Open Access Short Research Article

Dispensing of Banned Phenolphthalein and Ketoconazole: Simulated Patients Method

Mohammed Alshakka, Wafa Badulla, Mohamed Izham Mohamed Ibrahim

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 46-50
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i931226

Introduction: Banned and harmful medicines can affect patient’s health, safety and life.                    There are two medicines available in Aden community pharmacies (phenolphthalein (PP) and ketoconazole (KZ)) that are globally banned. The objective of this study was to evaluate the availability and dispensing of banned phenolphthalein and ketoconazole by community pharmacists.

Methods: A preliminary cross-sectional simulated patients method was carried out. The study gathered data on dispensing behavior. Simulated patients were trained to access the availability of banned drugs existing in the community pharmacies. The availability of these two banned drugs was observed and recorded. The pharmacists were asked about the availability of a PP laxative for treating constipation called in Yemen a khat laxative (Sharbat Alkhat) and KZ for fungal infections in 50 convenient samples of community pharmacies that were selected based on ease of access by the simulated patients.

Results: PP was found in 3/50 (6%) pharmacies, while 31/50 (62%) pharmacies kept KZ in the premise. 

Conclusion: The availability of these drugs in Yemeni pharmacies is worrisome.  It can affect the safety of the public.

Open Access Minireview Article

Potential Effect of Probiotics on the Modulating of Gut Microbiota in Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD)

Wed Alluhaim, Manal M. Alkhulaifi, Godfred A. Menezes

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 26-38
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i931222

Microbiota is the summation of all microorganisms living in the body. The alteration in microbiota can lead to chronic diseases, however; colonization with different commensal bacteria can correct these deficits. Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by inadequate communication skills and social withdrawal and its etiology is uncertain. Typical gastrointestinal (GI) disorders symptoms are associated with ASD, in a prevalence range from 23% to 70%. The method of communication between the brain and the gut microbiota is likely the microbiota-gut-brain axis. Therefore, intervention studies have been published based on the use of prebiotics, probiotics and fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT). In this review, the possible correlation between gut microbiota and ASD is demonstrated. Additionally, how probiotics and microbial fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) could modulate the gut microbiota and might represent a potential therapy for patients with ASD. Nearly all the GI functions postulated to be affected in ASD are improved by probiotics in animal studies. (FMT) ensures the transfer of several hundred bacterial strains, as opposed to probiotic therapy where only certain bacterial strains are supplemented. For ASD patients with dysbiosis, FMT is an interesting new therapeutic choice that could be considered.

Open Access Original Research Article

Medications' Prescribing Pattern in the General Surgery Outpatient Department

Nehad J. Ahmed

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-4
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i931218

Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the drugs’ prescribing pattern in general surgery department of a public hospital in Alkharj.

Methodology: The present retrospective study included collecting data from the general surgery outpatient pharmacy prescriptions from a public hospital in Alkharj from 1st of June 2018 to 31th December 2018.

Results: The total number of outpatients who received prescriptions from general surgery outpatient department was 319. Most of them were males (52.35%) and aged less than 50 years (79.31%). Most of the prescriptions were written by residents (47.02). The most prescribed medication was paracetamol (21.32%) followed by amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (12.85%), ciprofloxacin (12.85%), and metronidazole (6.27%).

Conclusion: The study showed that antibiotics and analgesics were the most commonly prescribed drug classes in outpatient surgery department. Continuous monitoring for the prescribing of these drugs is essential to increase the wise use of these medications. More awareness workshops and educational programs for surgeons are needed for the prescribing of these drugs.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Views of the Public on Making Decisions about over the Counter Medications and Their Attitudes towards Evidence of Effectiveness

Nehad J. Ahmed, Abdulrahman S. Alrawili, Faisal Z. Alkhawaja

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 5-12
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i931219

Aim: This study aimed to determine the public views on making decisions about over the counter drugs and their attitudes towards evidence of their effectiveness.

Methodology: The present study includes gathering data from the public using a survey that was adapted from a previous study. This survey was translated from English to Arabic language and was converted to an online form using Google Forms and then the link was sent to be completed by the public.

Results: The survey was completed by 102 respondents.   Most of the respondents agreed that the most important factors that influence their purchases of medications were the safety of the product (73.53%) and the efficacy of the drug (71.57). Most of the respondents agreed that the main methods of determining the effectiveness of the medication included the previous using of the drug (76.5%) and the physician recommendation to use it by a (75.5%). Only about 49.02% of them agreed that the majority of non-prescription medicines are supported by scientific evidence from drug trials to prove they are effective.

Conclusion: This study highlighted positive views and attitudes toward the use of OTC drugs. It is important to increase the awareness of the public about how to use these drugs wisely.  Community pharmacists should play a crucial role in optimizing medication use and in patients counseling.

Open Access Original Research Article

Maternal Practices Regarding Oral Antibiotics Administration

Atyat Mohammed Hassan

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 13-20
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i931220

Aim: This study was to evaluate the maternal practices regarding oral antibiotics administration.

Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study design was utilized. A convenient sample of one hundred mothers who were visiting the general and chest out-patient clinics and fulfilling the study criteria was enrolled. One structured interview questionnaire was designed specifically for this study after a thorough review of the literature and previous researches. It included two parts: Personal characteristics of the mothers and their practices in administering oral antibiotics for their young children.

Results: The study results found that the mean age of mothers was 27.3± 4.6 years, 26.00% were illiterate and 78.00% were housewives. Also, showed that 70.0% of mothers had poor scores regarding antibiotics administration. Likewise, 66% of the studied mothers didn't complete the full course of antibiotics as prescribed regardless of the child's improvements. Too, 42% of mothers were using the teaspoon followed by 30.0% using syringe to measure antibiotic doses. Moreover, 78% were giving the previously prescribed antibiotics without prescription. Furthermore, there was a highly statistically positive correlation found as regard mothers' education and their total score of practices (r=0.29, P=0.003). Also, statistically positive correlations were found between mothers' age, occupation, and residence and their total score of knowledge (r= 0.16, 0.25, 0.18, P=0.09, 0.01 and 0.008) respectively.

Conclusions: The majority of mothers had poor scores regarding the total score of oral antibiotics practices. Too, the errors during antibiotics administration were evident by mothers. So, the ministry of health should set a policy to limit un-prescribed antibiotics purchasing from pharmacy shops.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Prescribing Pattern of Medications in Ear, Nose and Throat Outpatient Department of a Public Hospital

Nehad J. Ahmed

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 21-25
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i931221

Aim: This study aimed to describe the prescribing pattern of medications in ear, nose and throat outpatient department of a public hospital in Alkharj.

Methodology: The present retrospective study included collecting data from outpatient pharmacy prescriptions from a public hospital in Alkharj. The data was processed using Microsoft Excel 2016 and the descriptive data was represented as frequencies and percentages.

Results: Most of the prescriptions were written by residents (79.12%). Most of the medications were prescribed as Tablet/Capsule (39.06), Nasal Drop (20.03) and Nasal Spray (16.00%). The most prescribed medication was budesonide (16.16%) followed by xylometasoline (11.62%), paracetamol (11.45%) and amoxicillin/clavulanic Acid (9.60%)

Conclusion: The study revealed that the most common classes of drug prescribed for E.N.T patients were steroids such as budesonide, antibiotics amoxicillin/clavulanic acid and decongestants such as xylometasoline. It is important to increase the awareness of healthcare providers and patients about these drugs. It is also important to monitor medications prescribing to make sure that they are prescribed and used appropriately.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Most Predominant Gram Negative Bacteria in a Public Hospital

Nehad J. Ahmed

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 39-45
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i931223

Aim: The aim of this study was to explore the occurrence of Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter baumannii bacteria in a hospital in Al-Kharj.

Methodology: The study included the review of antibiogram results to find the number and percentage of these bacteria in 4 years, 2015-2018.

Results: The total number of bacterial cultures in the 4 years was 3327. Most of these cultures were for gram negative bacteria (81.06%). Regarding gram negative bacteria in the 4 years, the most common was Escherichia coli (represents 19.30% of the total bacteria and 23.80% of gram negative bacteria).

Conclusion: It can be concluded that the most prevalent gram negative bacteria were Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella pneumonia. It is important to conduct more researches to know the prevalence of these bacteria, to know their resistance rate to help health care providers to prescribe and dispense antibiotics wisely.

Open Access Original Research Article

Health Related Quality of Life and Depression among Blood Cancer Patients in Pakistan: The Missing Public Health Link

Madeeha Malik, Ifrah Rizwan, Azhar Hussain

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 51-62
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i931224

Introduction: Limited access to health care facilities, less number of qualified oncologists, lack of technical equipment for diagnosis are the major factors effecting adequate control and prevention of blood cancer in Pakistan.

Objective: The objective of the study was to assess health related quality of life and depression among blood cancer patients in Pakistan.

Methodology: A descriptive cross-sectional study design was used. Two pre validated questionnaires i.e. SF 36 and HADS were self-administered to a sample of 400 blood cancer patients’ selected using convenience sampling technique for measuring HRQoL and depression, respectively. After data collection, data was cleaned, coded and entered in SPSS.

Results: The results highlighted that lowest scores for HRQoL among blood cancer patients were observed in the domain of role emotional (33.55,  ± 27.528) followed by bodily pain (42.93, ± 30.838) whereas highest scores were observed in the domain of mental health (73.7,  ± 18.488). Significant difference (p ≥ 0.05) was observed in HRQoL of cancer patients with different marital status, stages of blood cancer and receiving different types of therapies.

Conclusion:The present study concluded that blood cancer patients had poor HRQoL and moderate depression in spite of advanced therapeutic strategies.

Open Access Review Article

Therapeutic Value of 6-Gingerol (1-[4′-hydroxy-3′-methoxyphenyl]-5-hydroxy-3-decanone): A Review

Girum Tefera Belachew, Bitaniya Abera Tekelemariam, Paramesh Hanumanthaiah, Fekede Meshesha Namo

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 63-75
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i931225

Utilization of crude extracts separated from herbal medicine is getting more worthy and ideal, conceivably because of the expense of production, accessibility and availability to bring down harmful effects as much as possible. Various researches have shown that the regular use of particular soil products like fruits and vegetables can minimize the risk of a number of infections. Ginger is among the most commonly and regularly devoured dietary sauces on the planet. One of the major impactful components of ginger, 6-gingerol is suggested for the avoidance of malignancy and different maladies. As a spice and home grown medicine, the rhizome of Zingiber officinale (ginger) is devoured worldwide and it contains sharp phenolic compounds known as gingerols aggregately. The main pharmacologically-dynamic segment of ginger is 6-Gingerol. It is recognized to show a variety of organic actions including anti-cancer, anti-inflammation, and anti-oxidation. 6-Gingerol has been found to have anticancer effects by means of its impact on an assortment of natural pathways associated with apoptosis, control of cell cycle, cytotoxic action and restraint of angiogenesis. Consequently, because of its adequacy and control of different targets, just as its security for human use, 6-gingerol has gained impressive enthusiasm as an expected helpful operator for the anticipation and additionally treatment for different maladies. Taken together, this review sums up the different in vitro and in vivo pharmacological aspects of 6-gingerol and their underlying mechanisms.

Open Access Review Article

Effects of COVID 19 Pandemic on Diabetic Patients

Khalid Farhan Alshammari, Nuseibah Saleh Almakhalfi, Fadyah Mohammed Alradaddi, Maha Qasem Almutairi, Raghad Abdullah Almeshari, Kholah Fares Alshammari, Shamma Mutlaq Alaezaimee

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 76-81
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i931227

Ever since the pandemic started in March 2020, the whole world and the healthcare system were overburdened with an extremely difficult task of curbing COVID-19 as much as possible to decrease the death rate and to understand its effects. Diabetic patients are no different as they constitute a large group globally. Therefore, understanding the biggest factors that affects their day-to-day life is crucial to be able to treat them well and decrease the chances of having high mortality rates among diabetics. COVID-19 in diabetes is susceptible to high mortality rates making them prone to develop nutritional and psychological effects. Further studies are needed to provide better care in the future for diabetic patient’s psychological and nutritional wellbeing and alleviate their healthcare by developing targeted programs, awareness and scheduled home visits.