Open Access Original Research Article

Clinical Presentation of Carcinoma of Thyroid and Its Treatment Options

Ahsan Ali Laghari, Ghulam Akbar Khaskheli, Aijaz Ahmed Shaikh, Ambreen Munir, Tufail Ahmed Baloch, Abdul Ghafoor Dalwani

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i1131238

Objective: To determine the clinical presentation of carcinoma of thyroid and its treatment modalities at tertiary care Hospital.

Study Design: Prospective observational study.

Place and Duration: This study was conducted in Liaquat university of Medical and health sciences Jamshoro/Hyderabad, Pakistan, during two years from July 2017 to June 2020.

Patients and Methods: All the patients with age range between 20 to 80 years having swelling in front of neck according to clinical examination with hard inconsistency along with change of voice lymphadenopathy, difficulty in swallowing and breathing, patients diagnosis with malignancy according to FNAC and CT, and either of gender were included. FNAC was done in each patient except toxic goiter, diffuse goiter and multinodular goiter with dominant nodules. Patients those were diagnosed with stage I and II, underwent surgical treatment and remaining were referred to oncology department for new adjuvant therapy and then surgeries were done if possible. All the data was recorded in study proforma and data analysis was done by using SPSS data analysis software version 20.

Results: Out of all cases of suspicious of carcinoma thyroid, 70% were females.

Neck swelling was in all of the cases, followed by pain, cervical lymphadenopathy, recurrent laryngeal nerve palsy with change of voice, swallowing difficulty, cyanosis and pathological fracture. According to tumor staging, most of the cases were found with benign tumor, followed by 5 cases with stage I, three cases with stage II, three patients presented with stage IV and one was seen with secondary’s from malignant melanoma. Most of the cases 70.0% underwent subtotal and near total thyroidectomies Eight patients were initially operated having stage I and II of malignancy and remaining 7 patients of stage III and IV were referring to oncology department for further management.

Conclusion: In the conclusion of this study the neck swelling was the commonest clinical presentation. Surgical decision making and the operative planning is one of the new challenges. Mostly patients underwent subtotal and near total thyroidectomies having benign presentation and patients those had stage I and II of malignancy were initially operated, while patients of stage III and IV including secondary were referred to oncology.

Open Access Original Research Article

RP-HPLC Method Development and Validation of Tapentadol Hydrochloride in Bulk and Pharmaceutical Formulations

G. Sangeetha, M. Swamivel Manickam, P. Sanil kumar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 7-16
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i1131239

Objective: Tapentadol Hydrochloride was approved (November 2008) by the United States Food and Drug Administration for the relief of moderate to severe pain. It is an opioid analgesic, acts by dual mechanism as opioid receptor agonist and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor. The present research work was aimed to develop an accurate, precise, and rapid RP-HPLC method and subsequently validates the method according to the International Conference on Harmonization (ICH) guidelines for the determination of Tapentadol Hydrochloride.

Methods: Tapentadol Hydrochloride was analyzed by using High-Performance Liquid Chromatography. Better separation of the drug was achieved by using a Symmetry C18 column (150x4.6mm, 3.5μm) with the mobile phase consisted of a mixture of Orthophosphoric acid (0.1% of Orthophosphoric acid in HPLC water) and acetonitrile in the ratio of 30:70 v/v at a flow rate of 1 ml/min, and the detection was at the wavelength of 219nm using a PDA detector.

Results: The retention time of Tapentadol Hydrochloride was found to be 3.747 ± 0.127 min. The method was found to be linear in the range of 10-200 ug/ml with a correlation coefficient (r2) of 0.9991. The LOD and LOQ of the method were calculated to be 0.1 and 1μg/ml respectively. The method precision and system precision was estimated and the results were calculated as % RSD values, which were found to be within the limits. Recovery of Tapentadol Hydrochloride was found to be 100.1%, which confirms the efficiency of the method.

Conclusion: The developed RP-HPLC method was validated using standard ICH guidelines. The developed method can be used for the analysis of both tapentadol hydrochloride bulk and formulations.

Open Access Original Research Article

Preparation, Characterization and Dissolution Behaviour of Freeze Dried Complexes of Curcumin-Gamma Cyclodextrin

M. J. Ansari, K. Kohli, J. Ali

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 17-26
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i1131240

The aim of the current research was to develop and characterize curcumin-gamma cyclodextrin inclusion complexes in order to enhance solubility and rate of dissolution of poorly soluble curcumin. Based on the stoichiometric ratio of 1:1, the inclusion complexes of curcumin with γ-cyclodextrin were prepared by freeze drying method. The prepared dried and solidified inclusion complexes were characterized with the help of infrared spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, and X-ray diffractometry. The comparative evaluation of solubility and rate of dissolution were investigated and compared with pure curcumin. Dissolution study demonstrated only 10% release from pure curcumin at 1 hour as opposed of approximately 72% release form freeze dried curcumin complexes. The freeze dried complexes exhibited almost complete release after 5 hours while only 34% release was observed from the pure curcumin during the same time period. Therefore, the freeze dried complex provided approximately 3 to 7-fold enhancement in the dissolution and release of curcumin over a period of 6 hours of dissolution testing.  The kinetics of the in vitro release behaviors of the curcumin and curcumin complexes were investigated by applying various models such as zero order, first order, Higuchi and Peppas models. The release of the curcumin was observed to follow the first order release kinetics, since the correlation coefficient (R2) for the first order was the highest in comparison to other kinetic models.

Open Access Original Research Article

Moderate Aerobic Exercise May Reduce Metabolic Syndrome Induced Testicular Oxidative Stress and Deterioration in Sperm Parameters

Muhammed Emre Karaman, Cengiz Arslan, Mehmet Ferit Gürsu, Halil Ibrahim Güngör, Gözde Arkali, Abdurraif Yüce, Gaffari Türk

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 38-45
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i1131242

Aims: Studies on testicular oxidative stress, sperm density, motility and morphology of exercise applications in the case of metabolic syndrome is limited. In the present study, it was aimed to investigate the effects of aerobic and anaerobic exercise applications on sperm parameters and testicular oxidative stress parameters in metabolic syndrome induced rats.

Study Design:  Controlled Trial.

Place and Duration of Study: Firat University Experimental Research Center, Elazığ/Turkey.

Methodology: A total of 24 male Wistar-Albino rats were used in the study. For inducing the metabolic syndrome, 30% fructose solution was prepared fresh every day and administered ad-libitum through the drinking water of the animals. The rats were divided into 4 groups (G1: Control, G2: Metabolic Syndrome, G3: Metabolic Syndrome + Aerobic Ex., G4: Metabolic Syndrome + Anaerobic Ex.). Exercise practices continued 3 days in a week for 6 weeks.

Results: Sperm concentrations of G2 and G4 were statistically significantly lower than the control group. The abnormality percentage of G4 was statistically significantly higher than the other groups in terms of head abnormality and total abnormality. MDA level of G2 was statistically significantly higher than the other groups, while GSHpx and catalase levels were low.

Conclusion: It can be said that metabolic syndrome may cause oxidative damage in testicular tissue and deterioration in sperm parameters. Moderate-intensity aerobic exercise reduces the deterioration in sperm parameters by creating a protective response against oxidative damage.

Open Access Original Research Article

Geno-Protective, Free Radical Scavenging and Antimicrobial Potential of Hyptis suaveolens Methanolic Fraction: An In-Vitro Study

Danish Iqbal, Abdulaziz Bin Dukhyil, M. Salman Khan

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 46-57
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i1131243

Aims: Hyptis suaveolens (L.) Poit, is one of the natural herbs with several medicinal properties. However, many medicinal aspects of this herb still need to be explored. Therefore, our aim was to examine the antioxidant, antimicrobial properties and genoprotective effect of H. suaveolens methanolic extracts (HSME) of seed, stem, and root.

Study design: extraction and therapeutic aspects of H. suaveolens.

Place and Duration of Study: 1) Department of Medical Laboratory Sciences, College of Applied Medical Sciences, Majmaah University, Al-Majmaah and 2) Clinical Biochemistry & Natural Product research laboratory, Department of Biosciences, Integral University, lucknow between 2018-2020.

Methodology: HSME were extracted through soxhlet extractor and further analyzed for TPC, antioxidant activity through DPPH and FRAP assay followed by antimicrobial potential through zone of inhibition and MIC/MBC assay. We also examined the genoprotective properties of HSME on oxidative DNA damage.

Results: Our results showed that TPC (180±5 mg GAE/g dw), DPPH scavenging activity (IC50 value = 72±0.45 µg/ml) and FRAP value (1.443±0.02 µM ferrous ion/mg extract) was highest in HSME seeds followed by root and stem. The results also illustrated that the antimicrobial activity of HSME (seed and stem) against five bacterial strain were found very effective than root part. Moreover, genoprotective effect of HSME seeds (80±3 % retention) was better than stem (41±2 %) and root (32±2 %) extract.

Conclusion: The study revealed that HSME seed extract showed potential bioactivities might be due to presence of high TPC and can be used to treat diseases related with oxidative stress or microbial infections.

Open Access Original Research Article

Vaccine Resistance-Vantage Point from Health Professionals of South India

Kanniyan Binub, . Govindaraj, Sheela P. Haveri

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 58-65
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i1131244

Background: Vaccination is the most effective method of preventing infectious diseases. Early success brought widespread acceptance and mass vaccination campaigns have greatly reduced the incidence of many diseases in numerous geographic regions.

Objectives: To study the perspective of health professionals regard to barriers and solution for vaccination program in a district of South Kerala.

Materials and Methods: A qualitative study design was done using free listing technique for both barriers and solutions. The data was entered into notepad and was transferred to Visual Anthropac software trial version. The software helped to generate ten important free lists of barriers and solutions with percentage, rank and Smith S value.

Results: The present study had discussed regarding trust of western countries promoting vaccination and conspiracy theories related to them. The work of antivaccine lobby globally was debated. The controversy of MMR Autism and political will of different countries were deliberated. The role of media especially impact social media and internet had paved pathway for swift spread of contents.

Conclusion: Major interventions should be planned systematically by the government to address barriers for immunization. Strengthening Information education and communication (IEC) over digital media using appropriate technology should be engrossed for sustaining vaccine coverage.

Open Access Original Research Article

In Hospital Frequency of Heart Failure in STEMI after Thrombolysis in Patient with Diabetes

Abdul Mueed, Nandlal Rathi, Shazia Kazi, Raj Kumar Sachdewani, . Shahzad, Jibran Ashraf

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 66-71
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i1131245

Objective: To determine the frequency of heart failure after thrombolysis in STEMI patients with diabetes mellitus.

Methodology: Through a prospective study we have enrolled all the diabetic patients who presented with acute ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction (STEMI) having age more than 35 years and less than 70 years who underwent pharmacological revascularization both males and females were included in this study. Patients with previous history of revascularization, end stage kidney, liver or heart disease, known advanced valvular heart disease, pregnant women, and those who develop serious complication related to streptokinase were excluded from our study. Echocardiography was done immediately after thrombolysis then after 3 days and then before discharge of the patients to determine the frequency of heart failure. Baseline and clinical data were entered and analysed using SPSS and a chi square test and p-value ≤0.05 was considered as significant.

Results: A total of 175 patients were finally analysed and most of them were males as compared to females, 63.42% (N = 111) vs. 36.57% (N = 64), respectively. Mean age and SD of the patients was 55.90±10.49 years and mean duration of DM was 12.95±8.40 years. The overall frequency of heart failure in patients with post-STEMI was 56% (N = 98) and their mean ejection fraction was 38.46±8.20%. Frequency of heart failure in diabetic post-STEMI thrombolysed patients was significantly observed higher with increased age, increased duration of diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and smoking (p≤0.05).

Conclusion: High prevalence of heart failure was observed in diabetic patients admitted with acute STEMI and underwent thrombolysis. The burden is even higher in males having age more than 55 years.

Open Access Original Research Article

An İn vitro Study on Anticancer Activity of Noscapine

Funda Karabağ Çoban, İbrahim Bulduk, İzzet İslam, Hande Aytuğ

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 72-80
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i1131246

Aims: Breast cancer is the most common type of cancer among women and ranks second among the causes of female death in the world. In order to find a solution to breast cancer, different studies are being conducted for the treatment and the effects of different drugs and substances on this disease are intensively investigated. Boric acid has been shown to control the proliferation of certain types of cancer cells.Noscapine is one of the ingredients in Papaver somniferum (opium). It was first isolated from Papaver somniferum (opium) in 1817. It is one of the most abundant opioids found in the opium plant (up to 10% of the total composition) after morphine. It is also known as Narcotine, Nectodon, Nospen, Anarcotine, and (archaic) Opiane and occurs in the (-)α isomer which has S, R stereochemistry (S stereochemistry at phthalide-carbon and R at isoquinoline-carbon). Noscapine is structurally and chemically different from other opium alkaloids such as morphine, codeine, thebaine, papaverine, and narceine.

Materials and Methods: Based on this information, this study was conducted in vitro to optimize the pure form of noscapine (obtained from the poppy capsule) by applying different concentrations on MCF-7 breast cancer cell lines. HPLC technique which is one of the most widely analytical techniques has been used in this study. Determination of the LD50 value and cell proliferation by viability test was also performed to investigate the predicted effects of noscapine on MCF-7 breast cancer cell lines using VEGF (Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor) and PARP (Poly (ADP-Ribose) Polymerase) Analysis.

Discussion: According to the results, it was observed in proliferation experiment that the vitality values decreased in direct proportion to the concentration and time at concentrations of 5 ppm, 10 ppm, 25 ppm, 50 ppm, 75 ppm, and 100 ppm. The LD50 value was determined as 50 ppm. There was no significant difference in VEGF values. It was also observed that the PARP level was lower than control group.

Conclusion: As a result of the vitality test performed with the CCK-8 kit, it was determined that noscapine has an antiproliferative effect in various concentrations. The low PARP data in the noscapine groups suggests that the cell goes to apoptotic death.

Open Access Original Research Article

Development and Validation of rp-HPLC Method of Cabozantinib in Active Pharmaceutical Ingredient and Pharmaceutical Dosage form

Amruta A. Chaudhary, Ashwini V. Shelke, Anil G. Jadhav

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 81-90
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i1131247

A specific, accurate rp-HPLC (reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatographic) method was developed for the quantification of Cabozantinib. The effective separation was achieved through reversed-phased C18 column 4.6 x 250 mm, 5µm using a mobile phase Methanol: phosphate buffer (ph. 3.00) with orthophosphoric acid (OPA) (55:45 % v/v). The flow rate of the mobile phase was found to be 0.8 mL/min. The detection was carried at a wavelength of 244 nm. The retention time of Cabozantinib was found to be 3.702 min. The correlation coefficient was found to be 0.9999. The developed method was accurately validated in the terms of accuracy, linearity range, precision, system suitability, robustness, limit of detection and limit of quantification. The details presented in this test will be useful for industrial application for determining Cabozantinib in active pharmaceutical ingredient and pharmaceutical dosage form.

Open Access Review Article

Collision between Two Pandemics: Obesity and COVID-19 Viral Infection

Jehan Saad Alrahimi

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 27-37
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i1131241

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) causes the novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The principal risk factor for the development of serious forms of COVID-19 was found to be the precarious metabolic health. There are several mechanisms that are implicated in the seriousness of COVID-19 ranging from attenuation of immune system function to chronic inflammation. It is important to keep in mind that obesity is a complex disease when discussing the relation between obesity and the severity of COVID-19. An increasing body of proof links obesity to COVID-19. Obesity has an obvious role in the high incidence, symptoms severity and mortality rates of viral infections seen in obese patients. Adipose tissue shows a high expression of the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), the receptor for entry of SARS-CoV-2 into host cells, so obese population exhibit higher vulnerability to COVID-19. The primary immune response is offered mainly by type-I interferon (IFN-I) that is suppressed in COVID-19. The pro-inflammatory state associated with obesity produces imbalance of the inflammatory response to COVID-19, as the cytokine storm found in subjects with serious disease form. Obesity is considered as chronic inflammation of low degree, so it shows a capacity for pathogenic immune amplification. In this review, the effect of obesity on the immune system is described. The authors described the dysfunctional immune responses caused by obesity that lead to organ injury in COVID-19 infection and impair the ability of patient to combat the virus. Further research is required to assess the impact of obesity control, immunonutrition and physical exercise in SARS-CoV-2 infection.