Open Access Original Research Article

Factors Influencing Awareness of Drug Store Personnel about Pharmacovigilance

Hirra Soomro, Mirza Tasawer Baig, Sadaf Ibrahim, Syed Nudrat Nawaid Shah, Samina Sheikh, Syed Wajid Shah, Ambreen Huma, Aisha Jabeen, Muhammad Kashif, Uzma Shahid, Sohera Soomro, Muhammad Umer Soomro

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i1331259

Pharmacovigilance is an essential process when dealing with the medicines. It is one of the basic roles of community pharmacist. This role is not found in practice. Due to lacking this role, monitoring of adverse drug reactions and awareness to report them is missed in the society. However, no significant data has been published to exhibit the role of community pharmacists in Pharmacovigilance. This study was aimed to help in stowing the pharmacist role, in community Pharmacovigilance of Pakistan, to give awareness not only to community pharmacists but to regulatory authorities to establish policies regarding ADRs. A cross-sectional study was conducted through a pre-validated questionnaire. This study was conducted in 16 Districts of Sindh Province of Pakistan. 368 pharmacies/ medical stores responded to the self administered questionnaire. The results showed dependence of Awareness to the Pharmacovigilance upon Professional Status, Education of Participants and Experience of study population in pharmacies/ medical stores.

Open Access Original Research Article

Bacterial Infections Profile and Patterns for Diabetic Foot Ulcers in Nongovernmental Hospitals of Jordan

Hashem A. Abu-Harirah, Ammar Saleem, Haytham M. Daradka, Ali Ahmad Abu Siyam, Audai Jamal Al Qudah, Emad Daabes

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 7-14
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i1331260

Background: Many types of infection can cause diabetic foot ulcers Infections involving the bacteria; E. coli, Acinetobacter spp (MDR) and K. pneumoniae, pseudomonas aeruginosa, so the assessment of Bacterial profile and patterns is needed to understand the source and management of these injuries.

Objective: To determine Bacterial infections profile and patterns for diabetic foot ulcers in nongovernmental.

Method: During a period of eleven months, 148 patients with diabetic mellitus foot syndrome (DMFS). Patients were involved, out of 130 which foot ulceration infections. data analysis was done using SPSS version 20. p value was set at <0.05.

Results: Out of 607 Patients with diabetic foot ulceration (DFU) were 130 out of 148 with diabetic mellitus foot syndrome (DMFS). Diabetic foot ulceration (DFU) therefore contributed 20.3% of DMFS among these subjects. Microbiological culture pattern was total of    17 different pathogenic microorganisms were isolated from the participants, one yeast and 16 types of bacteria, from the diabetic foot swabs for ulcers. S. aureus  was the most frequent pathogen followed by E.coli  then Acinetobacter spp (MDR) and K. pneumonia, then pseudomonas aeruginosa , then p. mirabilis then  Streptococcus agalactiae ( group b) then (Enitrobacteria spp and pseudomonas spp and Candida spp and P. vulgaris and K. oxytoca ESBL) then S. viridanse and Enterobacter spp ESBL and Staphylococcus coag. negative). The Enterobacter spp ESBL was the less frequent pathogen.

Conclusion: Diabetic Foot Ulcerations (DFU), is forming about a quarter of the diabetic patient’s tissue infections, the causative agents were bacterial and fungal(yeast). Most of the causative pathogens were; Staphylococcus aureus, and Acinetobacter spp (MDR). The risk of development of High resistant drug isolates of diabetic foot ulcers to be multidrug resistance were high by 53% of total isolated pathogens specially with K. pneumonia (K. pneumoniae), Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Proteus mirabilis bacterial.

Open Access Original Research Article

Isolation and Identification of Staphylococci and Pseudomonas from Diabetic Foot Ulcer in Perambalur District Hospitals in Tamil Nadu

Ramasamy Venkatesan, Suresh SS Raja, R. Vijayakumar, K. Panneerselvam

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 15-21
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i1331261

Diabetic foot ulcers are still a problem for the health care system and are majorly influencing quality of life. Infected foot ulcer is one of the most feared complications of diabetes mellitus, leading to gangrene and it needs to be amputed. Diabetic foot lesions are major medical, social and economic problem and leading cause of hospitalization for patients with diabetes worldwide. The risk of a diabetic patient for developing a foot ulcer was estimated to be ~25%. Samples were collected from 65 infected patients of diabetic foot ulcer male and female. The mean age group was found to be 40-80 years with the clinical history such as age, sex, types of diabetes duration of diabetes, size of ulcer and duration of ulcer were observed and recorded. The Specific mediums were used for the isolation and identification using classical methods based on their morphology, Grams stain reaction, oxidase and catalase tests were performed to confirm the isolates were both gram-negative and gram-positive organisms Bergey’s manual of Determinative Bacteriology. Further, MALDI- TOF (Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization) was used to confirm the isolates identified in classical methods were Staphylococci (79%) and Pseudomonas (21%) In this study Among 68 isolates, identified in out of 41 isolates Pseudomonasaeruginosa (21%) Staphylococcus aureus (54%) Staphylococcus hominis (20%)and Staphylococcous hemolytic(5%). Although in gram positive organism Staphylococcus aureus (54%) was the most predominant isolate found in diabetic foot ulcer.

Open Access Original Research Article

A Clinico-Demographic Evaluation of Patients with Oral Submucous Fibrosis: a Cross Sectional Study

Abdul Bari Memon, Aneela Atta Ur Rahman, Kashif Ali Channar, Naresh Kumar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 22-29
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i1331262

Aim: To evaluate the Clinico-Demographic variables in patients of Oral Submucous Fibrosis

Study Design:  Descriptive Cross Sectional

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Liaquat Medical University Hospital from December 2017 to February 2019.

Methodology: The recruitment of patients was done after the clinical diagnosis of oral sub mucous fibrosis (OSMF) patients. The demographic information and associated factors were recorded on the proforma. Mouth opening (MO) was measured between upper and lower central incisors with vernier caliper. Burning sensation (BS) and pain were measured using Visual Analog Scale (VAS). The data were analyzed by SPSS Version-16.

Results: Male and female were (66%) and (34%) respectively. The mean age was 41.04±11.24. The frequency of gutka usage was 44% and 43% followed by betel nut as 21% and 23% in functional stages as per Inter Incisal Mouth Opening (IIMO-2) and (IIMO-3) respectively. The BS was shown as severe 49% and 40% followed by moderate as 32% and 37% in functional stages IIMO-2 and IIMO-3 respectively whereas pain was shown as severe 82% and 18% and as moderate 63% and 37% in functional stage M2 and M3 respectively showed statistically significant relationship (p=0.041).

Conclusion: Males were more affected and middle aged patients were more involved. Majority of patients were using gutka and had 3rd functional stage of mouth opening. The burning sensation and pain were the most common clinical complains. There was significant relationship of functional stages with pain.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Effect of Different Exercise Intensities on Plasma Endostatin in Healthy Volunteers

Inayat Shah, Tasleem Arif, Ron H. Baxendale, Muhammad Iftikhar, Alamgir Khan

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 30-38
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i1331263

Background: Physical activity decreases the risk and development of many angiogenesis related health problems including atherosclerosis. Physiological influence of different physical activities on plasma endostatin concentration is contradictory. This study aimed to determine the effects of mild, moderate and vigorous exercise on the concentration of endostatin.

Methodology: 22 participants, 16 males (age = 30.6 ± 7.8 years) and 6 females (age = 26.5 ± 5 years) were recruited. Weekly session of different intensities exercise based on predicted maximum heart (60% (low), 70% (moderate) and 80% (vigorous)] were carried out. One pre and two post exercise samples were taken at 10 and 60 minutes.

Results: Low intensity exercise insignificantly decreased the endostatin concentration at 10 and 60 minutes (P = 0.5 and 0.8). However, moderate (P values = 0.022. 0.004) and vigorous intensities (P= < 0.001, 0.02) increased the endostatin concentrations significantly at both intervals respectively. The effects were not significantly influenced by gender, exercise mode (walking vs running), components of exercise (HR, Speed, Gradients, distance, duration) or metabolism during exercise (VO2 max, VCO2, RER, Energy expenditure).

Conclusion: Low intensity exercises did not influence endostatin concentration. However, moderate to high intensity exercises significantly increase endostatin concentration and may have potential benefits.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Public Attitudes, Concerns and Behaviors towards Children Vaccination

Nehad J. Ahmed, Abdulrahman S. Alrawili, Faisal Z. Alkhawaja

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 39-43
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i1331264

Aim: The aim of this study was to identify the public concerns, attitudes and behavior towards vaccination.

Methodology: This was a cross-sectional study that included an online survey about the public concerns, attitudes and behavior towards vaccination in Saudi Arabia. The survey was translated to Arabic language and converted to an online form using google forms and after that it was sent to be filled by the parents.

Results: About 92% of the respondents said that children should be vaccinated in order to protect them and about 86% of them believed that vaccinations are safe for children in general. Regarding the concerns about vaccination, about 69% of the respondents were concerned about the distress to children of the injection itself and 59% of them were concerned about the increasing number of vaccines recommended for children. Furthermore, about 62% of the respondents were concerned that vaccines are not tested enough for safety.

Conclusion: The majority of respondents in this study reported positive attitude but more than half of them expressed some degree of concern regarding children vaccination. Healthcare professionals should play an active role in clarifying these concerns about vaccination with the public. Moreover, they should communicate with parents regarding the vaccinations and provide them with a trusted information about the vaccine.

Open Access Original Research Article

Willingness to Test for COVID-19: A Cross-Sectional Study on the Population in the Ha’il Region, KSA

Amany M. Khalifa, Areeb F. Alshammari, Asma M. Alrimali, Rozan A. Alshammari

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 44-53
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i1331265

Aims: To measure the degree to which the Ha’il community is willing to test for COVID-19 and assess the possible factors that may influence their decision.

Study Design: Descriptive and analytical cross-sectional study.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted in Ḥaʼil Community. And the data was collected from October to November of 2020.

Methodology: Participants comprised of both Saudi and non-Saudi males and females who were 18 years or older and living within the Ha’il region. Participants were recruited via convenience sampling by distributing the electronic questionnaire throughout various social media platforms.

Results: Of the 664 participants, 80.9% reported their willingness to test for COVID-19 if they had olfactory dysfunction with, 80.3% reporting their willingness to test if they had difficulty breathing. However, only 61.7% of participants said that they would be willing to be tested if they had been in contact with someone who had tested positive, whilst they themselves were asymptomatic. More than half of the participants reported that they were confident in the results (81%). Bio-demographic factors that influence the degree of public trust were as follows; females (83.8%); living with others (81.8%); history of not gathering with more than 10 people outside their household (87.9%).

Conclusion: Our finding revealed that the vast majority of the Ha’il community are willing to test for COVID-19, with a high proportion of females, participants who are living with others and participants who do not usually mix with more than 10 people at the same time showing a greater degree of trust in the results of the COVID-19 test. Furthermore, when participants had experienced olfactory dysfunction or\and breathing difficulties themselves, they tended to exhibit greater trust in the COVID-19 test results.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Adverse Effect of Mobile Phone Radiations on Dorsal Root Ganglion of Albino Rats

Faisal Taufiq, Mohammed Bhilal Babu, Aqeel Ahmad, Mohammed Eajaz Ahmed Shariff, Noureldaim Elnoman Elbadawi, Semmal Syed Meerasa

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 54-60
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i1331266

Objectives: To assess the effect of Mobile Phone Radio Frequency Electromagnetic Radiation (RF-EMR) on the histological structure of dorsal root ganglia in albino rats.

Methods: Twenty-four albino rats divided into one control and three experimental groups were studied for four weeks. The experimental groups were exposed to three different levels of RF-EMR through complete missed calls of 80,120 and160 calls per day respectively, using a GSM mobile phone of 0.9GHz to1.8 GHz in silent mode. The dorsal root ganglia of the sacrificed Rats were examined under light and transmission electron microscope (TEM).

Results: Dorsal root ganglions of exposed rats showed considerable histological changes like reduction in cell size, condensation of cytoplasm, peripherally located heterochromatin nucleus, loss of nucleolus and densely packed myelinated nerve fibers. No such changes were observed in control rats.

Conclusion: Dorsal root ganglionic cells showed enduring and continuous changes when exposed to RF-EMR. The severity of histomorphological changes was dose-dependent, which increased constantly with radiation dosage increment. It might be fair to conclude that degenerative changes in the Dorsal Root Ganglion of the spinal cord, could be attributed to the long-term exposure to RF-EMR.

Open Access Original Research Article

Comparative Study upon using Sanitizers and Personal Protective Equipment during COVID-19 Pandemic between Saudi and Egyptian Health Care Providers

Madiha Rabie Mahmoud, Jomana Adel Jasim Almuaili, Safaa Malek Shaheen, Manal Nasser Zaben Alatifi, Osama Gad Abdelaziz, Sherif Gad Abdelaziz

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 61-73
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i1331267

Wearing masks were effective in reducing the probability of infection with COVID-19, but wearing them for long time cause many problems. This paper was aimed to compare between Saudi and Egyptian HCWs upon using sanitizers and personal protective equipment (PPE) during COVID-19 pandemic. Data was collected through a well-structured questionnaire, among Saudi HCWs (online) and Egyptian HCWs through paper questionnaire interview. The questionnaire consists of 23 questions about Socio-demographic, types of masks, gloves and sanitizers they used during their works. It includes the adverse skin reactions on hands and face upon using PPE for long periods during COVID 19 pandemic. Our results revealed that most of Saudi & Egyptian HCWs wearing surgical masks (57.8% & 63.6%), > N95 (12.9% &18.2%), using latex surgical gloves (44.9% & 56.8%), > plastic gloves (11.1% &18.2%) respectively. The most affected area from wearing PPE are hands (49.8% & 54.5%) followed by Auricular area (44% & 40.9%), nasal bridge (28.9% & 22.7%), check (16.9% & 13.6%), whole face (15.6% & 25%) among Saudi & Egyptian HCWs respectively. About 70% of Egyptian HCWs from our participants used alcohol 70% in form of gel as sanitizer which was significantly higher than Saudi HCWs (59.1%). While no significant differences were found from using other sanitizers such as liquid alcohol 70% or Dettol. The most adverse reaction due to using sanitizers was skin dryness (55.1% & 63.6%) among Saudi & Egyptian HCWs respectively. We can conclude that significant increase was found among HCWs in Egypt either in wearing surgical and N95 masks or in wearing surgical and plastic gloves when compared to Saudi HCWs. According to the side effects on hands and face due to wearing PPE among HCWs either from KSA or Egypt, there were some variations by increase or decrease in the percentages. The most adverse reaction due to using sanitizers (specially alcohol 70% in form of gel) was skin dryness.

Open Access Original Research Article

Antioxidant, Antibacterial, and Phytochemical Screening of Ethanolic Crude Extracts of Libyan Peganum harmala Seeds

Abdulmutalib Alabeed Allaq, Norrizah Jaafar Sidik, Aziyah Abdul-Aziz, Idris Adewale Ahmed

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 74-82
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i1331268

Peganum harmala is one of the most famous medicinal plants and natural products commonly used in traditional medicine and extensively spread in Middle and East Asia and North Africa. This study aimed to evaluate the radical scavenging activity of ethanolic crude extracts of P. harmala seeds from Libya using DPPH assay; to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBC) of the P. harmala seeds crude extracts against Gram-negative Salmonella typhi ATCC14028 and Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 and also Gram-positive Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6633 and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 33591; and to screen the phytochemicals in the ethanolic crude extracts of the Libyan P. harmala seeds using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The IC50 value of P. harmala seeds extract was 179.62±7.32 μg/mL. The MIC ranged from 1.95 to 31.25 mg/mL while the MBC ranged from 7.80 to 62.50 mg/mL. The eight compounds identified were harmine, harmaline, leptalorine, hexahydro fluorene, 3-methoxy-6-methyl, 1H-pyrido [3,4-b]indole,2,34,9- tetrahydro-6methoxy-1-methyl, 9,12-octadienoic acid ethyl ester, linoleic acid ethyl ester, 9,12-octadienoic acid (z,z). This study has, therefore, revealed the antixodant and antibacterial efficacy of P. harmala ethanolic extract. Thus, it could be further developed as a substitute for chemical antioxidants and as antibacterials agent.