on journal articles obtained from databases such as PubMed, Science direct and Medline. Scientific names and symbols of the gene were utilized as keywords for published data from 2003 until 2020. We propose that the overexpression of the NLRP2 gene might result in an inflammatory microenvironment associated with localized or systematic diseases based on; the cells that express this particular gene and the location of the immune responses and the triggered signal transduction pathway.